Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE BSS, rel.

RG10(BSS), operating documentation, issue 05

Feature description

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description
DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Approval Date 2010-06-04

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This documentation is intended for the use of Nokia Siemens Networks customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be used, reproduced, modified or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Siemens Networks. The documentation has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Siemens Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this documentation concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products are given "as is" and all liability arising in connection with such hardware or software products shall be defined conclusively and finally in a separate agreement between Nokia Siemens Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Siemens Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Siemens Networks will, if deemed necessary by Nokia Siemens Networks, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Siemens Networks will correct errors in this documentation as soon as possible. IN NO EVENT WILL Nokia Siemens Networks BE LIABLE FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENTATION OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY LOSSES, SUCH AS BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFIT, REVENUE, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY OR DATA,THAT MAY ARISE FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION IN IT. This documentation and the product it describes are considered protected by copyrights and other intellectual property rights according to the applicable laws. The wave logo is a trademark of Nokia Siemens Networks Oy. Nokia is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Siemens is a registered trademark of Siemens AG. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright © Nokia Siemens Networks 2010. All rights reserved

f

Important Notice on Product Safety
Elevated voltages are inevitably present at specific points in this electrical equipment. Some of the parts may also have elevated operating temperatures. Non-observance of these conditions and the safety instructions can result in personal injury or in property damage. Therefore, only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the system. The system complies with the standard EN 60950 / IEC 60950. All equipment connected has to comply with the applicable safety standards.

The same text in German: Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit In elektrischen Anlagen stehen zwangsläufig bestimmte Teile der Geräte unter Spannung. Einige Teile können auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen. Eine Nichtbeachtung dieser Situation und der Warnungshinweise kann zu Körperverletzungen und Sachschäden führen. Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die Anlagen installiert und wartet. Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Angeschlossene Geräte müssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfüllen.

2

Id:0900d80580782d3f

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Table of Contents
This document has 127 pages. Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 GPRS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS data transfer protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimised GPRS Radio Resource Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Relay and Gb Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS in Nokia Siemens Networks Base Stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Software related to GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Uplink TBF Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS Coding Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link Adaptation for GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priority Class Based Quality of Service (QoS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Level Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on BSS performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC MMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS MMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements and counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interworking with other features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of GPRS related software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on BSS performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interworking with other features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 15 17 19 21 22 22 23 26 27 29 32 32 33 34 34 35 35 35 35 39 40 45 46 46 47 47 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 59

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

Id:0900d80580782d3f

3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. 94 BTS selection for packet traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Additional GPRS hardware needed in BSCi and BSC2i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Quality of Service .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Paging . . . . . . . .8 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Gb interface configuration and state management . . . . . . . . . . 68 Impact on NetAct products . .1 5. . . .3 7. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .8 9 9. . . . . . .2 7 7. . 69 Requirements for GPRS . . . 68 Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Load sharing function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . 62 Interworking with other features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 8. .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Radio resource management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Impact on mobile terminals . 64 User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 4 Id:0900d80580782d3f DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Radio network management for GPRS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Protocol stack of the Gb interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6 6. . . . . 109 Mobile terminated TBF (GPRS) . . . . . . . 59 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . 96 Channel allocation and scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Packet Control Unit (PCU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . 104 Error situations in GPRS connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Data Transfer Protocols and Connections . . . . .4 8. . .1 6. . . . . . . . 105 GPRS radio connection control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . .3. .5 8 8. . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Recovery in restart and switchover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 BVC management function . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Circuit switched traffic channel allocation in GPRS territory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . .3. . . . 103 MS Multislot Power Reduction (PCU2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Mobile originated TBF. . . . . . . 80 NS-VC management function . .8 4. . . . . . . 88 Territory method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . 62 System impact of System Level Trace . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Interworking with other features . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Radio channel usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Impact on BSS performance. . 64 Impact on BSS performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Routing Area . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. .6 8. .3. .7 4. . . . 70 Gb interface functionality . . . . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5 5. . . . . . . . . . 76 PCU selection algorithm . . . 59 User interface . . . .

. . . . . . .8 9. . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . .9 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MS Radio Access Capability update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 116 116 117 119 126 126 Implementing GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flush . . . . . . .11 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 10 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell selection and re-selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Implementing GPRS overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coding scheme selection in GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Suspend and resume GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic administration . Power control . . . . . . 127 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d3f 5 . . . . . . . . . .10 9. . .

. . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 GPRS network seen by another data network . 13 Transmission plane . 79 Territory method in BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Gb logical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Protocol stack of the Gb interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Architecture of the GPRS network and related network elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Trace activation/deactivation and report generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Air interface traffic management . . . . . . . . . . 17 Example of a GPRS capable cell . . . . . . . . . . 101 Extended Dynamic Allocation MAC mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 PCU connections to BTS and SGSN when Frame Relay is used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 6 Id:0900d80580782d3f DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . . . . . . . 91 Dynamic Allocation MAC mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN when Frame Relay (FR) is used 75 Relationship of Routing Areas and PCUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Example of transmission turns .SGSN interface . . . . . . . . . . . 17 GPRS DCH dedicated channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Transmission and reception data flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 GPRS architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Gb interface . . . 89 GPRS territory upgrade when a timeslot is cleared for GPRS use with an intra cell handover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Uplink power control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 GPRS Coding Schemes . . 76 The protocol stack on the Gb interface . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Required software . . . . 63 Required software . . . . . . . 54 Required software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 BVC blocking cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description List of Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Table 18 Table 19 Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Table 24 Table 25 Table 26 Table 27 Table 28 Table 29 Table 30 Table 31 Table 32 Table 33 Table 34 Table 35 Table 36 Table 37 Table 38 Table 39 Table 40 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware . 66 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Counters of Frame Relay Measurement . . 34 Counters of Packet Control Unit Measurement related to GPRS . . . 61 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Defining the margin of idle TCH/Fs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement related to GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode on BSC units . . 105 RX Quality Limit for UL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . % . . . . . . . 56 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 PCU maximum connectivity per logical PCU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Required software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 NS-VC operational states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Counters of 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Defining the margin of idle TCHs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Impact of GPRS on BSC units . . . . 110 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d3f 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Impact of System Level Trace on BSC units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Required software by network elements . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Counters of RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement . . . . . . 94 GMSK Mean BEP Limit for UL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Counters of PCU Utilization Measurement . . 44 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement . . 59 Radio network parameters for Priority Based Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Counters of GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 PCUs in BSC product variants . . . . . . . . . . 85 BVC reset cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Supported Network Operation Modes . . . . . . . . . 81 NS-VC reset cases . 67 CS and MCS codecs in the initial coding scheme and new MCS fields 68 Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU product family . 58 Impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service on BSC units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 BVC operational states . . . . . . . 45 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware. . . .

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 8 Id:0900d80580782d3f DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

Information on PCU2 capacity has been updated. Chapter Software related to GPRS has been modified to only include descriptions of such GPRS-related features that do not have their own separate description documents. System Level Trace Section System Level Trace in BSC has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. GPRS Coding Schemes Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Internal PCU2-E restrictions have been added. Changes made between issues 3-1 and 3-0 Information on InSite BTS has been removed. GPRS Coding Schemes Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. Chapters Support for PBCCH/PCCCH and System impact of Support for PBCCH/PCCCH have been removed. System impact of System Level Trace Software versions have been updated to S14 level.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Summary of changes Summary of changes Changes between document issues are cumulative. System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Requirements for GPRS Information on Flexi BSC and PCU2-E has been added. System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Changes made between issues 2-0 and 1-1 The contents of GPRS in BSC have been merged into this document. Chapters Dynamic Abis and System Impact of Dynamic Abis have been moved from this document to Dynamic Abis. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d39 9 . System impact of GPRS Software versions have been updated to S14 level. the latest document issue contains all changes made to previous issues. Therefore. Changes made between issues 3-0 and 2-0 GPRS References have been updated. The capacity information has been updated. Information regarding the feature BSS21238 “Merged P-&E-GSM900” has been updated in section Interworking with other features in the chapter System impact of GPRS. Changes made between issues 3-2 and 3-1 Information on Flexi Multiradio and BTSplus support have been added.

System Documentation pilot release. 110 PCU Utilization Measurement has been added. System impact of System Level Trace Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. BSS12. 91 PBCCH Availability Measurement has been removed. System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. New counters have been added to 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. Radio resource management The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. A reference to Multipoint Gb Interface has been added. Section PACKET PSI STATUS procedure has been removed. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. Radio network management for GPRS The chapter has been moved here from (E)GPRS in BSC. New PRFILE parameters have been added.PGSM 900 BTS has been updated. Changes made between issues 1-1 and 1-0 Changes made between issues 1-1 and 1-0 lists the changes made to the document after the GSM/EDGE BSS. A reference to Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling has been added. Gb interface configuration and state management The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. New counters have been added to 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement. The following changes have been made: • PCU2 support for PBCCH/PCCCH has been removed from chapter Packet Control Unit in BSC. GPRS radio connection control The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. Interworking with EGSM 900 . The name of alarm 3273 (E)GPRS TERRITORY FAILURE has been updated to 3273 GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE.Summary of changes BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. Section Restrictions has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. Extended Cell Range restriction has been removed. Requirements for GPRS The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. The GPRS implementing instructions have been combined into a single chapter. System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. 10 Id:0900d80580782d39 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Rel. A reference to GPRS/EDGE Support for PGSM-EGSM BTS was added.

Applications that need less than one time slot benefit from GPRS's ability to share one time slot among several users. but the interoperability of existing circuit switched functionalities needs to be taken into account. the line is occupied even when no data is transferred in a packet-switched system. GPRS connections use the resources only for a short period of time when sending or receiving data: • • in a circuit-switched system. the high bitrates that GPRS provides by using multiple time slots give short response times. The data to be transferred is encapsulated into short packets with a header containing the originating and destination address. GPRS makes the radio interface usage more efficient: • • • GPRS enables a fast method for reserving radio channels GPRS uses the same resources with circuit switched connection by sharing the overhead capacity GPRS provides immediate connectivity and high throughput. BTS and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) transfer GPRS data. GPRS is therefore well adapted to the bursty nature of data applications. even if a lot of data is transmitted. GPRS is licence key controlled. Benefits of GPRS GPRS offers the following additional benefits for the operators/end users: • • • resources are used more efficiently. GPRS uses statistical multiplexing instead of static time division multiplexing: when the user is ready to receive new data. Support for coding schemes CS-3 and CS-4 is an application software product that requires PCU2 and Dynamic Abis. and resources are again reserved only for the duration of transmitting the request and initiating a second data transfer. network capacity is allocated when needed and released when not needed. application. No pre-set time slots are used. On a general level. Moreover. thus there is less idle time circuit switched traffic is prioritised. and businesses for the operators DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 11 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS 1 GPRS General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) provides packet data radio access for GSM mobile phones. but quality is guaranteed by reserving time slots for GPRS traffic only new services. Instead. BSC operational software includes support for GPRS coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2. from less than 100 bit/s to over 100 kbit/s. GPRS has minimal effects on the handling of circuit switched calls. It upgrades GSM data services to allow an interface with Local Area Networks (LANs). Wide Area Networks (WANs) and the Internet. The main functions of the BSC with GPRS are to: • • • • • manage GPRS-specific radio network configuration control access to GPRS radio resources share radio resources between GPRS and circuit switched use handle signalling between the MS. the terminal sends a request. see Licence Management in BSC. GPRS offers a very flexible range of bitrates. the resources are released so they can be used by other subscribers. For more information.

When migrating to 3G services. Introducing UMTS will complement the GSM network – not replace it. An investment in the GPRS infrastructure is an investment in future services. These networks consider the GPRS to be a normal subnetwork. network management. 12 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . and transmission solutions to ensure an optimal investment to operators and high capacity and quality service for end users. Many of the 3G services are based on IP. preserving the Core Network investments is a top priority. A gateway in the GPRS network acts as a router and hides GPRS-specific features from the external data network. any service that can be run on top of IP protocols (the UDP or TCP transfer) is supported by the Nokia Siemens Networks GPRS solution (taking into account data rate and delay requirements). the Nokia Siemens Networks BSS offers GPRS support in the BSS with powerful radio resource management algorithms. scalability. The WAP is essential in creating applications that are 'useable' in the mobile environment (for example. optimised BSS network topology. GPRS paves the way and is already part of the third generation (3G) network infrastructure. and charging gateway with high capacity. Migration to 3G comprises deployment of the new WCDMA radio interface – served by the GSM and GPRS core networks. Required network changes Nokia Siemens Networks offers a total end-to-end General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) solution including the GPRS core. WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) based services see the GPRS as one carrier (UDP). and the GPRS Core network is the key step of introducing the IP service platform into the present GSM networks. the main objective of the GPRS is to offer access to standard data networks such as LAN using the TCP/IP protocol. as seen in the figure below. small screen display.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • fast connection set-up for end users high bit rate in data bursts possibility of being charged only for transferred data generally. Wireless Markup Language (WML) based services in the GPRS can be accessed using the standard WAP gateways. low data rates). As a part of the GPRS solution. While the current GSM system was originally designed with an emphasis on voice sessions. and carrier class availability.

GPRS is based on a number of new network elements: • • • Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) GPRS backbone Legal Interception Gateway (LIG).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS Figure 1 GPRS network seen by another data network GPRS is the first GSM Phase 2+ service that requires major changes in the network infrastructure. Figure 2 GPRS architecture Along with the new network elements. the following functions are needed: • • • GPRS-specific mobility management Network management capable of handling the GPRS-specific elements A new radio interface for packet traffic DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 13 . In addition to the current GSM entities.

Power Control Parameter Handling . Related topics in GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Extended Uplink TBF Mode GPRS Coding Schemes Link Adaptation for GPRS Priority Class Based Quality of Service (QoS) System Level Trace System impact of GPRS System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service System impact of System Level Trace Requirements for GPRS Radio network management for GPRS Gb interface configuration and state management Radio resource management GPRS radio connection control Implementing GPRS overview Other related topics Descriptions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BSS21228: Downlink Dual Carrier BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode BSS10045: Dynamic Abis BSS20094: Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE BSS20089: Extended Dynamic Allocation BSS10103: Gb over IP BSS20084: High Multislot Classes BSS20394: Inter-System Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection BSS20086: Multipoint Gb Interface BSS115006: Network-Assisted Cell Change BSS11112: Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection BSS20106: Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling Activating and testing BSS9006: GPRS .Abis Interface Configuration .GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • New security features for the GPRS backbone and a new ciphering algorithm New MAP and GPRS-specific signalling.Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC .Adjacent Cell Handling .Transceiver Handling .Gb Interface Handling Instructions Reference EA EE EG EQ ER ES EU FX 14 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC .GSM Timer and BSC Parameter Handling .

The Radio Link Control (RLC) function offers a reliable radio link to the upper layers. and SNDCP packets. The Medium Access Control (MAC) function handles the channel allocation and the multiplexing. The Logical Link Control (LLC) layer offers a secure and reliable logical link between the MS and the SGSN to upper layers and is independent of the lower layers. SMS. that is. the acknowledged and unacknowledged.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • PCU2 Service Terminal Commands 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace 27 GPRS Cell Re-selection Report 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement 74 Frame Relay Measurement 76 Dynamic Abis Measurement 79 Coding Scheme Measurement 90 Quality of Service Measurement 95 GPRS Cell Re-selection Measurement 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement 98 Gb Over IP Measurement 105 PS DTM Measurement 106 CS DTM Measurement 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary PAFILE Timer and Parameter List PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List 1. re-assembly. the use of physical layer functions. The RLC and the MAC together form the OSI Layer 2 protocol for the Um interface. and multiplexing. The Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) is a mapping and compression function between the network layer and lower layers. The LLC conveys signalling. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 15 . It also performs segmentation.1 GPRS data transfer protocols Figure 3 Transmission plane The GSM RF is the normal GSM physical radio layer. The LLC layer has two transfer modes.

The Network Services relays the BSSGP packets over the Gb interface and has load sharing and redundancy on top of Frame Relay. and information related to timing advance measurements.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) transfers control information and data between a BSS and an SGSN. • For more information on the PCU. for example. and SN-PDUs are encapsulated into one or several LLC frames. The Network Protocol Data Units (N-PDU) are segmented into the Subnetwork Protocol Data Units (SN-PDU) by the Subnetwork Dependent Convergence (SNDC) protocol. 16 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . etc. including received quality level. The Relay function relays LLC PDUs (Protocol Data Units) between the LLC and BSSGP. See 3GPP TS 23. In the RLC/MAC layer. a selective ARQ protocol (including block numbering) between the MS and the network provides retransmission of erroneous RLC Data Blocks. When a complete LLC frame is successfully transferred across the RLC layer. The maximum size of the LLC frame is 1600 octets minus GP protocol control information. including buffering and retransmission of RLC blocks Channel access control functions. access requests and grants Radio channel management functions.064. The Packet Control Unit is responsible for the following GPRS MAC and RLC layer functions as defined in 3GPP TS 43.060 for information on SNDC and LLC.064: • • • • • • • LLC layer PDU segmentation into RLC blocks for downlink transmission LLC layer PDU re-assembly from RLC blocks for uplink transmission PDCH scheduling functions for the uplink and downlink data transfers PDCH uplink ARQ functions. received signal level. it is forwarded to the LLC layer. The details on SNDC can be found in 3GPP TS 44. power control. congestion control.065 and the details on LLC in 3GPP TS 44. for example. LLC frames are segmented into RLC Data Blocks. • The Channel Codec Unit (CCU) takes care of the channel coding functions. see Packet Control Unit (PCU). broadcast control information. including FEC and interleaving Radio channel measurement functions. including RLC block ack/nack PDCH downlink ARQ function. LLC frames are of variable length. The L1bis is a vendor-dependent OSI Layer 1 protocol.

2 Optimised GPRS Radio Resource Management The Nokia Siemens Networks BSS offers dynamic algorithms and parameters to optimise the use of radio resources. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 17 . The figure below introduces the dedicated GPRS DCH channels: Figure 5 GPRS DCH dedicated channels GPRS packets are sent uni-directionally. One or more packet data traffic channels (PDTCHs) are allocated for the TBF. A Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is made for every new data flow. A dynamic and flexible GPRS radio resource management is important in effective usage of the Air interface capacity to ensure maximum and secure data throughput. The TBF is used to send RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PCUs. The limited radio resources must be used effectively.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS Figure 4 Transmission and reception data flow 1. uplink and downlink are separate resources. by having simultaneous uplink and downlink packet transfers. An MS can also have a bi-directional connection while using GPRS.

The needs of different applications differ and mechanisms to have separate service levels are required. the operator can define dynamically multiple parameters related to network configuration. ETSI specifications define QoS functionality which gives the possibility to differentiate TBFs by delay.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The TBF reservations of PDTCHs are released when all the RLC/MAC blocks have been sent successfully. TRX 1 TRX 2 BCCH Circuit Switched Territory GPRS Territory Max GPRS Capacity Additional GPRS Capacity Dedicated GPRS Capacity Default GPRS Capacity Territory border moves based on Circuit Switched and GPRS traffic load Figure 6 Example of a GPRS capable cell The BSS is upgraded with enhanced RLC/MAC protocols and TRAU for the radio and Abis interfaces. All the full rate or dual rate traffic channels are GPRS capable. Circuit Switched (CS) traffic has priority over Packet Switched (PS) traffic. There will be no extra blocking to any user. Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) conveys signalling information related to a given MS. 18 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . such as: • • • • GPRS capacity cell by cell and TRX by TRX GPRS only traffic channels (Dedicated GPRS capacity) Default amount of GPRS capable traffic channels (Default GPRS capacity) and Whether BCCH TRX or non-BCCH TRX is preferred for GPRS. all users and all applications get the same service level. The PACCH is a bi-directional channel and is located in the PDCH. The adjustable parameters help the network planners to control and optimise GPRS radio resources. Basically all TBFs have the same priority. but Dedicated GPRS traffic channels are reserved to carry PS traffic. but the PDTCH is dedicated to one MS (TBF) at a time. the CS may use the Default GPRS traffic channels. but one TBF is receiving or sending at a time. With the GPRS solution. With Priority Based Scheduling the operator can give users different priorities so that higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users. It transmits signalling in both directions although data is transmitted (PDTCH) only in the assigned direction. Priority Based Scheduling is introduced as a first step towards QoS. throughput and priority. In a CS congestion situation. Multiple MSS can share one PDTCH. The number of TSLs allocated for a multislot MS is determined by the mobile's multislot capability and network resources. Reallocations are done when the transfer mode is changed between uni-directional (only uplink or downlink data transfer) and bi-directional (simultaneous uplink and downlink data transfer). that is. All the GPRS TBFs allocated to a PDTCH are served equally. This means that the PDTCH is reserved for multiple TBFs. only the experienced service quality changes.

