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Nokia GPRS System Feature Description

Nokia GPRS System Feature Description

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The BSC calculates these defined resources from percentages to concrete numbers of
radio timeslots based on the number of traffic channel radio timeslots (both blocked and
working) capable of Full Rate traffic in the TRXs with GPRS enabled (set with the param-
eter GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX)). The super reuse TRXs (Intelligent Underlay
Overlay) and the extended area TRXs (Extended Cell Range) are never included as
available resources in the GPRS territory calculation. The calculation is as follows:
•the product of default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter and the number of
radio timeslots is rounded down to a whole number.
•if default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter value is > 0 but the rounded
product equals 0, then the territory size 1 is used
•default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter minimum value is 1.
•max GPRS capacity (CMAX) parameter minimum value is 1 (range 1–100%).
The BSC starts to create the GPRS territory by first selecting the most suitable TRXs in
the BTS according to its GPRS capability, TRX type, TRX configuration, and the actual
traffic situation in the TRX.
The prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG) parameter indicates if the BCCH-TRX
is the first or the last choice for the GPRS territory or if it is handled equally with non-
BCCH-TRXs.
The best candidate for GPRS territory according to the traffic load is the TCH TRX that
holds the most idle successive Full Rate-capable (TCH/F or TCH/D) timeslots counted
from the end of the TRX (timeslot 7). The GPRS timeslots are always allocated from
TSL7 towards TSL0 per TRX. If there are two or more TRXs that have the same number
of idle successive Full Rate-capable timeslots, then the TRX containing permanent
TCH/F timeslots is preferred to one with Dual Rate timeslots to avoid wasting Half Rate
capability in the GPRS territory. TRXs with permanent TCH/H timeslots or multislot
HSCSD calls are also avoided, if possible.

TRX 1

TRX 2

BCCH

Default

GPRS Capacity

Dedicated

GPRS

Capacity

Additional

GPRS

Capacity

Territory border moves based on

Circuit Switched and GPRS traffic load

GPRS

Territory

Circuit

Switched

Territory

Max

GPRS

Capacity

90

DN7036138
Issue 3-2

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Id:0900d80580590b5d

Radio resource management

Having defined the GPRS capacity share and having selected the best TRX for GPRS,
the BSC next begins a GPRS territory upgrade procedure where it allocates the selected
radio timeslots of the TRX for GPRS use and informs the PCU.

GPRS territory upgrade

The BSC uses a GPRS territory upgrade procedure to allocate part of the resources for
GPRS use. The BSC starts the GPRS territory upgrade procedure when the user
enables GPRS in a BTS.
The number of timeslots given for GPRS use is defined by the operator with the param-
eters dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED), default GPRS capacity (CDEF)
and max GPRS capacity. All the defined timeslots cannot necessarily be delivered
immediately due to the circuit switched traffic load of the BTS. However, the BSC fulfils
the defined GPRS capacity as soon as possible. After the default capacity (which
includes also the dedicated part) has been delivered, the PCU can request more
resources for a GPRS territory upgrade based on the actual need caused by GPRS use.
Each GPRS territory upgrade concerns timeslots of one TRX; thus an upgrade is a TRX-
specific procedure. The BSC performs upgrades of continuous sets of successive
timeslots. Starting from the end of the first TRX in the GPRS territory, the BSC includes
in a GPRS territory upgrade the timeslots according to need and availability.
If the GPRS territory cannot be extended to its full size due to a timeslot being occupied
by circuit switched traffic, an intra cell handover is started. The aim of the handover is to
move the circuit switched call to another timeslot and clear the timeslot for GPRS use
(refer to the figure below). The BSC then continues with the upgrading of the GPRS ter-
ritory after the release of the source channel of the handover. If the GPRS territory of a
BTS needs more timeslots than one TRX can offer, the BSC selects a new TRX and
starts to define the territory.
When the user enables GPRS in a cell, the BSC starts a handover to be able to allocate
dedicated GPRS channels, even if the defined margin of idle timeslots is not met but
there is at least one timeslot available.
The BSC starts a handover to move a non-transparent multislot HSCSD call, but not for
a transparent multislot HSCSD call. For a transparent HSCSD call, the HSCSD timeslots
are left inside the GPRS territory, although not as actual GPRS channels. The BSC
extends the GPRS territory on the other side of the timeslots reserved for the transpar-
ent HSCSD call.

