Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE BSS, rel.

RG10(BSS), operating documentation, issue 05

Feature description

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description
DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Approval Date 2010-06-04

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This documentation is intended for the use of Nokia Siemens Networks customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be used, reproduced, modified or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Siemens Networks. The documentation has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Siemens Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this documentation concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products are given "as is" and all liability arising in connection with such hardware or software products shall be defined conclusively and finally in a separate agreement between Nokia Siemens Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Siemens Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Siemens Networks will, if deemed necessary by Nokia Siemens Networks, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Siemens Networks will correct errors in this documentation as soon as possible. IN NO EVENT WILL Nokia Siemens Networks BE LIABLE FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENTATION OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY LOSSES, SUCH AS BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFIT, REVENUE, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY OR DATA,THAT MAY ARISE FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION IN IT. This documentation and the product it describes are considered protected by copyrights and other intellectual property rights according to the applicable laws. The wave logo is a trademark of Nokia Siemens Networks Oy. Nokia is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Siemens is a registered trademark of Siemens AG. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright © Nokia Siemens Networks 2010. All rights reserved

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Important Notice on Product Safety
Elevated voltages are inevitably present at specific points in this electrical equipment. Some of the parts may also have elevated operating temperatures. Non-observance of these conditions and the safety instructions can result in personal injury or in property damage. Therefore, only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the system. The system complies with the standard EN 60950 / IEC 60950. All equipment connected has to comply with the applicable safety standards.

The same text in German: Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit In elektrischen Anlagen stehen zwangsläufig bestimmte Teile der Geräte unter Spannung. Einige Teile können auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen. Eine Nichtbeachtung dieser Situation und der Warnungshinweise kann zu Körperverletzungen und Sachschäden führen. Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die Anlagen installiert und wartet. Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Angeschlossene Geräte müssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfüllen.

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Table of Contents
This document has 127 pages. Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 GPRS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS data transfer protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimised GPRS Radio Resource Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Relay and Gb Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS in Nokia Siemens Networks Base Stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Software related to GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Uplink TBF Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS Coding Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link Adaptation for GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priority Class Based Quality of Service (QoS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Level Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on BSS performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC MMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS MMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements and counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interworking with other features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of GPRS related software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on BSS performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interworking with other features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 15 17 19 21 22 22 23 26 27 29 32 32 33 34 34 35 35 35 35 39 40 45 46 46 47 47 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 59

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. . . . . . . . . . . 108 Data Transfer Protocols and Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . .8 4. . . . . . . . . . 64 Impact on BSS performance. . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Radio network management for GPRS. . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Recovery in restart and switchover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 NS-VC management function . 77 Gb interface configuration and state management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 GPRS radio connection control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Mobile terminated TBF (GPRS) . . . . . 69 Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Impact on transmission . .4 8. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 94 BTS selection for packet traffic . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . 81 BVC management function . . 62 Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Routing Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Channel allocation and scheduling . . 113 4 Id:0900d80580782d3f DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . . 69 Interworking with other features . . 63 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . .8 9 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Mobile originated TBF. . . 68 Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7. .8 4. 61 Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . 59 User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 95 Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . 73 Additional GPRS hardware needed in BSCi and BSC2i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 61 Impact on NetAct products . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . 70 Gb interface functionality . . 79 Protocol stack of the Gb interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 System impact of System Level Trace .3 4. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .9 5 5. . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . 64 User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Packet Control Unit (PCU) .9 4. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 86 Radio resource management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 PCU selection algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Error situations in GPRS connections. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Impact on BSS performance. .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Territory method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Quality Control . . .2 7 7. . . . 68 Impact on NetAct products . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 MS Multislot Power Reduction (PCU2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . 62 Interworking with other features .6 4. . .5 8 8. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Radio channel usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Circuit switched traffic channel allocation in GPRS territory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . 109 Paging . . .6 4. . 79 Load sharing function . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . 59 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . 69 Requirements for GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Suspend and resume GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coding scheme selection in GPRS . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 9. . . . . . . . . . . Power control . . . . . . . . 127 Implementing GPRS overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MS Radio Access Capability update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 116 116 117 119 126 126 Implementing GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . Cell selection and re-selection . . . . . .12 10 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d3f 5 . . . . . . . .10 9. . . . . . . . . . .11 9. . . . . . . . . . . Traffic administration . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 9.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Architecture of the GPRS network and related network elements . 72 Protocol stack of the Gb interface . . . . . . . . . . 17 Example of a GPRS capable cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Territory method in BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Gb interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 GPRS Coding Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 The protocol stack on the Gb interface . . . . . . . . .SGSN interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 GPRS network seen by another data network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Example of transmission turns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Gb logical structure . . . . . . . 18 Air interface traffic management . . . 19 BSC . . . . . 91 Dynamic Allocation MAC mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Trace activation/deactivation and report generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Uplink power control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 GPRS territory upgrade when a timeslot is cleared for GPRS use with an intra cell handover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN when Frame Relay (FR) is used 75 Relationship of Routing Areas and PCUs . . . . . . 13 GPRS architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Extended Dynamic Allocation MAC mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 PCU connections to BTS and SGSN when Frame Relay is used . . . . . . . . . . . 17 GPRS DCH dedicated channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 6 Id:0900d80580782d3f DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Transmission and reception data flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Transmission plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 42 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode on BSC units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Required software . . . . . 45 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware . . 58 Impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service on BSC units . . . 64 Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Defining the margin of idle TCH/Fs . . . . . . . . . 58 Required software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 NS-VC reset cases . . 105 Supported Network Operation Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Counters of Packet Control Unit Measurement related to GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Required software by network elements . . . . . . . . . . . 94 GMSK Mean BEP Limit for UL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 PCUs in BSC product variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Counters of Frame Relay Measurement . . . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description List of Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Table 18 Table 19 Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Table 24 Table 25 Table 26 Table 27 Table 28 Table 29 Table 30 Table 31 Table 32 Table 33 Table 34 Table 35 Table 36 Table 37 Table 38 Table 39 Table 40 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Counters of RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware . . 70 PCU maximum connectivity per logical PCU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Required software . . . . . 83 BVC operational states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement related to GPRS . . . . . . . . . . % . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Impact of GPRS on BSC units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Counters of GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report . . . . 63 Impact of System Level Trace on BSC units . . . . . . . . . 84 BVC blocking cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 RX Quality Limit for UL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Required software . . . . . 92 Defining the margin of idle TCHs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Counters of 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 NS-VC operational states . . . . . . 44 Counters of PCU Utilization Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 CS and MCS codecs in the initial coding scheme and new MCS fields 68 Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU product family . 110 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d3f 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 BVC reset cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Radio network parameters for Priority Based Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 8 Id:0900d80580782d3f DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

Information on PCU2 capacity has been updated. System Level Trace Section System Level Trace in BSC has been moved here from GPRS in BSC.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Summary of changes Summary of changes Changes between document issues are cumulative. The capacity information has been updated. Information regarding the feature BSS21238 “Merged P-&E-GSM900” has been updated in section Interworking with other features in the chapter System impact of GPRS. Requirements for GPRS Information on Flexi BSC and PCU2-E has been added. Therefore. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d39 9 . System impact of GPRS Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Internal PCU2-E restrictions have been added. GPRS Coding Schemes Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Changes made between issues 3-2 and 3-1 Information on Flexi Multiradio and BTSplus support have been added. Chapter Software related to GPRS has been modified to only include descriptions of such GPRS-related features that do not have their own separate description documents. the latest document issue contains all changes made to previous issues. Changes made between issues 3-1 and 3-0 Information on InSite BTS has been removed. Chapters Dynamic Abis and System Impact of Dynamic Abis have been moved from this document to Dynamic Abis. System impact of System Level Trace Software versions have been updated to S14 level. GPRS Coding Schemes Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Changes made between issues 2-0 and 1-1 The contents of GPRS in BSC have been merged into this document. System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Chapters Support for PBCCH/PCCCH and System impact of Support for PBCCH/PCCCH have been removed. Changes made between issues 3-0 and 2-0 GPRS References have been updated.

A reference to Multipoint Gb Interface has been added. The name of alarm 3273 (E)GPRS TERRITORY FAILURE has been updated to 3273 GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE. A reference to GPRS/EDGE Support for PGSM-EGSM BTS was added. New counters have been added to 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace. Gb interface configuration and state management The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. System Documentation pilot release. Section Restrictions has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. Changes made between issues 1-1 and 1-0 Changes made between issues 1-1 and 1-0 lists the changes made to the document after the GSM/EDGE BSS.PGSM 900 BTS has been updated. 91 PBCCH Availability Measurement has been removed. 10 Id:0900d80580782d39 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Interworking with EGSM 900 . BSS12. The GPRS implementing instructions have been combined into a single chapter. New PRFILE parameters have been added. Requirements for GPRS The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. Radio network management for GPRS The chapter has been moved here from (E)GPRS in BSC. System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. Section PACKET PSI STATUS procedure has been removed. Radio resource management The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. System impact of System Level Trace Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. New counters have been added to 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement. Extended Cell Range restriction has been removed. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed.Summary of changes BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. The following changes have been made: • PCU2 support for PBCCH/PCCCH has been removed from chapter Packet Control Unit in BSC. GPRS radio connection control The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. Rel. A reference to Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling has been added. 110 PCU Utilization Measurement has been added.

GPRS has minimal effects on the handling of circuit switched calls. see Licence Management in BSC. Applications that need less than one time slot benefit from GPRS's ability to share one time slot among several users. GPRS is licence key controlled. The main functions of the BSC with GPRS are to: • • • • • manage GPRS-specific radio network configuration control access to GPRS radio resources share radio resources between GPRS and circuit switched use handle signalling between the MS. but quality is guaranteed by reserving time slots for GPRS traffic only new services. GPRS makes the radio interface usage more efficient: • • • GPRS enables a fast method for reserving radio channels GPRS uses the same resources with circuit switched connection by sharing the overhead capacity GPRS provides immediate connectivity and high throughput. from less than 100 bit/s to over 100 kbit/s. For more information. Wide Area Networks (WANs) and the Internet. the line is occupied even when no data is transferred in a packet-switched system. GPRS connections use the resources only for a short period of time when sending or receiving data: • • in a circuit-switched system. It upgrades GSM data services to allow an interface with Local Area Networks (LANs). The data to be transferred is encapsulated into short packets with a header containing the originating and destination address. No pre-set time slots are used. Instead. but the interoperability of existing circuit switched functionalities needs to be taken into account. and businesses for the operators DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 11 . even if a lot of data is transmitted. the high bitrates that GPRS provides by using multiple time slots give short response times. Moreover. the terminal sends a request. application. BSC operational software includes support for GPRS coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2. Support for coding schemes CS-3 and CS-4 is an application software product that requires PCU2 and Dynamic Abis. thus there is less idle time circuit switched traffic is prioritised. GPRS offers a very flexible range of bitrates. Benefits of GPRS GPRS offers the following additional benefits for the operators/end users: • • • resources are used more efficiently. GPRS is therefore well adapted to the bursty nature of data applications. GPRS uses statistical multiplexing instead of static time division multiplexing: when the user is ready to receive new data. network capacity is allocated when needed and released when not needed. the resources are released so they can be used by other subscribers. and resources are again reserved only for the duration of transmitting the request and initiating a second data transfer.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS 1 GPRS General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) provides packet data radio access for GSM mobile phones. On a general level. BTS and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) transfer GPRS data.

and the GPRS Core network is the key step of introducing the IP service platform into the present GSM networks. as seen in the figure below. These networks consider the GPRS to be a normal subnetwork. An investment in the GPRS infrastructure is an investment in future services. preserving the Core Network investments is a top priority. any service that can be run on top of IP protocols (the UDP or TCP transfer) is supported by the Nokia Siemens Networks GPRS solution (taking into account data rate and delay requirements). and charging gateway with high capacity. Wireless Markup Language (WML) based services in the GPRS can be accessed using the standard WAP gateways. 12 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . and transmission solutions to ensure an optimal investment to operators and high capacity and quality service for end users. low data rates). small screen display. WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) based services see the GPRS as one carrier (UDP). the main objective of the GPRS is to offer access to standard data networks such as LAN using the TCP/IP protocol. network management.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • fast connection set-up for end users high bit rate in data bursts possibility of being charged only for transferred data generally. Required network changes Nokia Siemens Networks offers a total end-to-end General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) solution including the GPRS core. Introducing UMTS will complement the GSM network – not replace it. The WAP is essential in creating applications that are 'useable' in the mobile environment (for example. A gateway in the GPRS network acts as a router and hides GPRS-specific features from the external data network. As a part of the GPRS solution. GPRS paves the way and is already part of the third generation (3G) network infrastructure. When migrating to 3G services. Many of the 3G services are based on IP. While the current GSM system was originally designed with an emphasis on voice sessions. Migration to 3G comprises deployment of the new WCDMA radio interface – served by the GSM and GPRS core networks. the Nokia Siemens Networks BSS offers GPRS support in the BSS with powerful radio resource management algorithms. optimised BSS network topology. and carrier class availability. scalability.

Figure 2 GPRS architecture Along with the new network elements. In addition to the current GSM entities. GPRS is based on a number of new network elements: • • • Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) GPRS backbone Legal Interception Gateway (LIG).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS Figure 1 GPRS network seen by another data network GPRS is the first GSM Phase 2+ service that requires major changes in the network infrastructure. the following functions are needed: • • • GPRS-specific mobility management Network management capable of handling the GPRS-specific elements A new radio interface for packet traffic DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 13 .

Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC . Related topics in GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Extended Uplink TBF Mode GPRS Coding Schemes Link Adaptation for GPRS Priority Class Based Quality of Service (QoS) System Level Trace System impact of GPRS System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service System impact of System Level Trace Requirements for GPRS Radio network management for GPRS Gb interface configuration and state management Radio resource management GPRS radio connection control Implementing GPRS overview Other related topics Descriptions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BSS21228: Downlink Dual Carrier BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode BSS10045: Dynamic Abis BSS20094: Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE BSS20089: Extended Dynamic Allocation BSS10103: Gb over IP BSS20084: High Multislot Classes BSS20394: Inter-System Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection BSS20086: Multipoint Gb Interface BSS115006: Network-Assisted Cell Change BSS11112: Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection BSS20106: Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling Activating and testing BSS9006: GPRS .Abis Interface Configuration .GSM Timer and BSC Parameter Handling .Adjacent Cell Handling .Gb Interface Handling Instructions Reference EA EE EG EQ ER ES EU FX 14 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • New security features for the GPRS backbone and a new ciphering algorithm New MAP and GPRS-specific signalling.Power Control Parameter Handling .Transceiver Handling .Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC .

The RLC and the MAC together form the OSI Layer 2 protocol for the Um interface. The LLC conveys signalling. and multiplexing.1 GPRS data transfer protocols Figure 3 Transmission plane The GSM RF is the normal GSM physical radio layer.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • PCU2 Service Terminal Commands 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace 27 GPRS Cell Re-selection Report 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement 74 Frame Relay Measurement 76 Dynamic Abis Measurement 79 Coding Scheme Measurement 90 Quality of Service Measurement 95 GPRS Cell Re-selection Measurement 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement 98 Gb Over IP Measurement 105 PS DTM Measurement 106 CS DTM Measurement 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary PAFILE Timer and Parameter List PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List 1. The Medium Access Control (MAC) function handles the channel allocation and the multiplexing. and SNDCP packets. the use of physical layer functions. the acknowledged and unacknowledged. The LLC layer has two transfer modes. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 15 . The Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) is a mapping and compression function between the network layer and lower layers. that is. SMS. re-assembly. The Logical Link Control (LLC) layer offers a secure and reliable logical link between the MS and the SGSN to upper layers and is independent of the lower layers. It also performs segmentation. The Radio Link Control (RLC) function offers a reliable radio link to the upper layers.

it is forwarded to the LLC layer. including FEC and interleaving Radio channel measurement functions. LLC frames are segmented into RLC Data Blocks. • The Channel Codec Unit (CCU) takes care of the channel coding functions. and SN-PDUs are encapsulated into one or several LLC frames. received signal level. The L1bis is a vendor-dependent OSI Layer 1 protocol.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) transfers control information and data between a BSS and an SGSN.064: • • • • • • • LLC layer PDU segmentation into RLC blocks for downlink transmission LLC layer PDU re-assembly from RLC blocks for uplink transmission PDCH scheduling functions for the uplink and downlink data transfers PDCH uplink ARQ functions. see Packet Control Unit (PCU). The maximum size of the LLC frame is 1600 octets minus GP protocol control information. access requests and grants Radio channel management functions.064. and information related to timing advance measurements. including buffering and retransmission of RLC blocks Channel access control functions. etc. broadcast control information. The Packet Control Unit is responsible for the following GPRS MAC and RLC layer functions as defined in 3GPP TS 43. The Network Services relays the BSSGP packets over the Gb interface and has load sharing and redundancy on top of Frame Relay. a selective ARQ protocol (including block numbering) between the MS and the network provides retransmission of erroneous RLC Data Blocks.060 for information on SNDC and LLC. power control. The Relay function relays LLC PDUs (Protocol Data Units) between the LLC and BSSGP. including RLC block ack/nack PDCH downlink ARQ function. for example. for example. The Network Protocol Data Units (N-PDU) are segmented into the Subnetwork Protocol Data Units (SN-PDU) by the Subnetwork Dependent Convergence (SNDC) protocol. The details on SNDC can be found in 3GPP TS 44.065 and the details on LLC in 3GPP TS 44. See 3GPP TS 23. including received quality level. When a complete LLC frame is successfully transferred across the RLC layer. In the RLC/MAC layer. • For more information on the PCU. congestion control. LLC frames are of variable length. 16 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

uplink and downlink are separate resources. by having simultaneous uplink and downlink packet transfers. A dynamic and flexible GPRS radio resource management is important in effective usage of the Air interface capacity to ensure maximum and secure data throughput. The limited radio resources must be used effectively. One or more packet data traffic channels (PDTCHs) are allocated for the TBF.2 Optimised GPRS Radio Resource Management The Nokia Siemens Networks BSS offers dynamic algorithms and parameters to optimise the use of radio resources. A Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is made for every new data flow. An MS can also have a bi-directional connection while using GPRS.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS Figure 4 Transmission and reception data flow 1. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 17 . The TBF is used to send RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PCUs. The figure below introduces the dedicated GPRS DCH channels: Figure 5 GPRS DCH dedicated channels GPRS packets are sent uni-directionally.

Multiple MSS can share one PDTCH. The adjustable parameters help the network planners to control and optimise GPRS radio resources. the operator can define dynamically multiple parameters related to network configuration. With Priority Based Scheduling the operator can give users different priorities so that higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users. TRX 1 TRX 2 BCCH Circuit Switched Territory GPRS Territory Max GPRS Capacity Additional GPRS Capacity Dedicated GPRS Capacity Default GPRS Capacity Territory border moves based on Circuit Switched and GPRS traffic load Figure 6 Example of a GPRS capable cell The BSS is upgraded with enhanced RLC/MAC protocols and TRAU for the radio and Abis interfaces. all users and all applications get the same service level. the CS may use the Default GPRS traffic channels. ETSI specifications define QoS functionality which gives the possibility to differentiate TBFs by delay. only the experienced service quality changes. With the GPRS solution. 18 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . In a CS congestion situation. Basically all TBFs have the same priority. The needs of different applications differ and mechanisms to have separate service levels are required. This means that the PDTCH is reserved for multiple TBFs. Circuit Switched (CS) traffic has priority over Packet Switched (PS) traffic. There will be no extra blocking to any user. Reallocations are done when the transfer mode is changed between uni-directional (only uplink or downlink data transfer) and bi-directional (simultaneous uplink and downlink data transfer). All the GPRS TBFs allocated to a PDTCH are served equally. that is. All the full rate or dual rate traffic channels are GPRS capable.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The TBF reservations of PDTCHs are released when all the RLC/MAC blocks have been sent successfully. The number of TSLs allocated for a multislot MS is determined by the mobile's multislot capability and network resources. but Dedicated GPRS traffic channels are reserved to carry PS traffic. The PACCH is a bi-directional channel and is located in the PDCH. Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) conveys signalling information related to a given MS. throughput and priority. Priority Based Scheduling is introduced as a first step towards QoS. It transmits signalling in both directions although data is transmitted (PDTCH) only in the assigned direction. such as: • • • • GPRS capacity cell by cell and TRX by TRX GPRS only traffic channels (Dedicated GPRS capacity) Default amount of GPRS capable traffic channels (Default GPRS capacity) and Whether BCCH TRX or non-BCCH TRX is preferred for GPRS. but one TBF is receiving or sending at a time. but the PDTCH is dedicated to one MS (TBF) at a time.

intra-cell handovers of CS connections may be needed to allow for the selection of consecutive timeslots for GPRS use. 1.3 Frame Relay and Gb Interface Gb is the interface between a BSC and an SGSN. For more information. It is implemented using either Frame Relay or IP. TSL 0 is not used for GPRS traffic.703 interface. The physical layer is implemented as one or several PCM-E1 lines with G. if the CS traffic load allows it.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS The default GPRS capacity determines the number of traffic channels (TCHs). the operator can supply the need for fast GPRS channel reservations for the first data packets. In cells where Base Band Frequency Hopping is in use. or there can be a Frame Relay network located between the BSC and SGSN. and L1. During peak GPRS traffic periods. Frame Relay can be either point-to-point (PCU–SGSN). Frame Relay as stated in standards is a part of the Network Service (NS) layer. which are always switched to the PCU when allowed by CS traffic load. NS. When Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE application software is used. see Gb over IP. The protocol stack comprises BSSGB. New CS connections may be allocated to a TCH in the GPRS pool only when all the TCHs not belonging to the GPRS pool are occupied. and additional GPRS TCHs form a GPRS pool consisting of consecutive radio interface timeslots. additional channels are switched to GPRS use. The following figure displays examples of Gb interface transmission solutions: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 19 . For more information on Gb over IP. the Extended Cell GPRS channels (EGTCH) in Extended TRX (E-TRX) are reserved only for fixed GPRS traffic and dynamic GPRS radio resource management is not used for them at all. the direct point-to-point Frame Relay connections or intermediate Frame Relay network can be used. On top of the physical layer in the Gb-interface. Figure 7 Air interface traffic management Dedicated. With these TCHs. IUO super reuse frequencies are not used for GPRS traffic. default. The FR network will be comprised of third-party off-the-shelf products. When the GPRS pool is upgraded. but the feature itself can be used to release resources for GPRS usage. see Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE.

One PCU2-E can handle a maximum of 384 BTSs and 1024 TRXs. Normal cross-connect equipment. One PCU1 can handle a maximum of 64 BTSs and 128 TRXs. The Gb interface allows the exchange of signalling information and user data. and thus the multiplexing has to take place there as well. for example. It also allows many users to be multiplexed over the same physical resources. The Gb interface allows the exchange of signalling information and user data. it also needs to be decided whether two Frame Relay bearers are needed for each PCU using different ETs (external 2Ms) or if the transmission is protected with cross connection equipment. The 2M carrying the Gb timeslots can be one of the BSC's existing ETs. The Gb interface allows many users to be multiplexed over the same physical resources. Considering the transmission protection.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Figure 8 BSC . It is possible to multiplex more than one Gb interface directly to the SGSN. but the FR bearer has to be connected only to the active ones. The PCU has to be installed into every BCSU for redundancy reasons. If free capacity exists. The second solution (2) represents any transmission network that provides a point-topoint connection between the BSC and the SGSN. In the third solution (3) Frame Relay network is used. The logical structure of the point-to-point Gb interface is presented in the following figure: 20 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The Gb timeslots are transparently through connected in the TCSM and in the MSC. or multiplex them on the A interface towards the MSC and cross-connect them to the SGSN from there. This capacity cannot be shared with other cells connected to other PCUs in the BSC so there is no pooling. In many cases. it is best to multiplex all Gb traffic to the same physical link to achieve possible transmission savings. the SGSN will be located in the MSC site.SGSN interface In the first solution (1) spare capacity of Ater and A interfaces is used for the Gb. One PCU2-D/PCU2-U can handle a maximum of 128 BTSs and 256 TRXs. Nokia Siemens Networks DN2 can be used for that purpose. or an ET can be dedicated to the Gb interface. At least one timeslot of 64 kbps is needed for each activated PCU bearer.

