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MASTERS IN BUSSINESS ADMINISTRATION) DRIVE (NAME) - 2012 SEMESTER -1/2/3
SUBJECT: For e.g., Management Process and Organization Behavior Subject code - XYZ SUBMITTED BY Ashok Kumar ROLL NO.DATE OF SUBMISSION –
SUBMITTED TO SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY Learning Centre Code-03065
DISCIPLINE: A successful organization requires the common effort of workers. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility. Responsibility involves being accountable. 3. Integrative Force 5. State the characteristics of management. UNITY OF COMMAND: Workers should receive orders from only one manager.Q1. System of Authority 9. DIVISION OF WORK: Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Multi-disciplinary Subject 10. A Science and an Art 8. 2. 5. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Results through Others 7. Goal-oriented 2. Distinct Process 4. Intangible Force 6. Economic Resource 3. AUTHORITY: The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely related. 4. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization. Penalties should be applied judiciously to encourage this common effort. What are the 14 principles of management of Henry Fayol? Management Principles developed by Henri Fayol: 1. 1. and is therefore naturally associated with authority. . UNITY OF DIRECTION: The entire organization should be moving towards a common objective in a common direction. Universal Application Q2.
STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL: Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and Selection Costs. supply of qualified personnel. SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO THE GENERAL INTERESTS: The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole. 12.g. should be considered in determining a worker’s rate of pay. 10. 14. Internal forces for change Reorganisation to increase efficiency Natural ageing and decline in a business (e. Q3. 11. all materials and people related to a specific kind of work should be treated as equally as possible. ESPIRIT DE CORPS: Management should encourage harmony and general good feelings among employees. from the first line supervisor to the president. such as cost of living. Distinguish between internal and external forces of change. ORDER: For the sake of efficiency and coordination. Decentralization is increasing the importance. possess certain amounts of authority. CENTRALIZATION: Fayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. INITIATIVE: Management should take steps to encourage worker initiative. general business conditions. The degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is working. EQUITY: All employees should be treated as equally as possible. which is defined as new or additional work activity undertaken through self direction. REMUNERATION: Many variables. the first line supervisor the least. as well as increased product-reject rates are usually associated with hiring new workers. Each manager.6. The existence of a scalar chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful. and success of the business. products) Conflict between departments The need for greater flexibility in organizational structures Concerns about ineffective communication. 13. machinery. de-motivation or poor business relationships A general sense that the business could “do better” Desire to increase profitability . 7. 8. Lower level managers should always keep upper level managers informed of their work activities. 9. SCALAR CHAIN: Managers in hierarchies are part of a chain like authority scale. The President possesses the most authority.
2) Self-regulation: controlling your temper. which are often highly technical. the ability EI and trait EI models (but not the mixed models) enjoy support in the literature and have successful applications in different domains. Define emotional intelligence. he described as self-awareness. capacity. motivation. values and goals. to identify. Each of these elements has distinctive characteristics. in the case of the trait EI model. skill or. self-assessment . Despite these disagreements. self-regulation. a self-perceived ability. Different models have been proposed for the definition of EI and disagreement exists as to how the term should be used. Goleman's framework of emotional intelligence Goleman developed a framework to explain emotional intelligence in terms of five elements. assess. as outlined below: 1) Self-awareness: examining how your emotions affect your performance. Explain Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence. and manage the emotions of one's self. and being self-confident and certain about your capabilities. empathy and social skills. controlling your stress by being more positive and . using your values to guide decision-making.External forces for change Greater competition Higher cost of inputs Legislation & taxes Political interests Ethics & social values Technological change Globalization Scarcity of natural resources Changing nature and composition of the workforce Increased demands for higher quality and levels of customer service Uncertain economic conditions Q4. Emotional Intelligence (EI) describes the ability.looking at your strengths and weaknesses and learning from your experiences. of others. and of groups.