For more information on Gb over IP. the operator can supply the need for fast GPRS channel reservations for the first data packets. or there can be a Frame Relay network located between the BSC and SGSN. and L1. Figure 7 Air interface traffic management Dedicated. For more information. the Extended Cell GPRS channels (EGTCH) in Extended TRX (E-TRX) are reserved only for fixed GPRS traffic and dynamic GPRS radio resource management is not used for them at all. The protocol stack comprises BSSGB. In cells where Base Band Frequency Hopping is in use. The physical layer is implemented as one or several PCM-E1 lines with G. Frame Relay as stated in standards is a part of the Network Service (NS) layer. IUO super reuse frequencies are not used for GPRS traffic. and additional GPRS TCHs form a GPRS pool consisting of consecutive radio interface timeslots. if the CS traffic load allows it. During peak GPRS traffic periods. default. On top of the physical layer in the Gb-interface. The following figure displays examples of Gb interface transmission solutions: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 19 . additional channels are switched to GPRS use. TSL 0 is not used for GPRS traffic. intra-cell handovers of CS connections may be needed to allow for the selection of consecutive timeslots for GPRS use. It is implemented using either Frame Relay or IP. see Gb over IP. the direct point-to-point Frame Relay connections or intermediate Frame Relay network can be used. Frame Relay can be either point-to-point (PCU–SGSN). but the feature itself can be used to release resources for GPRS usage. The FR network will be comprised of third-party off-the-shelf products. 1.703 interface. When the GPRS pool is upgraded. see Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE. New CS connections may be allocated to a TCH in the GPRS pool only when all the TCHs not belonging to the GPRS pool are occupied.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS The default GPRS capacity determines the number of traffic channels (TCHs). When Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE application software is used. NS. With these TCHs. which are always switched to the PCU when allowed by CS traffic load.3 Frame Relay and Gb Interface Gb is the interface between a BSC and an SGSN.

The logical structure of the point-to-point Gb interface is presented in the following figure: 20 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . It is possible to multiplex more than one Gb interface directly to the SGSN. and thus the multiplexing has to take place there as well. At least one timeslot of 64 kbps is needed for each activated PCU bearer. Considering the transmission protection. The Gb interface allows the exchange of signalling information and user data. The 2M carrying the Gb timeslots can be one of the BSC's existing ETs. or multiplex them on the A interface towards the MSC and cross-connect them to the SGSN from there. The Gb timeslots are transparently through connected in the TCSM and in the MSC. Normal cross-connect equipment. The PCU has to be installed into every BCSU for redundancy reasons. it is best to multiplex all Gb traffic to the same physical link to achieve possible transmission savings. It also allows many users to be multiplexed over the same physical resources. but the FR bearer has to be connected only to the active ones. This capacity cannot be shared with other cells connected to other PCUs in the BSC so there is no pooling. The Gb interface allows many users to be multiplexed over the same physical resources. One PCU1 can handle a maximum of 64 BTSs and 128 TRXs.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Figure 8 BSC . for example. One PCU2-D/PCU2-U can handle a maximum of 128 BTSs and 256 TRXs. Nokia Siemens Networks DN2 can be used for that purpose. If free capacity exists. The second solution (2) represents any transmission network that provides a point-topoint connection between the BSC and the SGSN. it also needs to be decided whether two Frame Relay bearers are needed for each PCU using different ETs (external 2Ms) or if the transmission is protected with cross connection equipment. The Gb interface allows the exchange of signalling information and user data. One PCU2-E can handle a maximum of 384 BTSs and 1024 TRXs. the SGSN will be located in the MSC site. In many cases.SGSN interface In the first solution (1) spare capacity of Ater and A interfaces is used for the Gb. or an ET can be dedicated to the Gb interface. In the third solution (3) Frame Relay network is used.

routed via TCH channels in Abis. the MS will use the continuous timing advance update procedure.0 kbps In Packet Transfer Mode. Each Bearer channel carries one to four Network Service Virtual Connections (NS-VC). The procedure is carried out on all PDCH timeslots.9. The BCCH/CCCH is scheduled by the BTS.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS Figure 9 Gb logical structure In the BSC. Each BTS has a BSSGP Virtual Connection of its own. Each PCU can have one to four (ffs) FR bearer channels.4 kbps CS-3 (Channel Coding Scheme 3) . It consists of 52 TDMA frames.05 kbps CS-2 (Channel Coding Scheme 2) . The NSE takes care of the multiplexing of BSSGP Virtual Connections into the NS Virtual Connections and load sharing between the different NS Virtual Connections (= Bearer Channels). The CCU (Channel Coding Unit) in the BTS DSP performs channel coding for the following rates: • • • • CS-1 (Channel Coding Scheme 1) .4 GPRS in Nokia Siemens Networks Base Stations Radio resources are allocated by the BSC (PCU). divided into 12 blocks (of four frames) and four idle frames. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 21 . The Access Rate of a FR Bearer Channel can be configured in 64kbit steps. The mapping in time of these logical channels is defined by a multi-frame structure.4 kbps CS-4 (Channel Coding Scheme 4) . GPRS data itself is transparent to the BTS. messages are routed via TRXSIG link between the BTS and BSC. The following figure displays the Gb protocol layers: Figure 10 Gb interface 1. each PCU represents one Network Service Entity with own Identifier (NSEI).14.20.13.

Using PACCH enables faster TBF establishment compared to using CCCH. the same uplink TBF can be used and data transmission can be reactivated. Right after the MS has new data to send. 4 GERAN feature package 1 mobile stations. Extended Uplink TBF Mode requires 3GPP Rel. Without Extended Uplink TBF Mode a new uplink TBF has to be established after every inactive period. • • • Related topics • Activating and Testing BSS11151: Extended Uplink TBF Mode 22 Id:0900d8058077eaf4 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Extended UL TBF Mode saves capacity. because it decreases the number of random access procedures during and after an active stream. When both the MS and the network support Extended Uplink TBF Mode. causing more delay and signalling load.Software related to GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2 Software related to GPRS 2. for example. Without Extended UL TBF Mode. which increases the perceived service quality by the end user. the release of the current TBF is required and a new one is established. in speech delivery in PoC. Occasional short breaks in data transmission do not delay the activation of a new Uplink TBF. the release of the uplink TBF can be delayed even if the MS occasionally has nothing to transmit. when a TBF is needed for the other direction. Benefits of the Nokia Siemens Networks solution • With Extended UL TBF Mode the UL TBF release can be delayed in order to make it possible to establish the following downlink TBF using Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH). Extended UL TBF Mode is effective in preventing the breaks in data transfer. Extended UL TBF Mode allows the mobile station to continue the data transfer if it gets more data to send when the countdown procedure has begun. where the mobile station has no data to send.1 Extended Uplink TBF Mode With Extended Uplink TBF Mode the uplink TBF may be maintained during temporary inactive periods.

Dynamic Abis makes it possible to use CS-3 and CS-4. Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 can be used in both GPRS and EGPRS territories.2 GPRS Coding Schemes GPRS provides four coding schemes. Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 Before the introduction of Dynamic Abis. Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are an application software product and require a valid licence in the BSC. from CS-1 to CS-4. By using PCU1 and 16 kbit/s Abis links.4 kbit/s per channel. CS1 and CS2 offer data rates of 8. only CS-1 and CS-2 GPRS coding schemes were supported because of Abis frame restrictions. With PCU-1. With the rates of 14.0 kbps. or Link Adaptation (LA). All GPRS-capable mobile stations support CS-3 and CS-4.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. and both CS-1 and CS-2 are supported. Figure 11 GPRS Coding Schemes Coding schemes CS-1-CS-4 can be used in unacknowledged RLC mode with PCU2. CS-3 and CS-4 provide a considerable gain in data rates for GPRS mobile stations not supporting EGPRS (the mandatory RLC header octets are excluded from the data rate values). Retransmitted RLC data blocks must be sent with the same coding as was used initially. RLC data blocks are acknowledged. offering data rates from 9. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eadb 23 . Each TBF can use either a fixed coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2). With average real network conditions (average C/I value distribution) a throughput increase of 0-30% can be achieved depending on the network’s C/I values. it is possible to support CS-1 and CS-2. CS-3 and CS-4 can boost GPRS throughput bit rates by a maximum of 60% compared to CS-1 & CS-2. For hardware requirements. The link adaptation algorithm is based on the RLC BLER (Block Error Rate).4 and 20. Requirements The hardware and software requirements of Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are specified in the tables below. In acknowledged mode. see section Requirements.05 to 21.0 kbps per timeslot. coding scheme CS-1 is always used in unacknowledged RLC mode.0 and 12.

1 EP2 CX6.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Network element BSC BTS Hardware/firmware required PCU2 The BaseBand hardware of the BTS must support Dynamic Abis. EQO BSC radio network object parameters The following parameters are introduced due to Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4: • • • • coding schemes CS3 and CS4 enabled (CS34) DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) 24 Id:0900d8058077eadb DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . No requirements No requirements TCSM SGSN Table 1 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 BRG1 EX3. EDGE capable TRXs are required.0 CXM6. BSC MMI The following MML commands are used to handle Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4: • Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQV.2 CD Set 1 Table 2 Required software by network elements User interface BTS MMI Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 cannot be managed with BTS MMI.0 Not supported Not applicable Not applicable OSS4.

see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) Due to a new Link Adaptation algorithm the following existing parameters are no longer relevant when CS-3 and CS-4 is used: • • coding scheme no hop (COD) coding scheme hop (CODH) For more information on radio network parameters. see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List. Interworking with other features CS-3 and CS-4 do not fit into one 16kbit/s Abis/PCU channel and require the use of Dynamic Abis and EDGE TRXs. PRFILE parameters The values of the following MS-specific flow control parameters must be increased due to CS-3 and CS-4: • • • FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF FC_MS_R_DEF FC_R_TSL. Alarms The following new alarm is introduced due to Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4: • 3273 GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE For more information. Measurements and counters Two new object values are added to the 79 Coding Scheme Measurement due to Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4. For more information on PRFILE parameters. No new counters are needed. Related topics • • Activating and testing BSS11088: Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 79 Coding Scheme Measurement DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eadb 25 . see Diagnosis Reports (3700-3999).

The PCU determines the average BLER value separately for each BTS by continuously collecting statistics from all the connections in the territory in question. The LA algorithm measures the signal quality for each TBF in terms of the received signal quality (RXQUAL).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary. The new LA algorithm can be used in both RLC acknowledged and unacknowledged modes in both uplink and downlink direction. Although the Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are licence-based. Regardless of the parameter values. 26 Id:0900d80580590b3b DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .3 Link Adaptation for GPRS From BSS11. RXQUAL is measured for each received RLC block. the initial CS value at the beginning of a TBF is CS-2. the use of which depends on the PCU type (PCU1 or PCU2). the LA algorithm determines which coding scheme will give the best performance. whether a fixed CS value (CS-1 . Based on the estimates. The BSC level parameters coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) define whether a fixed CS value (CS-1 or CS-2) is used or if the coding scheme changes dynamically according to the LA algorithm. Link Adaptation algorithm for PCU1 The GPRS Link Adaptation (LA) algorithm selects the optimum channel coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2) for a particular RLC connection and is based on detecting the occurred RLC block errors and calculating the block error rate (BLER). The parameters can also be used to define the initial CS value at the beginning of a TBF: • • • • • DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) For more information on radio network parameters. there are two GPRS Link Adaptation algorithms. the LA algorithm is provided with PCU2. CS-3. which replaces the previous GPRS LA algorithm and covers the following coding schemes: • • CS-1 and CS-2 if CS-3 and CS-4 support is disabled in the territory in question CS-1. Link Adaptation algorithm for PCU2 A new Link Adaptation algorithm is introduced with PCU2. and CS-4 if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory in question The following BTS-level parameters define. CS-2. CS-1 is always used in unacknowledged RLC mode. When the LA algorithm is deployed.5 onwards.CS4) is used or if the coding scheme changes dynamically according to the LA algorithm. which makes it a more accurate estimate than BLER.

In the BSS10. It is also an effective countermeasure against buffer overflows in the PCU. Mobile-specific flow control is part of the QoS solution in the PCU. in these cases the PCU always uses Best Effort priority. Each TBF allocated to a timeslot has a timeslot-specific latest service time. The allocation process is designed to ensure that better priority TBFs are not gathered into the same radio timeslot. PCU2 implementation emulates this operation closely. The PCU receives the QoS (Precedence class) information to be used in DL TBFs from the SGSN in a DL unitdata PDU.4 Priority Class Based Quality of Service (QoS) With Priority Based Scheduling. an operator can give users different priorities. the MS informs its radio priority in a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST (PCR) or a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST (PRR). There will be no extra blocking to any user. It works together with the SGSN to provide a steady data flow to the mobile from the network. In each scheduling round.5 release the step sizes depend on the priority class of the TBF: each priority class has its own scheduling step size that can be adjusted by the operator. before which the TBF should get a chance to use the radio resource. equal air time does not provide equal data rates for the TBFs in the same time slot. After the TBF has sent a radio block. In case of UL TBF. Mobile-specific flow control is performed for every MS that has a downlink TBF. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b3e 27 . the TBF with the lowest service time is selected. Exceptions to this rule are one phase access and single block requests. After that packets with a higher priority are sent before packets that have a lower priority. The priority based scheduling algorithm hands out radio resources according to the latest service time and scheduling step size of the TBFs. The concept of ‘Priority Class’ is based on a combination of the GPRS Delay class and GPRS Precedence class values. The best effort customers are an exception to the rule and are only given a small share of the radio interface. the less often the TBF is selected and given a transmission turn. The higher the scheduling step size. Priority based scheduling algorithm The description below covers the PCU1 implementation. only the experienced service quality changes. its latest service time is incremented by a predefined scheduling step size. Packets will be evenly scattered within the (E)GPRS territory between different time slots.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. Priority Class Based Quality of service is an operating software in the BSC and is always active in an active PCU. it only guarantees that inside a QoS group the air time is divided equally and that a higher QoS class gets more air time. TBFs in the same time slot that have the same QoS get an equal share of air time. Higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users. and this is used for UL QoS. There are 4 QoS classes for uplink and 3 QoS classes for downlink. However. The subscriber priority must be defined in the HLR once Priority Class Based QoS is taken into use. Each service class is given a fair amount of radio time. In BSS9 (GPRS Release 1) the scheduling steps of all TBFs are set to the same constant value. There is no uplink flow control.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Figure 12 Example of transmission turns 28 Id:0900d80580590b3e DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

GSM tracing is available in the network elements of the GSM network to trace circuit switched calls. new tracing facilities are needed. and OSS. where it refers both to subscriber tracing (activated using IMSI) and equipment tracing (activated using IMEI). and BSS send trace records to OSS when an invoking event occurs. GGSN. The HLR. Therefore. MSC/HLR. The ETSI specifies the tracing facility for GSM. which extends the current GSM tracing to the GPRS service. SGSN) and changes old principles. BSC. Equipment tracing can be defined in the SGSN. and also the network quality of service as perceived by the PLMN. In particular. which can be used during system testing. The figure GPRS network and related network elements presents the overall picture of GPRS trace and shows all the network elements that can send trace reports to NetAct. SGSN. The network management can use the facility. in connection with a customer complaint. System Level Trace enables customer administration and network management to trace activities of various entities (IMSIs and IMEIs).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. for example. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b41 29 . but introduction of GPRS-service adds new network elements to the GSM network (GGSN. it may be used in conjunction with test-MSS to ascertain the digital cell 'footprint'. GGSN. it must be implemented in all main network elements of the GPRS network: the SGSN. In order to get full advantage of System Level Trace. The subscriber tracing can be defined for a certain subscriber in the HLR or in a specific SGSN. which result in events occurring in the PLMN. GPRS trace is activated by OSS. the network integrity.5 System Level Trace System Level Trace is an operating software. Figure 13 Trace activation/deactivation and report generation The trace is already implemented in the GSM network. a suspected equipment malfunction or if authorities request for a subscriber trace for example in an emergency situation. The trace facility is a useful maintenance aid and development tool.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Figure 14 Architecture of the GPRS network and related network elements Trace from an operator's viewpoint In the SGSN trace. the trace is activated directly via MMI commands to all SGSNs in an operator's network. the tracing is deactivated in the source BSC side and activated in the target BSC side by an SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE message from SGSN. the HLR waits until the subscriber becomes active in HPLMN before it activates a trace in the SGSN. the HLR activates the trace in a specified SGSN. HPLMN operator tracing equipment (IMEI). When an operator wants to trace equipment. The trace of equipment is in a state of active pending until an invoking event occurs. System Level Trace in BSC The SGSN invokes the trace by sending a BSSGP SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE (3GPP TS 48. The amount of active trace cases can be limited. In case of a handover between BSCs. The trace of a subscriber is in a state of active pending until an invoking event occurs. the trace is first activated in the HLR.018) message to the BSS when SGSN trace becomes active or when SGSN receives a trace request. • • The tracing of roaming IMSIs and the exchange of data is subject to bilateral agreements. 30 Id:0900d80580590b41 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . the trace is activated directly via MMI commands to all SGSNs in operator's network. The HPLMN operator can use the HLR parameters to define whether the trace settings are sent to the VPLMN. The BSS does not send an acknowledgement of the BSSGP message to the SGSN. HPLMN operator tracing a foreign roaming subscriber (IMSI) within its own HPLMN When an operator wants to trace a foreign subscriber. Otherwise. The amount of active trace cases can be limited. and the request to trace a particular IMSI comes through administrative channels. When the BSC receives this message it starts tracing. If a subscriber is not roaming outside the HPLMN and he/she is represented as a register in the HLR. three different scenarios can be identified from an operator's point of view: • HPLMN operator traces its own IMSI within the HPLMN When an operator wishes to trace a GPRS subscriber in its own (home) network.

GPRS RX Level and Quality Report GPRS RX Level and Quality Report is a report type needed to periodically record serving and neighbour cell measurements and quality data. For further information. so simultaneous TBF allocations produce multiple reports. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b41 31 . MCS changes and MS Flow Control changes. TBF Observation for GPRS Trace A TBF report is created when a subscriber performs actions causing an allocation of TBF in BSS during tracing. however. The BSC sends the generated trace reports to NetAct. see 27 GPRS Cell Re-selection Report. TBF release completes the report. GPRS Cell Re-selection Report GPRS Cell Re-selection is a trace report for GPRS trace. NACC usage and possible failures. the MS returns to source cell by Packet Cell Change failure. The report contains the following information: • • • downlink RX level of serving cell and neighbour cells from packet (enhanced) measurement report downlink RX quality class or BEP values from (EGPRS) PACKET DOWNLINK ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message uplink RX level and quality from BTS measurements. recorded events include TBF reallocations. or NCCR context is released in the PCU. For further information. the BSC replies with an error status. which is then ready for post-processing. The report is closed and sent further to NetAct when flush is received from the SGSN. If you attempt to start these observations (without trace) from NetAct.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The System Level Trace for GPRS in the BSC is implemented as three different observation types: • • • TBF Observation for GPRS Trace GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report GPRS RX Level and Quality Report These observations cannot. There is one report per each allocated TBF. For further information. During TBF allocation. In addition to TBF allocation and release. see 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report. be started or stopped by MML commands or from the NMS. TBF Observation for GPRS Trace records resource consumption by the user and call quality related transactions. The trace as a whole is handled only by the SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE messages from the SGSN. Trace reports are also stored in observation files on the BSC's disk. see 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace. It contains information about NCCR triggering.

coding schemes CS-3 & CS-4 require EDGE-capable TRXs (EDGE hardware and attached to EDAP) For the full use of GPRS all these need to be taken into consideration. where the location of the MS is handled separately by the SGSN and by the MSC/VLR even if some cooperation exists the network management must be capable of handling the GPRS-specific elements new security features for the GPRS backbone a new ciphering algorithm a new radio interface (Um) for packet data traffic new MAP and GPRS-specific signalling.0 CXM6. Additionally.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 3 System impact of GPRS The system impact of BSS09006: GPRS is specified in the sections below. Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs Software release required S13 BRG1 EX3. For an overview. 3. GPRS is licence key controlled. For implementation instructions.0 CX6. see GPRS.0 No requirements Table 3 Required software 32 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .1 EP2.1 Requirements The following network elements and functions are required to implement GPRS: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) GPRS backbone Point-to-multipoint Service Centre (PTM SC) Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG) Charging Gateway (CG) Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN Packet Control Unit (PCU) GPRS-specific mobility management. see Implementing GPRS overview. The radio interface and GPRS signalling are relevant to the functioning of the BSC.