4 kbps CS-3 (Channel Coding Scheme 3) . Each BTS has a BSSGP Virtual Connection of its own.14. The NSE takes care of the multiplexing of BSSGP Virtual Connections into the NS Virtual Connections and load sharing between the different NS Virtual Connections (= Bearer Channels). The BCCH/CCCH is scheduled by the BTS. Each Bearer channel carries one to four Network Service Virtual Connections (NS-VC). The mapping in time of these logical channels is defined by a multi-frame structure.20. divided into 12 blocks (of four frames) and four idle frames. The following figure displays the Gb protocol layers: Figure 10 Gb interface 1.05 kbps CS-2 (Channel Coding Scheme 2) . each PCU represents one Network Service Entity with own Identifier (NSEI). The procedure is carried out on all PDCH timeslots.9. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 21 .13. the MS will use the continuous timing advance update procedure.0 kbps In Packet Transfer Mode.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS Figure 9 Gb logical structure In the BSC. GPRS data itself is transparent to the BTS. The CCU (Channel Coding Unit) in the BTS DSP performs channel coding for the following rates: • • • • CS-1 (Channel Coding Scheme 1) . Each PCU can have one to four (ffs) FR bearer channels. messages are routed via TRXSIG link between the BTS and BSC. routed via TCH channels in Abis.4 kbps CS-4 (Channel Coding Scheme 4) .4 GPRS in Nokia Siemens Networks Base Stations Radio resources are allocated by the BSC (PCU). It consists of 52 TDMA frames. The Access Rate of a FR Bearer Channel can be configured in 64kbit steps.

which increases the perceived service quality by the end user. for example. Right after the MS has new data to send. Occasional short breaks in data transmission do not delay the activation of a new Uplink TBF. Extended UL TBF Mode is effective in preventing the breaks in data transfer. Without Extended UL TBF Mode. Extended Uplink TBF Mode requires 3GPP Rel. in speech delivery in PoC. Extended UL TBF Mode saves capacity. the release of the current TBF is required and a new one is established. Extended UL TBF Mode allows the mobile station to continue the data transfer if it gets more data to send when the countdown procedure has begun. causing more delay and signalling load. when a TBF is needed for the other direction. Without Extended Uplink TBF Mode a new uplink TBF has to be established after every inactive period. • • • Related topics • Activating and Testing BSS11151: Extended Uplink TBF Mode 22 Id:0900d8058077eaf4 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .1 Extended Uplink TBF Mode With Extended Uplink TBF Mode the uplink TBF may be maintained during temporary inactive periods. When both the MS and the network support Extended Uplink TBF Mode. 4 GERAN feature package 1 mobile stations. Benefits of the Nokia Siemens Networks solution • With Extended UL TBF Mode the UL TBF release can be delayed in order to make it possible to establish the following downlink TBF using Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH). the same uplink TBF can be used and data transmission can be reactivated. where the mobile station has no data to send. because it decreases the number of random access procedures during and after an active stream. Using PACCH enables faster TBF establishment compared to using CCCH.Software related to GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2 Software related to GPRS 2. the release of the uplink TBF can be delayed even if the MS occasionally has nothing to transmit.

or Link Adaptation (LA). Requirements The hardware and software requirements of Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are specified in the tables below. All GPRS-capable mobile stations support CS-3 and CS-4. With PCU-1.0 and 12.0 kbps. CS1 and CS2 offer data rates of 8. Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 Before the introduction of Dynamic Abis. Retransmitted RLC data blocks must be sent with the same coding as was used initially. see section Requirements.4 and 20.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. In acknowledged mode. The link adaptation algorithm is based on the RLC BLER (Block Error Rate). With the rates of 14. offering data rates from 9. Each TBF can use either a fixed coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2). Dynamic Abis makes it possible to use CS-3 and CS-4.05 to 21. Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 can be used in both GPRS and EGPRS territories.0 kbps per timeslot. Figure 11 GPRS Coding Schemes Coding schemes CS-1-CS-4 can be used in unacknowledged RLC mode with PCU2. coding scheme CS-1 is always used in unacknowledged RLC mode. For hardware requirements. from CS-1 to CS-4.2 GPRS Coding Schemes GPRS provides four coding schemes. CS-3 and CS-4 provide a considerable gain in data rates for GPRS mobile stations not supporting EGPRS (the mandatory RLC header octets are excluded from the data rate values). and both CS-1 and CS-2 are supported. only CS-1 and CS-2 GPRS coding schemes were supported because of Abis frame restrictions. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eadb 23 .4 kbit/s per channel. it is possible to support CS-1 and CS-2. CS-3 and CS-4 can boost GPRS throughput bit rates by a maximum of 60% compared to CS-1 & CS-2. With average real network conditions (average C/I value distribution) a throughput increase of 0-30% can be achieved depending on the network’s C/I values. By using PCU1 and 16 kbit/s Abis links. RLC data blocks are acknowledged. Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are an application software product and require a valid licence in the BSC.

2 CD Set 1 Table 2 Required software by network elements User interface BTS MMI Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 cannot be managed with BTS MMI. EDGE capable TRXs are required.0 Not supported Not applicable Not applicable OSS4.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Network element BSC BTS Hardware/firmware required PCU2 The BaseBand hardware of the BTS must support Dynamic Abis. No requirements No requirements TCSM SGSN Table 1 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 BRG1 EX3.1 EP2 CX6.0 CXM6. EQO BSC radio network object parameters The following parameters are introduced due to Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4: • • • • coding schemes CS3 and CS4 enabled (CS34) DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) 24 Id:0900d8058077eadb DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . BSC MMI The following MML commands are used to handle Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4: • Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQV.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) Due to a new Link Adaptation algorithm the following existing parameters are no longer relevant when CS-3 and CS-4 is used: • • coding scheme no hop (COD) coding scheme hop (CODH) For more information on radio network parameters. Related topics • • Activating and testing BSS11088: Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 79 Coding Scheme Measurement DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eadb 25 . Alarms The following new alarm is introduced due to Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4: • 3273 GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE For more information. PRFILE parameters The values of the following MS-specific flow control parameters must be increased due to CS-3 and CS-4: • • • FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF FC_MS_R_DEF FC_R_TSL. see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List. Interworking with other features CS-3 and CS-4 do not fit into one 16kbit/s Abis/PCU channel and require the use of Dynamic Abis and EDGE TRXs. No new counters are needed. see Diagnosis Reports (3700-3999). For more information on PRFILE parameters. Measurements and counters Two new object values are added to the 79 Coding Scheme Measurement due to Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4. see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary.

Based on the estimates.CS4) is used or if the coding scheme changes dynamically according to the LA algorithm. the LA algorithm determines which coding scheme will give the best performance. CS-3.3 Link Adaptation for GPRS From BSS11. When the LA algorithm is deployed. Although the Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are licence-based. The parameters can also be used to define the initial CS value at the beginning of a TBF: • • • • • DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) For more information on radio network parameters. the LA algorithm is provided with PCU2. 26 Id:0900d80580590b3b DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . RXQUAL is measured for each received RLC block. which makes it a more accurate estimate than BLER. The new LA algorithm can be used in both RLC acknowledged and unacknowledged modes in both uplink and downlink direction. The BSC level parameters coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) define whether a fixed CS value (CS-1 or CS-2) is used or if the coding scheme changes dynamically according to the LA algorithm. The LA algorithm measures the signal quality for each TBF in terms of the received signal quality (RXQUAL). there are two GPRS Link Adaptation algorithms.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary. and CS-4 if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory in question The following BTS-level parameters define. the initial CS value at the beginning of a TBF is CS-2. CS-1 is always used in unacknowledged RLC mode.5 onwards. The PCU determines the average BLER value separately for each BTS by continuously collecting statistics from all the connections in the territory in question. whether a fixed CS value (CS-1 . Regardless of the parameter values. which replaces the previous GPRS LA algorithm and covers the following coding schemes: • • CS-1 and CS-2 if CS-3 and CS-4 support is disabled in the territory in question CS-1. Link Adaptation algorithm for PCU2 A new Link Adaptation algorithm is introduced with PCU2. the use of which depends on the PCU type (PCU1 or PCU2). Link Adaptation algorithm for PCU1 The GPRS Link Adaptation (LA) algorithm selects the optimum channel coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2) for a particular RLC connection and is based on detecting the occurred RLC block errors and calculating the block error rate (BLER). CS-2.

the TBF with the lowest service time is selected. before which the TBF should get a chance to use the radio resource. The concept of ‘Priority Class’ is based on a combination of the GPRS Delay class and GPRS Precedence class values. There is no uplink flow control. There will be no extra blocking to any user. Packets will be evenly scattered within the (E)GPRS territory between different time slots. Priority based scheduling algorithm The description below covers the PCU1 implementation. After the TBF has sent a radio block. After that packets with a higher priority are sent before packets that have a lower priority. The higher the scheduling step size. in these cases the PCU always uses Best Effort priority. Mobile-specific flow control is part of the QoS solution in the PCU. the less often the TBF is selected and given a transmission turn. In each scheduling round. There are 4 QoS classes for uplink and 3 QoS classes for downlink. The best effort customers are an exception to the rule and are only given a small share of the radio interface. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b3e 27 . Each service class is given a fair amount of radio time.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. equal air time does not provide equal data rates for the TBFs in the same time slot. The allocation process is designed to ensure that better priority TBFs are not gathered into the same radio timeslot. It is also an effective countermeasure against buffer overflows in the PCU. Higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users. TBFs in the same time slot that have the same QoS get an equal share of air time.5 release the step sizes depend on the priority class of the TBF: each priority class has its own scheduling step size that can be adjusted by the operator. In BSS9 (GPRS Release 1) the scheduling steps of all TBFs are set to the same constant value. Each TBF allocated to a timeslot has a timeslot-specific latest service time. an operator can give users different priorities. it only guarantees that inside a QoS group the air time is divided equally and that a higher QoS class gets more air time. It works together with the SGSN to provide a steady data flow to the mobile from the network. the MS informs its radio priority in a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST (PCR) or a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST (PRR). In case of UL TBF. and this is used for UL QoS. its latest service time is incremented by a predefined scheduling step size. The subscriber priority must be defined in the HLR once Priority Class Based QoS is taken into use. In the BSS10. The PCU receives the QoS (Precedence class) information to be used in DL TBFs from the SGSN in a DL unitdata PDU. Mobile-specific flow control is performed for every MS that has a downlink TBF. The priority based scheduling algorithm hands out radio resources according to the latest service time and scheduling step size of the TBFs. Exceptions to this rule are one phase access and single block requests. However.4 Priority Class Based Quality of Service (QoS) With Priority Based Scheduling. only the experienced service quality changes. Priority Class Based Quality of service is an operating software in the BSC and is always active in an active PCU. PCU2 implementation emulates this operation closely.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Figure 12 Example of transmission turns 28 Id:0900d80580590b3e DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

new tracing facilities are needed. The figure GPRS network and related network elements presents the overall picture of GPRS trace and shows all the network elements that can send trace reports to NetAct. GPRS trace is activated by OSS. for example. GGSN. GSM tracing is available in the network elements of the GSM network to trace circuit switched calls. The subscriber tracing can be defined for a certain subscriber in the HLR or in a specific SGSN. The HLR. The network management can use the facility. and also the network quality of service as perceived by the PLMN. SGSN) and changes old principles. The ETSI specifies the tracing facility for GSM.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b41 29 . a suspected equipment malfunction or if authorities request for a subscriber trace for example in an emergency situation. System Level Trace enables customer administration and network management to trace activities of various entities (IMSIs and IMEIs).5 System Level Trace System Level Trace is an operating software. which extends the current GSM tracing to the GPRS service. which can be used during system testing. it may be used in conjunction with test-MSS to ascertain the digital cell 'footprint'. it must be implemented in all main network elements of the GPRS network: the SGSN. SGSN. Equipment tracing can be defined in the SGSN. In particular. and BSS send trace records to OSS when an invoking event occurs. in connection with a customer complaint. but introduction of GPRS-service adds new network elements to the GSM network (GGSN. GGSN. BSC. Figure 13 Trace activation/deactivation and report generation The trace is already implemented in the GSM network. MSC/HLR. where it refers both to subscriber tracing (activated using IMSI) and equipment tracing (activated using IMEI). which result in events occurring in the PLMN. The trace facility is a useful maintenance aid and development tool. the network integrity. Therefore. and OSS. In order to get full advantage of System Level Trace.

The amount of active trace cases can be limited. The trace of equipment is in a state of active pending until an invoking event occurs. The HPLMN operator can use the HLR parameters to define whether the trace settings are sent to the VPLMN.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Figure 14 Architecture of the GPRS network and related network elements Trace from an operator's viewpoint In the SGSN trace. HPLMN operator tracing equipment (IMEI). The trace of a subscriber is in a state of active pending until an invoking event occurs. the trace is activated directly via MMI commands to all SGSNs in operator's network. the trace is first activated in the HLR. three different scenarios can be identified from an operator's point of view: • HPLMN operator traces its own IMSI within the HPLMN When an operator wishes to trace a GPRS subscriber in its own (home) network. System Level Trace in BSC The SGSN invokes the trace by sending a BSSGP SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE (3GPP TS 48.018) message to the BSS when SGSN trace becomes active or when SGSN receives a trace request. the HLR waits until the subscriber becomes active in HPLMN before it activates a trace in the SGSN. HPLMN operator tracing a foreign roaming subscriber (IMSI) within its own HPLMN When an operator wants to trace a foreign subscriber. the HLR activates the trace in a specified SGSN. the trace is activated directly via MMI commands to all SGSNs in an operator's network. the tracing is deactivated in the source BSC side and activated in the target BSC side by an SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE message from SGSN. 30 Id:0900d80580590b41 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . When the BSC receives this message it starts tracing. The BSS does not send an acknowledgement of the BSSGP message to the SGSN. • • The tracing of roaming IMSIs and the exchange of data is subject to bilateral agreements. and the request to trace a particular IMSI comes through administrative channels. In case of a handover between BSCs. If a subscriber is not roaming outside the HPLMN and he/she is represented as a register in the HLR. When an operator wants to trace equipment. Otherwise. The amount of active trace cases can be limited.

GPRS Cell Re-selection Report GPRS Cell Re-selection is a trace report for GPRS trace. TBF release completes the report. For further information. NACC usage and possible failures. see 27 GPRS Cell Re-selection Report. recorded events include TBF reallocations. It contains information about NCCR triggering. so simultaneous TBF allocations produce multiple reports. GPRS RX Level and Quality Report GPRS RX Level and Quality Report is a report type needed to periodically record serving and neighbour cell measurements and quality data. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b41 31 . There is one report per each allocated TBF. If you attempt to start these observations (without trace) from NetAct. TBF Observation for GPRS Trace A TBF report is created when a subscriber performs actions causing an allocation of TBF in BSS during tracing. The BSC sends the generated trace reports to NetAct. see 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report. or NCCR context is released in the PCU. MCS changes and MS Flow Control changes. be started or stopped by MML commands or from the NMS. For further information. Trace reports are also stored in observation files on the BSC's disk. The report contains the following information: • • • downlink RX level of serving cell and neighbour cells from packet (enhanced) measurement report downlink RX quality class or BEP values from (EGPRS) PACKET DOWNLINK ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message uplink RX level and quality from BTS measurements. The trace as a whole is handled only by the SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE messages from the SGSN. For further information.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The System Level Trace for GPRS in the BSC is implemented as three different observation types: • • • TBF Observation for GPRS Trace GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report GPRS RX Level and Quality Report These observations cannot. the MS returns to source cell by Packet Cell Change failure. In addition to TBF allocation and release. see 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace. which is then ready for post-processing. TBF Observation for GPRS Trace records resource consumption by the user and call quality related transactions. The report is closed and sent further to NetAct when flush is received from the SGSN. During TBF allocation. the BSC replies with an error status. however.

3. see GPRS. For an overview. coding schemes CS-3 & CS-4 require EDGE-capable TRXs (EDGE hardware and attached to EDAP) For the full use of GPRS all these need to be taken into consideration.0 CX6. Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs Software release required S13 BRG1 EX3. The radio interface and GPRS signalling are relevant to the functioning of the BSC.1 EP2. see Implementing GPRS overview.0 No requirements Table 3 Required software 32 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 3 System impact of GPRS The system impact of BSS09006: GPRS is specified in the sections below. GPRS is licence key controlled. where the location of the MS is handled separately by the SGSN and by the MSC/VLR even if some cooperation exists the network management must be capable of handling the GPRS-specific elements new security features for the GPRS backbone a new ciphering algorithm a new radio interface (Um) for packet data traffic new MAP and GPRS-specific signalling.0 CXM6.1 Requirements The following network elements and functions are required to implement GPRS: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) GPRS backbone Point-to-multipoint Service Centre (PTM SC) Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG) Charging Gateway (CG) Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN Packet Control Unit (PCU) GPRS-specific mobility management. For implementation instructions. Additionally.

In PCU1 Coding Scheme CS-1 is always used in unacknowledged RLC mode. if EGPRS or CS-3 & CS-4 is enabled in the BTS. A non-EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable TRX has no EDGE hardware or it is not added to EDAP. there is a new Link Adaptation algorithm that uses all the Coding Schemes in both unacknowledged and in acknowledged RLC mode. GPRS must be disabled in the non-EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable TRXs. and it has the GTRX parameter set to Y. GPRS and EGPRS territories cannot both be defined to a BTS object at the same time. Paging reorganisation is not supported. TRXs inside a BTS object must have common capabilities. because of CS-3 & CS-4 implementation. An EDGE/CS–3 & CS–4capable TRX has EDGE hardware and is added to EDAP. the EDAP and the TRXs tied to it shall use a single PCM line. which are added to • • • • DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 33 . it is recommended that the operator takes the following conditions into account.) Frequency band support The BSC supports GPRS on the following frequency bands: • • • • • GSM 800 PGSM 900 EGSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 3. then all unlocked TRXs. radio timeslot 0 of any TRX in the BTS will not be used for GPRS. In this case. Network operation mode III is not supported. the Link Adaptation algorithm uses both CS-1 and CS-2. • To get BCCH recovery to work correctly. GPRS territory can be defined to each BTS object separately. The master and slave channels must be cross-connected in the same way. An exception to this is that EDGE-capable and non-EDGE-capable TRXs can be configured to the same BTS object.2 CD Set 1 Table 3 Required software (Cont. In acknowledged RLC mode.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Network element MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required M14 SG7 OSS4. added to EDAP. when unlocked EDGE and nonEDGE-capable TRXs or unlocked CS–3 & CS–4 and non-CS–3 & CS–4capable TRXs exist in the same EGPRS or CS-3 & CS-4 enabled BTS: • If a BCCH TRX is EDGE hardware-capable. In PCU2. If they use different PCM lines. transmission delay between the lines may differ.2 Restrictions • • • • If Baseband hopping is employed in a BTS. and these TRXs cannot be attached to EDAP. BTS testing cannot be executed on the packet control channel. This may cause a timing difference with the result that synchronisation between the master and slave channels is not successful.

see Dynamic Abis. should be marked Preferred BCCHs. 3. which have GTRX set to N. This is fully compliant with 3GPP Rel 5. TRX signalling No impact. The maximum output power is 2dB lower than with GMSK. The BSS does not restrict the use of 8PSK modulation on TSL7 of the BCCH TRX. No impact Table 4 Impact of GPRS on BSC units Impact on BTS units No impact. PCU1 does not support CS–3 & CS–4. 3. Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA). should be marked Preferred BCCHs. For restrictions related to Dynamic Abis.4 Impact on BSS performance OMU signalling No impact. • If a BCCH TRX is non EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable. are EDGE hardware-capable. then all non-EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable unlocked TRXs. 34 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . High Multislot Classes (HMC) or Dual Transfer Mode (DTM). and has the parameter GTRX set to N. Impact on BSC units BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact No impact No impact The PCU controls the GPRS radio resources and acts as the key unit in the following procedures: • • • • • TCSM GPRS radio resource allocation and management GPRS radio connection establishment and management data transfer coding scheme selection PCU statistics. using the highest output power. see EDGE BTSs and hopping in System impact of EDGE in EDGE System Feature Description. For information on restrictions when baseband hopping is used. and have GTRX set to Y.3 Impact on transmission No impact.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • EDAP.

3. 3.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS 3.3 BSC parameters Base Transceiver Station parameters • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GPRS non BCCH layer rxlev upper limit (GPU) GPRS non BCCH layer rxlev lower limit (GPL) direct GPRS access BTS (DIRE) max GPRS capacity (CMAX) GPRS rxlev access min (GRXP) GPRS MS txpwr max CCH (GTXP1) GPRS MS txpwr max CCH 1x00 (GTXP2) priority class (PRC) HCS threshold (HCS) RA reselect hysteresis (RRH) routing area code (RAC) GPRS enabled (GENA) network service entity identifier (NSEI) default GPRS capacity (CDEF) dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED) prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG) transport type (TRAT) coding schemes CS3 and CS4 enabled (CS34) BTS downlink throughput factor for CS1-CS4 (TFD) (PCU2) BTS uplink throughput factor for CS1-CS4 (TFU) (PCU2) quality control GPRS DL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGDRT) quality control GPRS UL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGURT) DL adaption probability threshold (DLA) DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 35 .5.5.5.5 3.2 BTS MMI GPRS cannot be managed with BTS MMl. see MML Commands under Reference/Commands in the PDF view.1 User interface BSC MMI The following command groups and MML commands are used to handle GPRS: • • • • • • • • Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC: EE GSM Timer and BSC Parameter Handling: EG Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQ Transceiver Handling: ER Power Control Parameter Handling: EU Gb Interface Handling: FX Licence and Feature Handling: W7 Parameter Handling: WO For more information on the command groups and commands.

System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • UL adaption probability threshold (ULA) DL BLER crosspoint for CS selection no hop (DLB) UL BLER crosspoint for CS selection no hop (ULB) DL BLER crosspoint for CS selection hop (DLBH) UL BLER crosspoint for CS selection hop (ULBH) coding scheme no hop (COD) (PCU1) coding scheme hop (CODH) (PCU1) DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) (PCU2) UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) (PCU2) DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) (PCU2) UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) (PCU2) adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) (PCU2) EGPRS inactivity alarm weekdays (EAW) EGPRS inactivity alarm start time (EAS) EGPRS inactivity alarm end time (EAE) Adjacent Cell parameters • • • • adjacent GPRS enabled (AGENA) HCS signal level threshold (HCS) GPRS temporary offset (GTEO) GPRS penalty time (GPET) Gb Interface Handling parameters • • • • • • • data link connection identifier (DLCI) committed information rate (CIR) network service virtual connection identifier (NSVCI) network service virtual connection name (NAME) network service entity identifier (NSEI) bearer channel identifier (BCI) bearer channel name (BCN) Gb Interface Handling parameters (IP) • • • • • • • • • • • • • network service virtual link identifier (NSVLI) network service virtual connection name (NAME) network service entity identifier (NSEI) BCSU logical index (BCSU) PCU logical index (PCU) local UDP port number (LPNBR) remote IP address (RIP) remote host name (RHOST) remote UDP port number (RPNBR) preconfigured SGSN IP endpoint (PRE) remote data weight (RDW) remote signalling weight (RSW) packet service entity identifier (PSEI) 36 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

PAFILE parameters These parameters have no Q3 interface and are stored in PAFILE.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Power Control Handling parameters • • • • binary representation ALPHA (ALPHA) binary representation TAU (GAMMA) idle mode signal strength filter period (IFP) transfer mode signal strength filter period (TFP) TRX Handling parameters • • GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) dynamic abis pool ID (DAP) Base Station Controller parameters • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GPRS territory update guard time (GTUGT) maximum number of DL TBF (MNDL) maximum number of UL TBF (MNUL) CS TCH allocate RTSL0 (CTR) CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC) PFC unack BLER limit for SDU error ratio 1 (UBL1) (PCU2) PFC ack BLER limit for transfer delay 1 (ABL1) (PCU2) QC NCCR action trigger threshold (QCATN) (applicable if NCCR is activated) QC reallocation action trigger threshold (QCATR) free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) EGPRS inactivity criteria (EGIC) events per hour for EGPRS inactivity alarm (IEPH) supervision period length for EGPRS inactivity alarm (SPL) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 2 UL TSL (BL02) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 3 UL TSL (BL03) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 4 UL TSL (BL04) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 2 UL TSL (BL12) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 3 UL TSL (BL13) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 4 UL TSL (BL14) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 3 UL TSL (BL23) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 4 UL TSL (BL24) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 2 UL TSL (RL02) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 3 UL TSL (RL03) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 4 UL TSL (RL04) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 2 UL TSL (RL12) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 3 UL TSL (RL13) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 4 UL TSL (RL14) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 3 UL TSL (RL23) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 4 UL TSL (RL24) For more information on radio network parameters. see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary. not BSDATA: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 37 .

PRFILE parameters The following parameters are related to Gb interface configuration and state management. the PCU. and the MAC and RLC protocols (Abis interface): • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • TNS_BLOCK TSNS_PROV TNS_RESET TNS_TEST TNS_ALIVE SNS_ADD_RETRIES SNS_CONFIG_RETRIES SNS_CHANGEWEIGHTS_RETRIES SNS_DELETE_RETRIES SNS_SIZE_RETRIES NS_BLOCK_RETRIES NS_UNBLOCK_RETRIES NS_ALIVE_RETRIES NS_RESET_RETRIES TGB_BLOCK TGB_RESET TGB_SUSPEND BVC_BLOCK_RETRIES BVC_UNBLOCK_RETRIES BVC_RESET_RETRIES SUSPEND_RETRIES TGB_RESUME RESUME_RETRIES RAC_UPDATE_RETRIES TGB_RAC_UPDATE RAC_UPDATE_RETRIES FC_B_MAX_TSL FC_B_MAX_TSL_EGPRS FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF FC_MS_R_DEF FC_MS_R_MIN FC_R_DIF_TRG_LIMIT FC_R_TSL GPRS_DOWNLINK_PENALTY GPRS_DOWNLINK_THRESHOLD GPRS_UPLINK_PENALTY GPRS_UPLINK_THRESHOLD MEMORY_OUT_FLAG_SUM 38 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • DRX TIMER MAX MSC RELEASE SGSN RELEASE For more information on PAFILE parameters. see PAFILE Timer and Parameter List.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0125 PCU PROCESSOR LOAD HIGH 0136 PCU CONNECTIVITY EXCEEDED 2114 FR VIRTUAL CONNECTION FAILED 2115 FR USER LINK INTEGRITY VERIFICATION FAILED 2188 FR ACCESS DATA UPDATING FAILED 2189 COMMUNICATION FAILURE BETWEEN FR TERMINAL AND FRCMAN 3019 NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE 3020 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE 3021 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNBLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3022 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION BLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3023 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED 3024 NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY CONFIGURATION MISMATCH 3025 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION TEST PROCEDURE FAILED 3026 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION PROTOCOL ERROR 3027 UPLINK CONGESTION ON THE NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 39 . 3.4 Alarms This section lists the main GPRS-related alarms.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • PRE_EMPTIVE_TRANSMISSIO TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD TBF_SIGNAL_GRD_THRSHLD TERRIT_BALANCE_THRSHLD TERRIT_UPD_GTIME_GPRS UPLNK_RX_LEV_FRG_FACTOR DL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY UL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY UL_TBF_REL_DELAY_EXT UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT (PCU1) POLLING_INTERVAL (PCU2.5. For more information on PRFILE parameters. replaces UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT) CHA_CONC_UL_FAVOR_DIR CHA_CONC_DL_FAVOR_DIR GPRS_UL_MUX_DEC_FACTOR (PCU2) BACKGROUND_ARP_1 BACKGROUND_ARP_2 BACKGROUND_ARP_3 PCU_LOAD_NOTIF_LIMIT SUSPEND_PCU_LOAD_NOTIF The following parameters are related to alarm 0125 PCU PROCESSOR LOAD HIGH. Keep in mind that several other alarms may also be generated with the use of GPRS. see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List.