retaining composure and the ability to think clearly under pressure. and nurturing trustworthiness and self-restraint. Q5. ability to take the initiative. ability to inspire and lead others. optimism. Goleman claims that people who demonstrate these characteristics are more likely to be successful in senior management. Figure: Leadership Grid Leadership Grid – an approach to understanding a leader’s concern for results (production) and concern for people . 3) Motivation: enjoying challenge and stimulation. negotiation. and being guided by personal preferences in choosing goals. citing research from various sources that suggests senior managers with a higher emotional intelligence rating perform better than those without. Explain the different leadership styles as per Managerial – Leadership Grid Theory. seeking out achievement. good communication with others. handling impulses well. commitment. He gives several anecdotal case studies to illustrate ways in which emotional intelligence can make a real impact in the workplace. behaving openly and honestly.particularly group emotions. and ability to deal with others' emotions . avoiding the tendency to stereotype others. capacity to initiate and manage change. 5) Social skills: the use of influencing skills such as persuasion. including employees. The Managerial Grid was the original name which was the modifications were made by Robert R Blake and Anne Adams McCanse. After the modifications it was named as Leadership Grid. dispute resolution. listening skills. and being culturally aware.action-centred. 4) Empathy: the ability to see other people's points of view. co-operation.
4. high concern is paid both to people and production. 9). both as team members and as people. This method relies heavily on making employees feel as a constructive part of the company. they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. The middle-of-the-road style (5.The five major leadership styles specified as per Managerial – Leadership Grid Theory: 1. This dictatorial style is based on Theory X of Douglas McGregor. This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. A leader uses a “delegate and disappear” management style. which believes that the adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out wprk with maintaining morale of people at satisfactory level. 1). 1). they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. managers choosing to use this style encourage teamwork and commitment among employees. and is commonly applied by companies on the edge of real or perceived failure. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members. but not necessarily that productive. while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate. managers who use this style hope to achieve acceptable performance. they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone’s creativity). People who get this rating are very much task-oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic). when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible. 5). 3. managers have low concern for both people and production. managers using this style find employee needs unimportant. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams. and a low concern for people. Managers use this style to avoid getting into trouble. The accommodating Leader (Yield & Comply) This style has a high concern for people and a low concern for production. (Balance & Compromise) It is Organization – man management approach. 2. in hopes that this would increase performance. As suggested by the propositions of Theory Y. 5. The country club style (1. The indifferent Leader (Evade & Elude) In this style. The produce or perish style (9. Managers using this style also pressure their employees through rules and punishments to achieve the company goals. so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop. . they provide their employees with money and expect performance back. The resulting atmosphere is usually friendly. interdependence through a common stake in the organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. The main concern for the manager is not to be held responsible for any mistakes. The Sound / Team Leader (Contribute & Commit) This is based on the aspect that work accomplishment is from committed people. By giving some concern to both people and production. With a high concern for production. This type of person leads by positive example and endeavors to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential. Conversely. This is used in case of crisis management. There is little or no allowance for co-operation or collaboration. In this style. The Controlling Leader (Direct & Dominate) This believes in the authority-obedience. Heavily task-oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules. The impoverished style (1. which results in less innovative decisions. The team style (9. 9). Managers using this style pay much attention to the security and comfort of the employees. The Status – Quo Leader. Managers using this style try to balance between company goals and workers’ needs.
Identifying lateral growth opportunities (especially in flat organizations) 9. Rewards and recognition programs for top performers . Suresh is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees.HR of a leading Financial services company. Leadership trainings for competent employees 11. Having regular Employee Satisfaction Surveys 3. Rejani. Creating a highly productive environment by having capable leaders mentor the employees 4. Regular Performance Management Cycles 8. Assume that you are Ms. for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction? There are different ways of ensuring employee satisfaction within the organization by raising the employee morale. Yearly SWOT analysis within the Management teams 7. Ensuring employee engagement through various platforms where employees feel they are also being a part of key organizational decisions 10.Q6. the HR consultant. Suresh. Moving up the value chain by identifying growing opportunities 6. Mr. What suggestions you will give to Mr. Mr. Having regular technical or soft skill trainings within the organization 5. Different ways of achieving this goal could be 1. Suresh Kumar is the VP. He is having a meeting with Ms. Holding frequent team meetings to understand specific issues and mitigate them 2. Rejani Chandran leading HR consultant.
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