Paging reorganisation is not supported. • To get BCCH recovery to work correctly. because of CS-3 & CS-4 implementation. there is a new Link Adaptation algorithm that uses all the Coding Schemes in both unacknowledged and in acknowledged RLC mode. when unlocked EDGE and nonEDGE-capable TRXs or unlocked CS–3 & CS–4 and non-CS–3 & CS–4capable TRXs exist in the same EGPRS or CS-3 & CS-4 enabled BTS: • If a BCCH TRX is EDGE hardware-capable. which are added to • • • • DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 33 . BTS testing cannot be executed on the packet control channel. In PCU2. If they use different PCM lines.) Frequency band support The BSC supports GPRS on the following frequency bands: • • • • • GSM 800 PGSM 900 EGSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 3. An EDGE/CS–3 & CS–4capable TRX has EDGE hardware and is added to EDAP. then all unlocked TRXs. GPRS territory can be defined to each BTS object separately.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Network element MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required M14 SG7 OSS4.2 CD Set 1 Table 3 Required software (Cont. if EGPRS or CS-3 & CS-4 is enabled in the BTS. In acknowledged RLC mode. and these TRXs cannot be attached to EDAP. In PCU1 Coding Scheme CS-1 is always used in unacknowledged RLC mode. it is recommended that the operator takes the following conditions into account. the Link Adaptation algorithm uses both CS-1 and CS-2. and it has the GTRX parameter set to Y. The master and slave channels must be cross-connected in the same way. In this case. added to EDAP. the EDAP and the TRXs tied to it shall use a single PCM line. radio timeslot 0 of any TRX in the BTS will not be used for GPRS. TRXs inside a BTS object must have common capabilities. transmission delay between the lines may differ. GPRS must be disabled in the non-EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable TRXs. This may cause a timing difference with the result that synchronisation between the master and slave channels is not successful.2 Restrictions • • • • If Baseband hopping is employed in a BTS. Network operation mode III is not supported. An exception to this is that EDGE-capable and non-EDGE-capable TRXs can be configured to the same BTS object. GPRS and EGPRS territories cannot both be defined to a BTS object at the same time. A non-EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable TRX has no EDGE hardware or it is not added to EDAP.

and has the parameter GTRX set to N. PCU1 does not support CS–3 & CS–4. are EDGE hardware-capable. The maximum output power is 2dB lower than with GMSK. TRX signalling No impact. This is fully compliant with 3GPP Rel 5. which have GTRX set to N. The BSS does not restrict the use of 8PSK modulation on TSL7 of the BCCH TRX. No impact Table 4 Impact of GPRS on BSC units Impact on BTS units No impact. • If a BCCH TRX is non EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable. and have GTRX set to Y. High Multislot Classes (HMC) or Dual Transfer Mode (DTM). see EDGE BTSs and hopping in System impact of EDGE in EDGE System Feature Description. should be marked Preferred BCCHs.3 Impact on transmission No impact. 3. Impact on BSC units BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact No impact No impact The PCU controls the GPRS radio resources and acts as the key unit in the following procedures: • • • • • TCSM GPRS radio resource allocation and management GPRS radio connection establishment and management data transfer coding scheme selection PCU statistics.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • EDAP. Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA). then all non-EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable unlocked TRXs. For information on restrictions when baseband hopping is used. using the highest output power.4 Impact on BSS performance OMU signalling No impact. see Dynamic Abis. 34 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . For restrictions related to Dynamic Abis. 3. should be marked Preferred BCCHs.

1 User interface BSC MMI The following command groups and MML commands are used to handle GPRS: • • • • • • • • Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC: EE GSM Timer and BSC Parameter Handling: EG Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQ Transceiver Handling: ER Power Control Parameter Handling: EU Gb Interface Handling: FX Licence and Feature Handling: W7 Parameter Handling: WO For more information on the command groups and commands. 3.5 3.3 BSC parameters Base Transceiver Station parameters • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GPRS non BCCH layer rxlev upper limit (GPU) GPRS non BCCH layer rxlev lower limit (GPL) direct GPRS access BTS (DIRE) max GPRS capacity (CMAX) GPRS rxlev access min (GRXP) GPRS MS txpwr max CCH (GTXP1) GPRS MS txpwr max CCH 1x00 (GTXP2) priority class (PRC) HCS threshold (HCS) RA reselect hysteresis (RRH) routing area code (RAC) GPRS enabled (GENA) network service entity identifier (NSEI) default GPRS capacity (CDEF) dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED) prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG) transport type (TRAT) coding schemes CS3 and CS4 enabled (CS34) BTS downlink throughput factor for CS1-CS4 (TFD) (PCU2) BTS uplink throughput factor for CS1-CS4 (TFU) (PCU2) quality control GPRS DL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGDRT) quality control GPRS UL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGURT) DL adaption probability threshold (DLA) DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 35 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS 3. see MML Commands under Reference/Commands in the PDF view. 3.5.2 BTS MMI GPRS cannot be managed with BTS MMl.5.5.

System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • UL adaption probability threshold (ULA) DL BLER crosspoint for CS selection no hop (DLB) UL BLER crosspoint for CS selection no hop (ULB) DL BLER crosspoint for CS selection hop (DLBH) UL BLER crosspoint for CS selection hop (ULBH) coding scheme no hop (COD) (PCU1) coding scheme hop (CODH) (PCU1) DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) (PCU2) UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) (PCU2) DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) (PCU2) UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) (PCU2) adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) (PCU2) EGPRS inactivity alarm weekdays (EAW) EGPRS inactivity alarm start time (EAS) EGPRS inactivity alarm end time (EAE) Adjacent Cell parameters • • • • adjacent GPRS enabled (AGENA) HCS signal level threshold (HCS) GPRS temporary offset (GTEO) GPRS penalty time (GPET) Gb Interface Handling parameters • • • • • • • data link connection identifier (DLCI) committed information rate (CIR) network service virtual connection identifier (NSVCI) network service virtual connection name (NAME) network service entity identifier (NSEI) bearer channel identifier (BCI) bearer channel name (BCN) Gb Interface Handling parameters (IP) • • • • • • • • • • • • • network service virtual link identifier (NSVLI) network service virtual connection name (NAME) network service entity identifier (NSEI) BCSU logical index (BCSU) PCU logical index (PCU) local UDP port number (LPNBR) remote IP address (RIP) remote host name (RHOST) remote UDP port number (RPNBR) preconfigured SGSN IP endpoint (PRE) remote data weight (RDW) remote signalling weight (RSW) packet service entity identifier (PSEI) 36 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

PAFILE parameters These parameters have no Q3 interface and are stored in PAFILE. see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary. not BSDATA: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 37 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Power Control Handling parameters • • • • binary representation ALPHA (ALPHA) binary representation TAU (GAMMA) idle mode signal strength filter period (IFP) transfer mode signal strength filter period (TFP) TRX Handling parameters • • GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) dynamic abis pool ID (DAP) Base Station Controller parameters • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GPRS territory update guard time (GTUGT) maximum number of DL TBF (MNDL) maximum number of UL TBF (MNUL) CS TCH allocate RTSL0 (CTR) CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC) PFC unack BLER limit for SDU error ratio 1 (UBL1) (PCU2) PFC ack BLER limit for transfer delay 1 (ABL1) (PCU2) QC NCCR action trigger threshold (QCATN) (applicable if NCCR is activated) QC reallocation action trigger threshold (QCATR) free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) EGPRS inactivity criteria (EGIC) events per hour for EGPRS inactivity alarm (IEPH) supervision period length for EGPRS inactivity alarm (SPL) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 2 UL TSL (BL02) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 3 UL TSL (BL03) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 4 UL TSL (BL04) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 2 UL TSL (BL12) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 3 UL TSL (BL13) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 4 UL TSL (BL14) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 3 UL TSL (BL23) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 4 UL TSL (BL24) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 2 UL TSL (RL02) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 3 UL TSL (RL03) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 4 UL TSL (RL04) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 2 UL TSL (RL12) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 3 UL TSL (RL13) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 4 UL TSL (RL14) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 3 UL TSL (RL23) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 4 UL TSL (RL24) For more information on radio network parameters.

PRFILE parameters The following parameters are related to Gb interface configuration and state management.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • DRX TIMER MAX MSC RELEASE SGSN RELEASE For more information on PAFILE parameters. see PAFILE Timer and Parameter List. the PCU. and the MAC and RLC protocols (Abis interface): • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • TNS_BLOCK TSNS_PROV TNS_RESET TNS_TEST TNS_ALIVE SNS_ADD_RETRIES SNS_CONFIG_RETRIES SNS_CHANGEWEIGHTS_RETRIES SNS_DELETE_RETRIES SNS_SIZE_RETRIES NS_BLOCK_RETRIES NS_UNBLOCK_RETRIES NS_ALIVE_RETRIES NS_RESET_RETRIES TGB_BLOCK TGB_RESET TGB_SUSPEND BVC_BLOCK_RETRIES BVC_UNBLOCK_RETRIES BVC_RESET_RETRIES SUSPEND_RETRIES TGB_RESUME RESUME_RETRIES RAC_UPDATE_RETRIES TGB_RAC_UPDATE RAC_UPDATE_RETRIES FC_B_MAX_TSL FC_B_MAX_TSL_EGPRS FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF FC_MS_R_DEF FC_MS_R_MIN FC_R_DIF_TRG_LIMIT FC_R_TSL GPRS_DOWNLINK_PENALTY GPRS_DOWNLINK_THRESHOLD GPRS_UPLINK_PENALTY GPRS_UPLINK_THRESHOLD MEMORY_OUT_FLAG_SUM 38 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

5. replaces UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT) CHA_CONC_UL_FAVOR_DIR CHA_CONC_DL_FAVOR_DIR GPRS_UL_MUX_DEC_FACTOR (PCU2) BACKGROUND_ARP_1 BACKGROUND_ARP_2 BACKGROUND_ARP_3 PCU_LOAD_NOTIF_LIMIT SUSPEND_PCU_LOAD_NOTIF The following parameters are related to alarm 0125 PCU PROCESSOR LOAD HIGH. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0125 PCU PROCESSOR LOAD HIGH 0136 PCU CONNECTIVITY EXCEEDED 2114 FR VIRTUAL CONNECTION FAILED 2115 FR USER LINK INTEGRITY VERIFICATION FAILED 2188 FR ACCESS DATA UPDATING FAILED 2189 COMMUNICATION FAILURE BETWEEN FR TERMINAL AND FRCMAN 3019 NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE 3020 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE 3021 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNBLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3022 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION BLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3023 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED 3024 NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY CONFIGURATION MISMATCH 3025 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION TEST PROCEDURE FAILED 3026 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION PROTOCOL ERROR 3027 UPLINK CONGESTION ON THE NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 39 . 3.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • PRE_EMPTIVE_TRANSMISSIO TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD TBF_SIGNAL_GRD_THRSHLD TERRIT_BALANCE_THRSHLD TERRIT_UPD_GTIME_GPRS UPLNK_RX_LEV_FRG_FACTOR DL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY UL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY UL_TBF_REL_DELAY_EXT UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT (PCU1) POLLING_INTERVAL (PCU2. see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List. Keep in mind that several other alarms may also be generated with the use of GPRS. For more information on PRFILE parameters.4 Alarms This section lists the main GPRS-related alarms.

3. see System impact of Dynamic Abis. see System impact of Network Controlled Re-selection. see System impact of Gb over IP. 79 Coding Scheme Measurement 90 Quality of Service Measurement 95 GPRS Cell Re-selection Measurement • For counters of 95 GPRS Cell Re-selection Measurement. 105 PS DTM Measurement • For counters of 105 PS DTM Measurement.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3028 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION IDENTIFIER UNKNOWN 3029 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNBLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3030 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION BLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3031 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED 3032 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION PROTOCOL ERROR 3033 UNKNOWN ROUTING AREA OR LOCATION AREA DURING PAGING 3068 EGPRS DYNAMIC ABIS POOL FAILURE 3073 FAULTY PCUPCM TIMESLOTS IN PCU 3164 PCU PROCESSOR OVERLOAD ALARM 3209 SUB NETWORK SERVICE SIZE PROCEDURE FAILED 3210 SUB NETWORK SERVICE CONFIGURATION PROCEDURE FAILED 3211 LAST REMOTE IP DATA ENDPOINT DELETED 3261 FAILURE IN UPDATING BSC SPECIFIC PARAMETERS TO PCU 3273 GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE 3324 FAILURE IN UPDATING CONFIGURATION DATA TO PCU 7724 CONFLICT BETWEEN BSS RADIO NETWORK DATABASE AND CALL CONTROL 7725 TRAFFIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION FAILURE 7730 CONFIGURATION OF BCF FAILED 7738 BTS WITH NO TRANSACTIONS 7769 FAILURE IN UPDATING CELL SPECIFIC PARAMETERS TO PCU 7789 NO (E)GPRS TRANSACTIONS IN BTS For more information on alarms. 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement 98 Gb Over IP Measurement • For counters of 98 Gb over IP Measurement. see System impact of Dual Transfer Mode. see Notices (0-999). 106 CS DTM Measurement • • • • • • • 40 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .5 Measurements and counters The following measurements are related to GPRS: • • • • 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement 74 Frame Relay Measurement 76 Dynamic Abis Measurement • For counters of 76 Dynamic Abis Measurement.5. Failure Printouts (2000-3999) and Base Station Alarms (7000-7999).

110 PCU Utilisation Measurement • 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement Name RLC DATA BLOCKS UL CS1 RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS1 RLC DATA BLOCKS UL CS2 RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS2 RETRA RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS1 RETRA RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS2 BAD FRAME IND UL CS1 BAD FRAME IND UL CS2 RETRA DATA BLOCKS UL CS1 RETRA DATA BLOCKS UL CS2 WEIGHTED DL TSL ALLOC GPRS NUMERATOR WEIGHTED DL TSL ALLOC GPRS DENOMINATOR RLC RETRANSMITTED DL CS1 DUE OTHER THAN NACK RLC RETRANSMITTED DL CS2 DUE OTHER THAN NACK DL CS1 DATA FOR DUMMY LLC IGNORED RLC DATA BLOCKS UL DUE TO BSN CS1 IGNORED RLC DATA BLOCKS UL DUE TO BSN CS2 1-PHASE UL GPRS TBF ESTABLISHMENT REQUESTS Number 072062 072063 072064 072065 072068 072069 072070 072071 072173 072174 072195 072196 072222 072223 072224 072225 072226 072227 1-PHASE UL GPRS TBF SUCCESSFUL ESTABLISHMENTS 072229 Table 5 Counters of Packet Control Unit Measurement related to GPRS For more information. see 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement. see 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement. see System impact of Dual Transfer Mode.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS • For counters of 106 CS DTM Measurement. 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement Name UR DL RLC MAC BLOCKS RETRANS DL RLC MAC BLOCKS SCHED UNUSED RADIO BLOCKS DL RLC MAC BLOCKS Number 073000 073001 073002 073003 Table 6 Counters of RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement For more information. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 41 .

System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 74 Frame Relay Measurement Name FRMS WRONG CHECK SEQ ERR FRMS WRONG DLCI OTHER FRAME ERROR T391 TIMEOUT STAT MSG WRONG SEND SEQ NBR STAT MSG WRONG REC SEQ NBR BEAR CHANGED UNOPER BEAR RET OPER STAT MSG UNKNOWN PVC STAT MSG SENT TOO OFTEN TIME BEAR UNOPERATIONAL DLCI 1 ID DLCI 1 SENT FRMS DLCI 1 KBYTES SENT DLCI 1 REC FRMS DLCI 1 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 1 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 1 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 1 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 1 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 1 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 1 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 1 DISC UL NS UDATA DLCI 5 ID DLCI 5 SENT FRMS DLCI 5 KBYTES SENT DLCI 5 REC FRMS DLCI 5 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 5 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 5 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 5 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 5 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 5 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 5 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 5 DISC UL NS UDATA Number 074000 074001 074002 074003 074004 074005 074006 074007 074008 074009 074010 074011 074012 074013 074014 074015 074016 074017 074018 074019 074020 074021 074022 074059 074060 074061 074062 074063 074064 074065 074066 074067 074068 074069 074070 Table 7 Counters of Frame Relay Measurement 42 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Name DLCI 6 ID DLCI 6 SENT FRMS DLCI 6 KBYTES SENT DLCI 6 REC FRMS DLCI 6 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 6 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 6 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 6 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 6 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 6 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 6 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 6 DISC UL NS UDATA : DLCI 16 ID DLCI 16 SENT FRMS DLCI 16 KBYTES SENT DLCI 16 REC FRMS DLCI 16 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 16 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 16 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 16 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 16 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 16 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 16 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 16 DISC UL NS UDATA Number 074071 074072 074073 074074 074075 074076 074077 074078 074079 074080 074081 074082 : 074191 074192 074193 074194 074195 074196 074197 074198 074199 074200 074201 074202 Table 7 Counters of Frame Relay Measurement (Cont.) For more information. see 74 Frame Relay Measurement. 79 Coding Scheme Measurement Name Number NUMBER OF DL RLC BLOCKS IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079000 NUMBER OF DL RLC BLOCKS IN UNACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079001 NUMBER OF UL RLC BLOCKS IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079002 NUMBER OF UL RLC BLOCKS IN UNACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079003 Table 8 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 43 .

) For more information. 90 Quality of Service Measurement Name NUMBER OF TBF ALLOCATIONS TOTAL NBR OF RLC BLOCKS TOTAL DURATION OF TBFS DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO OVERFLOW DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO LIFETIME EXPIRY AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE DEN VWTHR NUMERATOR GPRS VWTHR DENOMINATOR GPRS Number 090000 090001 090002 090003 090004 090005 090006 090007 090008 Table 9 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement related to GPRS For more information.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Name NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH VALID HEADER UL UNACK MODE NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH BAD HEADER UL UNACK MODE NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH VALID HEADER UL ACK MODE NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH BAD HEADER UL ACK MODE RETRANSMITTED RLC DATA BLOCKS UL RETRANSMITTED RLC DATA BLOCKS DL Number 079004 079005 079006 079007 079008 079009 Table 8 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement (Cont. see 79 Coding Scheme Measurement. 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement RXL UP BOUND CLASS 0 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 1 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 2 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 3 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 4 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 0 096000 096001 096002 096003 096004 096005 096012 096013 Table 10 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement 44 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see 90 Quality of Service Measurement.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 7 096020 096021 096028 096029 096036 096037 096044 096045 096052 096053 096060 096061 096068 096069 096076 096077 096084 096085 096092 096093 096100 Table 10 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement (Cont.6 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) No impact. see 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement.) For more information. 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement PEAK RESERVED PCUPCM CHANNELS PEAK OCCUPIED PDTCH UL PEAK OCCUPIED PDTCH DL 110000 110001 110002 Table 11 Counters of PCU Utilization Measurement For more information. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 45 . 3. see 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement.

see Alarms. For a list of the alarms. Data Tracing must be supported by the BSS and the Packet Core Network. or the terminals can be set up to accept data only.8 Impact on mobile terminals GPRS-capable mobile terminals are required. For a list of the measurements. see BSS RNW Parameters and Implementing Parameter Plans in NetAct Product Documentation. NetAct Tracing NetAct Tracing supports GPRS-capable Nokia Siemens Network network elements in OSS3. Time Management. User Group Profiles. Class C terminals cannot accept paging from both CS and PS at the same time. With Class C terminals. such as Network Editor. see BSC parameters. For a list of the radio network parameters. GPRS can be taken into consideration when network traffic is planned and simulated with NetAct Planner. 46 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .1 ED2. Class B terminals can accept paging of any type when in idle mode. However. NetAct Configurator NetAct Configurator can be used to configure the radio network parameters related to GPRS. 3. NetAct Planner GPRS has no direct impact on NetAct Planner. users must manually select either CS or PS mode. NetAct Optimizer No impact. Class B terminals attach to the network as both CS and PS clients but only support traffic from one service at a time. NetAct Administrator Standard NetAct Administration applications. Class C terminals may support both CS and PS services. and Service Access Control are used to administer GPRS.7 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Reporter NetAct reporter can be used to view reports from measurements related to GPRS. Authority Manager. NetAct Monitor NetAct Monitor can be used to monitor all alarms related to GPRS. GPRS defines three classes of mobile terminals: • • • Class A terminals support simultaneous circuit-switched (CS) and packet-switched (PS) traffic. see Measurements and counters.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 3. However. For more information.

see: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 47 . General Packet Radio Service (GPRS).016.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS 3. Implementing GPRS overview Radio network management for GPRS For more information on the implementation procedure. GPRS messages The Abis interface supports GPRS messages. Impact on Abis interface • • Dynamic Abis Dynamic Abis pools need to be configured for GPRS if CS-3 & CS-4 is in use. reduced signalling over the radio interface.Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) interface. The advantages of Gs interface include: • • • support for TIA/EIA-136 networks by offering a connection for the tunneling of nonGSM signalling messages via the GPRS network to a non-GSM MSC/VLR. that is. Impact on Gb interface The Nokia Siemens Networks BSC supports the Gb interface (BSC-SGSN) as specified in GSM Recommendations (3GPP): • • 3GPP TS 48. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) 3GPP TS 48.9 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface No impact. 3.018. the possibility to page GPRS terminals for circuit-switched services (for example circuit-switched calls) via GPRS. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Base Station System (BSS) . Impact on A interface No impact. Network Service Impact on Gs interface Nokia Siemens Networks SGSN and MSC support the Gs interface (SGSN-MSC/VLR) although it is specified as optional by 3GPP. Base Station System (BSS) .Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN). more effective radio resource usage with combined GPRS/IMSI attach/detach and combined RA/LA updates.10 Interworking with other features The implementation of GPRS causes changes to the following existing functions of the BSC: • • • • • • • the PCU plug-in unit is introduced in Hardware Configuration Management GPRS-related radio network parameters are introduced in Radio Network Configuration Management co-operation between circuit-switched traffic and GPRS traffic is defined in Radio Channel Allocation GPRS traffic is monitored with GPRS-specific measurements and counters the serving PCU must be the same for all TRXs under one segment.

no prioritisation is used between the different TRX types when the GPRS territory is formed. the BSC defines the number of idle traffic channels. Trunk Reservation In trunk reservation. Only if there are radio timeslots that are permanently reserved for GPRS use (dedicated GPRS resources). Handover Support for Coverage Enhancements Super-reuse TRX frequencies are not supported for GPRS. If no preference is indicated. these cannot be used for circuit-switched calls and the BSC excludes these in its decisions on traffic load. Enhanced Coverage by Frequency Hopping. Intelligent Underlay-Overlay. see section Radio resource management. Optimisation of MS Power Level The BSC attempts to allocate traffic channels within the circuit-switched territory according to the interference level recommendation the BSC has calculated. The BSC adds together the number of idle traffic channels in the circuit-switched territory and the 48 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Circuit-switched traffic In the BSC the introduction of GPRS means dividing the radio resources (circuitswitched and GPRS traffic) into two territories. Now. to allow the performing of optimisation of the MS power level. Frequency Hopping In Baseband hopping. radio timeslot 0 belongs to a different hopping group than the other radio timeslots of a TRX. radio timeslot 0 of any TRX in the BTS is not used for GPRS. If Baseband hopping is employed in a BTS. However. This has an effect on the radio channel allocation features in which the BSC makes decisions based on the load of traffic. When the BSC has to allocate a traffic channel for a circuit-switched request in the GPRS territory.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • Gb interface configuration and state management Radio resource management GPRS/EDGE radio connection control The GPRS related measurements are introduced in section Measurements and counters. For more information on the division of territories. for most features also the traffic channels in the GPRS territory need to be taken into consideration when the BSC defines the traffic load. This makes radio timeslot 0 unusable for multislot connections. the interference level recommendation is no longer the guiding factor. For some features only the resources of the circuit-switched territory are included in the decisions. because radio timeslots (RTSL) in the GPRS territory may be allocated for circuit-switched traffic if necessary. the first GPRS radio timeslot next to the territory border is taken regardless of whether its interference level is among the recommended ones or not. TRX prioritisation in TCH allocation The operator can set the BCCH TRX or the non-BCCH TRXs as preferred TRX for the GPRS territory with the parameter prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG). Dynamic SDCCH allocation The BSC selects a traffic channel timeslot to be reconfigured as a dynamic SDCCH timeslot always within the circuit-switched territory.