3.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3028 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION IDENTIFIER UNKNOWN 3029 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNBLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3030 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION BLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3031 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED 3032 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION PROTOCOL ERROR 3033 UNKNOWN ROUTING AREA OR LOCATION AREA DURING PAGING 3068 EGPRS DYNAMIC ABIS POOL FAILURE 3073 FAULTY PCUPCM TIMESLOTS IN PCU 3164 PCU PROCESSOR OVERLOAD ALARM 3209 SUB NETWORK SERVICE SIZE PROCEDURE FAILED 3210 SUB NETWORK SERVICE CONFIGURATION PROCEDURE FAILED 3211 LAST REMOTE IP DATA ENDPOINT DELETED 3261 FAILURE IN UPDATING BSC SPECIFIC PARAMETERS TO PCU 3273 GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE 3324 FAILURE IN UPDATING CONFIGURATION DATA TO PCU 7724 CONFLICT BETWEEN BSS RADIO NETWORK DATABASE AND CALL CONTROL 7725 TRAFFIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION FAILURE 7730 CONFIGURATION OF BCF FAILED 7738 BTS WITH NO TRANSACTIONS 7769 FAILURE IN UPDATING CELL SPECIFIC PARAMETERS TO PCU 7789 NO (E)GPRS TRANSACTIONS IN BTS For more information on alarms. see Notices (0-999).5 Measurements and counters The following measurements are related to GPRS: • • • • 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement 74 Frame Relay Measurement 76 Dynamic Abis Measurement • For counters of 76 Dynamic Abis Measurement. Failure Printouts (2000-3999) and Base Station Alarms (7000-7999). 79 Coding Scheme Measurement 90 Quality of Service Measurement 95 GPRS Cell Re-selection Measurement • For counters of 95 GPRS Cell Re-selection Measurement. see System impact of Dynamic Abis. see System impact of Gb over IP. 106 CS DTM Measurement • • • • • • • 40 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .5. see System impact of Network Controlled Re-selection. 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement 98 Gb Over IP Measurement • For counters of 98 Gb over IP Measurement. see System impact of Dual Transfer Mode. 105 PS DTM Measurement • For counters of 105 PS DTM Measurement.

73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement Name UR DL RLC MAC BLOCKS RETRANS DL RLC MAC BLOCKS SCHED UNUSED RADIO BLOCKS DL RLC MAC BLOCKS Number 073000 073001 073002 073003 Table 6 Counters of RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement For more information. see 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement. 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement • 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement Name RLC DATA BLOCKS UL CS1 RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS1 RLC DATA BLOCKS UL CS2 RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS2 RETRA RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS1 RETRA RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS2 BAD FRAME IND UL CS1 BAD FRAME IND UL CS2 RETRA DATA BLOCKS UL CS1 RETRA DATA BLOCKS UL CS2 WEIGHTED DL TSL ALLOC GPRS NUMERATOR WEIGHTED DL TSL ALLOC GPRS DENOMINATOR RLC RETRANSMITTED DL CS1 DUE OTHER THAN NACK RLC RETRANSMITTED DL CS2 DUE OTHER THAN NACK DL CS1 DATA FOR DUMMY LLC IGNORED RLC DATA BLOCKS UL DUE TO BSN CS1 IGNORED RLC DATA BLOCKS UL DUE TO BSN CS2 1-PHASE UL GPRS TBF ESTABLISHMENT REQUESTS Number 072062 072063 072064 072065 072068 072069 072070 072071 072173 072174 072195 072196 072222 072223 072224 072225 072226 072227 1-PHASE UL GPRS TBF SUCCESSFUL ESTABLISHMENTS 072229 Table 5 Counters of Packet Control Unit Measurement related to GPRS For more information. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 41 . see 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement. see System impact of Dual Transfer Mode.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS • For counters of 106 CS DTM Measurement.

System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 74 Frame Relay Measurement Name FRMS WRONG CHECK SEQ ERR FRMS WRONG DLCI OTHER FRAME ERROR T391 TIMEOUT STAT MSG WRONG SEND SEQ NBR STAT MSG WRONG REC SEQ NBR BEAR CHANGED UNOPER BEAR RET OPER STAT MSG UNKNOWN PVC STAT MSG SENT TOO OFTEN TIME BEAR UNOPERATIONAL DLCI 1 ID DLCI 1 SENT FRMS DLCI 1 KBYTES SENT DLCI 1 REC FRMS DLCI 1 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 1 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 1 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 1 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 1 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 1 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 1 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 1 DISC UL NS UDATA DLCI 5 ID DLCI 5 SENT FRMS DLCI 5 KBYTES SENT DLCI 5 REC FRMS DLCI 5 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 5 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 5 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 5 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 5 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 5 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 5 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 5 DISC UL NS UDATA Number 074000 074001 074002 074003 074004 074005 074006 074007 074008 074009 074010 074011 074012 074013 074014 074015 074016 074017 074018 074019 074020 074021 074022 074059 074060 074061 074062 074063 074064 074065 074066 074067 074068 074069 074070 Table 7 Counters of Frame Relay Measurement 42 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Name DLCI 6 ID DLCI 6 SENT FRMS DLCI 6 KBYTES SENT DLCI 6 REC FRMS DLCI 6 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 6 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 6 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 6 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 6 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 6 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 6 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 6 DISC UL NS UDATA : DLCI 16 ID DLCI 16 SENT FRMS DLCI 16 KBYTES SENT DLCI 16 REC FRMS DLCI 16 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 16 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 16 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 16 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 16 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 16 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 16 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 16 DISC UL NS UDATA Number 074071 074072 074073 074074 074075 074076 074077 074078 074079 074080 074081 074082 : 074191 074192 074193 074194 074195 074196 074197 074198 074199 074200 074201 074202 Table 7 Counters of Frame Relay Measurement (Cont. see 74 Frame Relay Measurement.) For more information. 79 Coding Scheme Measurement Name Number NUMBER OF DL RLC BLOCKS IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079000 NUMBER OF DL RLC BLOCKS IN UNACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079001 NUMBER OF UL RLC BLOCKS IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079002 NUMBER OF UL RLC BLOCKS IN UNACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079003 Table 8 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 43 .

System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Name NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH VALID HEADER UL UNACK MODE NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH BAD HEADER UL UNACK MODE NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH VALID HEADER UL ACK MODE NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH BAD HEADER UL ACK MODE RETRANSMITTED RLC DATA BLOCKS UL RETRANSMITTED RLC DATA BLOCKS DL Number 079004 079005 079006 079007 079008 079009 Table 8 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement (Cont. 90 Quality of Service Measurement Name NUMBER OF TBF ALLOCATIONS TOTAL NBR OF RLC BLOCKS TOTAL DURATION OF TBFS DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO OVERFLOW DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO LIFETIME EXPIRY AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE DEN VWTHR NUMERATOR GPRS VWTHR DENOMINATOR GPRS Number 090000 090001 090002 090003 090004 090005 090006 090007 090008 Table 9 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement related to GPRS For more information. see 90 Quality of Service Measurement. 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement RXL UP BOUND CLASS 0 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 1 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 2 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 3 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 4 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 0 096000 096001 096002 096003 096004 096005 096012 096013 Table 10 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement 44 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see 79 Coding Scheme Measurement.) For more information.

see 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement. see 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement.6 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) No impact.) For more information.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 7 096020 096021 096028 096029 096036 096037 096044 096045 096052 096053 096060 096061 096068 096069 096076 096077 096084 096085 096092 096093 096100 Table 10 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement (Cont. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 45 . 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement PEAK RESERVED PCUPCM CHANNELS PEAK OCCUPIED PDTCH UL PEAK OCCUPIED PDTCH DL 110000 110001 110002 Table 11 Counters of PCU Utilization Measurement For more information. 3.

7 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Reporter NetAct reporter can be used to view reports from measurements related to GPRS. Time Management. For a list of the radio network parameters. GPRS can be taken into consideration when network traffic is planned and simulated with NetAct Planner. NetAct Tracing NetAct Tracing supports GPRS-capable Nokia Siemens Network network elements in OSS3. such as Network Editor. NetAct Configurator NetAct Configurator can be used to configure the radio network parameters related to GPRS. NetAct Optimizer No impact. Class C terminals may support both CS and PS services. However. NetAct Planner GPRS has no direct impact on NetAct Planner. NetAct Administrator Standard NetAct Administration applications.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 3. For a list of the measurements. With Class C terminals. Data Tracing must be supported by the BSS and the Packet Core Network.1 ED2. Authority Manager. However. GPRS defines three classes of mobile terminals: • • • Class A terminals support simultaneous circuit-switched (CS) and packet-switched (PS) traffic. For a list of the alarms. see Alarms. and Service Access Control are used to administer GPRS. Class B terminals can accept paging of any type when in idle mode.8 Impact on mobile terminals GPRS-capable mobile terminals are required. Class C terminals cannot accept paging from both CS and PS at the same time. 46 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see BSC parameters. see Measurements and counters. Class B terminals attach to the network as both CS and PS clients but only support traffic from one service at a time. or the terminals can be set up to accept data only. NetAct Monitor NetAct Monitor can be used to monitor all alarms related to GPRS. 3. see BSS RNW Parameters and Implementing Parameter Plans in NetAct Product Documentation. User Group Profiles. For more information. users must manually select either CS or PS mode.

Base Station System (BSS) . Impact on Gb interface The Nokia Siemens Networks BSC supports the Gb interface (BSC-SGSN) as specified in GSM Recommendations (3GPP): • • 3GPP TS 48. The advantages of Gs interface include: • • • support for TIA/EIA-136 networks by offering a connection for the tunneling of nonGSM signalling messages via the GPRS network to a non-GSM MSC/VLR. Impact on Abis interface • • Dynamic Abis Dynamic Abis pools need to be configured for GPRS if CS-3 & CS-4 is in use. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). see: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 47 . Impact on A interface No impact. Network Service Impact on Gs interface Nokia Siemens Networks SGSN and MSC support the Gs interface (SGSN-MSC/VLR) although it is specified as optional by 3GPP.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS 3.018.9 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface No impact.Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) interface.Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN). the possibility to page GPRS terminals for circuit-switched services (for example circuit-switched calls) via GPRS. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) 3GPP TS 48. that is. more effective radio resource usage with combined GPRS/IMSI attach/detach and combined RA/LA updates. reduced signalling over the radio interface. 3.10 Interworking with other features The implementation of GPRS causes changes to the following existing functions of the BSC: • • • • • • • the PCU plug-in unit is introduced in Hardware Configuration Management GPRS-related radio network parameters are introduced in Radio Network Configuration Management co-operation between circuit-switched traffic and GPRS traffic is defined in Radio Channel Allocation GPRS traffic is monitored with GPRS-specific measurements and counters the serving PCU must be the same for all TRXs under one segment. GPRS messages The Abis interface supports GPRS messages.016. Base Station System (BSS) . Implementing GPRS overview Radio network management for GPRS For more information on the implementation procedure.

the first GPRS radio timeslot next to the territory border is taken regardless of whether its interference level is among the recommended ones or not. radio timeslot 0 belongs to a different hopping group than the other radio timeslots of a TRX. the interference level recommendation is no longer the guiding factor. For some features only the resources of the circuit-switched territory are included in the decisions. no prioritisation is used between the different TRX types when the GPRS territory is formed. to allow the performing of optimisation of the MS power level. Now. Trunk Reservation In trunk reservation. radio timeslot 0 of any TRX in the BTS is not used for GPRS. the BSC defines the number of idle traffic channels. For more information on the division of territories. Circuit-switched traffic In the BSC the introduction of GPRS means dividing the radio resources (circuitswitched and GPRS traffic) into two territories. Dynamic SDCCH allocation The BSC selects a traffic channel timeslot to be reconfigured as a dynamic SDCCH timeslot always within the circuit-switched territory. If Baseband hopping is employed in a BTS. Handover Support for Coverage Enhancements Super-reuse TRX frequencies are not supported for GPRS. This has an effect on the radio channel allocation features in which the BSC makes decisions based on the load of traffic. Only if there are radio timeslots that are permanently reserved for GPRS use (dedicated GPRS resources). TRX prioritisation in TCH allocation The operator can set the BCCH TRX or the non-BCCH TRXs as preferred TRX for the GPRS territory with the parameter prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG). The BSC adds together the number of idle traffic channels in the circuit-switched territory and the 48 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . these cannot be used for circuit-switched calls and the BSC excludes these in its decisions on traffic load. see section Radio resource management. However. Frequency Hopping In Baseband hopping. because radio timeslots (RTSL) in the GPRS territory may be allocated for circuit-switched traffic if necessary. When the BSC has to allocate a traffic channel for a circuit-switched request in the GPRS territory. Enhanced Coverage by Frequency Hopping. for most features also the traffic channels in the GPRS territory need to be taken into consideration when the BSC defines the traffic load. If no preference is indicated. Intelligent Underlay-Overlay.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • Gb interface configuration and state management Radio resource management GPRS/EDGE radio connection control The GPRS related measurements are introduced in section Measurements and counters. This makes radio timeslot 0 unusable for multislot connections. Optimisation of MS Power Level The BSC attempts to allocate traffic channels within the circuit-switched territory according to the interference level recommendation the BSC has calculated.

it is recommended not to configure permanent half rate timeslots in TRXs that are planned to be used for GPRS. the BSC determines the possibility of a GPRS territory upgrade in another TRX. High Speed circuit-switched Data (HSCSD) If GPRS has been enabled in a BTS.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS number of traffic channels in the radio timeslots of the GPRS territory. as well as the default GPRS territory TCH/Fs. If the faulty TRX is EDGE-capable. TRX fault When a TRX carrying traffic channels becomes faulty. and GPRS in enabled in the TRX and CS-3 & CS-4 or EGPRS is enabled in the BTS. The BSC releases the ongoing calls and the call control resources. Additionally. the load limits used in the procedure are calculated using the operator defined BSC and BTS parameters lower limit for HR TCH resources (HRL). the HSCSD-related load limits are calculated based on the existing HSCSD parameters and the following rules: • the number of working resources includes all the working full rate traffic channel (TCH/F) resources of a BTS. To replace the lost GPRS capacity. Therefore. For more information on GPRS territory upgrades and downgrades. with the CTC parameter the user can define whether the resources in GPRS territory are seen as idle resources or as occupied resources. the system tries to reconfigure its functionality to another EDGE-capable TRX in the BTS. Resource indication to MSC In general. GPRS territory resources other than the dedicated ones are regarded as working and idle resources. see section Radio resource management. excluding the ones that have been allocated permanently to GPRS the number of occupied TCH/F resources includes all the occupied TCH/Fs of the circuit-switched territory. If the faulty TRX functionality is reconfigured to another TRX in the cell. lower limit for FR TCH resources (FRL). upper limit for HR TCH resources (HRU). the radio timeslots on the TRX are blocked from use. The BSC downgrades the traffic channels belonging to the GPRS territory in the faulty TRX from GPRS use. Depending on the value of CTC either only CS territory or both CS and GPRS territories (excluding the dedicated GPRS timeslots) are used to calculate the load limits. and upper limit for FR TCH resources (FRU). the BSC’s indication on the resources concerns traffic channels of a BTS excluding those allocated permanently to GPRS (dedicated GPRS channels). excluding the GPRS radio timeslots defined as dedicated • DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 49 . Half Rate Permanent type half rate timeslots are not used for GPRS traffic. are excluded. When the BSC can select the channel rate (full rate or half rate) to be used for a circuitswitched call based on the traffic load of the target BTS. the value of the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter is also transferred to the new TRX. The traffic channels in the radio timeslots that the BSC has allocated permanently for GPRS. The BSC parameter CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC) defines how the GPRS territory is seen when the load limits are calculated.

executes an HSCSD downgrade • 50 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . When deciding whether to downgrade an HSCSD call or the GPRS territory. enabling a GPRS territory upgrade. it is also applied within the GPRS territory to serve the non-transparent request. If multislot allocation was originally defined as allowed. the BSC does not try to move it elsewhere with an intra cell handover. the BSC performs an HSCSD downgrade if necessary. and only if necessary in the GPRS territory. the BSC checks that a single slot call can be moved to another radio timeslot and that an HSCSD upgrade is generally allowed. In order for the non-transparent call to get the needed number of timeslots. the BSC starts an intra cell handover for suitable single slot calls beside the non-transparent HSCSD call. A normal HSCSD upgrade procedure is applied later to fulfill the need of the non-transparent request. the BSC rejects the transparent HSCSD requests and serves the non-transparent HSCSD requests with one timeslot. the BSC checks first if the margin of idle resources defined by the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) exists. For more information on how the resources form the territories. If the timeslot share in HSCSD allocation is not restricted. A non-transparent HSCSD call enters the GPRS territory only if there is congestion in the circuit-switched territory. the BSC examines if there are more HSCSD traffic channels than the parameter HSCSD TCH capacity minimum (HTM) requires and if so. If HSCSD multislot allocation is denied based on the appropriate parameters. the BSC acts as without GPRS. the actions proceed as follows: • if there are GPRS radio timeslots that are above and beyond the operator defined default GPRS territory then these additional GPRS radio timeslots are the first target for the GPRS territory downgrade if there are no additional GPRS radio timeslots. If the BTS load later decreases. If the number of idle resources is below the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). using the state information that the HSCSD parameters define for the BTS. The non-transparent HSCSD requests are always served in the circuit-switched territory as long as there is at least one TCH/F available. The parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) defines a margin of radio timeslots that the BSC tries to keep idle for circuit-switched traffic by downgrading the GPRS territory when necessary. the non-transparent HSCSD call is handed over to another location in the BTS so that the GPRS territory can be extended. it tries to replace the lost GPRS capacity by extending the GPRS territory on the circuit-switched side of the territory border. if the call starts with less channels than needed and allowed. At the start of the handover. the transparent requests are served preferably in the circuit-switched territory. thus the one that limits HSCSD traffic earlier is used.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • HSCSD parameter HSCSD cell load upper limit (HCU) is replaced with the radio network GPRS parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) if the latter is more restricting. When the transparent HSCSD call inside the GPRS territory is later released. see section Radio resource management. If a transparent HSCSD call ends up in the GPRS territory. Instead. that is. If a sufficient margin exists. the BSC returns the released radio timeslots back to GPRS use to keep the GPRS territory continuous and undivided.

see section Resrictions. Only one BTS object of the segment can have a BCCH. PS territory can be defined to each BTS object separately. PGSM900. The GPRS territory can be upgraded although the parameter HSCSD TCH capacity minimum (HTM) is not in use and there are pending HSCSD connections in the cell. EGSM900. Common BCCH Control Multi BCF introduces a radio network object called the segment. For information on restrictions when baseband hopping is used. see EDGE BTSs and hopping in System impact of EDGE in EDGE System Feature Description. The parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) and the margin it defines is the limiting factor for a GPRS territory upgrade. a GPRS territory downgrade is made to maintain the margin defined by the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). GPRS and EGPRS territories cannot both be defined to a BTS object at the same time. Radio Network Supervision does not apply to the packet control channel. The reason for this requirement is that in cases when the MS RAC of the GPRS mobile is not known by the BSC. see HSCSD and 14. TRXs inside a BTS object must have common capabilities. BTS testing BTS testing cannot be executed on the packet control channel. GSM1800. the BSC first examines the need and possibility for an HSCSD upgrade. Parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) defines the number of radio timeslots that have to remain idle in the circuit-switched territory after the planned GPRS territory upgrade has been performed. When EGPRS or CS-3 & CS-4 is enabled in the BTS. Otherwise GPRS does not work properly in the cell.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS • if the minimum HSCSD capacity is not in use. The only reasonable thing to monitor is the uplink interference on timeslots in GPRS use. If the BSC starts no HSCSD upgrade. As a TCH/F becomes free through a channel release. Radio Network Supervision Actions of the radio network supervision do not apply for timeslots that have been included in the GPRS territory. and for more information on HSCSD. it further checks the need and possibility for a GPRS upgrade. There is only one BCCH /CCCH in one segment. Super-reuse frequencies are not supported in GPRS. Several BTS objects can belong to one segment. the temporary block flow (TBF) must be allocated on the BCCH frequency band first. An exception to this is that EDGE-capable and non-EDGE-capable TRXs can be configured to the same BTS object. there exist some restrictions related to TRX configuration. During the first TBF allocation. The segment can have BTS objects. For more information. which differ in: • • • • frequency band (GSM800. You must define GPRS territory to the BCCH frequency band in a Common BCCH cell in which more than one frequency band is in use. the GPRS DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 51 . see section Radio resource management. For more information on GPRS territories. and GSM1900) power levels (Talk-family and UltraSite base stations) regular and super-reuse frequencies EDGE capability.4 kbit/s Data Services in BSC. Multi BCF Control.

Set the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter of the EGSM 900 TRXs to value 'N'. A DTM TBF is established in EGPRS mode if the MS is EGPRS capable and if the DTM call is allocated from an EGPRS-capable PS territory. the TBFs may be reallocated to other BTSs as well. See Common BCCH Control and Multi BCF Control for more information on Multi BCF and Common BCCH. which in the Nokia Siemens Networks BSS contains GPRS Mobile Allocation only for the BCCH BTS. EGSM 900 . This is because hopping frequency parameters are encoded to the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message on CCCH with indirect encoding. Set the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter of the RF hopping TRXs to value 'N'. • 52 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . the TBFs must initially be allocated to the BCCH BTS. Therefore. For more information on DTM. When BCCH is on PGSM 900 frequency band and there is a TRX on EGSM 900 frequency band in the BTS. the MSS that have an active DTM connection keep their CS connection but lose their TBFs.PGSM 900 BTS When the BCCH is on PGSM 900 frequency band in the PGSM-EGSM BTS and RF hopping is used.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description mobile indicates its frequency capability to the BSC. The following restrictions apply when there are EGSM 900 and PGSM 900 frequencies in the BTS and GPRS/EDGE Support for PGSM-EGSM BTS is not used: • When BCCH is on EGSM 900 frequency band and there is a TRX on PGSM 900 frequency band in the BTS. Dual Transfer Mode GPRS must be available and active in the network for Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) to work. When the allocated BTS is hopping. Set the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter of the PGSM 900 TRXs to value 'N'. might use a large number of octets for the frequency hopping. direct 1 and 2 encoding cannot be used. see Dual Transfer Mode. GPRS territory must be configured into the BCCH BTS of a segment with two or more BTSs on the BCCH band if BTS(s) containing GPRS channels are hopping. direct 1 and 2. indirect encoding can only refer to the SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 13 message. GPRS/EDGE cannot be used in the PGSM 900 TRXs in the BTS. the DTM TBF is established in GPRS mode. Later. Thus as IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT segmentation is not supported. After that. in a segment where BCCH band GPRS channels are on hopping BTS(s). other frequency bands of the cell can be used for the GPRS mobile accordingly. The BSC supports DTM data transfer in both GPRS and EGPRS modes. Large sized frequency parameters cause control message segmentation. GPRS has to be disabled in the RF hopping TRXs. The other two possible hopping frequency encodings. If GPRS is deactivated when DTM is in use. The limitation to use only indirect encoding with hopping frequency parameters in IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT comes from the fact that IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message segmentation is not supported in the BSS. If not. GPRS/EDGE cannot be used in the EGSM 900 TRXs in the BTS.

Dynamic Frequency and Channel Allocation GPRS/EDGE can be used in DFCA TRXs. Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE With GPRS/EDGE and Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE application software products GPRS/EDGE traffic can be used in EGTCH channels of Extended TRXs (E-TRX). EGTCHs constitutes of fixed PS channels and they cannot be used for CS traffic. Extended Cell Range GPRS/EDGE cannot be used in Extended TRXs (E-TRX) without extended cell GPRS/EDGE channels (EGTCH). if BSS21161: SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX is active. For more information. GPRS is allowed to be used in RF hopping TRXs even if the BCCH is on PGSM 900 frequency band in the PGSM-EGSM BTS. see: • • Activating and Testing BSS21161: SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX BSS21161: SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 53 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS BSS21238 “Merged P-&E-GSM900” If the feature BSS21238 “Merged P-&E-GSM900” is activated in the cell.

For an overview.2 CD Set 1 Table 13 Required software Frequency band support The BSC supports Extended Uplink TBF Mode on the following frequency bands: • GSM 800 54 Id:0900d80580783c54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see Extended Uplink TBF Mode.1 System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode The system impact of BSS11151: Extended Uplink TBF Mode is specified in the sections below.System impact of GPRS related software BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4 System impact of GPRS related software 4. Extended Uplink TBF Mode requires GPRS as a prerequisite. see Activating and Testing BSS11151: Extended Uplink TBF Mode. For implementation instructions.1 Requirements Hardware requirements Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Hardware/firmware required No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements Table 12 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware. Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite BTSs MetroSite BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements OSS4.1. 4.

3 Impact on BSS performance OMU signalling No impact. No impact.2 Impact on transmission No impact.1. Faster uplink data flow continuing after short breaks. see the respective MML commands manuals. 4. BTS MMI Extended Uplink TBF Mode cannot be managed with BTS MMI. No impact. TRX signalling No impact. WOI. Impact on BSC units BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact.1. 4.4 User interface BSC MMI The following command groups and MML commands are used to handle Extended Uplink TBF Mode: • • Parameter Handling: WOA.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS related software • • • GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 4. Table 14 Impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode on BSC units Impact on BTS units No impact. WOC Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQV For more information on the command groups and commands.1. BSC parameters PRFILE parameters • • UL_TBF_REL_DELAY_EXT UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580783c54 55 .

NetAct Monitor No impact. NetAct Optimizer No impact. NetAct Configurator No impact. see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List. 4. 4. NetAct Reporter NetAct reporter can be used to create reports from measurements related to Extended Uplink TBF Mode.6 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Administrator No impact. see 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement.1.System impact of GPRS related software BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • POLLING_INTERVAL_STRM POLLING_INTERVAL_IA POLLING_INTERVAL_BG POLLING_INTERVAL_STR_LOW POLLING_INTERVAL_IA_LOW POLLING_INTERVAL_BG_LOW For more information on PRFILE parameters.1. 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement Name UL DATA CONT AFTER COUNTDOWN EXTENDED UL TBFS Number 072115 072116 Table 15 Counters of 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement The counters are collected on BTS level. NetAct Planner No impact. Measurements and counters The following measurements and counters are related to Extended Uplink TBF Mode. For more information. Alarms No alarms are specifically related to Extended Uplink TBF Mode. For a list of the measurements. 56 Id:0900d80580783c54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see Measurements and counters.5 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) No impact.

Impact on A interface No impact.4 GERAN feature package 1 MS required.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS related software NetAct Tracing No impact. 4.9 Interworking with other features No impact. Impact on Gb interface No impact. 4. 4.8 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface No impact.1.1. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580783c54 57 . Impact on Abis interface Support for Extended UL TBF Mode related signalling with the MS.1.7 Impact on mobile terminals 3GPP Rel.

2.1 Requirements Hardware requirements Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Required hardware or firmware PCU1/PCU2 No requirements No requirements No requirements Table 16 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR GGSN SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements M14 GGSN2 CG2/3 SG7 OSS4. For an overview.2 System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service The system impact of BSS10084: Priority Class based Quality of Service is specified in the sections below.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4. 4.2 CD Set 1 Table 17 Required software Frequency band support The BSC supports Priority Class based Quality of Service on the following frequency bands: • • • GSM 800 GSM 900 GSM 1800 58 Id:0900d8058077eb5c DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see Priority Class based Quality of Service.