DN7036138
Issue 3-2

91

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Radio resource management

Id:0900d80580590b5d

Figure 21

GPRS territory upgrade when a timeslot is cleared for GPRS use with an
intra cell handover

Situations leading to the starting of a GPRS territory upgrade are related to configuration
and traffic channel resource changes. When the user adds GPRS capable TRXs in a
BTS, it results in an increase in the timeslot share that should be provided for GPRS
traffic. The BSC starts the GPRS territory upgrade procedure when:
•the user enables GPRS in a cell
•the user or BSC unblocks a GPRS enabled TRX thus enabling a pending GPRS ter-
ritory upgrade
•the user or BSC unblocks a radio timeslot inside the GPRS territory enabling it to be
included in the GPRS territory
•the BSC releases a circuit switched TCH/F causing the number of idle resources in
the BTS to increase above a margin that is required before GPRS territory upgrade
can be started
•the BSC releases a circuit switched TCH/F beside the GPRS territory border (as a
consequence of handover) so that the pending GPRS territory upgrade can be per-
formed
•the PCU requests a GPRS territory upgrade.
Other general conditions for a GPRS territory upgrade are:
•previous GPRS territory change in the BTS has been completed
•sufficient margin of idle TCH/Fs in the BTS
•idle GPRS capable resources available in the BTS
•available capacity in the PCU controlling the BTS.
The margin of idle TCH/Fs that is required as a condition for starting a GPRS territory
upgrade is defined by the BSC parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU). In
fact, the parameter defines how many traffic channel radio timeslots have to be left free
after the GPRS territory upgrade. When defining the margin, a two-dimensional table is
used. In the two-dimensional table the columns are for different amounts of available
resources (TRXs) in the BTS. The rows indicate a selected time period (seconds) during
which probability for an expected downgrade is no more than 5%. The operator can
modify the period with the BSC parameter CSU. The default value for the period length
is 4 seconds.

= Circuit Switched territory

= GPRS territory

B S C C

C C C

C

C

C C

C

C

d d D D D

C C C

C

C

C C

C

GPRS territory upgrade

B = BCCH TSL

S = SDCCH TSL

C = Circuit Switched call

Default GPRS capacity (d)= 20%

Dedicated GPRS capacity (D) = 10%

92

DN7036138
Issue 3-2

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Id:0900d80580590b5d

Radio resource management

The user can define and modify with the parameter GPRS territory update guard
time (GTUGT) the guard time, which the PCU has to wait between successive
requests for GPRS territory configuration updates. The BSC obeys this guard time also
when it performs GPRS territory upgrades to fulfil the operator-defined default GPRS
territory.
If the conditions required for a GPRS territory upgrade are not met at the time the PCU
requests a GPRS territory upgrade, the BSC simply does nothing but updates related
statistics. There are three reasons for a GPRS territory upgrade request being rejected:
lack of GPRS radio resources, circuit switched traffic load, and the capacity limit of the
PCU unit. In case the PCU asks for several timeslots in one request and only a part of
the requested resources are available, a statistics counter is updated.
In the GPRS territory upgrade, the PCU selects a free circuit from the PCUPCM and the
BSC connects it to an Abis circuit. If an error occurs when connecting the PCUPCM
circuit to the Abis circuit, the BSC cancels the upgrade and saves information on the
detected fault. The BSC initiates a new GPRS territory upgrade after a guard period.
If two successive connection failures of a PCUDSP circuit with different Abis circuits
occur, the BSC marks the PCUDSP channel as faulty and sets the alarm FAULTY
PCUPCM TIMESLOTS IN PCU (3073).
Alarm GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE (3273) is set if the GPRS territory size in
the BTS is below the limit specified by the BTS specific radio network parameter
default GPRS capacity (CDEF). The BSC has not been able to add more radio
channels to the territory within the informing delay of the alarm.

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