For more information on GPRS territory upgrades and downgrades. lower limit for FR TCH resources (FRL). Additionally. the BSC’s indication on the resources concerns traffic channels of a BTS excluding those allocated permanently to GPRS (dedicated GPRS channels). it is recommended not to configure permanent half rate timeslots in TRXs that are planned to be used for GPRS. the radio timeslots on the TRX are blocked from use. as well as the default GPRS territory TCH/Fs. GPRS territory resources other than the dedicated ones are regarded as working and idle resources. the HSCSD-related load limits are calculated based on the existing HSCSD parameters and the following rules: • the number of working resources includes all the working full rate traffic channel (TCH/F) resources of a BTS. When the BSC can select the channel rate (full rate or half rate) to be used for a circuitswitched call based on the traffic load of the target BTS. Half Rate Permanent type half rate timeslots are not used for GPRS traffic. see section Radio resource management. with the CTC parameter the user can define whether the resources in GPRS territory are seen as idle resources or as occupied resources. The BSC downgrades the traffic channels belonging to the GPRS territory in the faulty TRX from GPRS use.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS number of traffic channels in the radio timeslots of the GPRS territory. The traffic channels in the radio timeslots that the BSC has allocated permanently for GPRS. excluding the ones that have been allocated permanently to GPRS the number of occupied TCH/F resources includes all the occupied TCH/Fs of the circuit-switched territory. and GPRS in enabled in the TRX and CS-3 & CS-4 or EGPRS is enabled in the BTS. Therefore. The BSC parameter CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC) defines how the GPRS territory is seen when the load limits are calculated. the system tries to reconfigure its functionality to another EDGE-capable TRX in the BTS. If the faulty TRX is EDGE-capable. upper limit for HR TCH resources (HRU). Resource indication to MSC In general. High Speed circuit-switched Data (HSCSD) If GPRS has been enabled in a BTS. and upper limit for FR TCH resources (FRU). To replace the lost GPRS capacity. are excluded. The BSC releases the ongoing calls and the call control resources. TRX fault When a TRX carrying traffic channels becomes faulty. excluding the GPRS radio timeslots defined as dedicated • DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 49 . the load limits used in the procedure are calculated using the operator defined BSC and BTS parameters lower limit for HR TCH resources (HRL). the value of the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter is also transferred to the new TRX. the BSC determines the possibility of a GPRS territory upgrade in another TRX. If the faulty TRX functionality is reconfigured to another TRX in the cell. Depending on the value of CTC either only CS territory or both CS and GPRS territories (excluding the dedicated GPRS timeslots) are used to calculate the load limits.

the BSC examines if there are more HSCSD traffic channels than the parameter HSCSD TCH capacity minimum (HTM) requires and if so. The parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) defines a margin of radio timeslots that the BSC tries to keep idle for circuit-switched traffic by downgrading the GPRS territory when necessary. If the number of idle resources is below the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). In order for the non-transparent call to get the needed number of timeslots. If HSCSD multislot allocation is denied based on the appropriate parameters. A non-transparent HSCSD call enters the GPRS territory only if there is congestion in the circuit-switched territory. the non-transparent HSCSD call is handed over to another location in the BTS so that the GPRS territory can be extended. that is. the BSC returns the released radio timeslots back to GPRS use to keep the GPRS territory continuous and undivided. the BSC starts an intra cell handover for suitable single slot calls beside the non-transparent HSCSD call. If multislot allocation was originally defined as allowed. the BSC rejects the transparent HSCSD requests and serves the non-transparent HSCSD requests with one timeslot. the transparent requests are served preferably in the circuit-switched territory. the BSC acts as without GPRS. For more information on how the resources form the territories. the BSC performs an HSCSD downgrade if necessary. If a transparent HSCSD call ends up in the GPRS territory. it tries to replace the lost GPRS capacity by extending the GPRS territory on the circuit-switched side of the territory border. The non-transparent HSCSD requests are always served in the circuit-switched territory as long as there is at least one TCH/F available. and only if necessary in the GPRS territory. if the call starts with less channels than needed and allowed. Instead. When the transparent HSCSD call inside the GPRS territory is later released. the actions proceed as follows: • if there are GPRS radio timeslots that are above and beyond the operator defined default GPRS territory then these additional GPRS radio timeslots are the first target for the GPRS territory downgrade if there are no additional GPRS radio timeslots. If the BTS load later decreases. the BSC checks that a single slot call can be moved to another radio timeslot and that an HSCSD upgrade is generally allowed. When deciding whether to downgrade an HSCSD call or the GPRS territory. see section Radio resource management. enabling a GPRS territory upgrade. thus the one that limits HSCSD traffic earlier is used. If the timeslot share in HSCSD allocation is not restricted. executes an HSCSD downgrade • 50 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . the BSC does not try to move it elsewhere with an intra cell handover. At the start of the handover. If a sufficient margin exists. using the state information that the HSCSD parameters define for the BTS. A normal HSCSD upgrade procedure is applied later to fulfill the need of the non-transparent request. it is also applied within the GPRS territory to serve the non-transparent request.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • HSCSD parameter HSCSD cell load upper limit (HCU) is replaced with the radio network GPRS parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) if the latter is more restricting. the BSC checks first if the margin of idle resources defined by the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) exists.

The GPRS territory can be upgraded although the parameter HSCSD TCH capacity minimum (HTM) is not in use and there are pending HSCSD connections in the cell. For more information on GPRS territories. You must define GPRS territory to the BCCH frequency band in a Common BCCH cell in which more than one frequency band is in use. the BSC first examines the need and possibility for an HSCSD upgrade. During the first TBF allocation. For more information. the temporary block flow (TBF) must be allocated on the BCCH frequency band first. Radio Network Supervision does not apply to the packet control channel. Super-reuse frequencies are not supported in GPRS. For information on restrictions when baseband hopping is used. BTS testing BTS testing cannot be executed on the packet control channel. the GPRS DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 51 . Otherwise GPRS does not work properly in the cell. The only reasonable thing to monitor is the uplink interference on timeslots in GPRS use. Radio Network Supervision Actions of the radio network supervision do not apply for timeslots that have been included in the GPRS territory.4 kbit/s Data Services in BSC. There is only one BCCH /CCCH in one segment. Parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) defines the number of radio timeslots that have to remain idle in the circuit-switched territory after the planned GPRS territory upgrade has been performed. see section Radio resource management. Several BTS objects can belong to one segment. TRXs inside a BTS object must have common capabilities. and for more information on HSCSD. Common BCCH Control Multi BCF introduces a radio network object called the segment. The reason for this requirement is that in cases when the MS RAC of the GPRS mobile is not known by the BSC. The parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) and the margin it defines is the limiting factor for a GPRS territory upgrade. The segment can have BTS objects. GPRS and EGPRS territories cannot both be defined to a BTS object at the same time. there exist some restrictions related to TRX configuration. a GPRS territory downgrade is made to maintain the margin defined by the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). it further checks the need and possibility for a GPRS upgrade. and GSM1900) power levels (Talk-family and UltraSite base stations) regular and super-reuse frequencies EDGE capability. Multi BCF Control. An exception to this is that EDGE-capable and non-EDGE-capable TRXs can be configured to the same BTS object. When EGPRS or CS-3 & CS-4 is enabled in the BTS. EGSM900. As a TCH/F becomes free through a channel release. PS territory can be defined to each BTS object separately. see EDGE BTSs and hopping in System impact of EDGE in EDGE System Feature Description. see HSCSD and 14. GSM1800. If the BSC starts no HSCSD upgrade.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS • if the minimum HSCSD capacity is not in use. see section Resrictions. PGSM900. which differ in: • • • • frequency band (GSM800. Only one BTS object of the segment can have a BCCH.

If not. Dual Transfer Mode GPRS must be available and active in the network for Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) to work. see Dual Transfer Mode. When BCCH is on PGSM 900 frequency band and there is a TRX on EGSM 900 frequency band in the BTS. the TBFs must initially be allocated to the BCCH BTS. indirect encoding can only refer to the SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 13 message. If GPRS is deactivated when DTM is in use. Large sized frequency parameters cause control message segmentation. the MSS that have an active DTM connection keep their CS connection but lose their TBFs. other frequency bands of the cell can be used for the GPRS mobile accordingly. The BSC supports DTM data transfer in both GPRS and EGPRS modes. might use a large number of octets for the frequency hopping. Set the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter of the PGSM 900 TRXs to value 'N'. EGSM 900 . Thus as IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT segmentation is not supported. direct 1 and 2.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description mobile indicates its frequency capability to the BSC. GPRS/EDGE cannot be used in the EGSM 900 TRXs in the BTS. direct 1 and 2 encoding cannot be used. After that. When the allocated BTS is hopping. The following restrictions apply when there are EGSM 900 and PGSM 900 frequencies in the BTS and GPRS/EDGE Support for PGSM-EGSM BTS is not used: • When BCCH is on EGSM 900 frequency band and there is a TRX on PGSM 900 frequency band in the BTS.PGSM 900 BTS When the BCCH is on PGSM 900 frequency band in the PGSM-EGSM BTS and RF hopping is used. • 52 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Therefore. which in the Nokia Siemens Networks BSS contains GPRS Mobile Allocation only for the BCCH BTS. The other two possible hopping frequency encodings. Later. GPRS/EDGE cannot be used in the PGSM 900 TRXs in the BTS. GPRS has to be disabled in the RF hopping TRXs. See Common BCCH Control and Multi BCF Control for more information on Multi BCF and Common BCCH. Set the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter of the EGSM 900 TRXs to value 'N'. The limitation to use only indirect encoding with hopping frequency parameters in IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT comes from the fact that IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message segmentation is not supported in the BSS. in a segment where BCCH band GPRS channels are on hopping BTS(s). the TBFs may be reallocated to other BTSs as well. GPRS territory must be configured into the BCCH BTS of a segment with two or more BTSs on the BCCH band if BTS(s) containing GPRS channels are hopping. This is because hopping frequency parameters are encoded to the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message on CCCH with indirect encoding. For more information on DTM. A DTM TBF is established in EGPRS mode if the MS is EGPRS capable and if the DTM call is allocated from an EGPRS-capable PS territory. Set the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter of the RF hopping TRXs to value 'N'. the DTM TBF is established in GPRS mode.

For more information.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS BSS21238 “Merged P-&E-GSM900” If the feature BSS21238 “Merged P-&E-GSM900” is activated in the cell. GPRS is allowed to be used in RF hopping TRXs even if the BCCH is on PGSM 900 frequency band in the PGSM-EGSM BTS. Dynamic Frequency and Channel Allocation GPRS/EDGE can be used in DFCA TRXs. if BSS21161: SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX is active. see: • • Activating and Testing BSS21161: SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX BSS21161: SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 53 . EGTCHs constitutes of fixed PS channels and they cannot be used for CS traffic. Extended Cell Range GPRS/EDGE cannot be used in Extended TRXs (E-TRX) without extended cell GPRS/EDGE channels (EGTCH). Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE With GPRS/EDGE and Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE application software products GPRS/EDGE traffic can be used in EGTCH channels of Extended TRXs (E-TRX).

4. see Activating and Testing BSS11151: Extended Uplink TBF Mode. Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite BTSs MetroSite BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements OSS4. For an overview.System impact of GPRS related software BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4 System impact of GPRS related software 4. Extended Uplink TBF Mode requires GPRS as a prerequisite.1 System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode The system impact of BSS11151: Extended Uplink TBF Mode is specified in the sections below.1 Requirements Hardware requirements Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Hardware/firmware required No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements Table 12 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware. For implementation instructions.1.2 CD Set 1 Table 13 Required software Frequency band support The BSC supports Extended Uplink TBF Mode on the following frequency bands: • GSM 800 54 Id:0900d80580783c54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see Extended Uplink TBF Mode.

WOC Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQV For more information on the command groups and commands.4 User interface BSC MMI The following command groups and MML commands are used to handle Extended Uplink TBF Mode: • • Parameter Handling: WOA. Faster uplink data flow continuing after short breaks. BTS MMI Extended Uplink TBF Mode cannot be managed with BTS MMI. WOI. 4.2 Impact on transmission No impact. Table 14 Impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode on BSC units Impact on BTS units No impact.1. No impact.3 Impact on BSS performance OMU signalling No impact.1. No impact. Impact on BSC units BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact. see the respective MML commands manuals.1.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS related software • • • GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 4. BSC parameters PRFILE parameters • • UL_TBF_REL_DELAY_EXT UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580783c54 55 . TRX signalling No impact. 4.

1. see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List. 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement Name UL DATA CONT AFTER COUNTDOWN EXTENDED UL TBFS Number 072115 072116 Table 15 Counters of 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement The counters are collected on BTS level.1. NetAct Optimizer No impact. NetAct Planner No impact.5 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) No impact. 56 Id:0900d80580783c54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement. NetAct Monitor No impact. 4. 4. NetAct Reporter NetAct reporter can be used to create reports from measurements related to Extended Uplink TBF Mode.System impact of GPRS related software BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • POLLING_INTERVAL_STRM POLLING_INTERVAL_IA POLLING_INTERVAL_BG POLLING_INTERVAL_STR_LOW POLLING_INTERVAL_IA_LOW POLLING_INTERVAL_BG_LOW For more information on PRFILE parameters.6 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Administrator No impact. NetAct Configurator No impact. Alarms No alarms are specifically related to Extended Uplink TBF Mode. For a list of the measurements. For more information. Measurements and counters The following measurements and counters are related to Extended Uplink TBF Mode. see Measurements and counters.

1.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS related software NetAct Tracing No impact. Impact on Abis interface Support for Extended UL TBF Mode related signalling with the MS. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580783c54 57 .1.9 Interworking with other features No impact. 4. 4.4 GERAN feature package 1 MS required.7 Impact on mobile terminals 3GPP Rel. Impact on A interface No impact. 4. Impact on Gb interface No impact.8 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface No impact.1.

1 Requirements Hardware requirements Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Required hardware or firmware PCU1/PCU2 No requirements No requirements No requirements Table 16 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR GGSN SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements M14 GGSN2 CG2/3 SG7 OSS4.2 System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service The system impact of BSS10084: Priority Class based Quality of Service is specified in the sections below. For an overview.2. 4.2 CD Set 1 Table 17 Required software Frequency band support The BSC supports Priority Class based Quality of Service on the following frequency bands: • • • GSM 800 GSM 900 GSM 1800 58 Id:0900d8058077eb5c DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see Priority Class based Quality of Service.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4.

4 User interface BSC MMI The following command group and MML commands are used to handle Priority Class based Quality of Service: • Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC: EEV. 4. EEO BTS MMI Priority Class based Quality of Service cannot be managed with BTS MMI.3 Impact on BSS performance OMU signalling No impact.2 Impact on transmission No impact. The following parameters apply to PCU1: • • • DL high priority SSS (DHP) DL normal priority SSS (DNP) DL low priority SSS (DLP) DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eb5c 59 .2. 4. BSC parameters BSC radio network parameters There are different radio network parameters for priority based scheduling in PCU1 and PCU2.2. Table Radio network parameters for Priority Based Scheduling describes the correspondence of these parameters between PCU1 and PCU2. TRX signalling No impact.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • GSM 1900 4. Impact on BSC units BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact No impact No impact Both PCU1 and PCU2 support Priority Class based Quality of Service. Table 18 Impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service on BSC units Impact on BTS units No impact.2.

see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary. Alarms No impact. 60 Id:0900d8058077eb5c DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • UL UL UL UL priority priority priority priority 1 2 3 4 SSS SSS SSS SSS (UP1) (UP2) (UP3) (UP4) The following parameters apply to PCU2: background traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (BGSW1) background traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (BGSW2) background traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (BGSW3) interactive 1 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (ISW11) interactive 1 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (ISW12) interactive 1 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (ISW13) interactive 2 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (ISW21) interactive 2 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (ISW22) interactive 2 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (ISW23 interactive 3 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (ISW31) interactive 3 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (ISW32) interactive 3 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (ISW33) streaming traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (SSW1) streaming traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (SSW2) streaming traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (SSW3) Scheduling weight (PCU2) 60 30 20 15 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 Scheduling step size (PCU1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Table 19 Radio network parameters for Priority Based Scheduling For more information on radio network parameters.

4.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Measurements and counters The following measurement and counters are related to Priority Class based Quality of Service: 90 Quality of Service Measurement Name NUMBER OF TBF ALLOCATIONS TOTAL NBR OF RLC BLOCKS TOTAL DURATION OF TBFS DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO OVERFLOW DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO LIFETIME EXPIRY AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE DEN VWTHR NUMERATOR GPRS VWTHR DENOMINATOR GPRS VWTHR NUMERATOR EDGE OTHER 4 VWTHR DENOMINATOR EDGE OTHER 4 VWTHR NUMERATOR EDGE 4 VWTHR DENOMINATOR EDGE 4 Number 090000 090001 090002 090003 090004 090005 090006 090007 090008 090009 090010 090011 090012 Table 20 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement For more information.6 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Administrator No impact.2. NetAct Monitor No impact. see 90 Quality of Service Measurement. 4.2.5 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) The subscriber priority must be defined in the DX HLR (HLR) once Priority Class based Quality of Service is introduced in the network. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eb5c 61 .1). NetAct Optimizer TRECs are supported in Service Optimizer (OSS3.

see BSC parameters.7 Impact on mobile terminals GPRS/EDGE-capable mobile terminals are required.2. 62 Id:0900d8058077eb5c DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . NetAct Configurator Configurator can be used to configure the radio network parameters related to Priority Class based Quality of Service.2.9 Interworking with other features PCU and Priority Class based Quality of Service Priority Class based Quality of Service works with both PCU1 and PCU2. The differentiation is implemented by tuning the scheduling step size parameters (SSS).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description NetAct Planner Priority Class based Quality of Service is supported in NetAct Planner.8 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface See Priority Class based Quality of Service for details.2. For more information. The precedence class and traffic class can be set for packet switched services. There is an efficient Quality of Service differentiation mechanism in Priority Class based Quality of Service with PCU1. 4. see Measurements and counters. 4. Impact on A interface No impact. 4. see BSS RNW Parameters and Implementing Parameter Plans in NetAct Product Documentation. Impact on Abis interface No impact. The SSS parameters cannot be used with PCU2. NetAct Reporter NetAct Reporter can be used to view and create reports based on measurements related to Priority Class based Quality of Service. For a list of the measurements. For a list of the radio network parameters. NetAct Tracing The Quality of Service type is shown in the GPRS trace report in NetAct Tracing. Impact on Gb interface No impact. These parameters correspond to the scheduling weight parameters with PCU2.

3 System impact of System Level Trace The system impact of BSS10089: System Level Trace is specified in the sections below. For an overview. see System Level Trace.2 CD Set 1 Table 22 Required software Frequency band support The BSC supports System Level Trace on the following frequency bands: • • • • GSM GSM GSM GSM 800 900 1800 1900 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d2d 63 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4.1 Requirements Hardware requirements Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Hardware/firmware required No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements Table 21 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR GGSN SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements M14 GGSN2 SG7 OSS4. 4.3.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

4.3.2

Impact on transmission
No impact.

4.3.3

Impact on BSS performance
OMU signalling No impact. TRX signalling No impact. Impact on BSC
BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact No impact No impact Faster uplink data flow continuing after short breaks.

Table 23

Impact of System Level Trace on BSC units

Impact on BTS units No impact.