4. BSC parameters BSC radio network parameters There are different radio network parameters for priority based scheduling in PCU1 and PCU2. EEO BTS MMI Priority Class based Quality of Service cannot be managed with BTS MMI.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • GSM 1900 4.2.3 Impact on BSS performance OMU signalling No impact. Table 18 Impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service on BSC units Impact on BTS units No impact. 4.2. TRX signalling No impact.4 User interface BSC MMI The following command group and MML commands are used to handle Priority Class based Quality of Service: • Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC: EEV.2 Impact on transmission No impact. Impact on BSC units BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact No impact No impact Both PCU1 and PCU2 support Priority Class based Quality of Service. The following parameters apply to PCU1: • • • DL high priority SSS (DHP) DL normal priority SSS (DNP) DL low priority SSS (DLP) DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eb5c 59 .2. Table Radio network parameters for Priority Based Scheduling describes the correspondence of these parameters between PCU1 and PCU2.

Alarms No impact.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • UL UL UL UL priority priority priority priority 1 2 3 4 SSS SSS SSS SSS (UP1) (UP2) (UP3) (UP4) The following parameters apply to PCU2: background traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (BGSW1) background traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (BGSW2) background traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (BGSW3) interactive 1 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (ISW11) interactive 1 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (ISW12) interactive 1 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (ISW13) interactive 2 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (ISW21) interactive 2 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (ISW22) interactive 2 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (ISW23 interactive 3 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (ISW31) interactive 3 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (ISW32) interactive 3 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (ISW33) streaming traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (SSW1) streaming traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (SSW2) streaming traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (SSW3) Scheduling weight (PCU2) 60 30 20 15 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 Scheduling step size (PCU1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Table 19 Radio network parameters for Priority Based Scheduling For more information on radio network parameters. 60 Id:0900d8058077eb5c DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary.

5 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) The subscriber priority must be defined in the DX HLR (HLR) once Priority Class based Quality of Service is introduced in the network. 4.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Measurements and counters The following measurement and counters are related to Priority Class based Quality of Service: 90 Quality of Service Measurement Name NUMBER OF TBF ALLOCATIONS TOTAL NBR OF RLC BLOCKS TOTAL DURATION OF TBFS DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO OVERFLOW DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO LIFETIME EXPIRY AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE DEN VWTHR NUMERATOR GPRS VWTHR DENOMINATOR GPRS VWTHR NUMERATOR EDGE OTHER 4 VWTHR DENOMINATOR EDGE OTHER 4 VWTHR NUMERATOR EDGE 4 VWTHR DENOMINATOR EDGE 4 Number 090000 090001 090002 090003 090004 090005 090006 090007 090008 090009 090010 090011 090012 Table 20 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement For more information. NetAct Optimizer TRECs are supported in Service Optimizer (OSS3.6 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Administrator No impact. see 90 Quality of Service Measurement.1). 4. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eb5c 61 . NetAct Monitor No impact.2.2.

Impact on Abis interface No impact. 4. The precedence class and traffic class can be set for packet switched services. These parameters correspond to the scheduling weight parameters with PCU2.2. NetAct Configurator Configurator can be used to configure the radio network parameters related to Priority Class based Quality of Service.8 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface See Priority Class based Quality of Service for details. 62 Id:0900d8058077eb5c DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description NetAct Planner Priority Class based Quality of Service is supported in NetAct Planner.2. The differentiation is implemented by tuning the scheduling step size parameters (SSS). 4. For more information. see BSC parameters. There is an efficient Quality of Service differentiation mechanism in Priority Class based Quality of Service with PCU1. see Measurements and counters.9 Interworking with other features PCU and Priority Class based Quality of Service Priority Class based Quality of Service works with both PCU1 and PCU2. For a list of the measurements. For a list of the radio network parameters. The SSS parameters cannot be used with PCU2. 4.2. Impact on A interface No impact. see BSS RNW Parameters and Implementing Parameter Plans in NetAct Product Documentation. NetAct Tracing The Quality of Service type is shown in the GPRS trace report in NetAct Tracing. Impact on Gb interface No impact.7 Impact on mobile terminals GPRS/EDGE-capable mobile terminals are required. NetAct Reporter NetAct Reporter can be used to view and create reports based on measurements related to Priority Class based Quality of Service.

1 Requirements Hardware requirements Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Hardware/firmware required No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements Table 21 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR GGSN SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements M14 GGSN2 SG7 OSS4.3 System impact of System Level Trace The system impact of BSS10089: System Level Trace is specified in the sections below. For an overview.2 CD Set 1 Table 22 Required software Frequency band support The BSC supports System Level Trace on the following frequency bands: • • • • GSM GSM GSM GSM 800 900 1800 1900 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d2d 63 . see System Level Trace.3.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4. 4.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

4.3.2

Impact on transmission
No impact.

4.3.3

Impact on BSS performance
OMU signalling No impact. TRX signalling No impact. Impact on BSC
BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact No impact No impact Faster uplink data flow continuing after short breaks.

Table 23

Impact of System Level Trace on BSC units

Impact on BTS units No impact.

4.3.4

User interface
BSC MMI No impact. BTS MMI System Level Trace cannot be managed with BTS MMI. BSC parameters No impact. Alarms No impact. Measurements and counters The following observations and counters are related to System Level Trace. 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace
Name SEGMENT ID Number 025000

Table 24

Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace

64

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BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Name BTS ID TRX ID IMSI TBF ALLOCATION TIME TBF ALLOCATION CALENDAR TIME TBF RELEASE TIME TBF DIRECTION QOS PRIORITY CLASS NBR OF FLOW CNTRL CHANGES FLOW CTRL CHANGE TIME 0 BUCKET SIZE 0 QOS LEAK RATE 0 ... FLOW CTRL CHANGE TIME 19 BUCKET SIZE 19 QOS LEAK RATE 19 NBR OF TCHS IN BEG NBR OF REALLOC REALLOC TIME 0 REALLOC CAUSE 0 BTS ID 0 TRX ID 0 NEW NBR OF TCHS 0 ... REALLOC TIME 19 REALLOC CAUSE 19 BTS ID 19 TRX ID 19 NEW NBR OF TCHS 19 AMOUNT OF LLC DATA NBR OF RLC BLOCKS LAST MCS INITIAL CODING SCHEME NBR OF DYNABIS MCS CHANGES MCS CHANGES MCS CHANGE TIME 0 CAUSE MCS CHANGE 0

Number 025001 025002 025003 025004 025005 025006 025007 025008 025009 025010 025011 025012 ... 025067 025068 025069 025070 025071 025072 025073 025074 025075 025076 ... 025167 025168 025169 025170 025171 025172 025173 025174 025175 025176 025177 025178

Table 24

Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace (Cont.)

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

Id:0900d80580782d2d

65

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Name NEW MCS 0 NBR OF RLC BLOCKS PREV MCS 0 AMOUNT OF LLC DATA PREV MCS 0 ... MCS CHANGE TIME 19 CAUSE MCS CHANGE 19 NEW MCS 19 NBR OF RLC BLOCKS PREV MCS 19 AMOUNT OF LLC DATA PREV MCS 19 CAUSE TBF RELEASE TRACE STATUS TBF DTM FLAG MULTISLOT CLASS DTM MULTISLOT CLASS

Number 025179 025180 025181 ... 025272 025273 025274 025275 025276 025277 025278 025312 025313 025314

Table 24

Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace (Cont.)

For more information, see 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace. 27 GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report
Name LAC CI RAC SEGMENT ID BTS ID TRX ID IMSI NC MODE CELL RESEL START TIME CELL RESEL START CAL TIME NCCR TRIGGERING CAUSE TARGET CELL ID TARGET RNC ID NACC START TIME CELL CHANGE TIME CELL RESEL END CAUSE CELL RESEL END TIME Number 027000 027001 027002 027003 027004 027005 027006 027007 027008 027009 027010 027011 027012 027013 027014 027015

Table 25

Counters of GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report

66

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. UL MEAS RESULTS 16 IS PACKET TRANSF MODE 1 REPORT TIME SEC AND 100TH SEC 1 DL RX LEV AND QUAL 1 NCELL MEAS RESULTS 1 . see 27 GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report... 028087 028088 028089 028090 028091 028092 028093 ..... 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report Name LAC CI RAC BTS ID TRX ID IMSI REP PERIOD IDLE REP PERIOD TRANSF BEP USED RECORD START TIME RECORD END TIME NR OF MEASUREMENTS UL MEAS RESULTS 1 .. IS PACKET TRANSF MODE 16 REPORT TIME SEC AND 100TH SEC 16 DL RX LEV AND QUAL 16 NCELL MEAS RESULTS 16 NCELL INDEX 1 NCELL RADIO TYPE 1 NCELL ID 1 . NCELL INDEX 40 NCELL RADIO TYPE 40 NCELL ID 40 Number 028000 028001 028002 028003 028004 028005 028006 028007 028008 028009 028010 028011 .. see 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report.. 028208 028209 028210 Table 26 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Report For more information. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d2d 67 . 028026 028027 028028 028029 028030 ..BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description For more information..

4 kbps) EGPRS MCS2 (GMSK 11. NetAct Configurator No impact. For a list of the measurements.6 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Administrator No impact.4 kbps) GPRS CS4 (GMSK 20 kbps) dummy value.2 kbps) Table 27 CS and MCS codecs in the initial coding scheme and new MCS fields 4.4 kbps) EGPRS MCS9 (8-PSK 59. NetAct Optimizer No impact. bad header in ack mode EGPRS MCS1 (GMSK 8.6 kbps) EGPRS MCS7 (8-PSK 44.8 kbps) EGPRS MCS4 (GMSK 16.5 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) No impact. 68 Id:0900d80580782d2d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .3. NetAct Reporter NetAct reporter can be used to create reports from measurements related to System Level Trace.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Counter value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Codec (Modulation and user data rate) GPRS CS1 (GMSK 8 kbps) GPRS CS2 (GMSK 12 kbps) GPRS CS3 (GMSK 14.2 kbps) EGPRS MCS3 (GMSK 14.8 kbps) EGPRS MCS8 (8-PSK 54. 4. see Measurements and counters. NetAct Planner No impact.3. NetAct Monitor No impact.5 kbps) EGPRS MCS6 (8-PSK 29.8 kbps) EGPRS MCS5 (8-PSK 22.

3. Impact on Abis interface Support for Extended Uplink TBF Mode related signalling with the mobile station is required. Impact on A interface No impact.018) message to the BSS when the SGSN trace becomes active or when the SGSN receives a trace request. 4.8 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface No impact.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description NetAct Tracing No impact.7 Impact on mobile terminals GPRS-capable terminals are required. 4.9 Interworking with other features No impact. Impact on Gb interface The SGSN invokes the trace by sending a BSSGB SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE (3GPP TS 48.3. 4. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d2d 69 .3.

a general term for all Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU variants Name of PCU product variant PCU PCU-S PCU-T PCU-B Nokia Siemens Networks Second Generation Packet Control Unit PCU2 PCU2-U PCU2-D First generation PCU for BSC3i 660. PCU functions The PCU controls the GPRS radio resources and acts as the key unit in the following procedures: • • • • • GPRS radio resource allocation and management GPRS radio connection establishment and management Data transfer Coding scheme selection PCU statistics PCU and BSC product variants The PCU hardware is positioned at the BSC site as a plug-in unit in each BCSU. BSC3i 1000. BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC. a total of 8 (+1 spare) logical PCUs.Requirements for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 5 Requirements for GPRS 5. BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC Explanation First generation PCU for BSCi and BSC2i PCU General name Nokia Siemens Networks First Generation Packet Control Unit PCU1 PCU2-E Table 28 Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU product family BSC product variant BSCi Amount of PCUs One PCU plug-in unit (PIU) in each BCSU.1 Packet Control Unit (PCU) For GPRS the BSC needs the Packet Control Unit. includes two logical PCUs Second generation PCU for BSC3i 660. Table 29 PCUs in BSC product variants 70 Id:0900d80580590b54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Table Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU product family lists the available PCU variants and table PCUs in BSC product variants shows the amount of PCUs for each BSC product variant. includes two logical PCUs Second generation PCU for BSCi and BSC2i Second generation PCU for BSC3i 660. which implements both the Gb interface and RLC/MAC protocols in the BSS. Packet Control Unit. BSC3i 1000.

Installing the first PCU plug-in unit into the BCSUs requires three SW64B plug-in units in the GSWB (GSWB size 192 PCMs). BSC3i 2000 Five PCU PIUs in each BCSU. a total of 16 (+2 spares) logical PCUs. If Gb over Frame Relay is used. PCU capacity and connections PCU1 PCU2-U/-D 128 64 256 256 PCU2-E 384 256 1024 1024 (Flexi BSC) 512 (other BSC3i variants) BTS IDs Cells/Segments TRXs Connectivity (traffic channels.) When installing the PCUs to BSCi and BSC2i. One PCU2-E PIU in each BCSU. a total of 100 (+10 spares) logical PCUs. Table 29 PCUs in BSC product variants (Cont.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Requirements for GPRS BSC product variant BSC2i BSC3i 660 Amount of PCUs Two PCU PIUs in each BCSU. 16 kbit/s. a total of 24 (+4 spares) logical PCUs. Flexi BSC Five PCU2 PIUs in each BCSU. Three PCU2-E PIUs in each BCSU. a total of 30 (+ 5 spares) PCU PIUs. then the operator also has to consider the need for E1/T1 (ET) extensions. Three PCU2-E PIUs in each BCSU. Abis) 64 64 128 256 PCU1 variants PCU and PCU-S : 128 Table 30 PCU maximum connectivity per logical PCU DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b54 71 . the operator has to make sure that the GSWB has enough capacity. Note that only two of the PCU PIUs can be of the type PCU-B. Note that only two of the PCU PIUs can be of the type PCU-B. installing the second PCU plug-in unit requires four SW64B plug-in units in the GSWB (GSWB size 256 PCMs). Two PCU PIUs in each BCSU. a total of 50 (+10 spares) logical PCUs. BSC3i 1000 Five PCU PIUs in each BCSU.

In the PCU2-D or PCU2-U. • Internal PCU2-U and PCU2-D restrictions • • • In one logical PCU2-D or PCU2-U there are 8 digital signal processor (DSP) cores. BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC Internal PCU1 restrictions • • • In one logical PCU1 there are 16 digital signal processor (DSP) cores. BSC3i 1000. In the PCU1s. BSC3i 1000. an introduction for more information on the plug-in unit hardware. The PCU2-D or PCU2-U can allocate the SMCHs to both PCUPCMs 0 and 1. BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC PCU2-E for BSC3i 660. one DSP core can handle 0 to 20 channels (16 kbit/s). Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA). High Multislot Classes (HMC) or Dual Transfer Mode (DTM). PCU1 and PCU1-S can handle 128 radio timeslots. The maximum number of 16 kbit/s channels per PCU1 is 256.5 onwards.Requirements for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description SGSN ETs Abis ETs Packets in TRAU frames 4 Mbit/s internal PCM 256 channels PCU GSWB Gb Packets in FR ET FR: bearer channel + optional load sharing redundant bearer (2 Mbit/s) DMC bus Figure 15 PCU connections to BTS and SGSN when Frame Relay is used See Enabling GPRS in BSC for instructions on how to equip and connect the PCU. The maximum number of 16 kbit/s channels per PCU2 is 256. There are three PCU2 plug-in unit variants: • • • PCU2-U for BSCi and BSC2i PCU2-D for BSC3i 660. This issue should be taken into account in PCU dimensioning. Support for PCU2 PCU2 is a high capacity embedded plug-in unit that provides additional processing power and extended functionality from BSS11. In PCU2-D or PCU2-U. there is one synchronisation master channel (SMCH) for every DSP. 72 Id:0900d80580590b54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . and PCU-B. one DSP core can connect 0 to 32 GPRS channels (16 kbit/s). the supported maximum number of GPRS channels is 128. Second Generation PCUs have an enhanced design architecture that enable the network to meet the real time traffic requirements of new services and provide means to new enhanced functionality (GERAN) beyond GPRS and EGPRS. PCU1 does not support CS–3 & CS–4.

This is because there must also be space for at least one EGPRS channel for every four EDAP channels (51 EGPRS channels + 204 EDAP channels = 255 Abis channels). Not more than 204 EDAP channels can be configured in one PCU1. The EDAP size itself also limits the CS usage for both DL and UL TBFs. The Sub-network Service uses either Frame Relay or UDP/IP based protocol. In UL direction. the PCU DSP resource load situation may cause a situation in which the UL transmission turns cannot be assigned for the MSS. This may lead to a situation where the desired CS cannot be assigned to the TBFs.E is 512 in BSC3i 660. When new packet switched radio timeslots are added/upgraded to the PCU. and BSC3i 2000. The maximum number of Abis channels per PCU2.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Requirements for GPRS Internal PCU2-E restrictions • In the PCU2-E. see Gb over IP. The interface consists of the Physical Layer. and the Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). In DL direction. allocation of the new packet switched radio timeslots to the PCU may fail due to the current EDAP and DSP resource load. the maximum number of Abis channels per PCU2-E is 1024. EGPRS channels. and GPRS channels. BSC3i 1000. the PCU DSP resource capacity used for the EDAPs decreases. For more information on Gb over IP. the TBFs can adjust the DL data according to limited Dynamic Abis capacity. Not more than 816 EDAP channels can be configured in one PCU2. The layers are briefly described here. • • Common restrictions for both PCU1 and PCU2 • EDAP resource usage in a PCU dynamically reserves the DSP resources in the PCU. In Flexi BSC.2 Gb interface functionality The Gb interface is an open interface between the BSC and the SGSN. • • • 5. When GPRS calls (TBFs) in EGPRS territory use EDAP resources. One EDAP cannot be divided between several DSPs but one DSP can have a maximum of 10 EDAPs. for example if adequate UL Dynamic Abis resources cannot be allocated. but their functions are discussed in more detail in Gb interface configuration and state management. one DSP core can handle up to 212 channels (16 kbit/s).E. PCU2-E has 6 DSP cores. PCU2-U or PCU2-D. This is because there must also be space for at least one EGPRS channel for every four EDAP channels (204 EGPRS channels + 816 EDAP channels = 1020 Abis channels). Network Service layer (NS). The Network Service layer further divides into Sub-network Service and Network Service Control. including active EDAP channels. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b54 73 .

Requirements for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description LLC RELAY RLC MAC BSSGP NS L1 BSSGP NS L1 BSS NS Gb SGSN Network Service Control / Network Service Control protocol Sub-Network Service Control / Sub-Network Service Control protocol Figure 16 Protocol stack of the Gb interface The BSSGP protocol functions are BSSGP protocol encoding and decoding. the physical link is provided by the Frame Relay Bearer channels. BSSGP virtual connection (BVC) management. and flow control support. The Network Service Control is responsible for the following tasks: • • • • • • • • NS protocol encoding and decoding NS data transfer NS Service Data Unit (NS SDU) transmission uplink congestion control on Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC) load sharing between NS-VCs NS-VC state management GPRS-specific addressing. paging support. 74 Id:0900d80580590b54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . which maps cells to virtual connections Network Service Virtual Link (NS-VL) management The Frame Relay protocols provide a link layer access between the peer entities. For load sharing and transmission security reasons. In Frame Relay. both BSS and SGSN are treated as the user side of the user-to-network interface. or an intermediate Frame Relay network may be placed between both ends of the Gb interface. BSSGP data transfer. The PCUs cannot be multiplexed to use a common bearer. The Gb interface may consist of direct point-to-point connections between the BSS and the SGSN. This means that the GPRS traffic from one PCU can be shared with a maximum of four physical PCM connections. Frame Relay offers permanent virtual circuits (PVC) to transfer GPRS signalling and data between the BSC and SGSN. In the BSC this physical connection is a maximum of one 2 Mbit/s PCM for each active PCU. In the case of an intermediate Frame Relay network. one PCU can have up to four Frame Relay Bearer channels that are routed to the SGSN through different transmission paths.

the maximum combined Bearer Channel Access Rate is 4 x 2048 kbit/s. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b54 75 . refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Requirements for GPRS The maximum combined Bearer Channel Access Rate is 2048 kbit/s within a PCU. The additional PCMs may be used for Gb over Frame Relay. They are needed to increase the amount of external PCMs. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). The Committed Information Rate of Network Service Virtual Connections can be configured from 16 kbit/s up to the Access Rate of the Bearer channel in 16 kbit/s steps. The second PCU plug-in unit for the BSC requires an extension of the GSWB with a third SW64B plug-in unit. see Enabling GPRS in BSC. 5. The step size is 64 kbit/s. Frame Relay Bearer Channel Handling. BSC BCSU 0 PCU FR GSWB PCM-TSL ET bearer channel ID=1 name=BSC1 time slots:1-31 access rate:1984 kbit/s SGSN Figure 17 Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN when Frame Relay (FR) is used For more information on the NS and BSSGP protocols. in BSCi from 56 to 88 and in BSC2i from 80 to 144. (FU) and Frame Relay Parameter Handling (FN). Network Service Protocol (NS) and BSC-SGSN Interface Specification.3 Additional GPRS hardware needed in BSCi and BSC2i GSWB extension (optional) The PCU requires a GSWB extension (2 per BSC) for multiplexing the 256 Abis subtimeslots. ET5C cartridge (optional) Additional ET5C cartridges are optional. This can be achieved by combining the different PCMs so that 4 groups of 32 subtimeslots are available for traffic. For more information on configuring and handling the Gb interface. This can be achieved by combining the different PCMs so that 32 subtimeslots are available for traffic. unless Multipoint Gb and Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling are used. In the Nokia Siemens Networks implementation each PCU represents only one Network Service Entity (NSE). On PCU2-E.

for example. the user needs to create the Routing Area. before configuring the BSC side. When creating a Routing Area the user identifies the obligatory parameters mobile country code (MCC). Routing Areas are created in the BSS Radio Network Configuration Database (BSDATA). location area code (LAC). Routing Areas are used in the PCU selection algorithm which selects a serving PCU for the cell when the operator enables the GPRS traffic in the cell. then the NS layer. which is a subset of one Location Area (LA). Before enabling GPRS on a cell level. LAC and RAC parameters constitute the routing area identification (RAI): RAI = MCC+MNC+LAC+RAC The Routing Area and the BTS are linked logically together by the RAI. As Routing Areas are served by SGSNs. PCU 2 RA 2 BTS BTS SGSN PCU 1 RA 1 PCU 0 BTS BTS BTS RA n BTS BTS BSC LA Figure 18 Relationship of Routing Areas and PCUs Optimal Routing Area size Paging signalling to mobiles is sent. 6. it is important to keep in mind the network configuration plan and what has been defined in the SGSN. over the whole Location Area/Routing Area.1 Routing Area Mobility management in the GPRS network is handled in a similar way to the existing GSM system. The Routing Area is unique within a Location Area. One or more cells form a Routing Area (RA). MNC. The MCC. and routing area code (RAC). the user builds the Gb interface in two phases: first the Frame Relay bearer channels are created.Radio network management for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 6 Radio network management for GPRS For Radio Network Configuration Management the preconditions are that the PCU and Gb interface have been created and configured. In the case of Frame Relay. See Activating and testing BSS9006: GPRS for detailed instructions. An optimal Routing Area (RA) is balanced between paging channel load and 76 Id:0900d80580590b57 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . mobile network code (MNC). One Routing Area is served by one SGSN.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Radio network management for GPRS

Routing Area updates. Refer to GPRS radio connection control for more information on paging. If the Routing Area size is too large, paging channels and capacity will be saturated due to limited LAPD, Abis or radio interface CCCH paging capacity. On the other hand, with a small Routing Area there will be a larger number of Routing Area updates. Paging channel capacity is shared between the paging of the existing GSM users to the Location Areas (LA) and the GPRS users to the Routing Area. Based on the traffic behaviour of subscribers and the performance of the network (in terms of paging success), it is possible to derive guidelines regarding the maximum number of subscribers per LA/RA. The Routing Area dimensioning is similar to the dimensioning of the Location Area of the existing GSM service. Routing Area dimensioning balances paging traffic from subscribers and the paging capacity offered by a given paging channel configuration. The number of pages that are sent by the BTS within an LA/RA indicates the number of mobile terminating calls that are being sent to subscribers in the LA/RA. The paging demand thus depends on three factors: • • • the number of mobile terminating calls the number of subscribers in the LA/RA paging parameters defined by the operator in the SGSN.

The higher the number of mobile terminating sessions for subscribers in the Routing Area, the higher the number of pages that have to be sent by the BTS in the Routing Area. The success of paging, that is the number of times that a paging message has to be resent before it is answered, also has a profound effect on paging traffic. Paging traffic can thus be observed by means of: • • • the number of pages per second per user the number of subscribers the paging success ratio.

The Nokia Siemens Networks infrastructure allows a combined Routing Area and Location Area paging by implementing the Gs interface between the SGSN and MSC/HLR. An attached GPRS mobile must send a Routing Area Update to the SGSN each time it changes Routing Area. The SGSN then forwards the relevant location area update information to the MSC reducing the RACH and AGCH load. The conclusion is that the signalling load is highly dependent on the parameters. In the same LA/RA, the paging load should be monitored.

☞ The smallest cell in the LA/RA will set the paging channel limit where combined
channel structure is in use. Combined channel structure is possible if the cell is GPRS enabled (Routing Area exists).

6.2

PCU selection algorithm
The PCU selection algorithm in the BSC distributes GPRS traffic capacity between PCUs. Traffic is distributed on a cell level when the user enables GPRS in the cell. The algorithm then selects which PCU takes care of the traffic of a certain cell. When GPRS is enabled, each cell is situated in a Routing Area. In the Radio Network, each Routing Area has its own object, to which the user defines the Network Service Entity Identifiers (NSEI) serving the Routing Area. The NSEIs are further discussed in

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Radio network management for GPRS

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Gb interface configuration and state management. The Nokia Siemens Networks implementation is such that one PCU corresponds to one NSEI (unless Multipoint Gb and Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling are used), and thus it can be said that the function of the PCU selection algorithm is to distribute GPRS traffic capacity between these NSEIs. The algorithm locates the cells (BVCIs) in the same BCF to the same NSEI. The algorithm also tries to locate the cells which have adjacencies between each other to the same NSEI. If there are no NSEIs with the same BCF or with adjacencies then the algorithm selects the NSEI to which the smallest number of GPRS capable traffic channels, defined with the parameter max GPRS capacity (CMAX), is attached. Traffic channels are counted on TRXs which are GPRS enabled but not extended or superreuse TRXs. Only unlocked NSEIs are selected. The NSEI is unlocked when it has at least one of its NS-VCs unlocked. If a Dynamic Abis Pool is defined for a TRX in a cell and when GPRS is enabled for the cell, the same NSEI (PCU) is selected for the cell as for the Dynamic Abis Pool. In this case the PCU selection algorithm is not used. The operator can choose whether the selected NSEI uses IP or FR transport with the parameter transport type (TRAT). The parameter cannot be used with manual NSEI selection. If no transport type is specified the default is that neither IP nor FR is preferred in the PCU selection algorithm. The NSEIs can also be selected manually. If manual selection is used the PCU selection algorithm is not used. For more information on manual selection refer to Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS and Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC (EQ). For information on the PCU selection algorithm when Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling is used, see chapter Functionality of Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling in Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling under Feature descriptions/Data in the PDF view.

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Gb interface configuration and state management

7 Gb interface configuration and state management
The BSC has the following functions in connection with the Gb interface: • • • • • load sharing NS-VC management NS-VL management (IP) BVC management recovery.

Only Gb over Frame Relay is covered in these guidelines. For information on Gb over IP, see Gb over IP in BSC. For information on Multipoint Gb Interface, see Multipoint Gb Interface under Feature descriptions/Data in the PDF view.

7.1

Protocol stack of the Gb interface
The Gb interface has a protocol stack consisting of three layers: Physical Layer, Network Service Layer (NS) and the Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). The Network Service Layer further divides into Sub-network Service and Network Service Control. The Sub-network Service uses either Frame Relay or UDP/IP protocol.

LLC RELAY RLC MAC BSSGP NS L1 BSSGP NS L1

BSS
NS

Gb

SGSN

Network Service Control / Network Service Control protocol Sub-Network Service Control / Sub-Network Service Control protocol

Figure 19

The protocol stack on the Gb interface

Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC) NS-VCs are end-to-end virtual connections between the BSS and SGSN. The physical link in the Gb interface is the Frame Relay Bearer channel or UDP/IP connection. In the case of Frame Relay, an NS-VC is the permanent virtual connection (PVC) and corresponds to the Frame Relay DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier) together with

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All the NS SDUs of an MS have the same LSP. Each BVC is unique between two peer NSs. Link Selector Parameter (LSP) All BSSGP UNITDATA PDUs related to an MS are passed to NS with the same LSP.016). there is a one-toone correspondence between a group of NS-VCs and an NSEI. The NSEI has an endto-end significance across the Gb interface at NS level. The NSEI has an endto-end significance across the Gb interface. LSP has only local significance at each end of the Gb interface. Each BVC is supported by one NSE and it is used to transport Network Service Service Data Units (NS SDUs) between peer NS users. The BVCI value 0000H is used for signalling and the value 0001H is reserved for point-to-multipoint (PTM).2 Load sharing function The BSC's load sharing function distributes all uplink Network Service Service Data Units (NS SDUs) among the unblocked NS-VCs within the NSE on the Gb interface. since the LSP is always mapped to a certain NS-VC.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description the Bearer channel identifier. One NSE per PCU is supported and within one NSE a maximum of four NS-VCs are supported. This preserves the order of BSSGP UNITDATA PDUs. Each NS-VC is identified by means of a Network Service Virtual Connection Identifier (NS-VCI). At each side of the Gb interface. The use of load sharing also provides the upper layer with seamless service upon failure or user intervention by reorganising the SDU traffic between the unblocked NS-VCs. One NSE is configured between two peer NSs. This grouping is performed by administrative means. BSSGP Virtual Connection (BVC) BVCs are communication paths between peer NS user entities on the BSSGP level. The NSEI is used to identify the Network Service Entity that provides service to a BSSGP Virtual connection (BVC). PTM is not supported. One NS-VC group is configured between two peer NS entities. Within BSS the user identifies a cell uniquely by a BVCI. At each side of the Gb interface. 80 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Network Service Entity (NSE) NSE identifies a group of NS-VCs in the BSC. the Network Service Virtual Connection Group groups together all NS-VCs providing communication between the same peer NS entities. Network Service Virtual Connection Group According to the 3GPP standard (TS48. there is a one-toone correspondence between a group of NS-VCs and an NSEI. 7. All NS SDUs to be transmitted over the Gb interface towards the SGSN are passed from BSSGP to NS along with the Link Selector Parameter (LSP). but only local significance at the BSSGP level. The reorganisation may disturb the order of transmitted SDUs. All other values can be used for cell identifiers. Each BVC is identified by means of a BVCI which has end-to-end significance across the Gb interface. Frame Relay Permanent Virtual Connection (PVC) See Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC). When creating the NS-VC the operator gives a CIR value (bit/s).

the cause sent to SGSN is 'Transit network failure'. An exception is when the NS-VC is in the BL-SY state and SGSN initiates an NS-RESET. the cause sent to SGSN is 'Transit network failure'. After NS-VC test failure the NS-VC is marked as system blocked. uplink and downlink NS SDUs may be transferred over different NS-VCs. resetting. and testing of NS-VCs. The BL-SY state overrides the BL-RC state. Only one substate (BL-US. several MSS may use the same LSP. The BSC also initiates the NS-VC reset procedure. thus making it unavailable for BSSGP traffic. blocked or unblocked. 7. so it is only possible when the NS-VC is unblocked.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management However. otherwise the NS-VC is marked as user blocked and the block procedure is skipped. The BSC blocks an NS-VC when: • • • the user locks the NS-VC. informs peer NSs. Refer to NS-VC reset for more information. The BSC cancels any pending NS-VC management procedure and related alarm. The BL-US state overrides both the BL-SY and BL-RC states. BL-SY or BL-RC) is valid at a time when an NS-VC is blocked. State Unblocked (WO-EX Available) Blocked Possible substates – BL-US (unavailable by user) BL-SY (unavailable by system) BL-RC (unavailable by remote user) Table 31 NS-VC operational states NS-VC blocking When an NS-VC is unavailable for BSSGP traffic. the cause sent to SGSN is 'O & M intervention'. unblocking. The load sharing functions of the BSC and SGSN are independent. If the NS-VC is user DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 81 . operational state is BL-SY During user block the BSC marks the NS-VC as user blocked.3 NS-VC management function The Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC) management function is responsible for the blocking. NS SDUs with the same LSP are sent on the same NS-VC. The NS may be reset only when using Frame Relay. operational state is BL-SY Frame Relay detects unavailability of a bearer or PVC. an NS-VC test fails. BSSGP traffic is reorganised to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. operational state is BL-US. SGSN distributes downlink NS SDUs. The BL-RC state does not override any other blocking state. Therefore. the NS-VC is marked as blocked by the BSC and the peer NS is informed by means of the blocking procedure. User-triggered blocking is started only when the PVC or the bearer is available. the BSC raises the alarm NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION TEST PROCEDURE FAILED (3025) and blocks the NS-VC towards the SGSN through any 'live' NS-VC within the NSE. NS-VC management procedures can be triggered by both the BSC and the SGSN. and reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE.

if the NS-VC is not user. it means that all BSSGP traffic to/from PCU-managed cells stops on the Gb interface. the system initiates a NS-VC reset. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNBLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED (3021) alarm and marks the NS-VC unblock as pending until NS-VC unblock can be performed and the alarm is cancelled by the BSC. the related NS-VC(s) is marked as system blocked and the BSC blocks it towards the SGSN through any 'live' NS-VC within the NSE. after which the NS-VC is marked as unblocked by the BSC. If the NS-VC reset procedure fails after all the retries. the peer NS is informed by means of the unblocking procedure. the test procedure is continued. the SGSN initiates the block. reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE and sets the alarm NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020). In all the above cases. the BSC actions are the same but it also stops a possible ongoing reset procedure. then the BSC does not change the NS-VC state and acknowledges the received block back to the SGSN. New BSSGP traffic now uses this new NS link (refer to Load sharing function). the BSC does not change the state of the NS-VC(s). otherwise the BSC marks the NS-VC as system blocked and skips the unblock procedure. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE (3019) alarm when PVC/bearers are unavailable. for example after a test failed NS-VC is reset or after a reset of a NS-VC whose bearer is resumed as available for NS level. the BSC marks the NS-VC as remote blocked. the user block is accepted and the state of the NS-VC is user blocked. the reset is stopped. and does not send a block to the SGSN. or related BVCs are implicitly blocked. The BSC cancels the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION TEST PROCEDURE FAILED (3025) alarm after the next successful test procedure on the NS-VC. when the unavailability of a PVC or bearer is detected. it sets no alarms. If the NS-VC is already user blocked. If the NS-VC is user. During user unblock the BSC informs the peer NS and marks the NS-VC as unblocked after receiving an acknowledgement from the peer NS. no alarm is set. system or remote blocked. The BSC unblocks an NS-VC after: • • user unlocks the NS-VC thus making it available for BSSGP traffic. NS-VC unblocking When the NS-VC becomes available again for BSSGP traffic. If the NS-VC(s) is already user blocked. After a successful reset. User triggered unblocking starts only when the PVC or the bearer is available. but instead stops the NS-VC(s) test. if the blocked NS-VC is the last one in the NSE. During an SGSN-initiated block. but instead initiates the NS-VC reset procedure. does not set an alarm.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description blocked while reset is attempted. system or remote blocked. the BSC does not change the NS-VC state. 82 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . After the BSC detects the unavailability of a PVC or a bearer. If the NS-VC(s) is already system blocked. and the BSC sends System Information messages to relevant cells indicating that GPRS is disabled. blocked or unblocked. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm for the blocked NS-VC(s) and reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. and sends no block to the SGSN.

NS-VC reset The NS-VC reset procedure is used to reset an NS-VC to a determined state between peer NSs. After a completed reset procedure. skips the reset procedure. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. then the BSC is not able to unblock the NS-VC. and cancels the NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE (3019) alarm in cases of system unblock and SGSN initiated unblock. The NS-VC remains system blocked and the BSC initiates the NS-VC reset procedure by returning an NS-RESET PDU to the SGSN with the cause "PDU not compatible with the protocol state". If the NS-VC is user or remote blocked. informs the peer NS. Network Service Protocol (NS). modifies or unlocks an NS-VC System or BCSU restarts Periodic NS-VC test fails Frame Relay detects an unavailability of a bearer Cause sent to the SGSN O & M intervention Equipment failure (see BCSU restart) Transit network failure Transit network failure Table 32 NS-VC reset cases During a reset triggered by user unblock. The BSC sets the NS-VC reset as pending until the NS-VC reset can be performed and then cancels the alarm. the BSC starts a test procedure (periodic testing) and after successful testing unblocks the NS-VC. If the NS-VC is system blocked with no BSC initiated unblock procedure on. The NS-VC remains user blocked and the BSC initiates the NS-VC blocking procedure by returning an NS-BLOCK PDU to the SGSN with the cause "O & M intervention". If the NS-VC is user blocked. The BSC triggers the BVC reset procedure for signalling BVC and cell-specific BVCs. and reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. the BSC marks the NS-VC as system blocked. The BSC starts a reset triggered by user unblock only when the PVC or the bearer is available. This NS-BLOCK PDU is sent on the NS-VC where the NSUNBLOCK PDU was received. then the BSC acknowledges the received PDU back to the SGSN and it is interpreted as an acknowledgement for the sent NS-UNBLOCK PDU. then the DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 83 . The BSC does not start system initiated unblock if the NS-VC is user blocked. and sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED (3023) alarm. if the unblocked NS-VC is the first one in the NSE. and the BSC sends System Information messages to relevant cells indicating that GPRS is enabled.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management During system unblock the BSC cancels the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm. In all of the above cases. If the NS-VC is system blocked with a BSC initiated unblock procedure on. otherwise it marks the NS-VC as system blocked. For more information. During an SGSN-initiated reset. it means that BSSGP traffic to/from PCU-managed cells can start again on the Gb interface. the BSC marks the NS-VC as remote blocked and sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm if the NS-VC is not user or remote blocked. Case where the BSC resets an NS-VC The user sets up. the BSC marks the NS-VC as unblocked and cancels the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm if the NS-VC is not user or system blocked. During SGSN initiated unblock. then the BSC is not able to unblock the NS-VC.

Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description BSC does not change the state. then the action depends on whether the NS-VC reset is ongoing or not. For more information. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE (3019) alarm in a SGSN initiated reset and blocks the related BVCs implicitly. If the NS-VC is system blocked. For more information. Operational state WO-EX Explanation The BVC is operational. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. and is then periodically repeated. unblocking and reset of BVCs. otherwise it is 'dead'. The test procedure runs on unblocked NS-VCs and also on user blocked and remote blocked NS-VCs. When end-to-end communication exists. but not on system blocked NS-VCs. In all the above cases. except after NS-VC reset. and the BSC sends System Information messages to relevant cells indicating that GPRS is disabled. A 'dead' NS-VC cannot be in the unblocked state. and initiates the test procedure. but BVC blocking and unblocking procedures can only be triggered by the BSC. The user can define the test procedure with the PRFILE parameter TNS_TEST. the NS-VC is said to be 'live'. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. This procedure is initiated after successful completion of the reset procedure. The test procedure is stopped when the underlying bearer or PVC is unavailable.4 BVC management function The BVC management function is responsible for the blocking. The user can output the BVC operational state with the command EQO. If the NS-VC reset is ongoing. acknowledges the received reset back to the SGSN. if the blocked NS-VC is the last one in the NSE. but acknowledges the received reset back to SGSN and initiates the test procedure. The possible states are shown in the table below. Network Service Protocol (NS). then the BSC changes the NS-VC state to remote blocked (to get the NS-VC up during SGSN initiated NS-VC unblock). Table 33 BVC operational states 84 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . NS-VC test The NS-VC test procedure is used when the BSC checks that end-to-end communication exists between peer NSs on a given NS-VC. 7. Both sides of the Gb interface may initiate the NS-VC test independently from each other. If the NS-VC reset is stopped. it means that all BSSGP traffic to/from PCU-managed cells stops on the Gb interface. Network Service Protocol (NS). The BVC reset procedure can be triggered by both the BSC and the SGSN. then the received NS-RESET is interpreted as an acknowledgement and the BSC acknowledges it back to the SGSN and initiates the test procedure. instead it is always marked as blocked and a reset procedure is initiated.

In the latter case the user should check the status of the PCU. The BSC then unblocks the BVC with the BVC-UNBLOCK PDU. BVC conf lost unknown The enquired BVCI is outside the allowed value range. This situation can be resolved by disabling. For more information. blocks the BCCH TRX in a cell or deletes a BVC by disabling GPRS in a cell. or the configuration has been lost from the PCU. or a radio network object (a TRX. or the PCU does not report the state of the BVC within the time limit because of some fault situation. The BVC has not been configured for the PCU. The NSE is not functional. BTS or BCF) is blocked so that the cell does not have GPRS capability. No indication is sent to the SGSN. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. BTS reset or TRX reset. BVCI-blocked Equipment failure Table 34 BVC blocking cases BVC unblocking is used only in an exceptional condition when the BSC receives an unexpected BVC-BLOCK-ACK PDU relating to a BVC that is locally unblocked. related BVCs are locally blocked by the BSC. for example at the beginning of site reset. or by executing BCSU switchover.) BVC blocking and unblocking BVC blocking is initiated by the BSC to remove a BVC from GPRS data use.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management Operational state BL-SY Explanation Unavailable by system. but the BVC's flow control is not yet operational. A cell level fault. disables the last GPRS-supporting TRX in a cell. BVC reset is used instead of BVC unblock because of the dynamic configuration of BVCs in the SGSN. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). unblocked Either GPRS has been enabled in the cell and the BVC has been created in the SGSN. BVC reset A BVC reset is initiated by the BSC to bring GPRS data into use in a BVC. Table 33 BVC operational states (Cont. and the reenabling GPRS in the cell. or the cell has no GPRS TSLs. The BSC blocks a BVC after: Case where the BSC blocks a BVC Cause sent to the SGSN O & M intervention A user disables GPRS in a cell. SGSN initiates a BVC-RESET procedure (if necessary). A user or system block of the last NS-VC of the NSE serving the BVC. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 85 .

A user or system unblock of the first NS-VC of the NSE serving the BVC (signalling BVC is reset first. skips the BVC reset procedure. when the restarted object is working Network service transmission capacity modified from zero kbit/s to greater than zero kbit/s Equipment failure Table 35 BVC reset cases With the BVC reset the underlying network service must be available for use. and resets the signalling BVC. The PCU maintains only user blocked information of NS-VCs. or creates a BVC by enabling GPRS in a cell. then all BVCs are created after cell-specific block indications. Spontaneous indications come from the SGSN to the BSC's PCU on Frame Relay level about bearer channel availability for NS-VCs. unblock or reset.O & M intervention supporting TRX in a cell. First all NS-VCs are created. enables the first GPRS. after BCSU switchover (either user or system initiated). but the operator may also start the diagnostics routine if needed. The reset procedure is completed when the PCU receives a suitable DLCI from the network. Diagnostics is run automatically. The PCU then initiates the test procedure on the successfully reset NS-VCs. BTS or TRX reset. The PCU sets others as pending and raises the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED (3023) alarm for each NS-VC.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Case where BSC resets a BVC Cause sent to the SGSN A user enables GPRS in a cell. and after successful tests unblocks all tested NS-VCs. BCSU restart If the Gb interface uses Frame Relay. otherwise the BSC marks the BVC as unblocked in order to get the BVC up and running when the NS-level becomes available again. for example after site. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. After successful BVC reset the uplink BSSGP data delivery is possible on that BVC. The NS-VCs which have received DLCIs from the network are reset when the bearer channel is available. After an initial flow control procedure for the BVCs. then the rest). and sets the BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED (3031) alarm. The PCU starts Frame Relay level periodic polling towards the SGSN. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). and cancels the alarm. 7. BCSU switchover If the Gb interface uses Frame Relay. the BSC recreates the Gb interface on the restarted PCU right after Frame Relay level setup. For more information. also downlink BSSGP data delivery is possible on that BVC. Flow control is discussed in more detail in GPRS radio connection control. after user or system initiated BCSU restart. deblocks the BCCH TRX in a cell. The BSC cancels the alarm after the next successful BVC block.5 Recovery in restart and switchover In a recovery situation the BCSU and PCU are always handled together as a pair. The diagnostics of the PCU is included in the diagnostics of the BCSU. the BSC recreates the Gb interface on the target PCU right after Frame Relay 86 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . A cell restart.

The PCU releases all PCU PCM connections related to the restarted PCU. If the switchover is cancelled. the original working PCU is restored back to the working state. The user defines between which BCSUs the switchover is made. and the BSC resumes GPRS territory updatings. Because GPRS data is not copied to the PCU. After an unsuccessful switchover the PCU uses the same GPRS territory as it had before the switchover. All GPRS data connections will drop after the PCU PCM connections are released. The BSC allows new GPRS connection setups in the old working PCU again. Controlled BCSU switchover A controlled BCSU switchover is either a user or a system initiated action. the PCU sees the data as lost and thus releases all its PCU PCM connections and unblocks its BTSs. The BSC resets the new spare PCU to the working state. At the end of the switchover the spare PCU is restarted regardless of the switchover being successful or not. and defines its new GPRS territory. The BSC does not send NS level blocks from the source PCU in order not to interrupt the BVC configurations of the SGSN. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 87 . the original working BCSU is restored back to the working state. ☞ Only GPRS data connections that are connected to the PCU are released.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management level set-up. After the switchover — whether user or system initiated — the BSC unblocks TRXs and delivers new territory to the PCU. The Gb interface configuration is from the source PCU and the setting up of the Gb interface is similar to what was described in section BCSU restart. the BSC moves the control of the working BCSU/PCU pair to the spare BCSU/PCU pair as in the forced switchover. The system cancels the switchover command if the execution would lead to a situation where some of the circuit switched calls would drop. but data is copied only from the working BCSU to the spare BCSU. If the switchover is cancelled for some reason. In a successful switchover. Forced BCSU switchover The operation in a forced BCSU switchover is very similar to the operation in a BCSU restart. If a PCU gets faulty the system may initiate the BCSU switchover.

1 Territory method The BSC divides radio resources semipermanently between circuit switched services and GPRS. the operator has to first activate GPRS in the BSC with the cell-specific parameter GPRS enabled (GENA) and define which TRXs are capable of GPRS with the parameter GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX). The initial territories are formed on a BTS-to-BTS basis according to the operatordefined parameters. Only after the BSC has an update on the BTS parameters and other parameters indicating GPRS usage. This is referred to as the default GPRS capacity. thus forming two territories. and for downlink up to nine GPRS TBFs can share the resources of a single radio timeslot. GPRS releases its resources as soon as they are needed for circuit switched traffic. Part of these default traffic channels can be reserved solely for GPRS and this means they are blocked altogether 88 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . 8. and within a cell only such channels may be configured into the PS territory. GPRS has a predefined set of resources which it can utilise when the circuit switched load allows. During channel allocation for individual MSS PCU assigns PS territory timeslots for GPRS TBFs. does it count the number of default and dedicated GPRS timeslots in the BTS and select a TRX where it starts to establish the GPRS territory. PCU has its own radio channel allocation that takes care of allocating channels for GPRS TBFs. The circuit switched services have priority over GPRS in channel allocation within common resources. and channel allocation for individual MSS within the PS territory on the other hand. The BSC can later broaden the GPRS territory based on the actual need and according to the requests of the PCU. The PCU uses the GPRS territory resources. In principle. Uplink and downlink scheduling processes are independent of each other. The radio resource management function which is responsible for the CS/PS territory management also takes care of traffic channel allocation for circuit switched calls. Only Full Rate and Dual Rate traffic channels are GPRS compatible. The BSC can upgrade or downgrade the number of radio resources allocated for GPRS use according to the varying needs of the circuit switched and GPRS traffic. Division of radio timeslots into territories means that BSC selects the radio timeslots that shall be used primarily for packet data traffic and which shall therefore be avoided in traffic channel allocation for circuit switched services. To enable GPRS traffic in a cell. GPRS capacity can be divided into three types: • • • default GPRS capacity dedicated GPRS capacity additional GPRS capacity. Up to seven uplink GPRS TBFs can share the resources of a single radio timeslot. These procedures are explained in detail in the sections below. and to initiate the creation of the necessary PS territory.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 8 Radio resource management GPRS radio resource management in BSC involves two processes: division of radio timeslots between circuit switched and packet switched timeslot territories on the one hand.

TRXs with permanent TCH/H timeslots or multislot HSCSD calls are also avoided. GPRS territory size can be restricted by the user-modifiable parameter max GPRS capacity (CMAX). if default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter value is > 0 but the rounded product equals 0. The calculation is as follows: • • • • the product of default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter and the number of radio timeslots is rounded down to a whole number. TRX configuration. This is referred to as dedicated GPRS capacity. The user can modify these two capacities by using the respective parameters default GPRS capacity (CDEF) and dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED). Additional GPRS capacity is referred to with radio timeslots that are above and beyond the default GPRS capacity and that the BSC has allocated for GPRS use according to the requests of the PCU.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management from circuit switched use. The super reuse TRXs (Intelligent Underlay Overlay) and the extended area TRXs (Extended Cell Range) are never included as available resources in the GPRS territory calculation. max GPRS capacity (CMAX) parameter minimum value is 1 (range 1–100%). The prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG) parameter indicates if the BCCH-TRX is the first or the last choice for the GPRS territory or if it is handled equally with nonBCCH-TRXs. then the territory size 1 is used default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter minimum value is 1. if possible. TRX 1 TRX 2 BCCH Circuit Switched Territory GPRS Territory Max GPRS Capacity Additional GPRS Capacity Dedicated GPRS Capacity Default GPRS Capacity Territory border moves based on Circuit Switched and GPRS traffic load Figure 20 Territory method in BSC The BSC calculates these defined resources from percentages to concrete numbers of radio timeslots based on the number of traffic channel radio timeslots (both blocked and working) capable of Full Rate traffic in the TRXs with GPRS enabled (set with the parameter GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX)). and the actual traffic situation in the TRX. There is a GPRS territory update guard time defining how often the PCU can request new radio timeslots for GPRS use. The best candidate for GPRS territory according to the traffic load is the TCH TRX that holds the most idle successive Full Rate-capable (TCH/F or TCH/D) timeslots counted from the end of the TRX (timeslot 7). The BSC starts to create the GPRS territory by first selecting the most suitable TRXs in the BTS according to its GPRS capability. If there are two or more TRXs that have the same number of idle successive Full Rate-capable timeslots. The GPRS timeslots are always allocated from TSL7 towards TSL0 per TRX. then the TRX containing permanent TCH/F timeslots is preferred to one with Dual Rate timeslots to avoid wasting Half Rate capability in the GPRS territory. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 89 . TRX type.

the PCU can request more resources for a GPRS territory upgrade based on the actual need caused by GPRS use.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Having defined the GPRS capacity share and having selected the best TRX for GPRS. However. the BSC includes in a GPRS territory upgrade the timeslots according to need and availability. the HSCSD timeslots are left inside the GPRS territory. thus an upgrade is a TRXspecific procedure. For a transparent HSCSD call. The BSC performs upgrades of continuous sets of successive timeslots. After the default capacity (which includes also the dedicated part) has been delivered. The number of timeslots given for GPRS use is defined by the operator with the parameters dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED). The BSC starts the GPRS territory upgrade procedure when the user enables GPRS in a BTS. The BSC extends the GPRS territory on the other side of the timeslots reserved for the transparent HSCSD call. The BSC starts a handover to move a non-transparent multislot HSCSD call. but not for a transparent multislot HSCSD call. If the GPRS territory of a BTS needs more timeslots than one TRX can offer. the BSC fulfils the defined GPRS capacity as soon as possible. although not as actual GPRS channels. When the user enables GPRS in a cell. GPRS territory upgrade The BSC uses a GPRS territory upgrade procedure to allocate part of the resources for GPRS use. The BSC then continues with the upgrading of the GPRS territory after the release of the source channel of the handover. the BSC starts a handover to be able to allocate dedicated GPRS channels. 90 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . If the GPRS territory cannot be extended to its full size due to a timeslot being occupied by circuit switched traffic. Each GPRS territory upgrade concerns timeslots of one TRX. even if the defined margin of idle timeslots is not met but there is at least one timeslot available. The aim of the handover is to move the circuit switched call to another timeslot and clear the timeslot for GPRS use (refer to the figure below). the BSC next begins a GPRS territory upgrade procedure where it allocates the selected radio timeslots of the TRX for GPRS use and informs the PCU. an intra cell handover is started. default GPRS capacity (CDEF) and max GPRS capacity. Starting from the end of the first TRX in the GPRS territory. the BSC selects a new TRX and starts to define the territory. All the defined timeslots cannot necessarily be delivered immediately due to the circuit switched traffic load of the BTS.