4.3.4

User interface
BSC MMI No impact. BTS MMI System Level Trace cannot be managed with BTS MMI. BSC parameters No impact. Alarms No impact. Measurements and counters The following observations and counters are related to System Level Trace. 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace
Name SEGMENT ID Number 025000

Table 24

Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace

64

Id:0900d80580782d2d

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Name BTS ID TRX ID IMSI TBF ALLOCATION TIME TBF ALLOCATION CALENDAR TIME TBF RELEASE TIME TBF DIRECTION QOS PRIORITY CLASS NBR OF FLOW CNTRL CHANGES FLOW CTRL CHANGE TIME 0 BUCKET SIZE 0 QOS LEAK RATE 0 ... FLOW CTRL CHANGE TIME 19 BUCKET SIZE 19 QOS LEAK RATE 19 NBR OF TCHS IN BEG NBR OF REALLOC REALLOC TIME 0 REALLOC CAUSE 0 BTS ID 0 TRX ID 0 NEW NBR OF TCHS 0 ... REALLOC TIME 19 REALLOC CAUSE 19 BTS ID 19 TRX ID 19 NEW NBR OF TCHS 19 AMOUNT OF LLC DATA NBR OF RLC BLOCKS LAST MCS INITIAL CODING SCHEME NBR OF DYNABIS MCS CHANGES MCS CHANGES MCS CHANGE TIME 0 CAUSE MCS CHANGE 0

Number 025001 025002 025003 025004 025005 025006 025007 025008 025009 025010 025011 025012 ... 025067 025068 025069 025070 025071 025072 025073 025074 025075 025076 ... 025167 025168 025169 025170 025171 025172 025173 025174 025175 025176 025177 025178

Table 24

Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace (Cont.)

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

Id:0900d80580782d2d

65

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Name NEW MCS 0 NBR OF RLC BLOCKS PREV MCS 0 AMOUNT OF LLC DATA PREV MCS 0 ... MCS CHANGE TIME 19 CAUSE MCS CHANGE 19 NEW MCS 19 NBR OF RLC BLOCKS PREV MCS 19 AMOUNT OF LLC DATA PREV MCS 19 CAUSE TBF RELEASE TRACE STATUS TBF DTM FLAG MULTISLOT CLASS DTM MULTISLOT CLASS

Number 025179 025180 025181 ... 025272 025273 025274 025275 025276 025277 025278 025312 025313 025314

Table 24

Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace (Cont.)

For more information, see 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace. 27 GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report
Name LAC CI RAC SEGMENT ID BTS ID TRX ID IMSI NC MODE CELL RESEL START TIME CELL RESEL START CAL TIME NCCR TRIGGERING CAUSE TARGET CELL ID TARGET RNC ID NACC START TIME CELL CHANGE TIME CELL RESEL END CAUSE CELL RESEL END TIME Number 027000 027001 027002 027003 027004 027005 027006 027007 027008 027009 027010 027011 027012 027013 027014 027015

Table 25

Counters of GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report

66

Id:0900d80580782d2d

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

see 27 GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report... 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report Name LAC CI RAC BTS ID TRX ID IMSI REP PERIOD IDLE REP PERIOD TRANSF BEP USED RECORD START TIME RECORD END TIME NR OF MEASUREMENTS UL MEAS RESULTS 1 . 028087 028088 028089 028090 028091 028092 028093 .. NCELL INDEX 40 NCELL RADIO TYPE 40 NCELL ID 40 Number 028000 028001 028002 028003 028004 028005 028006 028007 028008 028009 028010 028011 ... see 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report...BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description For more information.... 028026 028027 028028 028029 028030 . UL MEAS RESULTS 16 IS PACKET TRANSF MODE 1 REPORT TIME SEC AND 100TH SEC 1 DL RX LEV AND QUAL 1 NCELL MEAS RESULTS 1 .. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d2d 67 .. IS PACKET TRANSF MODE 16 REPORT TIME SEC AND 100TH SEC 16 DL RX LEV AND QUAL 16 NCELL MEAS RESULTS 16 NCELL INDEX 1 NCELL RADIO TYPE 1 NCELL ID 1 . 028208 028209 028210 Table 26 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Report For more information.

3. NetAct Planner No impact.4 kbps) GPRS CS4 (GMSK 20 kbps) dummy value. bad header in ack mode EGPRS MCS1 (GMSK 8. NetAct Monitor No impact. NetAct Optimizer No impact.8 kbps) EGPRS MCS4 (GMSK 16.3.2 kbps) EGPRS MCS3 (GMSK 14. see Measurements and counters.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Counter value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Codec (Modulation and user data rate) GPRS CS1 (GMSK 8 kbps) GPRS CS2 (GMSK 12 kbps) GPRS CS3 (GMSK 14.2 kbps) Table 27 CS and MCS codecs in the initial coding scheme and new MCS fields 4.4 kbps) EGPRS MCS9 (8-PSK 59. For a list of the measurements. NetAct Configurator No impact.6 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Administrator No impact. 4.8 kbps) EGPRS MCS8 (8-PSK 54.5 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) No impact.4 kbps) EGPRS MCS2 (GMSK 11. 68 Id:0900d80580782d2d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .8 kbps) EGPRS MCS5 (8-PSK 22.6 kbps) EGPRS MCS7 (8-PSK 44.5 kbps) EGPRS MCS6 (8-PSK 29. NetAct Reporter NetAct reporter can be used to create reports from measurements related to System Level Trace.

3. Impact on Gb interface The SGSN invokes the trace by sending a BSSGB SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE (3GPP TS 48. 4.7 Impact on mobile terminals GPRS-capable terminals are required. 4.018) message to the BSS when the SGSN trace becomes active or when the SGSN receives a trace request.9 Interworking with other features No impact.3. Impact on Abis interface Support for Extended Uplink TBF Mode related signalling with the mobile station is required.8 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface No impact.3. Impact on A interface No impact. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d2d 69 . 4.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description NetAct Tracing No impact.

BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC. includes two logical PCUs Second generation PCU for BSC3i 660.Requirements for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 5 Requirements for GPRS 5. a total of 8 (+1 spare) logical PCUs. Table Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU product family lists the available PCU variants and table PCUs in BSC product variants shows the amount of PCUs for each BSC product variant.1 Packet Control Unit (PCU) For GPRS the BSC needs the Packet Control Unit. includes two logical PCUs Second generation PCU for BSCi and BSC2i Second generation PCU for BSC3i 660. Table 29 PCUs in BSC product variants 70 Id:0900d80580590b54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Packet Control Unit. BSC3i 1000. BSC3i 1000. BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC Explanation First generation PCU for BSCi and BSC2i PCU General name Nokia Siemens Networks First Generation Packet Control Unit PCU1 PCU2-E Table 28 Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU product family BSC product variant BSCi Amount of PCUs One PCU plug-in unit (PIU) in each BCSU. PCU functions The PCU controls the GPRS radio resources and acts as the key unit in the following procedures: • • • • • GPRS radio resource allocation and management GPRS radio connection establishment and management Data transfer Coding scheme selection PCU statistics PCU and BSC product variants The PCU hardware is positioned at the BSC site as a plug-in unit in each BCSU. which implements both the Gb interface and RLC/MAC protocols in the BSS. a general term for all Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU variants Name of PCU product variant PCU PCU-S PCU-T PCU-B Nokia Siemens Networks Second Generation Packet Control Unit PCU2 PCU2-U PCU2-D First generation PCU for BSC3i 660.

Flexi BSC Five PCU2 PIUs in each BCSU. a total of 24 (+4 spares) logical PCUs. 16 kbit/s. Three PCU2-E PIUs in each BCSU. BSC3i 2000 Five PCU PIUs in each BCSU. Abis) 64 64 128 256 PCU1 variants PCU and PCU-S : 128 Table 30 PCU maximum connectivity per logical PCU DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b54 71 . If Gb over Frame Relay is used. BSC3i 1000 Five PCU PIUs in each BCSU. then the operator also has to consider the need for E1/T1 (ET) extensions. Note that only two of the PCU PIUs can be of the type PCU-B. Two PCU PIUs in each BCSU. installing the second PCU plug-in unit requires four SW64B plug-in units in the GSWB (GSWB size 256 PCMs). One PCU2-E PIU in each BCSU. a total of 30 (+ 5 spares) PCU PIUs. PCU capacity and connections PCU1 PCU2-U/-D 128 64 256 256 PCU2-E 384 256 1024 1024 (Flexi BSC) 512 (other BSC3i variants) BTS IDs Cells/Segments TRXs Connectivity (traffic channels.) When installing the PCUs to BSCi and BSC2i. a total of 100 (+10 spares) logical PCUs. a total of 16 (+2 spares) logical PCUs. Table 29 PCUs in BSC product variants (Cont.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Requirements for GPRS BSC product variant BSC2i BSC3i 660 Amount of PCUs Two PCU PIUs in each BCSU. Three PCU2-E PIUs in each BCSU. Note that only two of the PCU PIUs can be of the type PCU-B. Installing the first PCU plug-in unit into the BCSUs requires three SW64B plug-in units in the GSWB (GSWB size 192 PCMs). a total of 50 (+10 spares) logical PCUs. the operator has to make sure that the GSWB has enough capacity.

The maximum number of 16 kbit/s channels per PCU2 is 256. • Internal PCU2-U and PCU2-D restrictions • • • In one logical PCU2-D or PCU2-U there are 8 digital signal processor (DSP) cores. Support for PCU2 PCU2 is a high capacity embedded plug-in unit that provides additional processing power and extended functionality from BSS11. BSC3i 1000. High Multislot Classes (HMC) or Dual Transfer Mode (DTM). There are three PCU2 plug-in unit variants: • • • PCU2-U for BSCi and BSC2i PCU2-D for BSC3i 660. The maximum number of 16 kbit/s channels per PCU1 is 256. Second Generation PCUs have an enhanced design architecture that enable the network to meet the real time traffic requirements of new services and provide means to new enhanced functionality (GERAN) beyond GPRS and EGPRS. 72 Id:0900d80580590b54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . PCU1 and PCU1-S can handle 128 radio timeslots. In the PCU2-D or PCU2-U. In PCU2-D or PCU2-U. PCU1 does not support CS–3 & CS–4. there is one synchronisation master channel (SMCH) for every DSP. Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA). the supported maximum number of GPRS channels is 128. an introduction for more information on the plug-in unit hardware.Requirements for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description SGSN ETs Abis ETs Packets in TRAU frames 4 Mbit/s internal PCM 256 channels PCU GSWB Gb Packets in FR ET FR: bearer channel + optional load sharing redundant bearer (2 Mbit/s) DMC bus Figure 15 PCU connections to BTS and SGSN when Frame Relay is used See Enabling GPRS in BSC for instructions on how to equip and connect the PCU. and PCU-B. BSC3i 1000. In the PCU1s. The PCU2-D or PCU2-U can allocate the SMCHs to both PCUPCMs 0 and 1. one DSP core can handle 0 to 20 channels (16 kbit/s). BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC PCU2-E for BSC3i 660.5 onwards. one DSP core can connect 0 to 32 GPRS channels (16 kbit/s). BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC Internal PCU1 restrictions • • • In one logical PCU1 there are 16 digital signal processor (DSP) cores. This issue should be taken into account in PCU dimensioning.

When GPRS calls (TBFs) in EGPRS territory use EDAP resources. the PCU DSP resource load situation may cause a situation in which the UL transmission turns cannot be assigned for the MSS. one DSP core can handle up to 212 channels (16 kbit/s). PCU2-U or PCU2-D. allocation of the new packet switched radio timeslots to the PCU may fail due to the current EDAP and DSP resource load. The layers are briefly described here. Not more than 204 EDAP channels can be configured in one PCU1. The EDAP size itself also limits the CS usage for both DL and UL TBFs. For more information on Gb over IP.E is 512 in BSC3i 660. including active EDAP channels. One EDAP cannot be divided between several DSPs but one DSP can have a maximum of 10 EDAPs. and BSC3i 2000.2 Gb interface functionality The Gb interface is an open interface between the BSC and the SGSN. but their functions are discussed in more detail in Gb interface configuration and state management. the PCU DSP resource capacity used for the EDAPs decreases. and GPRS channels. This is because there must also be space for at least one EGPRS channel for every four EDAP channels (204 EGPRS channels + 816 EDAP channels = 1020 Abis channels). When new packet switched radio timeslots are added/upgraded to the PCU. the TBFs can adjust the DL data according to limited Dynamic Abis capacity. Not more than 816 EDAP channels can be configured in one PCU2. for example if adequate UL Dynamic Abis resources cannot be allocated. The maximum number of Abis channels per PCU2. PCU2-E has 6 DSP cores. BSC3i 1000. see Gb over IP. The interface consists of the Physical Layer. Network Service layer (NS). In Flexi BSC. This is because there must also be space for at least one EGPRS channel for every four EDAP channels (51 EGPRS channels + 204 EDAP channels = 255 Abis channels). • • • 5. In UL direction.E. EGPRS channels. In DL direction.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Requirements for GPRS Internal PCU2-E restrictions • In the PCU2-E. The Network Service layer further divides into Sub-network Service and Network Service Control. the maximum number of Abis channels per PCU2-E is 1024. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b54 73 . and the Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). The Sub-network Service uses either Frame Relay or UDP/IP based protocol. This may lead to a situation where the desired CS cannot be assigned to the TBFs. • • Common restrictions for both PCU1 and PCU2 • EDAP resource usage in a PCU dynamically reserves the DSP resources in the PCU.

both BSS and SGSN are treated as the user side of the user-to-network interface. In the case of an intermediate Frame Relay network.Requirements for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description LLC RELAY RLC MAC BSSGP NS L1 BSSGP NS L1 BSS NS Gb SGSN Network Service Control / Network Service Control protocol Sub-Network Service Control / Sub-Network Service Control protocol Figure 16 Protocol stack of the Gb interface The BSSGP protocol functions are BSSGP protocol encoding and decoding. BSSGP virtual connection (BVC) management. the physical link is provided by the Frame Relay Bearer channels. which maps cells to virtual connections Network Service Virtual Link (NS-VL) management The Frame Relay protocols provide a link layer access between the peer entities. In Frame Relay. one PCU can have up to four Frame Relay Bearer channels that are routed to the SGSN through different transmission paths. paging support. Frame Relay offers permanent virtual circuits (PVC) to transfer GPRS signalling and data between the BSC and SGSN. The Network Service Control is responsible for the following tasks: • • • • • • • • NS protocol encoding and decoding NS data transfer NS Service Data Unit (NS SDU) transmission uplink congestion control on Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC) load sharing between NS-VCs NS-VC state management GPRS-specific addressing. The PCUs cannot be multiplexed to use a common bearer. This means that the GPRS traffic from one PCU can be shared with a maximum of four physical PCM connections. 74 Id:0900d80580590b54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . and flow control support. BSSGP data transfer. or an intermediate Frame Relay network may be placed between both ends of the Gb interface. For load sharing and transmission security reasons. In the BSC this physical connection is a maximum of one 2 Mbit/s PCM for each active PCU. The Gb interface may consist of direct point-to-point connections between the BSS and the SGSN.

the maximum combined Bearer Channel Access Rate is 4 x 2048 kbit/s. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. 5. Frame Relay Bearer Channel Handling. unless Multipoint Gb and Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling are used. The Committed Information Rate of Network Service Virtual Connections can be configured from 16 kbit/s up to the Access Rate of the Bearer channel in 16 kbit/s steps. The step size is 64 kbit/s. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP).3 Additional GPRS hardware needed in BSCi and BSC2i GSWB extension (optional) The PCU requires a GSWB extension (2 per BSC) for multiplexing the 256 Abis subtimeslots. see Enabling GPRS in BSC. The additional PCMs may be used for Gb over Frame Relay. This can be achieved by combining the different PCMs so that 4 groups of 32 subtimeslots are available for traffic. This can be achieved by combining the different PCMs so that 32 subtimeslots are available for traffic. ET5C cartridge (optional) Additional ET5C cartridges are optional. The second PCU plug-in unit for the BSC requires an extension of the GSWB with a third SW64B plug-in unit. In the Nokia Siemens Networks implementation each PCU represents only one Network Service Entity (NSE). BSC BCSU 0 PCU FR GSWB PCM-TSL ET bearer channel ID=1 name=BSC1 time slots:1-31 access rate:1984 kbit/s SGSN Figure 17 Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN when Frame Relay (FR) is used For more information on the NS and BSSGP protocols. For more information on configuring and handling the Gb interface. They are needed to increase the amount of external PCMs. Network Service Protocol (NS) and BSC-SGSN Interface Specification.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Requirements for GPRS The maximum combined Bearer Channel Access Rate is 2048 kbit/s within a PCU. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b54 75 . On PCU2-E. (FU) and Frame Relay Parameter Handling (FN). in BSCi from 56 to 88 and in BSC2i from 80 to 144.

for example. mobile network code (MNC). As Routing Areas are served by SGSNs.1 Routing Area Mobility management in the GPRS network is handled in a similar way to the existing GSM system. PCU 2 RA 2 BTS BTS SGSN PCU 1 RA 1 PCU 0 BTS BTS BTS RA n BTS BTS BSC LA Figure 18 Relationship of Routing Areas and PCUs Optimal Routing Area size Paging signalling to mobiles is sent. then the NS layer. location area code (LAC). and routing area code (RAC). An optimal Routing Area (RA) is balanced between paging channel load and 76 Id:0900d80580590b57 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . LAC and RAC parameters constitute the routing area identification (RAI): RAI = MCC+MNC+LAC+RAC The Routing Area and the BTS are linked logically together by the RAI. the user builds the Gb interface in two phases: first the Frame Relay bearer channels are created. Routing Areas are used in the PCU selection algorithm which selects a serving PCU for the cell when the operator enables the GPRS traffic in the cell.Radio network management for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 6 Radio network management for GPRS For Radio Network Configuration Management the preconditions are that the PCU and Gb interface have been created and configured. the user needs to create the Routing Area. When creating a Routing Area the user identifies the obligatory parameters mobile country code (MCC). Before enabling GPRS on a cell level. One Routing Area is served by one SGSN. before configuring the BSC side. MNC. 6. One or more cells form a Routing Area (RA). which is a subset of one Location Area (LA). In the case of Frame Relay. Routing Areas are created in the BSS Radio Network Configuration Database (BSDATA). See Activating and testing BSS9006: GPRS for detailed instructions. over the whole Location Area/Routing Area. The MCC. it is important to keep in mind the network configuration plan and what has been defined in the SGSN. The Routing Area is unique within a Location Area.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Radio network management for GPRS

Routing Area updates. Refer to GPRS radio connection control for more information on paging. If the Routing Area size is too large, paging channels and capacity will be saturated due to limited LAPD, Abis or radio interface CCCH paging capacity. On the other hand, with a small Routing Area there will be a larger number of Routing Area updates. Paging channel capacity is shared between the paging of the existing GSM users to the Location Areas (LA) and the GPRS users to the Routing Area. Based on the traffic behaviour of subscribers and the performance of the network (in terms of paging success), it is possible to derive guidelines regarding the maximum number of subscribers per LA/RA. The Routing Area dimensioning is similar to the dimensioning of the Location Area of the existing GSM service. Routing Area dimensioning balances paging traffic from subscribers and the paging capacity offered by a given paging channel configuration. The number of pages that are sent by the BTS within an LA/RA indicates the number of mobile terminating calls that are being sent to subscribers in the LA/RA. The paging demand thus depends on three factors: • • • the number of mobile terminating calls the number of subscribers in the LA/RA paging parameters defined by the operator in the SGSN.

The higher the number of mobile terminating sessions for subscribers in the Routing Area, the higher the number of pages that have to be sent by the BTS in the Routing Area. The success of paging, that is the number of times that a paging message has to be resent before it is answered, also has a profound effect on paging traffic. Paging traffic can thus be observed by means of: • • • the number of pages per second per user the number of subscribers the paging success ratio.

The Nokia Siemens Networks infrastructure allows a combined Routing Area and Location Area paging by implementing the Gs interface between the SGSN and MSC/HLR. An attached GPRS mobile must send a Routing Area Update to the SGSN each time it changes Routing Area. The SGSN then forwards the relevant location area update information to the MSC reducing the RACH and AGCH load. The conclusion is that the signalling load is highly dependent on the parameters. In the same LA/RA, the paging load should be monitored.

☞ The smallest cell in the LA/RA will set the paging channel limit where combined
channel structure is in use. Combined channel structure is possible if the cell is GPRS enabled (Routing Area exists).

6.2

PCU selection algorithm
The PCU selection algorithm in the BSC distributes GPRS traffic capacity between PCUs. Traffic is distributed on a cell level when the user enables GPRS in the cell. The algorithm then selects which PCU takes care of the traffic of a certain cell. When GPRS is enabled, each cell is situated in a Routing Area. In the Radio Network, each Routing Area has its own object, to which the user defines the Network Service Entity Identifiers (NSEI) serving the Routing Area. The NSEIs are further discussed in

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

Id:0900d80580590b57

77

Radio network management for GPRS

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Gb interface configuration and state management. The Nokia Siemens Networks implementation is such that one PCU corresponds to one NSEI (unless Multipoint Gb and Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling are used), and thus it can be said that the function of the PCU selection algorithm is to distribute GPRS traffic capacity between these NSEIs. The algorithm locates the cells (BVCIs) in the same BCF to the same NSEI. The algorithm also tries to locate the cells which have adjacencies between each other to the same NSEI. If there are no NSEIs with the same BCF or with adjacencies then the algorithm selects the NSEI to which the smallest number of GPRS capable traffic channels, defined with the parameter max GPRS capacity (CMAX), is attached. Traffic channels are counted on TRXs which are GPRS enabled but not extended or superreuse TRXs. Only unlocked NSEIs are selected. The NSEI is unlocked when it has at least one of its NS-VCs unlocked. If a Dynamic Abis Pool is defined for a TRX in a cell and when GPRS is enabled for the cell, the same NSEI (PCU) is selected for the cell as for the Dynamic Abis Pool. In this case the PCU selection algorithm is not used. The operator can choose whether the selected NSEI uses IP or FR transport with the parameter transport type (TRAT). The parameter cannot be used with manual NSEI selection. If no transport type is specified the default is that neither IP nor FR is preferred in the PCU selection algorithm. The NSEIs can also be selected manually. If manual selection is used the PCU selection algorithm is not used. For more information on manual selection refer to Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS and Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC (EQ). For information on the PCU selection algorithm when Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling is used, see chapter Functionality of Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling in Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling under Feature descriptions/Data in the PDF view.