The rows indicate a selected time period (seconds) during which probability for an expected downgrade is no more than 5%. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 91 . In fact. When the user adds GPRS capable TRXs in a BTS. The default value for the period length is 4 seconds. a two-dimensional table is used. The BSC starts the GPRS territory upgrade procedure when: • • • • the user enables GPRS in a cell the user or BSC unblocks a GPRS enabled TRX thus enabling a pending GPRS territory upgrade the user or BSC unblocks a radio timeslot inside the GPRS territory enabling it to be included in the GPRS territory the BSC releases a circuit switched TCH/F causing the number of idle resources in the BTS to increase above a margin that is required before GPRS territory upgrade can be started the BSC releases a circuit switched TCH/F beside the GPRS territory border (as a consequence of handover) so that the pending GPRS territory upgrade can be performed the PCU requests a GPRS territory upgrade. previous GPRS territory change in the BTS has been completed sufficient margin of idle TCH/Fs in the BTS idle GPRS capable resources available in the BTS available capacity in the PCU controlling the BTS. • • • • • • Other general conditions for a GPRS territory upgrade are: The margin of idle TCH/Fs that is required as a condition for starting a GPRS territory upgrade is defined by the BSC parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU). it results in an increase in the timeslot share that should be provided for GPRS traffic. When defining the margin.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management B S C C C C C B = BCCH TSL S = SDCCH TSL C = Circuit Switched call C C C C C C C C C C C C Default GPRS capacity (d)= 20% Dedicated GPRS capacity (D) = 10% C C d d D D D = Circuit Switched territory GPRS territory upgrade = GPRS territory Figure 21 GPRS territory upgrade when a timeslot is cleared for GPRS use with an intra cell handover Situations leading to the starting of a GPRS territory upgrade are related to configuration and traffic channel resource changes. The operator can modify the period with the BSC parameter CSU. In the two-dimensional table the columns are for different amounts of available resources (TRXs) in the BTS. the parameter defines how many traffic channel radio timeslots have to be left free after the GPRS territory upgrade.

and the capacity limit of the PCU unit. Additional GPRS territory upgrade The need for additional GPRS channels is checked when a new TBF is established or an existing TBF is terminated. The BSC obeys this guard time also when it performs GPRS territory upgrades to fulfil the operator-defined default GPRS territory.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description TRXs Time period: 0s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10 s 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 10 0 11 0 12 0 13 0 14 0 15 0 16 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 2 3 3 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 2 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 3 4 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 3 4 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 3 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 3 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 Table 36 Defining the margin of idle TCH/Fs The user can define and modify with the parameter GPRS territory update guard time (GTUGT) the guard time. the PCU selects a free circuit from the PCUPCM and the BSC connects it to an Abis circuit. Alarm GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE (3273) is set if the GPRS territory size in the BTS is below the limit specified by the BTS specific radio network parameter default GPRS capacity (CDEF). the BSC simply does nothing but updates related statistics. the BSC cancels the upgrade and saves information on the detected fault. The BSC has not been able to add more radio channels to the territory within the informing delay of the alarm. If an error occurs when connecting the PCUPCM circuit to the Abis circuit. which the PCU has to wait between successive requests for GPRS territory configuration updates. or if the average number of TBFs per TSL is more than 1. In case the PCU asks for several timeslots in one request and only a part of the requested resources are available. circuit switched traffic load. If two successive connection failures of a PCUDSP circuit with different Abis circuits occur.5 after the allocation of 92 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . a statistics counter is updated. The BSC initiates a new GPRS territory upgrade after a guard period. the BSC marks the PCUDSP channel as faulty and sets the alarm FAULTY PCUPCM TIMESLOTS IN PCU (3073). If the conditions required for a GPRS territory upgrade are not met at the time the PCU requests a GPRS territory upgrade. The PCU will request additional channels. if a GPRS territory contains less channels than could be allocated to a mobile according to its multislot class. In the GPRS territory upgrade. There are three reasons for a GPRS territory upgrade request being rejected: lack of GPRS radio resources.

This means that the PCU has requested these timeslots for GPRS traffic in addition to the default capacity.5). The BSC starts a GPRS territory downgrade procedure when • • • • • • the user disables GPRS in a cell the user or BSC blocks the TRX that is carrying GPRS traffic the user or BSC blocks the timeslot that is carrying GPRS traffic the user or BSC blocks circuit switched resources causing the number of idle resources in the BTS to decrease below the required margin the BSC allocates a traffic channel for circuit switched use causing the number of idle resources in the BTS to decrease below the required margin the PCU requests for a GPRS territory downgrade The PCU initiates a GPRS territory downgrade procedure for additional type GPRS radio timeslots. if the need for the downgrade still exists.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management the new TBF (average TBF/TSL>1. the PCU will have to request a downgrade again after the territory update guard time has expired. because the system only checks for need for upgrade when a new TBF is established. a territory upgrade would be possible. However. the territory is decreased to two channels. When the previously reserved channel is freed from the CS side. One of the additional channels is taken into CS use. The PCU will first allocate one channel for the TBF and it will request for (at least) 2 more channels. • Example: The GPRS territory consists of one (default) channel and resources should be allocated for a downlink TBF of a multislot class 4 mobile. for example when there is an increase in the circuit switched traffic load. If the BSC cannot start a GPRS territory downgrade at the time the PCU requests it. and the downlink TBF is reallocated to these channels. These additional channels will be requested only if all GPRS default channels are already in the GPRS territory. but the need for additional timeslots has ceased. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 93 . Example: The GPRS territory consists of three channels (one default and two additional) and a mobile of multislot class 4 has a downlink TBF of three timeslots (performing ftp for example). GPRS territory downgrade The BSC uses a GPRS territory downgrade procedure when it needs to reduce the share of timeslots in the GPRS territory. When the PCU receives this additional capacity. if the existing TBF is terminated and a new one is established or if the concurrent uplink TBF is terminated the need and possibility of the territory upgrade is re-evaluated. as the mobile is capable of using 3 downlink channels. but nothing happens (no upgrade of the territory). The number of additional channels the PCU will request is the greater of the following two numbers: • the number of additional channels needed in the allocation according to the MS's multislot class (this criterion is used only when the GPRS territory contains fewer channels than the MS is capable of using). the TBF will be reallocated to utilise all channels. and the number of additional channels needed for the average number of allocated TBFs per TSL to be 1 (average TBF/TSL=1).

the BSC may not be able to maintain the margin with the GPRS territory downgrade procedure and the circuit switched territory may run out of idle traffic channels. During a sudden burst of traffic channel requests.5 (average TBF/TSL<0. 8. % Additional GPRS territory downgrade Additional channels are taken into CS use whenever more channels are needed on the CS side.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The operator defines the margin of idle TCHs that the BSC tries to maintain free in a BTS for the incoming circuit switched resource requests using the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD).2 Circuit switched traffic channel allocation in GPRS territory The BSC maintains a safety margin of idle traffic channels for circuit switched traffic by starting a GPRS territory downgrade when the number of free traffic channels in the circuit switched territory of a BTS decreases below the limit defined by the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). The definition of the margin involves a two-dimensional table. Depending on the size of the margin and on the amount of traffic on the BTS. Another index of the table is the needed number of idle TCHs. if the average TBFs per TSL is less than 0. a GPRS territory downgrade is started if possible. If the number of idle TCH resources in the circuit switched territory of the BTS decreases below the defined margin. Default probability 95% can be changed through the free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) parameter. The need for additional GPRS channels is always checked when an existing TBF is terminated. The PCU will request the removal of additional channels.5). new circuit switched traffic channel requests may come before the GPRS territory downgrade procedure has been completed. 94 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . One index of the table is the number of TRXs in the BTS. Actual table items are percentage values indicating probability for TCH availability during a one-second downgrade operation with the selected resource criterion. TRX s 1 TCH 94 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 99 100 2 84 98 99 100 3 76 96 99 4 69 93 99 5 63 91 98 99 6 58 87 97 99 7 54 85 96 99 8 50 82 94 98 99 9 48 79 93 98 99 10 45 77 92 97 99 11 43 74 90 97 99 12 41 72 89 96 99 13 40 70 87 95 98 99 14 38 68 86 94 98 99 15 37 66 84 94 98 99 16 35 64 83 93 97 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 100 Table 37 Defining the margin of idle TCHs.

and the GPRS territory resources are seen as idle resources. In this case the circuit switched traffic channel request is put in queue to wait for the GPRS territory upgrade to finish. The BSC cannot allocate a traffic channel in the GPRS territory for circuit switched use. Traffic channel queuing during GPRS territory upgrade does not require the normal queuing to be in use in the target BTS. 8. Value 2 of the parameter means that both the CS territory resources and the GPRS territory resources (excluding the dedicated GPRS timeslots) are taken into account. the BSC can allocate a traffic channel for circuit switched use in the GPRS territory — if there is one not dedicated for GPRS. Value 1 of the parameter means that the RTSL-0 hopping group is preferred in CS traffic channel allocation.3 BTS selection for packet traffic Channel allocation goes through all the following steps.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management If the circuit switched territory becomes congested. Additionally. if the radio timeslot in question is involved in a GPRS territory upgrade procedure that has not been completed yet. A transparent HSCSD call can be allocated partly over the GPRS territory so that traffic channels for the call are allocated from both territories or the whole HSCSD call can be allocated over the GPRS territory. the list of valid BTSs is relayed to the next step and the BTSs that did not meet the requirements are discarded. the default GPRS territory is searched. Multislot traffic channel allocation for an HSCSD call within the GPRS territory follows the same principles as for single slot requests. The BSC first releases the channel in GPRS use from the PCU and then activates it in the BTS for circuit switched use. Value 0 of the parameter means that the default GPRS territory timeslots are preferred in CS traffic channel allocation. it defines whether the resources in the GPRS territory are seen as idle resources or as occupied resources. Value 1 of the parameter means that both the CS territory resources and the GPRS territory resources (excluding the dedicated GPRS timeslots) are taken into account. the RTSL-0 hopping group is searched. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 95 . The use of the parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) aims at avoiding collisions between a GPRS territory upgrade and circuit switched requests. Value 0 of the parameter means that only the resources in the CS territory are taken into account in load calculations. Load limit calculation The BSC parameter CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC) defines how the GPRS territory is seen when the load limits for CS TCH allocation are calculated. If no free resources are available in the RTSL-0 hopping group. in the order presented. In that case the HSCSD call can have one or more TSLs depending on the HSCSD parameters of the BTS in question. If no free resources are available in the default GPRS territory. Baseband Hopping BTS The BSC parameter CS TCH allocate RTSL0 (CTR) defines the order of preference between the RTSL-0 hopping group and the default GPRS territory in CS TCH allocation. A non-transparent HSCSD call is placed inside the GPRS territory only in the case of total congestion of the CS territory. After every step. in every allocation and reallocation instance. This kind of queuing can be performed if the MSC allows it for the request. and the GPRS territory resources are seen as occupied resources.

(RX_level (BCCH). Signal Level • In case of initial allocation (DL signal level not known). only the experienced service quality changes. BTS throughput factor takes MS and BTS GPRS capability into account and the BTS providing highest relative throughput is selected. 8. QoS). 4.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description BTS selection in a segment with more than one BTS 1. the TBF with the lowest 96 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . if no BTS fullfilling (RX_level (BCCH) . in this case the PCU always uses the lowest priority. The PCU receives the QoS information to be used in DL TBFs from the SGSN in a DL unitdata PDU. DIRE is used for ruling out some BTSs. Exception to this rule is GPRS one phase access on CCCH. • Reallocation based on signal level is triggered by: (RX_level (BCCH) . PCU1 only: Load (Penalty. the old BTS is selected. The PCU receives the QoS profile information element in the DL unitdata. Packets having higher 'Priority' are sent before packets having lower 'Priority'. BTS throughput factor). Mobile Radio Access Capability (bands) 2. In the UL direction. ETSI specifications define QoS functionality which gives the possibility to differentiate TBFs by delay. Higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users. the uplink RX level of the TBF in the serving BTS is compared to GPL to check if the reallocation was triggered by a bad uplink RX level (uplink RX level < GPL). Priority Based Scheduling is introduced as a first step towards QoS. This is based on combinations of GPRS Delay class and GPRS Precedence class values.4 Quality of Service The concept of 'Priority Class' is introduced at system level. There will be no extra blocking to any user. throughput and priority.NBL > GPU) is found. With Priority Based Scheduling the operator can give users different priorities.NBL > GPU) • In reallocation case. the PCU uses the radio priority received from the MS. Capability and throughput • PCU1 only: Mobile capability vs BTS capability . or a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK (PDAN) and this is used for UL QoS. Check maximum TBF/TSL in BTS 3. the MS informs its radio priority in a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST (PCR) or a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST (PRR). 5. In each scheduling round (performed every 20 ms). • PCU2 only: Throughput (Penalty. In case of UL TBF. This IE includes Precedence class information which indicates the priority of the PDU. In UL reallocation. In PCU1 each TBF allocated to a timeslot has a so-called latest (timeslot-specific) service time. If the reallocation was due to bad uplink RX level or triggered by Quality Control due to service quality degradation (see section Quality Control). then the old serving BTS is discarded in the very beginning.NBL < GPL) • In reallocation between different valid BTSs. Qos. BTS with NBL value greater than DIRE is ruled out. NBL is used for comparing levels and ruling out BTSs.

In PCU1 the traffic channel combinations are first compared by QoS load. see BSC-SGSN interface description. The PCU2 scheduling uses the Bucket Round Robin (BRR) algorithm. the latest service time of the selected TBF is incremented by the scheduling step size of the TBF in PCU1. see Overview of Extended Dynamic Allocation. BSS GPRS protocol (BSSGP). To get more detailed information about QoS in Gb. Priority Based Scheduling in BSC is an operating software product and is always active in an active PCU. Exceptions are TBFs for which only one channel is allocated. Exended Dynamic Allocation (PCU2) allows an MS to use a maximum of four UL timeslots. In PCU2. The sizes of the scheduling steps/weight determine the handing out of radio resources. Scheduling step sizes/weights depend on the priority class of the TBF. and there similar behaviour is obtained using scheduling weight. The same applies also to PCU2 scheduling weight which is operator adjustable. The allocation process tries to ensure that better priority TBFs do not gather into the same radio timeslot. • • • Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is explained in GPRS radio connection control.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management service time is selected and given a turn to send a radio block (provided that no control blocks have to be sent). the lower the scheduling weight of the TBF. within the restrictions of the multislot class of the mobile. the Medium Access (MAC) mode capability of a mobile affects its UL transmission capability (within the Multislot Class restrictions). the less often it is selected and given a turn. For more information on EDA. Also. In PCU1. 8. the uplink and downlink scheduling are independent channels allocated to a TBF must be allocated from the same TRX The traffic channels which would provide the maximum possible (priority based) capacity. seven uplink and nine downlink TBFs can share the resources of a single timeslot. For more information. see Packet scheduling. each priority class has its own scheduling step size which is operator adjustable. The QoS load of a channel is defined as a weighted sum of the TBFs in the channel. See parameter conversion in section BSC parameters of System Impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service. The PCU determines the number of traffic channels that are needed and counts the best throughput for that number of traffic channels. The weights used cor- DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 97 . are allocated for a TBF. but the traffic channel is dedicated to one MS at a time — this is referred to as temporary GPRS connection block flow or Temporary Block Flow (TBF) — meaning that one MS is transmitting or receiving at a time. If several TBFs have been allocated to a timeslot. Dynamic Allocation MAC mode allows an MS to use a maximum of two UL timeslots. Priorities are also taken into account in allocations of TBFs. channel allocation also involves other criteria in case EDA is active. MAC mode does not affect the DL capability of an MS. then the higher the scheduling step size or respectively. then by capacity type (additional < default < dedicated) and then by the Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) load.5 Channel allocation and scheduling GPRS channels are allocated according to the following rules: • • downlink and uplink are separate resources multiple mobiles can share one traffic channel.

If a mobile is using only one direction (UL or DL). If DL TBF exists and UL TBF is allocated as concurrent. therefore they will cause more load on the channel. Preferred direction takes place only with certain multislot classes that can have different channel combinations. If effective resources received in the adjoining allocation are the same as with concurrent reallocation. QoS and TBF type are compared simultaneously. see Functionality of Extended Dynamic Allocation in Extended Dynamic Allocation in BSC. only the resources of the direction used are evaluated. dedicated and default territory areas are preferred. the evaluation of concurrent resources received is first done for the adjoining allocation beside existing allocation and then for different concurrent reallocations. when allocating DL TBF as concurrent. however. so if similar resources are found from the additional and default territory.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description respond with the scheduling rate of the QoS class of TBFs in the channel. For more information. and an MS of multislot class 4 has a downlink TBF of three timeslots (performing FTP for example) and also uses an uplink TBF of one timeslot to acknowledge the received data (Note that the UL TBF is not always present as it is not always needed). TBF allocation After the BTS has been selected. Example: The GPRS territory consists of three channels. PACCH is defined in more detail in GPRS radio connection control. four slots) connections in uplink. CHA_CONC_DL_FAVOR_DIR defines the preferred direction. Higher priority TBFs will get more turns. QoS is the selection criteria. In PCU1 the PACCH load is the number of TBFs using a certain TCH as PACCH. In PCU2. Channel combination in concurrent allocation is determined from operator modifiable parameters CHA_CONC_UL_FAVOR_DIR and CHA_CONC_DL_FAVOR_DIR.which result in different emphasis in resource division between UL and DL. Among multiplexed TSLs. When optimum resources for a mobile are searched for. resources from the default area will be allocated. Multiplexed and nonmultiplexed TSLs are also prioritised by a penalty value. favour DL and share resources . These parameters have three values . no preference is given to adjoining allocations when concurrent TBF is being created. the adjoining allocation is preferred. where existing TBF is reallocated from its current allocation. If the mobile being evaluated already has an existing TBF in one direction and it requires resources from the other direction. A second mobile of multislot class 4 requests UL resources. two slots) and EDA (max. These will be allocated to it and the optimum resources are evaluated for 98 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . During concurrent TBFs the PCU monitors the traffic.favour UL. and PCU uses reallocations to modify the timeslot configuration to give preference to the direction with more traffic. The traffic channel combinations are first compared by relative throughput and then by capacity type (additional < default < dedicated). CHA_CONC_UL_FAVOR_DIR defines the direction that should be preferred in allocation. In the evaluation of the resources. for example 3+1 or 2+2 (DL+UL). Respectively. the PCU monitors PACCH load (in other words signalling load) in TSLs and takes that into account in allocation. a comparison of estimated throughputs is carried out between DA (max. In addition. Furthermore in PCU2. Different QoS classes result in different penalties for load comparing. both UL and DL resources are evaluated and the decision for the allocation is made depending on the amount of effective resources received in both directions. In PCU2 the PACCH load is monitored by the scheduler and that is used together with the scheduling weights when the relative throughput of the channel combination is estimated.

MS2 does not receive the maximum number of timeslots in the DL direction in this phase. the allocation is made according to multislot class capabilities. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL 6 DEF MS1 MS2 DL MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 7 DEF In case of PCU. adjoining allocation with fewer channels that multislot class allows is not made. MS2 is allocated similarly to MS1. In case of PCU2. As a result. downlink resources are needed for the second mobile. but it will receive them later. when the territory upgrade has been completed. 3+1 allocation is reserved for MS2. 1. the second MS will get its UL resource from a channel that is not used by the first mobile. As a result. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL DL MS1 6 DEF MS1 MS1 7 DEF MS2 MS1 Example: Continuing from the previous example. because the reallocation does not provide any better resources for MS2 in this phase. if the favoured direction is UL. A concurrent allocation for the DL TBF is made for MS2 if MS1 has an UL TBF in use when the DL TBF of MS2 is allocated. it would have resulted in both MSS having only 2 effective timeslots (the total sum of UL and DL resources). Available resources are evaluated for both directions and the allocation is made in such a way that optimum resources are used in both directions. If MS2 had been allocated in the same way as MS1 (with re-allocation). TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL DL MS1 6 DEF MS1 MS1 MS2 7 DEF MS2 MS1 MS2 As a result. The adjoining allocation is made. If the favoured direction is set to favor DL. Now the allocation depends on the resource usage of MS1 in both UL and DL directions. In other words. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF 6 DEF 7 DEF DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 99 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management the UL direction only. 2+2 allocation is made. MS1 has the resources of 3 effective timeslots (the total sum of UL and DL resources) and MS2 has the resources of 2 effective timeslots.

PCU1 will constantly check: 1.5 effective timeslots (the total sum of UL and DL resources) and MS2 has the resources of 2. Both mobiles will get 2. the PCU has received the additional capacity it has requested and the reallocation of the TBF(s) will be made. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL DL MS1 MS2 6 DEF MS2 MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 7 DEF In this allocation. because better resources are achieved with it. two channels will be requested and in case b. DL resources for MS2 are given with reallocation if MS1 does not have a UL TBF in use when the DL TBF of MS2 is allocated. if the channel is multiplexed 2.5 effective timeslots.5 timeslots in the DL direction and 1 timeslot in the UL direction. TSL 0 1 2 ADD UL DL MS2 3 ADD MS2 MS2 MS2 MS1 4 ADD 5 DEF 6 DEF MS1 MS1 MS1 7 DEF After the TBF is created in a BTS When a GPRS TBF is in a multiplexed TSL. As a result. three channels will be requested). MS1 has the resources of 1. Example: Continuing from the previous example. if it is the only GPRS TBF in the TSL thus causing multiplexing 100 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Both mobiles will get 3 timeslots in the DL direction and 1 timeslot in the UL direction. TSL 0 1 2 3 ADD UL DL MS2 4 ADD MS2 MS2 MS1 MS2 5 DEF 6 DEF MS1 MS1 MS1 7 DEF 2. The reallocation is made.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description UL DL MS1 MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 MS2 MS1 MS2 2. Then the PCU would request a territory upgrade according to the rules explained in the section additional GPRS territory upgrade (in case a. the following allocations will be made: 1.

In addition. The reason for this is that the additional channels (territory upgrade) are always requested from circuit-switched (CS) territory and there is always some delay before the channel is moved to the GPRS territory. The parameter defines reallocation check interval for a TBF in block periods. Whenever the MS finds the USF value in the downlink RLC block. For example. The PCU can assign multiple MSS to the same uplink traffic channels. The PCU will request for more additional channels. the BSC gives the MS a USF value for each assigned traffic channel in the assignment message. the above mentioned checks do not apply since there is no attempt to remove multiplexing and USF Granularity 4 is used. Reallocation check interval is determined by operator modifiable parameter TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD. and releases from S12 onwards also support Extended Dynamic Allocation (PCU2 only). Packet scheduling Uplink and downlink scheduling are independent of each other. allocation is done to achieve the highest possible relative throughput. DA allows an MS to use a maximum of two timeslots in UL.5 (average TBF/TSL<0. which is to be moved to the GPRS territory. if a GPRS territory contains less channels than what could be allocated to a mobile according to its multislot class. if the average TBF/TSL is less than 0. The target in the downgrade is to achieve an average TBF/TSL equal of 1. When ensuring the best quality and speed for end-users. Radio Link Control is defined in more detail in GPRS radio connection control. The need for additional GPRS channels is always checked when an existing TBF is terminated.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management 3. planning may not rely on additional channels in the dimensioning of the GPRS territory. Additional channels are taken into CS use whenever more channels are needed on the CS side. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 USF USF T T 0 Figure 22 Dynamic Allocation MAC mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 101 . and intracell handover is needed before the territory upgrade can be completed. The scheduling of the RLC data block in each timeslot is independent of other timeslots. The MS monitors the downlink Radio Link Control (RLC) blocks on the traffic channels it has been assigned. there can be a CS call in the timeslot. The maximum number of GPRS channels is limited by CMAX. In DA and EDA. These additional channels will be requested only if all GPRS default channels are already in the GPRS territory. ETSI specifications allow the scheduling of uplink transmission turns to be done by two different Medium Access Control (MAC) modes: Dynamic Allocation (DA) and Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA). it may send an uplink RLC block in the corresponding uplink frame. The BSC releases from S9 onwards support Dynamic Allocation. if there are multiplexed channels where it is allowed to reallocate In PCU2. The use of additional channels is less efficient compared to the default channels. The PCU will request the removal of additional channels. PCU constantly checks if reallocation should take place to achieve better relative capacity.5). Consequently.

Radio resource management

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

EDA allows an MS to use more than two uplink timeslot by removing the need of detecting USFs separately for each assigned traffic channel: a received USF gives the MS a permission to send, during the next transmission turn, on the corresponding UL channel and on all the following channels of the UL TBF.
0 1
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Figure 23

Extended Dynamic Allocation MAC mode

Scheduling in PCU1 is based on a kind of weighted round robin (WRR) method, which means that a higher priority (QoS) Temporary Block Flow (TBF) gets a bigger share of the PDTCHs allocated for it than a lower priority TBF. Scheduling in PCU2 is based on a Bucket Round Robin (BRR) algorithm. USF granularity 4 is only used with DA, not EDA. The main difference to PCU1 WRR algorithm implementation is that BRR distributes transmission turns per MS and not per TCH as WRR in PCU1 implementation. Both WRR and BRR distribute capacity according to connection specific scheduling weights. See Quality of service for more information on adjusting weight in priority based QoS. Extended Uplink TBF mode Extended UL TBF mode is an optional functionality. If the MS supports Extended UL TBF Mode (indicated in MS RAC), the normal uplink release is delayed. The delay time is operator adjustable with parameter UL_TBF_REL_DELAY_EXT. During delay time MS is in extended mode. In extended mode network schedules USFs to MS with lower scheduling rate. If MS in extended mode has data to send data it returns to normal mode. For more information, see Data transfer. Scheduling in extended mode for an uplink TBF is based on operator modifiable parameters UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT in PCU1 and POLLING_INTERVAL in PCU2. In PCU1, UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT defines the next block period when a TBF in extended mode is given a transmission turn. However, a TBF in extended mode cannot have better residual capacity than it would in normal mode. In PCU2, POLLING_INTERVAL defines the time in block periods that TBF in extended state cannot have transmission time. After POLLING_INTERVAL is elapsed, TBF is returned to scheduling and once it is scheduled it is restricted again unless it is returned to normal mode. Dynamic Scheduling for Extended UL TBF Mode In PCU2, Dynamic Scheduling for Extended UL TBF Mode optimises the scheduling algorithm applied to mobile stations in extended uplink TBF mode (EUTM). When any of the uplink TSLs which can be used for polling an MS in EUTM accommodates more than one UL TBF, the POLLING_INTERVAL parameter defines the frequency of UL transmission turns scheduled for the MS in EUTM. When none of the uplink TSLs which can be used for polling an MS in EUTM accommodates more than one UL TBF, the POLLING_INTERVAL_BG_LOW parameter defines the frequency of UL transmission turns scheduled for the MS in EUTM. This method helps to improve the RTT perfor-

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mance for MSS in EUTM under light or moderate traffic density without affecting adversely the radio throughput of other users.

8.6

Quality Control
The purpose of Quality Control is to monitor and detect degradation periods in service quality, and to perform corrective actions to remove the service degradation. The possible actions include TBF reallocation and Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection. Monitoring of degradation in service quality includes BLER and bitrate per radioblock monitoring. The PCU monitors bitrate per radio block for each TBF in RLC ACK mode, for UL and DL separately. When the PCU sends or receives a radio block, it updates the number of bits transmitted/received in the radio block. The PCU ignores LLC dummy blocks in this calculation. For the retransmissions, the PCU shall calculate the number of bits transmitted as zero. The PCU calculates the bitrate per radio block value and checks it against the corresponding threshold value. The threshold values are operator parameters and there is a separate value for UL and DL: QC GPRS DL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGDRT), QC GPRS UL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGURT) . If the calculated value is below threshold, degradation duration time is increased. The PCU monitors the bitrate per radio block degradation duration counter. If the counter is larger than predefined triggering levels, the corresponding corrective action is performed. The PCU monitors also RLC Block Error Ratio (BLER) for each TBF. The BLER value shall be checked against the required maximum BLER. In PCU1, maximum BLER is defined by operator parameter maximum BLER in acknowledged mode (BLA) or maximum BLER in unacknowledged mode (BLU), depending on the RLC mode of the TBF. In PCU2, maximum BLER is defined by operator parameters PFC ACK BLER limit (ABL1) and PFC UNACK BLER limit (UBL1). If BLER is above maximum, degradation duration time is increased and if the counter is larger than predefined triggering levels, the corresponding corrective action is performed. When any of the degradation duration counters monitored by the PCU gets larger than a predefined action trigger threshold, the PCU shall perform a corresponding corrective action. Each action shall be triggered only once for a TBF in PCU. For example, if reallocation is already done, the next action to be performed is Network-Controlled Cell Reselection (NCCR), triggered when a degradation duration counter exceeds the NCCR trigger threshold. The flags of already performed actions are cleared when the degradation ends, that is when all the degradation duration counters are cleared. The action trigger thresholds are expressed in block periods and the values can be set by operator (see parameter QC Action Trigger Threshold). It is possible to change the order of different actions by modifying the action trigger threshold values. If two or more actions are set to the same threshold value, the order of actions is first reallocation and then NCCR. Although possible, it is not recommended to set the values very close to each other, for example reallocation 100, NCCR 101. Otherwise, there is no time to execute the triggered action before the next is already triggered. The default action trigger threshold values are shown below.

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Action Reallocation NCCR (*)

Block periods 25 100

(*) Applicable if NCCR is activated.

8.7

MS Multislot Power Reduction (PCU2)
When multiple timeslots have been assigned to an uplink GPRS radio connection (UL TBF), the mobile station may reduce its transmission power as a function of the number of these timeslots: the more UL timeslots assigned, the larger the transmission power reduction applicable. This power reduction helps the MS to meet radiation regulations and to avoid heating problems. Every mobile station (Rel 5 or later) conforms to one of four standardised Multislot Power Profiles (0-3), which determine the maximum output power supported by an MS for different UL TBF configurations. An MS of Multislot Power Profile 3 does not apply power reduction to connections of four UL timeslots and less, while the amount of applicable reduction increases with each lower Power Profile. The effect of Multislot Power Reduction needs to be observed in radio resource allocation because the output power of an MS contributes to radio path quality, and consequently affects both the choice of the channel coding scheme to be used (CS1-CS4) and the achievable throughput per timeslot within the chosen scheme. In other words, large power reduction leads to poorer radio path quality, which in turn decreases throughput per timeslot both by necessitating robust channel coding and by increasing the number of transmission errors and retransmissions. In resource allocation, the effect of power reduction is observed by using UL signal quality measurements by the BTS to determine the maximum number of UL timeslots that can be assigned to the MS and still keep the signal quality at an acceptable level in spite of the entailing transmission power reduction. Multislot power reduction is applicable to all multislot UL connections. If EDA is enabled, up to four timeslots may be assigned to an UL TBF. If EDA is not enabled, up to two timeslots may be assigned in UL. UL signal quality and the maximum number of timeslots If the MS UL signal quality (GMSK Mean BEP or RX Quality measured by the BTS) is known during radio resource allocation, which is normally the case during two-phase access, the PCU uses this information to determine the maximum number of UL timeslots that may be allocated for the MS. The PCU uses the signal quality measurement that is available, but typically Mean BEP is used if Dynamic Abis is supported, and RX Quality is used in other cases. The operator can define the signal quality limits for different UL timeslot configurations by modifying the Mean BEP Limit and RX Quality Limit parameters. In determining these limits, the appropriate signal quality - as typically required by applications used in the network - must be considered together with the power reduction characteristics of different mobile stations. The limits should be set so that the signal quality remains

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The following tables define the default values for the two signal quality limits (for Rel 5 mobiles and later).8 Error situations in GPRS connections Synchronisation errors When the PCU detects a synchronisation error between itself and the BTS.considering the Multislot Power Profile of the MS . 8. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 105 . the maximum number of timeslots that can be assigned to the reallocated connection is determined on the basis of the general RX level in the new BTS. If no Multislot Power Profile has been defined for an MS (Rel 4 or earlier) or the Profile is not known by the PCU for some other reason. three UL timeslots may be assigned to a Multislot Power Profile 1 MS if the measured GMSK Mean BEP value is 25 or higher. three UL timeslots may be assigned to a Multislot Power Profile 1 MS if the measured RX Quality is three or lower. the PCU handles the MS according to Power Profile 0. MS Multislot Power Profile 1 — 5 3 1 MS Multislot Power Profile 2 — — 3 2 MS Multislot Power Profile 3 — — — — MAX Number of UL TSLs 1 2 3 4 MS Multislot Power Profile 0 — 5 3 1 Table 39 RX Quality Limit for UL For instance. where the mobile station specific GMSK Mean BEP and RX Quality measurements are not available for the MS. The BSC upgrades the radio timeslots back to GPRS use after a guard period. the BSC downgrades the related channels from GPRS use. When an UL TBF is reallocated to another BTS.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management acceptable even when the MS applies maximum power reduction.would allow at least the same average RX level to be achieved under the new BTS as under the old one. MS Multislot Power Profile 0 — 21 26 30 MS Multislot Power Profile 1 — 20 25 30 MS Multislot Power Profile 2 — — 24 29 MS Multislot Power Profile 3 — — — — MAX Number of UL TSLs 1 2 3 4 Table 38 GMSK Mean BEP Limit for UL For instance. This is done by checking what number of timeslots .

the supervision periods (weekdays and hours) can be defined separately for each BTS. The BSC level configuration of this alarm is done by modifying the following parameters with the MML command EEJ: EGIC=<EGPRS Inactivity Alarm criteria> 0x00: Alarm disabled on BSC Level (default) 0x01: No normal UL TBF releases 0x02: No normal DL TBF releases 0x03: No normal UL TBF releases and no normal DL TBF releases (recommended) IEPH=<Required number of TBF allocation attempts per hour> Default: 10 Range: 0 . GPRS Inactivity (Sleeping BTSs) The BSC sets the alarm NO (E)GPRS TRANSACTIONS IN BTS 7789 if there have been no normal TBF releases within the supervision period in a BTS where this alarm is enabled. you define the triggering criteria.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Traffic channel activation failures The BSC sets the alarm TRAFFIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION FAILURE 7725 if the Abis synchronisation for an GPRS traffic channel repeatedly fails. recommended values ranging from 15 minutes (default) to 60 minutes. 255 SPL=<Supervision period in minutes> Default: 15 minutes Range: 0 . Default value for traffic threshold is 10 TBF allocation attempts per hour. To enable this alarm functionality in the BSC. 23-45 106 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . to ensure that the alarm is not raised due to low traffic volume. length of the supervision period and traffic threshold... The alarm is automatically cancelled when the synchronisation succeeds and the channel is taken back into GPRS use. This is done by configuring the related BTS level parameters.. but you may choose to monitor only one of the directions. 1440 minutes The alarm also needs to be enabled on the BTSs. The BTS level configuration of this alarm is done by modifying the following parameters with the MML command EQV: EAW = <(E)GPRS Inactivity Alarm weekdays (bitmask)> Default: 00000000b (alarm disabled in BTS) Examples: 01000000 (Monday) 00100000 (Tuesday) 01111100 (Monday thru Friday) 01111111 (Every day) EAS = <(E)GPRS Inactivity Alarm start time (hours-minutes)> Default: 08-00 Range: 00-00 . which will be monitored.. although there have been allocation TBF attempts.. Although the supervision period length is common for all BTSs within a BSC. The recommended triggering criteria is the lack of normal TBF releases both in UL and DL.. The length of the supervision period shall be defined according to estimated traffic density. Traffic threshold means the required number of TBF allocation attempts per hour.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management EAE = <(E)GPRS Inactivity Alarm end time (hours-minutes)> Default: 18-00 Range: 00-00 . DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 107 .. Note that the cancellation is not dependent on the setting criteria. 23-45 The alarm is set if the criteria is met at the end of the supervision period. and there have been at least the required number of TBF allocation attempts.The criteria is that no normal TBF releases have been detected within a 15 minute (default) period during the hours when the alarm is active on the given weekdays. The alarm is cancelled if a normal TBF release is detected within the subsequent supervision periods. but a normal TBF release in either direction cancels the alarm..

9. The network responds to the MS on the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). as well as traffic administration and power control in GPRS. Common Control Channel (CCCH) signalling The Common Control Channel (CCCH) signalling is used for paging and uplink and downlink temporary block flow (TBF) setup. PDTCH/U and PDTCH/D can be assigned to an MS simultaneously. It can be allocated both on both uplink and downlink regardless of whether the corresponding traffic channel assignment is for uplink or downlink. The PCU uses each radio timeslot which the BSC has allocated for the GPRS territory. The signalling information includes. for example. The MS initiates uplink TBF establishment on the Random Access Channel (RACH). In the Nokia Siemens Networks implementation. acknowledgements and resource assignment and reassignment messages. For more information refer to GSM Specification (04. Assigned traffic channels are used for PACCH in the direction the data is sent. The GPRS radio connection establishment (TBF establishment) and data transfer are described from the point of view of a mobile terminating (MT) and mobile originating (MO) GPRS TBF.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 9 GPRS radio connection control Radio channel usage when GPRS is in use is discussed in this section. PACCH is a bidirectional channel. as one PDTCH. In multislot operation. One PACCH is associated to one or several traffic channels that are assigned to one MS. All PDTCHs are uni-directional. GPRS-specific cell parameters are sent to the MS in a SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13 message. traffic channels belonging to a GPRS territory are PDTCHs and traffic channels belonging to circuit switched territory are TCHs.18). Paging is described in a section of its own. In the 108 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCHs) The Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) is a channel allocated for data transfer. System information messages on BCCH The support of GPRS is indicated in a SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_3 message. coding scheme selection.1 Radio channel usage ETSI specifications (05. It is temporarily dedicated to one MS. Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) The Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) conveys signalling information related to a given MS. Cell selection and re-selection are also defined. flush. This section describes the BSC's functions in relation to suspend and resume.02) define the possibility to use dedicated broadcast and common control channels for GPRS. GPRS paging is made on the Paging Channel (PCH). one MS may use multiple PDTCHs in parallel for individual packet transfer. GPRS territories are described in Radio resource management. either uplink (PDTCH/U) for a mobile originated packet transfer or downlink (PDTCH/D) for a mobile terminated packet transfer. Network-initiated TBF establishment is done on the AGCH.

The LLC PDU is buffered in the PCU until it has been sent to the MS or discarded. RLC blocks are sent between the MS and the BSC (PCU). an MS can choose (according to its capabilities) whether it attaches to GPRS services or to nonGPRS services.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control opposite direction the MS multislot capability has to be taken into account when allocating the PACCH. the PCU receives LLC PDUs from the SGSN. the PCU receives the RLC data blocks from the MS and reassembles them into LLC PDUs. the PCU sends it to the SGSN and releases it from the PCU buffer. In mode I circuit switched paging messages are routed through the Gb interface for GPRS-attached mobiles. and it must be the same in each cell of a Routing Area. In uplink data transmission. 9. LLC is independent of the underlying radio interface protocols in order to allow introduction of alternative GPRS radio solutions with minimum changes to the NSS. There are two RLC modes: acknowledged and unacknowledged mode.3 Paging The network may provide co-ordination of paging for circuit switched services and GPRS depending on the network operation modes supported. Logical Link Control (LLC) and Radio Link Control (RLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) layer provides a highly reliable ciphered logical link. When the LLC PDU is ready. The LLC PDUs have to be sent to the SGSN in the order they were transmitted by the MS. The network operation mode is indicated as system information to mobiles. 9. Mode I requires Gs interface between the SGSN and MSC/HLR. For an overview of GPRS. segments them to the RLC blocks and sends the RLC blocks to the MS. A TBF is identified by a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI) and maintained only for the duration of the data transfer. see GPRS. The TBF is allocated radio resources on one or more PDTCHs and comprises a number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs. In downlink data transmission. Based on the provided mode. LLC PDUs are sent between the MS and the SGSN. GPRS pages always come from the SGSN through the Gb interface. The Radio Link Control (RLC) function provides a radio-solution-dependent reliable link. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 109 . The latter does not have retransmission. or to both. Network operation modes The BSC supports network operation modes I and II.2 Data Transfer Protocols and Connections Temporary Block Flow (TBF) Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is a physical connection used by two radio resource entities to support the unidirectional transfer of Logical Link Control (LLC) PDUs on packet data physical channels. In mode II circuit switched paging messages are transferred through the A interface from the MSC to the BSC.

If no radio context iden- 110 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .ordination Yes Yes No Table 40 Supported Network Operation Modes GPRS paging The SGSN initiates the GPRS paging process. In GPRS paging the BSS forwards the PACKET_PAGING_REQUEST message from the SGSN to the MS on the CCCH(s). If the SGSN provides the TMSI. the SGSN sends one or more PAGING CS PDUs to the BSC. A GPRS paging message is sent only to cells that support GPRS services. a Location Area. ☞ RA0 is a routing area for cells that do not support GPRS. These PDUs contain the information elements necessary for the BSS to initiate paging for an MS within a group of cells at an appropriate time. ☞ Gs interface is obligatory in order to support CS paging. Circuit switched paging via GPRS in network operation mode I In order to initiate circuit-switched transmission between the MSC and the MS.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Mode I I II Circuit Paging Channel CCCH Packet Data Channel CCCH GPRS Paging Channel CCCH N/A CCCH Gb interface Yes Yes No Paging co. The SGSN indicates the MS's IMSI and DRX parameters. The BSC translates the incoming GPRS and circuit switched paging messages into one corresponding Abis paging message per cell. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. If the SGSN provides a P-TMSI. The MS's paging response to the SGSN is handled in the PCU as any other uplink TBF. The SGSN indicates the MS's IMSI and DRX parameters. A Routing Area. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). The paging area is the same as in GPRS paging. or a BSC area is associated with one or more NSEIs (PCUs). which enables the BSS to derive the paging group. which enable the BSS to derive the paging group. If a radio context identified by the TLLI exists within the BSS. If the cells in which to page the MS are served by several NSEIs. It sends one or more PAGING_PS_PDUs messages to the BSC (PCU). then the BSC does not use the IMSI to address the MS. These PDUs contain the information elements necessary for the BSS to initiate paging for an MS within a group of cells. then the SGSN sends one paging message to each of these NSEIs. then the paging message is directly sent to the MS on PACCH. The paging area indicates the cells within which the BSC pages the MS and they can be: • • • • all cells within the BSC all cells of the BSC within one Location Area all cells of the BSC within one Routing Area one cell (identified with a BSSGP virtual connection identifier (BVCI)). For more information. Otherwise IMSI is used to address the MS. then the BSC uses it to address the MS.

then the TMSI is used to address the MS. used when there is no concurrent UL TBF. The assignment procedure is DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 111 . refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. The PCU allocates one or more PDTCHs for the TBF. In case there are no radio resources for the new TBF. Downlink TBF establishment on CCCH The PCU allocates one PDTCH for the TBF. The PCU sends the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT message. 9. The possible multislot allocation is done later and indicated to the MS by a reallocation message. which is included in the DL-UNITDATA_PDU message. the PCU sends the PACKET_POWER_CONTROL/TIMING_ADVANCE message to the MS to indicate the Timing Advance value. the PCU sends a PACKET_POLLING_REQUEST message to the MS and requests an acknowledgement. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. This is done in order to determine the initial Timing Advance for the MS. If within the SGSN area there are cells that do not support GPRS services. When the MS is ready to receive on PACCH.4 Mobile terminated TBF (GPRS) When the SGSN knows the location of the MS. For more details about the downlink data message contents. For example. When multiple PDTCHs are allocated to the MS. the circuit switched connection is set up as usual as described in Basic Call. The RA0 in this case is all the cells that do not support GPRS services in a Location Area derived from the Routing Area. For more details about the paging message contents. the MS GPRS multislot class must be taken into account. and T3192 is not running These alternatives are described in the following subchapters. The SGSN indicates the cell identification in every DL-UNITDATA PDU. it can send LLC PDUs to the correct PCU. and indicates it and the TFI to the MS in the assignment message. the LLC PDU is discarded and the BSC sends a LLC-DISCARD message to the SGSN.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control tified by the TLLI exists within the BSS. The MS GPRS multislot class is part of the MS Radio Access Capability IE. RA0 covers all the cells in the indicated paging area that do not support GPRS services. The TBF establishment is done in one of the following ways: • • on PACCH. Each LLC PDU is encapsulated in one DL-UNITDATA PDU. if the SGSN indicates to the BSC to initiate paging for an MS within a Routing Area the BSC sends one circuit switched paging message to all cells in the Routing Area and one message to all the cells in RA0. used when a concurrent UL TBF exists or when the timer T3192 is running in the MS on CCCH. and gives the whole configuration together with the Timing Advance value to the MS. If the channel configuration to be allocated for the downlink TBF consists of only one channel already assigned to the MS. Otherwise IMSI is used to address the MS. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). and sends an IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message to the MS. After the paging procedure. the cells are grouped under a 'null RA' (RA0).

Mobile specific flow control also ensures that if an MS has better QoS. The TBF mode is always the same as the mode of the existing UL TBF. uplink TBF establishment. the PCU may release channels with a PDCH_RELEASE message. one for resending the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message and one for aborting the establishment. the MS starts the timer T3192 and continues monitoring the PACCH of the released TBF until T3192 expires. The BSC signals this to the SGSN by setting the Radio Cause information element (IE) value to 'radio contact lost with MS'. It is also an effective countermeasure against buffer overflows in the PCU. the MS recognises the transmitted Radio Link Control (RLC) blocks based on the TFI. Mobile-specific flow control is done for every MS that has a downlink TBF. After the counter reaches its maximum value of 8. The counter is reset after each correctly received PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK. Downlink TBF establishment when an uplink TBF exists Downlink TBF establishment when an uplink TBF exists follows the same principles as uplink TBF establishment when a downlink TBF exists. This is discussed more at the end of Mobile originated TBF. The PCU can request the MS to send an PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message by setting a polling flag to the RLC data block header. The BSC thus recommends the SGSN to stop sending LLC PDUs for the MS to the cell. Downlink TBF establishment when timer T3192 is running and no UL TBF exists When the DL TBF is released. which is included in every RLC block header. the BSC considers the MS as lost. There may still be some retransmission after 112 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . There is no uplink flow control. The reasons for this reallocation may be a GPRS territory downgrade. MS-specific flow control Mobile specific flow control is part of the QoS solution in the PCU. which is the maximum number of unacknowledged RLC blocks at a time. it increments a counter. If the PCU does not receive the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message when polled. it will also get more data from the SGSN. The PCU can send further RLC data blocks along with the acknowledgement procedure. or a change of requirements of the SGSN. During the timer T3192 the PCU makes the establishment of a new DL TBF by sending a PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT on the PACCH of the 'old' DL TBF. If reallocation is impossible in the case of GPRS territory downgrade.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description guarded with two timers. It works together with the SGSN to provide a steady data flow to the mobile from the network. and therefore better transmission rate in radio interface (more air time). The PCU can change the downlink PDTCH configuration whenever needed by sending the MS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message. The normal downlink TBF release is initiated by the PCU by setting a Final Block Indicator (FBI) bit in the last RLC block header. The window size is 64 blocks in GPRS mode. Data transfer During the actual data transfer. The establishment is done with a PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message. Each TBF has a transmit window. This indicates to the SGSN that attempts to communicate between the MS and the SGSN via the cell should be suspended or abandoned. releases the downlink TBF and discards the LLC PDU from the PCU buffer.

The PCU may force the MS to make a two phase access. used when there is no concurrent DL TBF Additionally. and informs it to the MS in the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message. even if the MS requested some other access type. but the PCU releases the TBF and removes the LLC PDU from the PCU buffer when the MS sends the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message with the Final Ack Indicator bit on. it sends an IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT_REJECT message to the MS. If the PCU has no PDTCHs to allocate to the MS. The MS sends its TLLI in the first data blocks and the one phase access is finalised when the PCU sends the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message to the MS containing the TLLI (contention resolution). The PCU allocates a PDTCH for the request. The MS GPRS multislot class is a part of the MS Radio Access Capability IE. in order to allow the MS to request for a UL TBF. GPRS In a one phase access the MS sends a CHANNEL_REQUEST message with the establishment cause 'one phase access'. The PCU allocates the actual configuration for the uplink TBF according to the information received in this message. for instance if there is no room for the TBF in the BCCH band. When the PCU has sent the last buffered LLC PDU to the MS. The PCU allocates one uplink block for the request. schedules a certain radio interface TDMA frame number for the block. used when a concurrent DL TBF exists on CCCH.5 Mobile originated TBF When the MS wants to send data or upper layer signalling messages to the network. in other words the same downlink TBF continues normally. GPRS In a two phase access the MS sends a CHANNEL_REQUEST message with the establishment cause 'single block access'. which is included in the PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message. Random access on CCCH The MS can send a CHANNEL_REQUEST message on CCCH (RACH).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control this. When multiple PDTCHs are allocated to an MS. Two phase access on CCCH. The MS then uses the allocated block to send a more accurate request to the PCU with the PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message. These alternatives are described in the following subsections. If the PCU receives more data during the delay time. If there is no concurrent UL TBF. There are the following main alternatives for the TBF establishment: • • on PACCH. and informs the MS in the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message along with TFI and USF values. the PCU cancels the delayed release and begins to send RLC data blocks to the MS. One phase access is guarded by a timer in the PCU. during the delay time DUMMY LLC PDUs are sent to the MS (with polling). The PCU indi- DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 113 . the PCU delays the release of the TBF (by 1 s by default). the MS GPRS multislot class must be taken into account. depending on the needs for the data transfer. 9. One phase access on CCCH. for example one phase access or two phase access. it requests the establishment of an uplink TBF from the BSC. on CCCH there are different options for TBF establishment.

The PCU can schedule the MS to send further the RLC data blocks along with the acknowledgement procedure. which is the maximum number of unacknowledged RLC blocks. The counter is always reset when the MS uses the frame it has been assigned to. There is only one LLC PDU per UL-UNITDATA PDU. it sends the LLC PDU to the SGSN. for example to change the coding scheme. the network schedules USF turns to the MS in extended mode. and the PCU includes it in the PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message to the MS (contention resolution). where the MS counts down the last RLC data blocks (15 or less) with the last block numbered 0. The PCU can at any time send the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message to the MS. If reallocation during a downgrade is impossible. the MS is considered lost and therefore the PCU releases the uplink TBF. The TBF has a transmit window. If the MS has got new data. USF value for each PDTCH. There may still be some retransmission. and a PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message with final ack indicator to the MS. or a change of an MS's requirements. but the assigned PDTCH(s) may be elsewhere. but when the PCU has received all the RLC data blocks correctly. The underlying network service has to be available for the BSSGP level in order to deliver data to the SGSN. but with a lower rate as normally. Reasons for reallocation may be a GPRS territory downgrade. The PCU delivers the LLC PDU with a UL-UNITDATA PDU to the SGSN. A normal uplink TBF release is made by countdown. The two phase access is finalised when the PCU receives the first block on the assigned PDTCH . see section Channel allocation and scheduling. The window size is 64 blocks in GPRS mode. Instead of sending a PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK (final ack) immediately. The channel allocation in this second phase is independent of the first phase. and the TBF continues with the normal scheduling rate. If the counter reaches its maximum value of 15. The PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message includes a bitmap which tells the correctly received blocks. The MS sends a PACKET UPLINK DUMMY CONTROL BLOCK in the scheduled block if it has no data to send. 114 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . and after that the PCU cancels the delayed TBF release. and the TFI to the MS in the PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message sent in the same timeslot in which the single block was allocated. which also affects the frequency of the acknowledgements. The PCU can use the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message for other purposes too. the RLC data blocks are collected to the PCU buffer. Data transfer In uplink data transfer. The PCU has a counter to control the MS's ability to send RLC blocks in the frames it has been assigned by the USF values. and if the PCU has no PDTCHs to allocate to the MS.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description cates the PDTCH configuration. The PCU can change the uplink PDTCH configuration whenever needed by sending the MS a PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message. it sends an RLC data block. downlink TBF establishment. the normal uplink release is delayed. Otherwise the data is discarded and a counter is updated. it sends a PACKET_ACCESS_REJECT message to the MS. The MS responds with a PACKET_CONTROL_ACK message and the PCU releases the TBF. The second part of the two phase access is guarded with a timer in the PCU. If the MS supports Extended UL TBF Mode (indicated in MS RAC). For more information on Extended UL TBF Mode. the PCU releases channels with a PDCH_RELEASE message to the MS. The MS sends its TLLI in the PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message.

the MS performs the GPRS suspension procedure. The message contains the TLLIand the Routing Area of the MS.6 Suspend and resume GPRS The GPRS suspension procedure enables the network to discontinue GPRS packet flow in the downlink direction. the PCU may delay the UL TBF release (by 0. If there is no need to change the downlink PDTCH configuration. If the SGSN is not able to suspend GPRS services. the Routing Area of the MS. This is done when there is no concurrent DL TBF for the same MS. When a mobile station which is IMSI attached for GPRS services enters dedicated mode. the PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message from the PCU informs the MS of both the uplink and downlink PDTCH configurations. The SGSN typically stops paging for a suspended mobile. The message contains the TLLI.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control Even if the MS does not support Extended UL TBF Mode. the uplink TBF is released. USF values for each PDTCH. The TBF mode of the new UL TBF is always the same as the mode of the existing DL TBF. The BSC sends the SUSPEND_PDU message to the SGSN. If the PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message fails. and the Suspend Reference Number. for instance due to MS multislot capability restrictions. 9. If the downlink PDTCH configuration is changed. and when the MS or network limitations make it unable to handle both dedicated mode and either packet idle mode or packet transfer mode simultaneously (in other words DTM cannot be used). which contains the TLLI. or a DTM-capable MS is handed over from a non-DTM cell to a cell that supports DTM. which occurs when a circuit switched call interrupts a GPRS packet flow and the GPRS connection is thus discontinued or suspended. No USF turns are scheduled during this delay. The SGSN acknowledges with a SUSPEND-ACK PDU message. For more details about the uplink data message contents. The purpose of the delay is to speed up the possibly following DL TBF establishment. and TFI. USF values for the uplink PDTCHs. a PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message from the PCU to the MS contains the uplink PDTCH configuration. Uplink TBF establishment when downlink TBF exists During a downlink TBF the MS can request resources for an uplink TBF by including a Channel Request Description IE in the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message. it sends a negative response to the BSC with the SUSPEND-NACK PDU message. and the uplink and downlink TFIs. This establishment is also guarded by a timer in the PCU. both downlink and uplink TBFs are released. Suspend is referred to as the situation. The MS initiates the GPRS suspension procedure by sending a message to the BSC. disconnecting the MS from the MSC. the Routing Area of the MS and the cause of the negative acknowledgement. The GPRS_SUSPENSION_REQUEST message is an indication to the SGSN not to send downlink data.5s by default). If the PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message fails. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. When a GPRS attached MS in an (E)GPRS-capable but non-DTM-capable cell leaves dedicated mode. the reason for the suspension dis- DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 115 . The establishment is ready when the PCU receives the first block on the assigned uplink PDTCHs. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP).