78

Id:0900d80580590b57

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Gb interface configuration and state management

7 Gb interface configuration and state management
The BSC has the following functions in connection with the Gb interface: • • • • • load sharing NS-VC management NS-VL management (IP) BVC management recovery.

Only Gb over Frame Relay is covered in these guidelines. For information on Gb over IP, see Gb over IP in BSC. For information on Multipoint Gb Interface, see Multipoint Gb Interface under Feature descriptions/Data in the PDF view.

7.1

Protocol stack of the Gb interface
The Gb interface has a protocol stack consisting of three layers: Physical Layer, Network Service Layer (NS) and the Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). The Network Service Layer further divides into Sub-network Service and Network Service Control. The Sub-network Service uses either Frame Relay or UDP/IP protocol.

LLC RELAY RLC MAC BSSGP NS L1 BSSGP NS L1

BSS
NS

Gb

SGSN

Network Service Control / Network Service Control protocol Sub-Network Service Control / Sub-Network Service Control protocol

Figure 19

The protocol stack on the Gb interface

Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC) NS-VCs are end-to-end virtual connections between the BSS and SGSN. The physical link in the Gb interface is the Frame Relay Bearer channel or UDP/IP connection. In the case of Frame Relay, an NS-VC is the permanent virtual connection (PVC) and corresponds to the Frame Relay DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier) together with

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

Id:0900d80580590b5a

79

Each BVC is identified by means of a BVCI which has end-to-end significance across the Gb interface. Frame Relay Permanent Virtual Connection (PVC) See Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC). Each BVC is supported by one NSE and it is used to transport Network Service Service Data Units (NS SDUs) between peer NS users. One NSE per PCU is supported and within one NSE a maximum of four NS-VCs are supported. but only local significance at the BSSGP level. The NSEI has an endto-end significance across the Gb interface. Within BSS the user identifies a cell uniquely by a BVCI. The NSEI is used to identify the Network Service Entity that provides service to a BSSGP Virtual connection (BVC). This grouping is performed by administrative means. since the LSP is always mapped to a certain NS-VC. the Network Service Virtual Connection Group groups together all NS-VCs providing communication between the same peer NS entities.016). At each side of the Gb interface.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description the Bearer channel identifier. This preserves the order of BSSGP UNITDATA PDUs. 80 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . All other values can be used for cell identifiers. 7. The use of load sharing also provides the upper layer with seamless service upon failure or user intervention by reorganising the SDU traffic between the unblocked NS-VCs. there is a one-toone correspondence between a group of NS-VCs and an NSEI. Link Selector Parameter (LSP) All BSSGP UNITDATA PDUs related to an MS are passed to NS with the same LSP. PTM is not supported. One NSE is configured between two peer NSs. When creating the NS-VC the operator gives a CIR value (bit/s). BSSGP Virtual Connection (BVC) BVCs are communication paths between peer NS user entities on the BSSGP level. there is a one-toone correspondence between a group of NS-VCs and an NSEI. All the NS SDUs of an MS have the same LSP. Each NS-VC is identified by means of a Network Service Virtual Connection Identifier (NS-VCI). LSP has only local significance at each end of the Gb interface. One NS-VC group is configured between two peer NS entities. The reorganisation may disturb the order of transmitted SDUs. The NSEI has an endto-end significance across the Gb interface at NS level. All NS SDUs to be transmitted over the Gb interface towards the SGSN are passed from BSSGP to NS along with the Link Selector Parameter (LSP). Network Service Virtual Connection Group According to the 3GPP standard (TS48. Network Service Entity (NSE) NSE identifies a group of NS-VCs in the BSC. Each BVC is unique between two peer NSs. At each side of the Gb interface.2 Load sharing function The BSC's load sharing function distributes all uplink Network Service Service Data Units (NS SDUs) among the unblocked NS-VCs within the NSE on the Gb interface. The BVCI value 0000H is used for signalling and the value 0001H is reserved for point-to-multipoint (PTM).

If the NS-VC is user DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 81 . SGSN distributes downlink NS SDUs. The BSC blocks an NS-VC when: • • • the user locks the NS-VC. several MSS may use the same LSP. thus making it unavailable for BSSGP traffic. informs peer NSs. the BSC raises the alarm NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION TEST PROCEDURE FAILED (3025) and blocks the NS-VC towards the SGSN through any 'live' NS-VC within the NSE. NS SDUs with the same LSP are sent on the same NS-VC. The NS may be reset only when using Frame Relay. unblocking. otherwise the NS-VC is marked as user blocked and the block procedure is skipped. BSSGP traffic is reorganised to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. Only one substate (BL-US. the cause sent to SGSN is 'O & M intervention'. operational state is BL-SY During user block the BSC marks the NS-VC as user blocked. BL-SY or BL-RC) is valid at a time when an NS-VC is blocked. so it is only possible when the NS-VC is unblocked. the cause sent to SGSN is 'Transit network failure'. and reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. NS-VC management procedures can be triggered by both the BSC and the SGSN. and testing of NS-VCs. User-triggered blocking is started only when the PVC or the bearer is available. an NS-VC test fails. operational state is BL-SY Frame Relay detects unavailability of a bearer or PVC. Therefore. resetting. 7. The BL-SY state overrides the BL-RC state. the cause sent to SGSN is 'Transit network failure'. State Unblocked (WO-EX Available) Blocked Possible substates – BL-US (unavailable by user) BL-SY (unavailable by system) BL-RC (unavailable by remote user) Table 31 NS-VC operational states NS-VC blocking When an NS-VC is unavailable for BSSGP traffic. After NS-VC test failure the NS-VC is marked as system blocked. Refer to NS-VC reset for more information. The BL-US state overrides both the BL-SY and BL-RC states. uplink and downlink NS SDUs may be transferred over different NS-VCs. the NS-VC is marked as blocked by the BSC and the peer NS is informed by means of the blocking procedure.3 NS-VC management function The Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC) management function is responsible for the blocking.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management However. operational state is BL-US. The BL-RC state does not override any other blocking state. An exception is when the NS-VC is in the BL-SY state and SGSN initiates an NS-RESET. blocked or unblocked. The BSC cancels any pending NS-VC management procedure and related alarm. The BSC also initiates the NS-VC reset procedure. The load sharing functions of the BSC and SGSN are independent.

82 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . and does not send a block to the SGSN. system or remote blocked. the BSC does not change the NS-VC state. During an SGSN-initiated block. if the NS-VC is not user. if the blocked NS-VC is the last one in the NSE. New BSSGP traffic now uses this new NS link (refer to Load sharing function). The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE (3019) alarm when PVC/bearers are unavailable. when the unavailability of a PVC or bearer is detected. User triggered unblocking starts only when the PVC or the bearer is available. the BSC actions are the same but it also stops a possible ongoing reset procedure. After a successful reset. the user block is accepted and the state of the NS-VC is user blocked. but instead initiates the NS-VC reset procedure. If the NS-VC is user. the peer NS is informed by means of the unblocking procedure. If the NS-VC(s) is already user blocked. the related NS-VC(s) is marked as system blocked and the BSC blocks it towards the SGSN through any 'live' NS-VC within the NSE.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description blocked while reset is attempted. the BSC marks the NS-VC as remote blocked. In all the above cases. after which the NS-VC is marked as unblocked by the BSC. If the NS-VC is already user blocked. but instead stops the NS-VC(s) test. and sends no block to the SGSN. The BSC unblocks an NS-VC after: • • user unlocks the NS-VC thus making it available for BSSGP traffic. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm for the blocked NS-VC(s) and reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. system or remote blocked. The BSC cancels the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION TEST PROCEDURE FAILED (3025) alarm after the next successful test procedure on the NS-VC. or related BVCs are implicitly blocked. If the NS-VC reset procedure fails after all the retries. the test procedure is continued. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNBLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED (3021) alarm and marks the NS-VC unblock as pending until NS-VC unblock can be performed and the alarm is cancelled by the BSC. During user unblock the BSC informs the peer NS and marks the NS-VC as unblocked after receiving an acknowledgement from the peer NS. reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE and sets the alarm NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020). the reset is stopped. and the BSC sends System Information messages to relevant cells indicating that GPRS is disabled. for example after a test failed NS-VC is reset or after a reset of a NS-VC whose bearer is resumed as available for NS level. the SGSN initiates the block. NS-VC unblocking When the NS-VC becomes available again for BSSGP traffic. no alarm is set. it sets no alarms. If the NS-VC(s) is already system blocked. it means that all BSSGP traffic to/from PCU-managed cells stops on the Gb interface. the system initiates a NS-VC reset. then the BSC does not change the NS-VC state and acknowledges the received block back to the SGSN. the BSC does not change the state of the NS-VC(s). After the BSC detects the unavailability of a PVC or a bearer. does not set an alarm. otherwise the BSC marks the NS-VC as system blocked and skips the unblock procedure. blocked or unblocked.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management During system unblock the BSC cancels the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm. The BSC triggers the BVC reset procedure for signalling BVC and cell-specific BVCs. then the BSC is not able to unblock the NS-VC. modifies or unlocks an NS-VC System or BCSU restarts Periodic NS-VC test fails Frame Relay detects an unavailability of a bearer Cause sent to the SGSN O & M intervention Equipment failure (see BCSU restart) Transit network failure Transit network failure Table 32 NS-VC reset cases During a reset triggered by user unblock. NS-VC reset The NS-VC reset procedure is used to reset an NS-VC to a determined state between peer NSs. otherwise it marks the NS-VC as system blocked. During an SGSN-initiated reset. For more information. During SGSN initiated unblock. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. skips the reset procedure. The BSC starts a reset triggered by user unblock only when the PVC or the bearer is available. The NS-VC remains user blocked and the BSC initiates the NS-VC blocking procedure by returning an NS-BLOCK PDU to the SGSN with the cause "O & M intervention". The BSC does not start system initiated unblock if the NS-VC is user blocked. If the NS-VC is user blocked. it means that BSSGP traffic to/from PCU-managed cells can start again on the Gb interface. informs the peer NS. then the BSC acknowledges the received PDU back to the SGSN and it is interpreted as an acknowledgement for the sent NS-UNBLOCK PDU. If the NS-VC is user or remote blocked. the BSC marks the NS-VC as remote blocked and sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm if the NS-VC is not user or remote blocked. and cancels the NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE (3019) alarm in cases of system unblock and SGSN initiated unblock. then the DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 83 . and the BSC sends System Information messages to relevant cells indicating that GPRS is enabled. In all of the above cases. The NS-VC remains system blocked and the BSC initiates the NS-VC reset procedure by returning an NS-RESET PDU to the SGSN with the cause "PDU not compatible with the protocol state". the BSC marks the NS-VC as system blocked. then the BSC is not able to unblock the NS-VC. After a completed reset procedure. if the unblocked NS-VC is the first one in the NSE. This NS-BLOCK PDU is sent on the NS-VC where the NSUNBLOCK PDU was received. the BSC starts a test procedure (periodic testing) and after successful testing unblocks the NS-VC. and sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED (3023) alarm. the BSC marks the NS-VC as unblocked and cancels the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm if the NS-VC is not user or system blocked. Network Service Protocol (NS). If the NS-VC is system blocked with a BSC initiated unblock procedure on. and reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. If the NS-VC is system blocked with no BSC initiated unblock procedure on. Case where the BSC resets an NS-VC The user sets up. The BSC sets the NS-VC reset as pending until the NS-VC reset can be performed and then cancels the alarm.

and is then periodically repeated. and the BSC sends System Information messages to relevant cells indicating that GPRS is disabled. instead it is always marked as blocked and a reset procedure is initiated. For more information. Network Service Protocol (NS). but BVC blocking and unblocking procedures can only be triggered by the BSC. but acknowledges the received reset back to SGSN and initiates the test procedure. Operational state WO-EX Explanation The BVC is operational. The user can define the test procedure with the PRFILE parameter TNS_TEST. A 'dead' NS-VC cannot be in the unblocked state. it means that all BSSGP traffic to/from PCU-managed cells stops on the Gb interface. unblocking and reset of BVCs. Table 33 BVC operational states 84 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . the NS-VC is said to be 'live'. For more information. When end-to-end communication exists. acknowledges the received reset back to the SGSN. In all the above cases. The test procedure runs on unblocked NS-VCs and also on user blocked and remote blocked NS-VCs. If the NS-VC is system blocked. If the NS-VC reset is stopped. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. The BVC reset procedure can be triggered by both the BSC and the SGSN. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE (3019) alarm in a SGSN initiated reset and blocks the related BVCs implicitly. The possible states are shown in the table below. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. except after NS-VC reset. otherwise it is 'dead'. then the action depends on whether the NS-VC reset is ongoing or not. and initiates the test procedure.4 BVC management function The BVC management function is responsible for the blocking. but not on system blocked NS-VCs. Network Service Protocol (NS). The user can output the BVC operational state with the command EQO. if the blocked NS-VC is the last one in the NSE. then the BSC changes the NS-VC state to remote blocked (to get the NS-VC up during SGSN initiated NS-VC unblock).Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description BSC does not change the state. 7. This procedure is initiated after successful completion of the reset procedure. If the NS-VC reset is ongoing. Both sides of the Gb interface may initiate the NS-VC test independently from each other. NS-VC test The NS-VC test procedure is used when the BSC checks that end-to-end communication exists between peer NSs on a given NS-VC. The test procedure is stopped when the underlying bearer or PVC is unavailable. then the received NS-RESET is interpreted as an acknowledgement and the BSC acknowledges it back to the SGSN and initiates the test procedure.

or the cell has no GPRS TSLs. BTS or BCF) is blocked so that the cell does not have GPRS capability. SGSN initiates a BVC-RESET procedure (if necessary). BVC reset is used instead of BVC unblock because of the dynamic configuration of BVCs in the SGSN. BVCI-blocked Equipment failure Table 34 BVC blocking cases BVC unblocking is used only in an exceptional condition when the BSC receives an unexpected BVC-BLOCK-ACK PDU relating to a BVC that is locally unblocked. BVC conf lost unknown The enquired BVCI is outside the allowed value range. The BVC has not been configured for the PCU. related BVCs are locally blocked by the BSC. or a radio network object (a TRX. or the configuration has been lost from the PCU. BTS reset or TRX reset. blocks the BCCH TRX in a cell or deletes a BVC by disabling GPRS in a cell. A cell level fault. For more information. BVC reset A BVC reset is initiated by the BSC to bring GPRS data into use in a BVC. No indication is sent to the SGSN. Table 33 BVC operational states (Cont. unblocked Either GPRS has been enabled in the cell and the BVC has been created in the SGSN. The BSC then unblocks the BVC with the BVC-UNBLOCK PDU. for example at the beginning of site reset. or by executing BCSU switchover. The NSE is not functional. but the BVC's flow control is not yet operational. In the latter case the user should check the status of the PCU. The BSC blocks a BVC after: Case where the BSC blocks a BVC Cause sent to the SGSN O & M intervention A user disables GPRS in a cell. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 85 . and the reenabling GPRS in the cell.) BVC blocking and unblocking BVC blocking is initiated by the BSC to remove a BVC from GPRS data use.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management Operational state BL-SY Explanation Unavailable by system. This situation can be resolved by disabling. A user or system block of the last NS-VC of the NSE serving the BVC. or the PCU does not report the state of the BVC within the time limit because of some fault situation. disables the last GPRS-supporting TRX in a cell. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP).

or creates a BVC by enabling GPRS in a cell. BCSU restart If the Gb interface uses Frame Relay. and cancels the alarm.5 Recovery in restart and switchover In a recovery situation the BCSU and PCU are always handled together as a pair. After an initial flow control procedure for the BVCs. BTS or TRX reset. skips the BVC reset procedure. The PCU starts Frame Relay level periodic polling towards the SGSN. but the operator may also start the diagnostics routine if needed. A user or system unblock of the first NS-VC of the NSE serving the BVC (signalling BVC is reset first. The BSC cancels the alarm after the next successful BVC block. BCSU switchover If the Gb interface uses Frame Relay. Diagnostics is run automatically. also downlink BSSGP data delivery is possible on that BVC. The diagnostics of the PCU is included in the diagnostics of the BCSU. after BCSU switchover (either user or system initiated). Spontaneous indications come from the SGSN to the BSC's PCU on Frame Relay level about bearer channel availability for NS-VCs. First all NS-VCs are created. for example after site. the BSC recreates the Gb interface on the target PCU right after Frame Relay 86 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The reset procedure is completed when the PCU receives a suitable DLCI from the network. and sets the BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED (3031) alarm. After successful BVC reset the uplink BSSGP data delivery is possible on that BVC. 7. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). after user or system initiated BCSU restart. then the rest). then all BVCs are created after cell-specific block indications. enables the first GPRS. and after successful tests unblocks all tested NS-VCs. the BSC recreates the Gb interface on the restarted PCU right after Frame Relay level setup. unblock or reset. otherwise the BSC marks the BVC as unblocked in order to get the BVC up and running when the NS-level becomes available again. For more information. Flow control is discussed in more detail in GPRS radio connection control. when the restarted object is working Network service transmission capacity modified from zero kbit/s to greater than zero kbit/s Equipment failure Table 35 BVC reset cases With the BVC reset the underlying network service must be available for use. deblocks the BCCH TRX in a cell. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. The PCU sets others as pending and raises the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED (3023) alarm for each NS-VC. A cell restart. The NS-VCs which have received DLCIs from the network are reset when the bearer channel is available.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Case where BSC resets a BVC Cause sent to the SGSN A user enables GPRS in a cell.O & M intervention supporting TRX in a cell. The PCU maintains only user blocked information of NS-VCs. The PCU then initiates the test procedure on the successfully reset NS-VCs. and resets the signalling BVC.

If the switchover is cancelled for some reason. The BSC resets the new spare PCU to the working state. The user defines between which BCSUs the switchover is made. Forced BCSU switchover The operation in a forced BCSU switchover is very similar to the operation in a BCSU restart. the original working PCU is restored back to the working state. Controlled BCSU switchover A controlled BCSU switchover is either a user or a system initiated action. The BSC does not send NS level blocks from the source PCU in order not to interrupt the BVC configurations of the SGSN. The Gb interface configuration is from the source PCU and the setting up of the Gb interface is similar to what was described in section BCSU restart. All GPRS data connections will drop after the PCU PCM connections are released. In a successful switchover. After an unsuccessful switchover the PCU uses the same GPRS territory as it had before the switchover. The system cancels the switchover command if the execution would lead to a situation where some of the circuit switched calls would drop. If the switchover is cancelled. At the end of the switchover the spare PCU is restarted regardless of the switchover being successful or not. and defines its new GPRS territory. ☞ Only GPRS data connections that are connected to the PCU are released. After the switchover — whether user or system initiated — the BSC unblocks TRXs and delivers new territory to the PCU. the PCU sees the data as lost and thus releases all its PCU PCM connections and unblocks its BTSs. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 87 . Because GPRS data is not copied to the PCU. the BSC moves the control of the working BCSU/PCU pair to the spare BCSU/PCU pair as in the forced switchover. but data is copied only from the working BCSU to the spare BCSU. and the BSC resumes GPRS territory updatings.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management level set-up. The BSC allows new GPRS connection setups in the old working PCU again. The PCU releases all PCU PCM connections related to the restarted PCU. If a PCU gets faulty the system may initiate the BCSU switchover. the original working BCSU is restored back to the working state.

In principle.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 8 Radio resource management GPRS radio resource management in BSC involves two processes: division of radio timeslots between circuit switched and packet switched timeslot territories on the one hand.1 Territory method The BSC divides radio resources semipermanently between circuit switched services and GPRS. and channel allocation for individual MSS within the PS territory on the other hand. GPRS releases its resources as soon as they are needed for circuit switched traffic. Part of these default traffic channels can be reserved solely for GPRS and this means they are blocked altogether 88 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . During channel allocation for individual MSS PCU assigns PS territory timeslots for GPRS TBFs. Uplink and downlink scheduling processes are independent of each other. The BSC can upgrade or downgrade the number of radio resources allocated for GPRS use according to the varying needs of the circuit switched and GPRS traffic. 8. Only after the BSC has an update on the BTS parameters and other parameters indicating GPRS usage. PCU has its own radio channel allocation that takes care of allocating channels for GPRS TBFs. Only Full Rate and Dual Rate traffic channels are GPRS compatible. Up to seven uplink GPRS TBFs can share the resources of a single radio timeslot. The BSC can later broaden the GPRS territory based on the actual need and according to the requests of the PCU. and to initiate the creation of the necessary PS territory. Division of radio timeslots into territories means that BSC selects the radio timeslots that shall be used primarily for packet data traffic and which shall therefore be avoided in traffic channel allocation for circuit switched services. the operator has to first activate GPRS in the BSC with the cell-specific parameter GPRS enabled (GENA) and define which TRXs are capable of GPRS with the parameter GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX). and for downlink up to nine GPRS TBFs can share the resources of a single radio timeslot. To enable GPRS traffic in a cell. The PCU uses the GPRS territory resources. and within a cell only such channels may be configured into the PS territory. does it count the number of default and dedicated GPRS timeslots in the BTS and select a TRX where it starts to establish the GPRS territory. thus forming two territories. These procedures are explained in detail in the sections below. The circuit switched services have priority over GPRS in channel allocation within common resources. The radio resource management function which is responsible for the CS/PS territory management also takes care of traffic channel allocation for circuit switched calls. The initial territories are formed on a BTS-to-BTS basis according to the operatordefined parameters. GPRS capacity can be divided into three types: • • • default GPRS capacity dedicated GPRS capacity additional GPRS capacity. GPRS has a predefined set of resources which it can utilise when the circuit switched load allows. This is referred to as the default GPRS capacity.

if possible. This is referred to as dedicated GPRS capacity. max GPRS capacity (CMAX) parameter minimum value is 1 (range 1–100%). Additional GPRS capacity is referred to with radio timeslots that are above and beyond the default GPRS capacity and that the BSC has allocated for GPRS use according to the requests of the PCU. then the TRX containing permanent TCH/F timeslots is preferred to one with Dual Rate timeslots to avoid wasting Half Rate capability in the GPRS territory. TRX 1 TRX 2 BCCH Circuit Switched Territory GPRS Territory Max GPRS Capacity Additional GPRS Capacity Dedicated GPRS Capacity Default GPRS Capacity Territory border moves based on Circuit Switched and GPRS traffic load Figure 20 Territory method in BSC The BSC calculates these defined resources from percentages to concrete numbers of radio timeslots based on the number of traffic channel radio timeslots (both blocked and working) capable of Full Rate traffic in the TRXs with GPRS enabled (set with the parameter GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX)). TRX configuration.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management from circuit switched use. TRX type. There is a GPRS territory update guard time defining how often the PCU can request new radio timeslots for GPRS use. and the actual traffic situation in the TRX. GPRS territory size can be restricted by the user-modifiable parameter max GPRS capacity (CMAX). The prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG) parameter indicates if the BCCH-TRX is the first or the last choice for the GPRS territory or if it is handled equally with nonBCCH-TRXs. TRXs with permanent TCH/H timeslots or multislot HSCSD calls are also avoided. If there are two or more TRXs that have the same number of idle successive Full Rate-capable timeslots. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 89 . then the territory size 1 is used default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter minimum value is 1. The calculation is as follows: • • • • the product of default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter and the number of radio timeslots is rounded down to a whole number. The BSC starts to create the GPRS territory by first selecting the most suitable TRXs in the BTS according to its GPRS capability. The best candidate for GPRS territory according to the traffic load is the TCH TRX that holds the most idle successive Full Rate-capable (TCH/F or TCH/D) timeslots counted from the end of the TRX (timeslot 7). The user can modify these two capacities by using the respective parameters default GPRS capacity (CDEF) and dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED). The super reuse TRXs (Intelligent Underlay Overlay) and the extended area TRXs (Extended Cell Range) are never included as available resources in the GPRS territory calculation. if default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter value is > 0 but the rounded product equals 0. The GPRS timeslots are always allocated from TSL7 towards TSL0 per TRX.

the BSC fulfils the defined GPRS capacity as soon as possible. but not for a transparent multislot HSCSD call. although not as actual GPRS channels. All the defined timeslots cannot necessarily be delivered immediately due to the circuit switched traffic load of the BTS. When the user enables GPRS in a cell. The BSC performs upgrades of continuous sets of successive timeslots. an intra cell handover is started. the BSC selects a new TRX and starts to define the territory. After the default capacity (which includes also the dedicated part) has been delivered. If the GPRS territory cannot be extended to its full size due to a timeslot being occupied by circuit switched traffic.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Having defined the GPRS capacity share and having selected the best TRX for GPRS. If the GPRS territory of a BTS needs more timeslots than one TRX can offer. Each GPRS territory upgrade concerns timeslots of one TRX. thus an upgrade is a TRXspecific procedure. the HSCSD timeslots are left inside the GPRS territory. The aim of the handover is to move the circuit switched call to another timeslot and clear the timeslot for GPRS use (refer to the figure below). Starting from the end of the first TRX in the GPRS territory. The BSC extends the GPRS territory on the other side of the timeslots reserved for the transparent HSCSD call. the BSC starts a handover to be able to allocate dedicated GPRS channels. default GPRS capacity (CDEF) and max GPRS capacity. The BSC starts a handover to move a non-transparent multislot HSCSD call. the BSC next begins a GPRS territory upgrade procedure where it allocates the selected radio timeslots of the TRX for GPRS use and informs the PCU. The BSC then continues with the upgrading of the GPRS territory after the release of the source channel of the handover. The BSC starts the GPRS territory upgrade procedure when the user enables GPRS in a BTS. However. GPRS territory upgrade The BSC uses a GPRS territory upgrade procedure to allocate part of the resources for GPRS use. the BSC includes in a GPRS territory upgrade the timeslots according to need and availability. the PCU can request more resources for a GPRS territory upgrade based on the actual need caused by GPRS use. even if the defined margin of idle timeslots is not met but there is at least one timeslot available. For a transparent HSCSD call. 90 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The number of timeslots given for GPRS use is defined by the operator with the parameters dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED).

The operator can modify the period with the BSC parameter CSU. When defining the margin. previous GPRS territory change in the BTS has been completed sufficient margin of idle TCH/Fs in the BTS idle GPRS capable resources available in the BTS available capacity in the PCU controlling the BTS. • • • • • • Other general conditions for a GPRS territory upgrade are: The margin of idle TCH/Fs that is required as a condition for starting a GPRS territory upgrade is defined by the BSC parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management B S C C C C C B = BCCH TSL S = SDCCH TSL C = Circuit Switched call C C C C C C C C C C C C Default GPRS capacity (d)= 20% Dedicated GPRS capacity (D) = 10% C C d d D D D = Circuit Switched territory GPRS territory upgrade = GPRS territory Figure 21 GPRS territory upgrade when a timeslot is cleared for GPRS use with an intra cell handover Situations leading to the starting of a GPRS territory upgrade are related to configuration and traffic channel resource changes. The rows indicate a selected time period (seconds) during which probability for an expected downgrade is no more than 5%. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 91 . it results in an increase in the timeslot share that should be provided for GPRS traffic. the parameter defines how many traffic channel radio timeslots have to be left free after the GPRS territory upgrade. The default value for the period length is 4 seconds. When the user adds GPRS capable TRXs in a BTS. The BSC starts the GPRS territory upgrade procedure when: • • • • the user enables GPRS in a cell the user or BSC unblocks a GPRS enabled TRX thus enabling a pending GPRS territory upgrade the user or BSC unblocks a radio timeslot inside the GPRS territory enabling it to be included in the GPRS territory the BSC releases a circuit switched TCH/F causing the number of idle resources in the BTS to increase above a margin that is required before GPRS territory upgrade can be started the BSC releases a circuit switched TCH/F beside the GPRS territory border (as a consequence of handover) so that the pending GPRS territory upgrade can be performed the PCU requests a GPRS territory upgrade. In the two-dimensional table the columns are for different amounts of available resources (TRXs) in the BTS. In fact. a two-dimensional table is used.

a statistics counter is updated. In the GPRS territory upgrade. If the conditions required for a GPRS territory upgrade are not met at the time the PCU requests a GPRS territory upgrade. Additional GPRS territory upgrade The need for additional GPRS channels is checked when a new TBF is established or an existing TBF is terminated. and the capacity limit of the PCU unit. If two successive connection failures of a PCUDSP circuit with different Abis circuits occur. There are three reasons for a GPRS territory upgrade request being rejected: lack of GPRS radio resources. The BSC initiates a new GPRS territory upgrade after a guard period. which the PCU has to wait between successive requests for GPRS territory configuration updates. The BSC has not been able to add more radio channels to the territory within the informing delay of the alarm. the BSC marks the PCUDSP channel as faulty and sets the alarm FAULTY PCUPCM TIMESLOTS IN PCU (3073). if a GPRS territory contains less channels than could be allocated to a mobile according to its multislot class. The BSC obeys this guard time also when it performs GPRS territory upgrades to fulfil the operator-defined default GPRS territory. In case the PCU asks for several timeslots in one request and only a part of the requested resources are available. Alarm GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE (3273) is set if the GPRS territory size in the BTS is below the limit specified by the BTS specific radio network parameter default GPRS capacity (CDEF). the BSC cancels the upgrade and saves information on the detected fault. the BSC simply does nothing but updates related statistics.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description TRXs Time period: 0s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10 s 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 10 0 11 0 12 0 13 0 14 0 15 0 16 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 2 3 3 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 2 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 3 4 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 3 4 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 3 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 3 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 Table 36 Defining the margin of idle TCH/Fs The user can define and modify with the parameter GPRS territory update guard time (GTUGT) the guard time. the PCU selects a free circuit from the PCUPCM and the BSC connects it to an Abis circuit. circuit switched traffic load. The PCU will request additional channels. or if the average number of TBFs per TSL is more than 1.5 after the allocation of 92 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . If an error occurs when connecting the PCUPCM circuit to the Abis circuit.

However. the PCU will have to request a downgrade again after the territory update guard time has expired. and the number of additional channels needed for the average number of allocated TBFs per TSL to be 1 (average TBF/TSL=1). One of the additional channels is taken into CS use. Example: The GPRS territory consists of three channels (one default and two additional) and a mobile of multislot class 4 has a downlink TBF of three timeslots (performing ftp for example). a territory upgrade would be possible. This means that the PCU has requested these timeslots for GPRS traffic in addition to the default capacity. but nothing happens (no upgrade of the territory). if the need for the downgrade still exists. When the previously reserved channel is freed from the CS side. GPRS territory downgrade The BSC uses a GPRS territory downgrade procedure when it needs to reduce the share of timeslots in the GPRS territory. if the existing TBF is terminated and a new one is established or if the concurrent uplink TBF is terminated the need and possibility of the territory upgrade is re-evaluated. the TBF will be reallocated to utilise all channels. as the mobile is capable of using 3 downlink channels. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 93 . The PCU will first allocate one channel for the TBF and it will request for (at least) 2 more channels. for example when there is an increase in the circuit switched traffic load.5). The number of additional channels the PCU will request is the greater of the following two numbers: • the number of additional channels needed in the allocation according to the MS's multislot class (this criterion is used only when the GPRS territory contains fewer channels than the MS is capable of using). The BSC starts a GPRS territory downgrade procedure when • • • • • • the user disables GPRS in a cell the user or BSC blocks the TRX that is carrying GPRS traffic the user or BSC blocks the timeslot that is carrying GPRS traffic the user or BSC blocks circuit switched resources causing the number of idle resources in the BTS to decrease below the required margin the BSC allocates a traffic channel for circuit switched use causing the number of idle resources in the BTS to decrease below the required margin the PCU requests for a GPRS territory downgrade The PCU initiates a GPRS territory downgrade procedure for additional type GPRS radio timeslots. These additional channels will be requested only if all GPRS default channels are already in the GPRS territory. but the need for additional timeslots has ceased. When the PCU receives this additional capacity. If the BSC cannot start a GPRS territory downgrade at the time the PCU requests it. because the system only checks for need for upgrade when a new TBF is established. the territory is decreased to two channels.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management the new TBF (average TBF/TSL>1. and the downlink TBF is reallocated to these channels. • Example: The GPRS territory consists of one (default) channel and resources should be allocated for a downlink TBF of a multislot class 4 mobile.

The PCU will request the removal of additional channels. Another index of the table is the needed number of idle TCHs. Depending on the size of the margin and on the amount of traffic on the BTS. % Additional GPRS territory downgrade Additional channels are taken into CS use whenever more channels are needed on the CS side. 8.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The operator defines the margin of idle TCHs that the BSC tries to maintain free in a BTS for the incoming circuit switched resource requests using the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). The definition of the margin involves a two-dimensional table.5 (average TBF/TSL<0.5). TRX s 1 TCH 94 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 99 100 2 84 98 99 100 3 76 96 99 4 69 93 99 5 63 91 98 99 6 58 87 97 99 7 54 85 96 99 8 50 82 94 98 99 9 48 79 93 98 99 10 45 77 92 97 99 11 43 74 90 97 99 12 41 72 89 96 99 13 40 70 87 95 98 99 14 38 68 86 94 98 99 15 37 66 84 94 98 99 16 35 64 83 93 97 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 100 Table 37 Defining the margin of idle TCHs. if the average TBFs per TSL is less than 0. One index of the table is the number of TRXs in the BTS. The need for additional GPRS channels is always checked when an existing TBF is terminated. Actual table items are percentage values indicating probability for TCH availability during a one-second downgrade operation with the selected resource criterion. the BSC may not be able to maintain the margin with the GPRS territory downgrade procedure and the circuit switched territory may run out of idle traffic channels. 94 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .2 Circuit switched traffic channel allocation in GPRS territory The BSC maintains a safety margin of idle traffic channels for circuit switched traffic by starting a GPRS territory downgrade when the number of free traffic channels in the circuit switched territory of a BTS decreases below the limit defined by the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). During a sudden burst of traffic channel requests. new circuit switched traffic channel requests may come before the GPRS territory downgrade procedure has been completed. If the number of idle TCH resources in the circuit switched territory of the BTS decreases below the defined margin. a GPRS territory downgrade is started if possible. Default probability 95% can be changed through the free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) parameter.

Traffic channel queuing during GPRS territory upgrade does not require the normal queuing to be in use in the target BTS. Load limit calculation The BSC parameter CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC) defines how the GPRS territory is seen when the load limits for CS TCH allocation are calculated. The use of the parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) aims at avoiding collisions between a GPRS territory upgrade and circuit switched requests. Value 1 of the parameter means that the RTSL-0 hopping group is preferred in CS traffic channel allocation. This kind of queuing can be performed if the MSC allows it for the request. The BSC cannot allocate a traffic channel in the GPRS territory for circuit switched use.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management If the circuit switched territory becomes congested. In that case the HSCSD call can have one or more TSLs depending on the HSCSD parameters of the BTS in question. Multislot traffic channel allocation for an HSCSD call within the GPRS territory follows the same principles as for single slot requests. Additionally. Value 0 of the parameter means that only the resources in the CS territory are taken into account in load calculations. it defines whether the resources in the GPRS territory are seen as idle resources or as occupied resources. in every allocation and reallocation instance. the RTSL-0 hopping group is searched. If no free resources are available in the RTSL-0 hopping group. If no free resources are available in the default GPRS territory. The BSC first releases the channel in GPRS use from the PCU and then activates it in the BTS for circuit switched use. Baseband Hopping BTS The BSC parameter CS TCH allocate RTSL0 (CTR) defines the order of preference between the RTSL-0 hopping group and the default GPRS territory in CS TCH allocation. Value 2 of the parameter means that both the CS territory resources and the GPRS territory resources (excluding the dedicated GPRS timeslots) are taken into account. Value 0 of the parameter means that the default GPRS territory timeslots are preferred in CS traffic channel allocation. Value 1 of the parameter means that both the CS territory resources and the GPRS territory resources (excluding the dedicated GPRS timeslots) are taken into account. A non-transparent HSCSD call is placed inside the GPRS territory only in the case of total congestion of the CS territory. A transparent HSCSD call can be allocated partly over the GPRS territory so that traffic channels for the call are allocated from both territories or the whole HSCSD call can be allocated over the GPRS territory. After every step. 8. if the radio timeslot in question is involved in a GPRS territory upgrade procedure that has not been completed yet. in the order presented. the default GPRS territory is searched. In this case the circuit switched traffic channel request is put in queue to wait for the GPRS territory upgrade to finish. and the GPRS territory resources are seen as occupied resources. and the GPRS territory resources are seen as idle resources.3 BTS selection for packet traffic Channel allocation goes through all the following steps. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 95 . the BSC can allocate a traffic channel for circuit switched use in the GPRS territory — if there is one not dedicated for GPRS. the list of valid BTSs is relayed to the next step and the BTSs that did not meet the requirements are discarded.

PCU1 only: Load (Penalty. In the UL direction. There will be no extra blocking to any user. QoS). only the experienced service quality changes. if no BTS fullfilling (RX_level (BCCH) .NBL > GPU) is found. 4. 5. This is based on combinations of GPRS Delay class and GPRS Precedence class values. the PCU uses the radio priority received from the MS. then the old serving BTS is discarded in the very beginning. Higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users. in this case the PCU always uses the lowest priority. NBL is used for comparing levels and ruling out BTSs. BTS throughput factor takes MS and BTS GPRS capability into account and the BTS providing highest relative throughput is selected. throughput and priority.4 Quality of Service The concept of 'Priority Class' is introduced at system level. the TBF with the lowest 96 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . In UL reallocation.NBL < GPL) • In reallocation between different valid BTSs. In PCU1 each TBF allocated to a timeslot has a so-called latest (timeslot-specific) service time. This IE includes Precedence class information which indicates the priority of the PDU.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description BTS selection in a segment with more than one BTS 1. Priority Based Scheduling is introduced as a first step towards QoS. Packets having higher 'Priority' are sent before packets having lower 'Priority'. DIRE is used for ruling out some BTSs. • Reallocation based on signal level is triggered by: (RX_level (BCCH) . Signal Level • In case of initial allocation (DL signal level not known). If the reallocation was due to bad uplink RX level or triggered by Quality Control due to service quality degradation (see section Quality Control). In case of UL TBF. Qos. Mobile Radio Access Capability (bands) 2. the old BTS is selected.NBL > GPU) • In reallocation case. Capability and throughput • PCU1 only: Mobile capability vs BTS capability . the uplink RX level of the TBF in the serving BTS is compared to GPL to check if the reallocation was triggered by a bad uplink RX level (uplink RX level < GPL). the MS informs its radio priority in a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST (PCR) or a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST (PRR). (RX_level (BCCH). • PCU2 only: Throughput (Penalty. The PCU receives the QoS information to be used in DL TBFs from the SGSN in a DL unitdata PDU. BTS throughput factor). Check maximum TBF/TSL in BTS 3. The PCU receives the QoS profile information element in the DL unitdata. BTS with NBL value greater than DIRE is ruled out. Exception to this rule is GPRS one phase access on CCCH. 8. or a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK (PDAN) and this is used for UL QoS. In each scheduling round (performed every 20 ms). With Priority Based Scheduling the operator can give users different priorities. ETSI specifications define QoS functionality which gives the possibility to differentiate TBFs by delay.

seven uplink and nine downlink TBFs can share the resources of a single timeslot. see Overview of Extended Dynamic Allocation. The sizes of the scheduling steps/weight determine the handing out of radio resources. the lower the scheduling weight of the TBF. the latest service time of the selected TBF is incremented by the scheduling step size of the TBF in PCU1. channel allocation also involves other criteria in case EDA is active. The PCU determines the number of traffic channels that are needed and counts the best throughput for that number of traffic channels. For more information on EDA. In PCU1. the Medium Access (MAC) mode capability of a mobile affects its UL transmission capability (within the Multislot Class restrictions). The PCU2 scheduling uses the Bucket Round Robin (BRR) algorithm. The QoS load of a channel is defined as a weighted sum of the TBFs in the channel. The weights used cor- DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 97 . see Packet scheduling. To get more detailed information about QoS in Gb. Priority Based Scheduling in BSC is an operating software product and is always active in an active PCU. In PCU2. the less often it is selected and given a turn. Also. If several TBFs have been allocated to a timeslot. Dynamic Allocation MAC mode allows an MS to use a maximum of two UL timeslots. the uplink and downlink scheduling are independent channels allocated to a TBF must be allocated from the same TRX The traffic channels which would provide the maximum possible (priority based) capacity. 8. See parameter conversion in section BSC parameters of System Impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service. each priority class has its own scheduling step size which is operator adjustable. are allocated for a TBF. In PCU1 the traffic channel combinations are first compared by QoS load. The same applies also to PCU2 scheduling weight which is operator adjustable. but the traffic channel is dedicated to one MS at a time — this is referred to as temporary GPRS connection block flow or Temporary Block Flow (TBF) — meaning that one MS is transmitting or receiving at a time. • • • Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is explained in GPRS radio connection control. then the higher the scheduling step size or respectively. For more information. see BSC-SGSN interface description. Exceptions are TBFs for which only one channel is allocated. The allocation process tries to ensure that better priority TBFs do not gather into the same radio timeslot. and there similar behaviour is obtained using scheduling weight. MAC mode does not affect the DL capability of an MS. Priorities are also taken into account in allocations of TBFs. Scheduling step sizes/weights depend on the priority class of the TBF.5 Channel allocation and scheduling GPRS channels are allocated according to the following rules: • • downlink and uplink are separate resources multiple mobiles can share one traffic channel. Exended Dynamic Allocation (PCU2) allows an MS to use a maximum of four UL timeslots. BSS GPRS protocol (BSSGP). within the restrictions of the multislot class of the mobile.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management service time is selected and given a turn to send a radio block (provided that no control blocks have to be sent). then by capacity type (additional < default < dedicated) and then by the Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) load.