BVCI (new). the BSC either instructs the MS to initiate the Routing Area Update procedure or signals to the SGSN that the MS's GPRS service shall be resumed. The BSC deletes all buffered LLC PDUs in the cell and all contexts for the MS. the MS resumes the services by sending the Routing Area Update Request to the SGSN after the circuit switched connection has been released. The MS's TLLI indicates which mobile's data is in question and the BVCI (old) indicates the cell. is given. 9. for example. depending on the network control mode. which contains the TLLI and the Routing Area of the MS. For more details on flush. When the circuit switched call is released. when the MS has stopped data sending in a given cell and has moved to another cell. the BSC sends a CHANNEL RELEASE message to the MS indicating that the resume procedure has been successfully completed. In this case.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description appears. the BSC transfers all buffered LLC PDUs to the new cell on the condition that both the BVCI (old) and the BVCI (new) are served by the same PCU and the same Routing Area. If the suspension procedure has been successfully completed and the reason for the suspension is still valid.8 Cell selection and re-selection Cell selection and re-selection is performed autonomously by the MS or by the network. The signal level threshold criterion parameter C31 for hierarchical cell structures (HCS) is used to determine whether prioritised hierarchical GPRS and LSA cell reselection shall apply. the services are still suspended. If an optional new cell. The SGSN sends a FLUSH-LL PDU to the BSC to ensure that LLC PDUs queued for transmission in a cell for an MS are either deleted or transferred to the new cell. The MS starts the Routing Area Update procedure after detecting the DTM service in the cell. • 116 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The following cell re-selection criteria are used for GPRS: • • The path loss criterion parameter C1 is used as a minimum signal level criterion for cell re-selection for GPRS in the same way as for GSM Idle mode. The SGSN acknowledges the procedure with a RESUME-ACK PDU message. the MS shall perform the Routing Area Update procedure to resume GPRS services in the new cell. the Routing Area of the MS and the Suspend Reference Number.7 Flush The flush procedure is used. If a DTM-capable MS is handed over from a non-DTM cell to a cell that supports DTM during a dedicated connection. The message contains the TLLI. for instance a DTM-capable MS has not been handed over from a non-DTM cell to a DTM-capable cell. If the BSC has not been able to resume GPRS services or in case of a DTMcapable MS. 9. the BSC resumes the GPRS services before the circuit switched call is released by sending a RESUME PDU message to the SGSN. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). The cell ranking criterion parameter (C32) is used to select cells among those with the same priority.

the message is deleted. The count of unhandled messages in the message queue is checked every time a new P-CHANNEL_REQUIRED message is received. the BCSU deletes the message. in the planning of the network and capacity being too small in a particular area. Network Planning and Overload Protection for more information on the BSC's overload control in general. but the user can determine GPRS usage and thus prevent the overload situations from happening. The BCSU cuts down the load caused by GPRS and circuit switched paging messages sent by the SGSN. The load control is based on the number of unhandled messages in the BCSU's message queue. The load control is based on the number of unhandled messages in the BCSU's message queue. In the case of overload. Refer to section BSS overload protection and flow control in BSS (BSC) Traffic Handling Capacity. to set up the GPRS connection. BCSU overload control The BCSU has an overload control to protect itself against the processor overloading and the TRXSIG link overloading. If the load limit is exceeded. however. BCSU protection against high GPRS RACH load In the uplink direction the BCSU cuts down the load caused by GPRS random accesses. Each message sent to TRXSIG has a certain message group value. Circuit switched calls are marked in the same way as GPRS connections. for example. The load the BCSU can handle has been tested.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control For information on network-controlled cell re-selection. see: • • • Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection Inter-System Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection Network-Assisted Cell Change For information on network-assisted cell change. The BCSU rejects messages which are sent in the downlink direction to the TRXSIG if needed. The BCSU cuts down the load by rejecting particular messages when the processor load or the link load exceeds the defined load limit. and the unit can in the worst case thus easily run itself into a state of malfunction. The cause of an overload may be. The BCSU continuously tries. If the load limit is exceeded. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 117 . In case the message buffers of an AS7 plug-in unit begin to fill up. the BCSU rejects messages based on the message group value. neither circuit switched nor GPRS connections can be set up. see: 9.9 Traffic administration The BSC has many overload mechanisms to protect existing traffic flow and thus ensure good quality for end-users. The BCSU checks the count of unhandled messages in the message queue every time a new paging message is received. BCSU protection against excessive number of paging messages on the Gb interface The BCSU cuts down the load by rejecting particular messages when the processor load or the link load exceeds the defined load limit. The BCSU rejects P-CHANNEL_REQUIRED messages received from the TRXSIG if the processor load exceeds the defined load limit.

If the PCU does not receive confirmation to a FLOW-CONTROL PDU. SGSN is not allowed to transmit more data than indicated by the PCU. as well as default values for MS buffer size and leak rate. Local deletion is signalled to the SGSN by a LLC-DISCARDED PDU. PCU starts to perform periodic flow control in BVC and MS level. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. The BVC and MS buffer sizes indicated to the SGSN are controlled by the PRFILE parameters FC_B_MAX_TSL and FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF. For more information on BVC and MS flow control. the flow control parameters in SGSN needs to be updated. no further action is taken. PCU monitors the lifetime values of the buffered DL UNITDATA PDUs. It knows the buffer utilisation ratio and leak rate of each flow. If the leak rate difference for a flow exceeds the PRFILE parameter FC_R_DIF_TRG_LIMIT. If the condition which requires flow control remains effective. the FLOW-CONTROL-MS PDU is sent to SGSN. It is used to adjust the flow of BSSGP DLUNITDATA PDUs from SGSN to the PCU. SGSN modifies its downlink transmission as instructed and ensures that it never transmits more data than can be accommodated within the BSC buffer for a BVC or an MS. Flow control is performed for downlink data in BVC (cell) and MS level.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description BSSGP flow control Flow control is part of the BSSGP protocol. Upon reception of a FLOW-CONTROL PDU. The amount of the data to be stored in the PCU is optimised for efficient use of the available radio resources. For this purpose the PCU keeps record of the received DL data per BVC and per MS. For a BVC flow. 118 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . PCU holds a buffer for storing downlink data. The value C in the PCU is fixed to 1 s. This message contains BVC specific buffer size and leak rate. If the lifetime of a PDU expires before the PDU is sent across the radio interface. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). Flow control mode of operation The PCU sends an initial FLOW-CONTROL-BVC PDU to the SGSN after a BVC is reset in order to allow SGSN to start the downlink BSSGP data transfer. a new FLOWCONTROL PDU is sent to the SGSN after one second. and compares the actual leak rate value to the value reported earlier to the SGSN. the FLOW-CONTROL-BVC PDU and for a MS flow. The PFC flow control is an optional functionality. After the initial BVC FLOW-CONTROL PDU. The 3GPP Rel-5 specifications introduce a third layer for BSSGP flow control: a Packet Flow Context (PFC) flow control. The frequency of FLOW-CONTROL PDUs is limited so that the PCU may send a new PDU once in every C seconds for each flow. PCU checks the flow control status for each BVC and MS once a second and sends as a periodic FLOW CONTROL PDU to SGSN for the flows which needs to be adjusted. PCU deletes the PDU locally. The PRFILE parameters FC_B_MAX_TSL and FC_R_TSL define the BVC specific buffer size and leak rate together with the number of actual GPRS timeslots in the cell. SGSN uses the MS default values for controlling the flow of an individual MS until it receives a FLOW-CONTROL-MS PDU regarding that MS. Any uplink flow control is not performed. PCU controls the flow by indicating its buffer size and maximum allowed throughput to the SGSN. The parameters FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF and FC_MS_R_DEF define the MS specific default values.

Although the CS-3 and CS-4 coding schemes are licence based. and the BSC sets the alarm 3027 UPLINK CONGESTION ON THE NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION in the BSC.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control Uplink congestion control on NS-VC The BSC/PCU uses a local congestion control procedure to adapt uplink NS-UNITDATA traffic to the NS-VCs according to their throughput. The PCU deletes any NS-UNITDATA that does not pass the procedure. In unacknowledged RLC mode CS-1 is always used regardless of the parameter values. When the Link Adaptation algorithm is deployed. In downlink packet transfer the PCU selects the CS. it includes the new CS code word in the blocks. which passes the procedure. where the two coding schemes give the same bit rate. However. If the PCU changes the CS during one TBF reservation. In retransmission the same CS has to be used as in the initial block transmission.BLER_CP_CS1) = 12 kbps * (1 . Link Adaptation algorithm The Link Adaptation (LA) algorithm is used to select the optimum channel coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2) for a particular RLC connection and it is based on detecting the occurred RLC block errors. This updates a counter. The PCU sends an NS-UNITDATA. PCU1 The BSC level parameters coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) define whether the fixed CS value (CS-1/CS-2) is used or if the coding scheme is changed dynamically according to the Link Adaptation algorithm. and the code word for the selected CS is included in each RLC data block sent to the MS. the PCU informs the MS the initial CS to be used in either the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message. when NS-UNITDATA again passes the procedure. to the SGSN as long as the CIR of the NS-VC is not exceeded. 9. then the initial value for the CS at the beginning of a TBF is CS-2. which includes the Channel Coding Command field. In terms of block error rate (BLER) the following equation holds at the crosspoint: 8. in case the operator has both PCU1 and PCU2 in use in the same track. see ETSI specification on Channel Coding) are used to indicate the actual coding scheme (CS) which is used for each block sent between the BSC's PCU and the MS. coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2 can only be used and the Link Adaptation algorithm with coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) parameters is deployed. Essential for the LA algorithm is the crosspoint.10 Coding scheme selection in GPRS Stealing bits in the channel coding (for more information. where: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 119 . In PCU2 the coding schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are introduced.BLER_CP_CS2). In uplink data transfer. The PCU can command the MS to change the CS by sending the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message. The alarm is cancelled automatically. In PCU1 the coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2 are supported.0 kbps * (1 . the Link Adaptation algorithm is still provided with PCU2.

In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at least K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions. P-value = If the P-value is less than a certain risk level (RL). the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. At certain intervals (in uplink transfer after approximately 10 transmitted RLC blocks.0 kbps is the theoretical maximum bit rate for CS-2 BLER_CP_CS1 is the block error rate at the crosspoint when CS-1 is used BLER_CP_CS2 is the block error rate at the crosspoint when CS-2 is used If CS-1 is used and if BLER is less than BLER_CP_CS1. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Change to CS-2. 120 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . If CS-2 is used and if BLER is larger than BLER_CP_CS2. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • 8. If the hypothesis is rejected. Reset counters N_Number and K_Number. then it would be advantageous to change to CS-1. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS1. change to CS-2? Hypothesis: BLER > BLER_CP_CS1. it means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the given condition of BLER > BLER_CP_CS1. confirm CS-1? Hypothesis: BLER < BLER_CP_CS1. two counters are updated: N_Number gives the total number of RLC data blocks and K_Number gives the number of corrupted RLC data blocks that have been transmitted after the last link adaptation decision. If this is the case.0 kbps is the theoretical maximum bit rate for CS-1 12. For this purpose the following BSC-level parameters are used by the LA algorithm: • • • • UL DL UL DL BLER BLER BLER BLER crosspoint crosspoint crosspoint crosspoint for for for for CS CS CS CS selection selection selection selection hop (ULBH) hop (DLBH) no hop (ULB) no hop (DLB) The given parameters correspond to the BLER_CP_CS1 (see equation above). then it would be advantageous to change to CS-2. then it can be concluded that BLER < BLER_CP_CS1. BLER_CP_CS2 is larger than BLER_CP_CS1. During transmission. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS1. Since CS-1 is more robust than CS-2. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at most K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions. and in downlink after every PACKET_DL_ACK/NACK message reception) the LA algorithm is run by performing two of the following (either 1 and 2 or 3 and 4) statistical tests: 1. The crosspoint can be determined separately for UL and DL directions as well as for frequency hopping (FH) and non-FH cases. Current coding scheme is CS-1. Current coding scheme is CS-1. 2.

the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. This means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the condition of BLER < BLER_CP_CS2. This means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the condition of BLER < BLER_CP_CS1. If this is the case. confirm CS-2? Hypothesis: BLER > BLER_CP_CS2. If this is the case. 4. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Reset counters N_Number and K_Number (CS-1 is confirmed). P-value = If P-value is less than a certain risk level. the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. This means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the condition of BLER > BLER_CP_CS2. then it can be concluded that BLER > BLER_CP_CS1. then it can be concluded that BLER < BLER_CP_CS2. Reset counters N_Number and K_Number. change to CS-1? Hypothesis: BLER < BLER_CP_CS2. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 121 . Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. P-value = If P-value is less than a certain risk level. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at least K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control P-value = If the P-value is less than a certain risk level. Current coding scheme is CS-2. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Change to CS-1. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS2. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Reset counters N_Number and K_Number (CS-2 is confirmed). Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS2. If this is the case. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. Current coding scheme is CS-2. then it can be concluded that BLER > BLER_CP_CS2. 3. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at most K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions.

they determine the sensitivity of the LA algorithm. however. The parameter DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) defines it in RLC acknowledged mode in downlink direction.CS-4 are supported. The new LA algorithm is based on the following principles: 122 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . the more quickly the LA algorithm is able react to changes in BLER by switching the coding scheme but on the other hand the reliability of the switching decision is lowered as the risk level is increased. Note. Note that RXQUAL is measured for each received RLC radio block. that when a GPRS MS already has a TBF and a new TBF is established for the MS to the opposite direction. which has only two levels: 0 and 1. DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) and UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU). The Risk Level parameters (UL adaption probability threshold (ULA) and DL adaption probability threshold (DLA)) describe the probability with which the LA algorithm may make a wrong conclusion to reject a given hypothesis. The BTS level parameters DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA). DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) and UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) define whether the fixed CS value (CS-1 . The larger the risk level. the initial values for the CS at the beginning of a TBF can also be defined with the parameters DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA). which describes the channel quality with the accuracy of eight levels (RXQUAL is expressed with three bits).CS-4) is used or if the coding scheme is changed dynamically according to the Link Adaptation algorithm. UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA). The new Link Adaptation algorithm can be used both in RLC acknowledged and in unacknowledged modes both in uplink and downlink direction. On a block basis RXQUAL is thus more accurate estimate than the BLER. then the initial value of the CS of the new TBF is set to be the same that is currently used by the ongoing TBF. The new Link Adaptation algorithm replaces the current LA algorithm in GPRS and covers the coding schemes: • • • CS-1 and CS-2 if the CS-3 and CS-4 support is not enabled in the territory CS-1. if there is no room in the dynamic Abis pool for the higher CS allowed by the LA. UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA). The BTS level parameter adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) defines whether the Link Adaptation algorithm is adaptive or not. When the Link Adaptation algorithm is deployed. UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) defines it in RLC acknowledged mode in uplink direction and so on. The PCU chooses a lower CS than what the Link Adaptation algorithm allows. if the CS3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory The signal quality is measured for each TBF in terms of RXQUAL.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description In practice the threshold K_Number values have been computed beforehand to look-up tables indexed with respect to the N_Number and the link adaptation decisions can be performed by simply comparing the observed K_Number with the theshold K_Number values. PCU2 The Link Adaptation algorithm In PCU2 the coding schemes CS-1 . In other words. CS-2. CS-3 and CS-4.

the RLC does not update ACKS and NACKS tables but only the initial values of those tables will be used when the LA algorithm selects the optimal CS. The new LA algorithm adapts to the radio characteristics of the cell because the BLER is dynamically measured as a function of RXQUAL and coding scheme. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was originally transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value received in this particular Packet DL Ack/Nack message. NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. Based on the statistics (common for all the TBFs in the cell) and the received RXQUAL estimate (specific to the given TBF). In this procedure. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value received in this particular Packet DL Ack/Nack message. The PCU has separate ACKS and NACKS tables as well as separate initialisation for hopping and non-hopping BTSs. if a positive acknowledgement is received. To solve this.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control • • • The PCU determines internally the average BLER separately for each coding scheme and reported RXQUAL value. The ACKS and NACKS tables contain ever-increasing figures. CS3 or CS4 were deployed for this TBF. This is done separately in each cell by collecting statistics continuously from all the connections in the corresponding cell. Therefore. Moreover. both figures are divided by 2. Therefore. There can be eight different values for the RXQUAL. the operation of the LA algorithm is initially based on the simulation results. During the DL data transfer the mobile station measures the signal quality (RXQUAL) from the RLC radio blocks that are successfully decoded and addressed to the mobile station. the received bitmap is analysed and the corresponding RLC blocks are marked as ACKED. The RXQUAL is averaged over the received RLC blocks and the averaged RXQUAL estimate is sent to the network in the Packet DL Ack/Nack messages. When the PCU receives a valid Packet DL Ack/Nack message for the DL TBF that operates in an RLC acknowledged mode. Initially the ACKS and NACKS tables are initialised with values obtained from the simulations. if a negative acknowledgement is received. the RLC updates the ACKS and NACKS tables as follows: • Whenever an RLC block is positively acknowledged. based on these BLER estimates the PCU can compute which coding scheme would give the best performance. when the sum (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) for CS and RXQ exceeds a certain threshold value. ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. the first index refers to the coding scheme and the second index refers to the RXQUAL value. there is no need for pre-determined threshold values that are traditionally used in link adaptation. the PCU is able to estimate what the BLER would be if CS1. In the long run the figures would overflow resulting in erroneous behavior. or as NACKED. Coding scheme selection in downlink direction in RLC acknowledged mode DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 123 . • If the value of the parameter adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) is N (disabled). Whenever an RLC block is negatively acknowledged. In these tables. CS2. Operation in downlink direction The PCU uses two 2-dimensional tables (ACKS and NACKS) for the LA operation (another set of ACKS and NACKS tables are needed for UL direction). that is the highest throughput in RLC acknowledged mode.

the LA algorithm selects the optimal coding scheme for a TBF as follows: 1. CS-2. 124 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. otherwise CS = CS-1. The throughput of the link is estimated for each coding scheme separately as follows: throughput [CS] = K * ACKS [CS][RXQ] / (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) * RATE[CS]. The coding schemes that are in an unacknowledged mode are selected by choosing the highest CS for which BLER (CS) < QC_UNACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. The PCU uses two 2-dimensional tables (ACKS and NACKS) for LA operation. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS[CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]) and RXQ is the RXQUAL estimate that is received in the Packet DL Ack/Nack message. CS-2. Initially the ACKS and NACKS tables are initialised to the values obtained from the simulations. which is expressed with three bits. then the coding scheme is changed to CS-2. If three subsequent Packet DL Ack/Nack messages are missed with CS-2. In these tables. If the MS does not aswer to polling. the coding number will be decreased step-by-step as follows: • • • If one Packet DL Ack/Nack message is missed with CS-4. The correction factor K depends on the BLER and on the number of RLC radio blocks scheduled to the TBF within the RLC acknowledgement delay. Coding scheme selection in downlink direction in RLC unacknowledged mode In unacknowledged mode RLC does not have to update the ACKS and NACKS tables but it can use the same ACKS and NACKS tables updated by the TBFs in acknowledged mode. the first index refers to the coding scheme and the second index refers to the RXQUAL or GMSK BEP value. Its value has been determined by simulations. where: CS = CS-1. The PCU has separate ACKS and NACKS tables as well as separate initialisation for hopping and non-hopping BTSs. CS-3. If these conditions are not fulfilled the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. If no CS fulfills this condition.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description After the bitmap is processed. then the coding scheme is changed to CS-3. CS-4. if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory. In this case the only possible coding schemes are CS-1 and CS-2. If two subsequent Packet DL Ack/Nack messages are missed with CS-3. where BLER(CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS[CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]). The PCU data frame used in the non-EDGE Abis interface reports the channel quality in terms of RXQUAL. • K is a correction factor that takes into account the throughput reduction due to the RLC protocol stalling • RXQ is the RXQUAL value that was received in the newly-processed Packet DL Ack/Nack message • RATE[4] -table contains the theoretical maximum throughput values for the available channel coding schemes 2. then the coding scheme is changed to CS-1 Operation in uplink direction In UL direction the channel quality estimate can be either RXQUAL or GMSK_BEP depending on the Abis interface. The coding scheme is selected based on the highest throughput with the condition of BLER (CS) < QC_ACK_BLER_LIMIT_T .

This is done for each uplink TBF. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS [CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]). CS-2. The GMSK_BEP estimate is made also from the bad frames because the GMSK_BEP estimate for successfully received CS-4 blocks alone approaches zero in all radio conditions (there is no error correction in CS-4). CS-3. otherwise CS = CS-1. where: CS = CS-1. If no CS fulfills this condition. RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF and RATE [4] -table contains the theoretical maximum throughput values for the available channel coding schemes. Coding scheme selection in uplink direction in RLC acknowledged mode 1. ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. The throughput of the link is estimated for each coding scheme separately as follows: throughput [CS] = K * ACKS [CS][RXQ] / (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) * RATE [CS]. if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory. NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS [CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]) and RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. During the UL data transfer the PCU updates the ACKS and NACKS tables as follows: Whenever a new RLC block is successfully received. If these conditions are not fulfilled for any CS the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control In case of RXQUAL. CS-4. K is a correction factor that takes into account the throughput reduction due to the RLC protocol stalling. Whenever a RLC block is received unsuccessfully. CS-2. 2. both figures are divided by 2. This is done for each UL TBF. As in the DL case the figures in the ACKS and NACKS tables are limited so that when the sum (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) for certain CS and RXQ exceeds a certain threshold value. The coding schemes are selected in unacknowledged mode as follows: The coding schemes that are in an unacknowledged mode are selected by choosing the highest CS for which BLER (CS) < QC_UNACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. the RLC averages the RXQUAL estimates sent by the BTS for the correctly received RLC radio blocks. Coding scheme selection in uplink direction in RLC unacknowledged mode In unacknowledged mode the RLC message does not have to update the ACKS and NACKS tables but it can use the same ACKS and NACKS tables that are updated by the TBFs in acknowledged mode. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. The coding scheme is selected based on the highest throughput with the condition of BLER (CS) <QC_ACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 125 . the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. the RLC averages the GMSK_BEP estimates sent by the BTS for both correctly and erroneously received RLC radio blocks. In case of GMSK_BEP. The same correction factor table K can be used as in the DL case.

.018/.12 MS Radio Access Capability update When the PCU needs to know the MS's RAC information.018.. the power control is not as effective as for circuit switched traffic. • Uplink power control M S Outpu t Po we r (dBm) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 gamma_ch = 30 alfa = 0. The gamma parameter ( Γ CH in the figure) sets the minimum MS output power level... and parameter RAC_UPDATE_RETRIES defines RA-CAPABILITY-UPDATE-RETRIES /48. Power control is used for optimising the signal strength from MS to BTS.45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 10 10 11 0 5 0 Signal Strength (dBm) Figure 24 Uplink power control The power of each block needs to be sufficient for two MSS: • • The MS receiving the data The MS receiving the Uplink State Flag (USF determines the uplink transmission turn in case several mobiles have been assigned to the same uplink PDTCH)... and the alpha parameter ( α in the figure) sets the slope for field strength effect to uplink power level. 9.018/. There are two PRFILE parameters controlling the procedure.. 126 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The operator can use the cell-specific parameters binary representation ALPHA (ALPHA) and binary representation TAU (GAMMA) to optimise the signal strength. Due to the data bursts in traffic.8 gamma_ch = 20. the PCU initiates an MS RAC enquiry from the SGSN. The enquiry is carried out by the Gb interface Radio Access Capability Update procedure defined in 3GPP 48... alfa = 0.11 Power control GPRS power control consists of the uplink power control.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 9. but the information is not available in the PCU.. Parameter TGB_RAC_UPDATE defines T5 /48...3 .

you only need to activate GPRS again in the cell or the TRX to bring GPRS into use. Before you start To enable GPRS in a BSC. see Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS. starting from disabling GPRS on a cell level to deleting the Routing Areas (RAs) and removing the Gb interface connection and required units. You can implement GPRS in the network by using BSC MMI or NetAct. Typical instances for modifying GPRS are caused by changes in capacity. For detailed instructions. and not to disable GPRS altogether. you must have valid licences for the following: • • PCU or PCU2 GPRS or EGPRS Steps 1 2 Enable GPRS in the BSC. Further information • • Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS Enabling GPRS in the GSM radio network in NetAct Product Documentation DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b66 127 . Modify GPRS. 3 Disable GPRS in the BSC.1 Implementing GPRS overview Purpose Implementing GPRS means activating GPRS in BSC.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Implementing GPRS 10 Implementing GPRS 10. and related tasks could thus be. for example. This way. It is possible to disable GPRS on a cell or TRX level. GPRS parameters can be modified with Plan Editor and the Routing Area can be created with CM Editor. In NetAct. modifying the Gb interface or routing areas (RAs). Disabling GPRS is a reverse operation to that of taking GPRS into use.