If DL TBF exists and UL TBF is allocated as concurrent. QoS and TBF type are compared simultaneously. Channel combination in concurrent allocation is determined from operator modifiable parameters CHA_CONC_UL_FAVOR_DIR and CHA_CONC_DL_FAVOR_DIR. CHA_CONC_DL_FAVOR_DIR defines the preferred direction. These parameters have three values . and an MS of multislot class 4 has a downlink TBF of three timeslots (performing FTP for example) and also uses an uplink TBF of one timeslot to acknowledge the received data (Note that the UL TBF is not always present as it is not always needed). Among multiplexed TSLs. Different QoS classes result in different penalties for load comparing. Preferred direction takes place only with certain multislot classes that can have different channel combinations. In addition. For more information. These will be allocated to it and the optimum resources are evaluated for 98 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . If a mobile is using only one direction (UL or DL). a comparison of estimated throughputs is carried out between DA (max. however. TBF allocation After the BTS has been selected. resources from the default area will be allocated.favour UL. and PCU uses reallocations to modify the timeslot configuration to give preference to the direction with more traffic. During concurrent TBFs the PCU monitors the traffic. Higher priority TBFs will get more turns. the PCU monitors PACCH load (in other words signalling load) in TSLs and takes that into account in allocation. In the evaluation of the resources. Respectively. Example: The GPRS territory consists of three channels. only the resources of the direction used are evaluated. no preference is given to adjoining allocations when concurrent TBF is being created. for example 3+1 or 2+2 (DL+UL). In PCU2. Multiplexed and nonmultiplexed TSLs are also prioritised by a penalty value. If the mobile being evaluated already has an existing TBF in one direction and it requires resources from the other direction. CHA_CONC_UL_FAVOR_DIR defines the direction that should be preferred in allocation. see Functionality of Extended Dynamic Allocation in Extended Dynamic Allocation in BSC.which result in different emphasis in resource division between UL and DL. Furthermore in PCU2. two slots) and EDA (max. the evaluation of concurrent resources received is first done for the adjoining allocation beside existing allocation and then for different concurrent reallocations. PACCH is defined in more detail in GPRS radio connection control. favour DL and share resources . In PCU1 the PACCH load is the number of TBFs using a certain TCH as PACCH. When optimum resources for a mobile are searched for. four slots) connections in uplink. A second mobile of multislot class 4 requests UL resources. where existing TBF is reallocated from its current allocation. If effective resources received in the adjoining allocation are the same as with concurrent reallocation. The traffic channel combinations are first compared by relative throughput and then by capacity type (additional < default < dedicated). dedicated and default territory areas are preferred. both UL and DL resources are evaluated and the decision for the allocation is made depending on the amount of effective resources received in both directions. when allocating DL TBF as concurrent.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description respond with the scheduling rate of the QoS class of TBFs in the channel. QoS is the selection criteria. In PCU2 the PACCH load is monitored by the scheduler and that is used together with the scheduling weights when the relative throughput of the channel combination is estimated. therefore they will cause more load on the channel. so if similar resources are found from the additional and default territory. the adjoining allocation is preferred.

MS2 does not receive the maximum number of timeslots in the DL direction in this phase. it would have resulted in both MSS having only 2 effective timeslots (the total sum of UL and DL resources). MS2 is allocated similarly to MS1. because the reallocation does not provide any better resources for MS2 in this phase. Now the allocation depends on the resource usage of MS1 in both UL and DL directions. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL DL MS1 6 DEF MS1 MS1 MS2 7 DEF MS2 MS1 MS2 As a result. downlink resources are needed for the second mobile. The adjoining allocation is made. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF 6 DEF 7 DEF DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 99 . TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL 6 DEF MS1 MS2 DL MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 7 DEF In case of PCU. If the favoured direction is set to favor DL. if the favoured direction is UL. the allocation is made according to multislot class capabilities. If MS2 had been allocated in the same way as MS1 (with re-allocation). As a result. In other words. but it will receive them later. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL DL MS1 6 DEF MS1 MS1 7 DEF MS2 MS1 Example: Continuing from the previous example. A concurrent allocation for the DL TBF is made for MS2 if MS1 has an UL TBF in use when the DL TBF of MS2 is allocated. 2+2 allocation is made. adjoining allocation with fewer channels that multislot class allows is not made. the second MS will get its UL resource from a channel that is not used by the first mobile. MS1 has the resources of 3 effective timeslots (the total sum of UL and DL resources) and MS2 has the resources of 2 effective timeslots. 3+1 allocation is reserved for MS2. when the territory upgrade has been completed.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management the UL direction only. In case of PCU2. 1. Available resources are evaluated for both directions and the allocation is made in such a way that optimum resources are used in both directions. As a result.

MS1 has the resources of 1. the PCU has received the additional capacity it has requested and the reallocation of the TBF(s) will be made. because better resources are achieved with it. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL DL MS1 MS2 6 DEF MS2 MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 7 DEF In this allocation. Example: Continuing from the previous example. DL resources for MS2 are given with reallocation if MS1 does not have a UL TBF in use when the DL TBF of MS2 is allocated.5 effective timeslots (the total sum of UL and DL resources) and MS2 has the resources of 2. Both mobiles will get 3 timeslots in the DL direction and 1 timeslot in the UL direction. TSL 0 1 2 ADD UL DL MS2 3 ADD MS2 MS2 MS2 MS1 4 ADD 5 DEF 6 DEF MS1 MS1 MS1 7 DEF After the TBF is created in a BTS When a GPRS TBF is in a multiplexed TSL. As a result. The reallocation is made. PCU1 will constantly check: 1. three channels will be requested). if the channel is multiplexed 2.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description UL DL MS1 MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 MS2 MS1 MS2 2. TSL 0 1 2 3 ADD UL DL MS2 4 ADD MS2 MS2 MS1 MS2 5 DEF 6 DEF MS1 MS1 MS1 7 DEF 2.5 effective timeslots.5 timeslots in the DL direction and 1 timeslot in the UL direction. Both mobiles will get 2. two channels will be requested and in case b. the following allocations will be made: 1. if it is the only GPRS TBF in the TSL thus causing multiplexing 100 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Then the PCU would request a territory upgrade according to the rules explained in the section additional GPRS territory upgrade (in case a.

The target in the downgrade is to achieve an average TBF/TSL equal of 1. The need for additional GPRS channels is always checked when an existing TBF is terminated. The maximum number of GPRS channels is limited by CMAX. and intracell handover is needed before the territory upgrade can be completed. if a GPRS territory contains less channels than what could be allocated to a mobile according to its multislot class. The scheduling of the RLC data block in each timeslot is independent of other timeslots.5). The PCU can assign multiple MSS to the same uplink traffic channels. and releases from S12 onwards also support Extended Dynamic Allocation (PCU2 only). Packet scheduling Uplink and downlink scheduling are independent of each other. When ensuring the best quality and speed for end-users. PCU constantly checks if reallocation should take place to achieve better relative capacity.5 (average TBF/TSL<0. The PCU will request for more additional channels. The MS monitors the downlink Radio Link Control (RLC) blocks on the traffic channels it has been assigned. Reallocation check interval is determined by operator modifiable parameter TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management 3. allocation is done to achieve the highest possible relative throughput. the BSC gives the MS a USF value for each assigned traffic channel in the assignment message. if there are multiplexed channels where it is allowed to reallocate In PCU2. The PCU will request the removal of additional channels. the above mentioned checks do not apply since there is no attempt to remove multiplexing and USF Granularity 4 is used. DA allows an MS to use a maximum of two timeslots in UL. Consequently. The use of additional channels is less efficient compared to the default channels. ETSI specifications allow the scheduling of uplink transmission turns to be done by two different Medium Access Control (MAC) modes: Dynamic Allocation (DA) and Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA). there can be a CS call in the timeslot. In DA and EDA. These additional channels will be requested only if all GPRS default channels are already in the GPRS territory. The reason for this is that the additional channels (territory upgrade) are always requested from circuit-switched (CS) territory and there is always some delay before the channel is moved to the GPRS territory. which is to be moved to the GPRS territory. planning may not rely on additional channels in the dimensioning of the GPRS territory. Whenever the MS finds the USF value in the downlink RLC block. The BSC releases from S9 onwards support Dynamic Allocation. Additional channels are taken into CS use whenever more channels are needed on the CS side. The parameter defines reallocation check interval for a TBF in block periods. Radio Link Control is defined in more detail in GPRS radio connection control. In addition. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 USF USF T T 0 Figure 22 Dynamic Allocation MAC mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 101 . it may send an uplink RLC block in the corresponding uplink frame. if the average TBF/TSL is less than 0. For example.

Radio resource management

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

EDA allows an MS to use more than two uplink timeslot by removing the need of detecting USFs separately for each assigned traffic channel: a received USF gives the MS a permission to send, during the next transmission turn, on the corresponding UL channel and on all the following channels of the UL TBF.
0 1
USF T T T

2

3

4

5

6

7

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Figure 23

Extended Dynamic Allocation MAC mode

Scheduling in PCU1 is based on a kind of weighted round robin (WRR) method, which means that a higher priority (QoS) Temporary Block Flow (TBF) gets a bigger share of the PDTCHs allocated for it than a lower priority TBF. Scheduling in PCU2 is based on a Bucket Round Robin (BRR) algorithm. USF granularity 4 is only used with DA, not EDA. The main difference to PCU1 WRR algorithm implementation is that BRR distributes transmission turns per MS and not per TCH as WRR in PCU1 implementation. Both WRR and BRR distribute capacity according to connection specific scheduling weights. See Quality of service for more information on adjusting weight in priority based QoS. Extended Uplink TBF mode Extended UL TBF mode is an optional functionality. If the MS supports Extended UL TBF Mode (indicated in MS RAC), the normal uplink release is delayed. The delay time is operator adjustable with parameter UL_TBF_REL_DELAY_EXT. During delay time MS is in extended mode. In extended mode network schedules USFs to MS with lower scheduling rate. If MS in extended mode has data to send data it returns to normal mode. For more information, see Data transfer. Scheduling in extended mode for an uplink TBF is based on operator modifiable parameters UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT in PCU1 and POLLING_INTERVAL in PCU2. In PCU1, UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT defines the next block period when a TBF in extended mode is given a transmission turn. However, a TBF in extended mode cannot have better residual capacity than it would in normal mode. In PCU2, POLLING_INTERVAL defines the time in block periods that TBF in extended state cannot have transmission time. After POLLING_INTERVAL is elapsed, TBF is returned to scheduling and once it is scheduled it is restricted again unless it is returned to normal mode. Dynamic Scheduling for Extended UL TBF Mode In PCU2, Dynamic Scheduling for Extended UL TBF Mode optimises the scheduling algorithm applied to mobile stations in extended uplink TBF mode (EUTM). When any of the uplink TSLs which can be used for polling an MS in EUTM accommodates more than one UL TBF, the POLLING_INTERVAL parameter defines the frequency of UL transmission turns scheduled for the MS in EUTM. When none of the uplink TSLs which can be used for polling an MS in EUTM accommodates more than one UL TBF, the POLLING_INTERVAL_BG_LOW parameter defines the frequency of UL transmission turns scheduled for the MS in EUTM. This method helps to improve the RTT perfor-

102

Id:0900d80580590b5d

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Radio resource management

mance for MSS in EUTM under light or moderate traffic density without affecting adversely the radio throughput of other users.

8.6

Quality Control
The purpose of Quality Control is to monitor and detect degradation periods in service quality, and to perform corrective actions to remove the service degradation. The possible actions include TBF reallocation and Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection. Monitoring of degradation in service quality includes BLER and bitrate per radioblock monitoring. The PCU monitors bitrate per radio block for each TBF in RLC ACK mode, for UL and DL separately. When the PCU sends or receives a radio block, it updates the number of bits transmitted/received in the radio block. The PCU ignores LLC dummy blocks in this calculation. For the retransmissions, the PCU shall calculate the number of bits transmitted as zero. The PCU calculates the bitrate per radio block value and checks it against the corresponding threshold value. The threshold values are operator parameters and there is a separate value for UL and DL: QC GPRS DL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGDRT), QC GPRS UL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGURT) . If the calculated value is below threshold, degradation duration time is increased. The PCU monitors the bitrate per radio block degradation duration counter. If the counter is larger than predefined triggering levels, the corresponding corrective action is performed. The PCU monitors also RLC Block Error Ratio (BLER) for each TBF. The BLER value shall be checked against the required maximum BLER. In PCU1, maximum BLER is defined by operator parameter maximum BLER in acknowledged mode (BLA) or maximum BLER in unacknowledged mode (BLU), depending on the RLC mode of the TBF. In PCU2, maximum BLER is defined by operator parameters PFC ACK BLER limit (ABL1) and PFC UNACK BLER limit (UBL1). If BLER is above maximum, degradation duration time is increased and if the counter is larger than predefined triggering levels, the corresponding corrective action is performed. When any of the degradation duration counters monitored by the PCU gets larger than a predefined action trigger threshold, the PCU shall perform a corresponding corrective action. Each action shall be triggered only once for a TBF in PCU. For example, if reallocation is already done, the next action to be performed is Network-Controlled Cell Reselection (NCCR), triggered when a degradation duration counter exceeds the NCCR trigger threshold. The flags of already performed actions are cleared when the degradation ends, that is when all the degradation duration counters are cleared. The action trigger thresholds are expressed in block periods and the values can be set by operator (see parameter QC Action Trigger Threshold). It is possible to change the order of different actions by modifying the action trigger threshold values. If two or more actions are set to the same threshold value, the order of actions is first reallocation and then NCCR. Although possible, it is not recommended to set the values very close to each other, for example reallocation 100, NCCR 101. Otherwise, there is no time to execute the triggered action before the next is already triggered. The default action trigger threshold values are shown below.

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

Id:0900d80580590b5d

103

Radio resource management

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Action Reallocation NCCR (*)

Block periods 25 100

(*) Applicable if NCCR is activated.

8.7

MS Multislot Power Reduction (PCU2)
When multiple timeslots have been assigned to an uplink GPRS radio connection (UL TBF), the mobile station may reduce its transmission power as a function of the number of these timeslots: the more UL timeslots assigned, the larger the transmission power reduction applicable. This power reduction helps the MS to meet radiation regulations and to avoid heating problems. Every mobile station (Rel 5 or later) conforms to one of four standardised Multislot Power Profiles (0-3), which determine the maximum output power supported by an MS for different UL TBF configurations. An MS of Multislot Power Profile 3 does not apply power reduction to connections of four UL timeslots and less, while the amount of applicable reduction increases with each lower Power Profile. The effect of Multislot Power Reduction needs to be observed in radio resource allocation because the output power of an MS contributes to radio path quality, and consequently affects both the choice of the channel coding scheme to be used (CS1-CS4) and the achievable throughput per timeslot within the chosen scheme. In other words, large power reduction leads to poorer radio path quality, which in turn decreases throughput per timeslot both by necessitating robust channel coding and by increasing the number of transmission errors and retransmissions. In resource allocation, the effect of power reduction is observed by using UL signal quality measurements by the BTS to determine the maximum number of UL timeslots that can be assigned to the MS and still keep the signal quality at an acceptable level in spite of the entailing transmission power reduction. Multislot power reduction is applicable to all multislot UL connections. If EDA is enabled, up to four timeslots may be assigned to an UL TBF. If EDA is not enabled, up to two timeslots may be assigned in UL. UL signal quality and the maximum number of timeslots If the MS UL signal quality (GMSK Mean BEP or RX Quality measured by the BTS) is known during radio resource allocation, which is normally the case during two-phase access, the PCU uses this information to determine the maximum number of UL timeslots that may be allocated for the MS. The PCU uses the signal quality measurement that is available, but typically Mean BEP is used if Dynamic Abis is supported, and RX Quality is used in other cases. The operator can define the signal quality limits for different UL timeslot configurations by modifying the Mean BEP Limit and RX Quality Limit parameters. In determining these limits, the appropriate signal quality - as typically required by applications used in the network - must be considered together with the power reduction characteristics of different mobile stations. The limits should be set so that the signal quality remains

104

Id:0900d80580590b5d

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

the maximum number of timeslots that can be assigned to the reallocated connection is determined on the basis of the general RX level in the new BTS.would allow at least the same average RX level to be achieved under the new BTS as under the old one. MS Multislot Power Profile 1 — 5 3 1 MS Multislot Power Profile 2 — — 3 2 MS Multislot Power Profile 3 — — — — MAX Number of UL TSLs 1 2 3 4 MS Multislot Power Profile 0 — 5 3 1 Table 39 RX Quality Limit for UL For instance. When an UL TBF is reallocated to another BTS.8 Error situations in GPRS connections Synchronisation errors When the PCU detects a synchronisation error between itself and the BTS. the PCU handles the MS according to Power Profile 0. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 105 .considering the Multislot Power Profile of the MS . If no Multislot Power Profile has been defined for an MS (Rel 4 or earlier) or the Profile is not known by the PCU for some other reason.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management acceptable even when the MS applies maximum power reduction. 8. three UL timeslots may be assigned to a Multislot Power Profile 1 MS if the measured RX Quality is three or lower. where the mobile station specific GMSK Mean BEP and RX Quality measurements are not available for the MS. The following tables define the default values for the two signal quality limits (for Rel 5 mobiles and later). the BSC downgrades the related channels from GPRS use. This is done by checking what number of timeslots . three UL timeslots may be assigned to a Multislot Power Profile 1 MS if the measured GMSK Mean BEP value is 25 or higher. The BSC upgrades the radio timeslots back to GPRS use after a guard period. MS Multislot Power Profile 0 — 21 26 30 MS Multislot Power Profile 1 — 20 25 30 MS Multislot Power Profile 2 — — 24 29 MS Multislot Power Profile 3 — — — — MAX Number of UL TSLs 1 2 3 4 Table 38 GMSK Mean BEP Limit for UL For instance.

The BTS level configuration of this alarm is done by modifying the following parameters with the MML command EQV: EAW = <(E)GPRS Inactivity Alarm weekdays (bitmask)> Default: 00000000b (alarm disabled in BTS) Examples: 01000000 (Monday) 00100000 (Tuesday) 01111100 (Monday thru Friday) 01111111 (Every day) EAS = <(E)GPRS Inactivity Alarm start time (hours-minutes)> Default: 08-00 Range: 00-00 . The alarm is automatically cancelled when the synchronisation succeeds and the channel is taken back into GPRS use. which will be monitored... The recommended triggering criteria is the lack of normal TBF releases both in UL and DL.. but you may choose to monitor only one of the directions. you define the triggering criteria. GPRS Inactivity (Sleeping BTSs) The BSC sets the alarm NO (E)GPRS TRANSACTIONS IN BTS 7789 if there have been no normal TBF releases within the supervision period in a BTS where this alarm is enabled. length of the supervision period and traffic threshold. 23-45 106 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 ... recommended values ranging from 15 minutes (default) to 60 minutes. Although the supervision period length is common for all BTSs within a BSC. 1440 minutes The alarm also needs to be enabled on the BTSs. The BSC level configuration of this alarm is done by modifying the following parameters with the MML command EEJ: EGIC=<EGPRS Inactivity Alarm criteria> 0x00: Alarm disabled on BSC Level (default) 0x01: No normal UL TBF releases 0x02: No normal DL TBF releases 0x03: No normal UL TBF releases and no normal DL TBF releases (recommended) IEPH=<Required number of TBF allocation attempts per hour> Default: 10 Range: 0 . although there have been allocation TBF attempts. The length of the supervision period shall be defined according to estimated traffic density. 255 SPL=<Supervision period in minutes> Default: 15 minutes Range: 0 . This is done by configuring the related BTS level parameters.. Default value for traffic threshold is 10 TBF allocation attempts per hour. to ensure that the alarm is not raised due to low traffic volume.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Traffic channel activation failures The BSC sets the alarm TRAFFIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION FAILURE 7725 if the Abis synchronisation for an GPRS traffic channel repeatedly fails. To enable this alarm functionality in the BSC. the supervision periods (weekdays and hours) can be defined separately for each BTS. Traffic threshold means the required number of TBF allocation attempts per hour.

The criteria is that no normal TBF releases have been detected within a 15 minute (default) period during the hours when the alarm is active on the given weekdays. 23-45 The alarm is set if the criteria is met at the end of the supervision period. Note that the cancellation is not dependent on the setting criteria. and there have been at least the required number of TBF allocation attempts.. but a normal TBF release in either direction cancels the alarm.. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 107 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management EAE = <(E)GPRS Inactivity Alarm end time (hours-minutes)> Default: 18-00 Range: 00-00 . The alarm is cancelled if a normal TBF release is detected within the subsequent supervision periods.

In the Nokia Siemens Networks implementation. traffic channels belonging to a GPRS territory are PDTCHs and traffic channels belonging to circuit switched territory are TCHs. One PACCH is associated to one or several traffic channels that are assigned to one MS. Assigned traffic channels are used for PACCH in the direction the data is sent. Cell selection and re-selection are also defined. as one PDTCH. 9. System information messages on BCCH The support of GPRS is indicated in a SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_3 message. acknowledgements and resource assignment and reassignment messages.18). Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCHs) The Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) is a channel allocated for data transfer. The GPRS radio connection establishment (TBF establishment) and data transfer are described from the point of view of a mobile terminating (MT) and mobile originating (MO) GPRS TBF. In multislot operation. either uplink (PDTCH/U) for a mobile originated packet transfer or downlink (PDTCH/D) for a mobile terminated packet transfer. Paging is described in a section of its own. All PDTCHs are uni-directional. In the 108 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . for example.1 Radio channel usage ETSI specifications (05. The signalling information includes.02) define the possibility to use dedicated broadcast and common control channels for GPRS. PACCH is a bidirectional channel.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 9 GPRS radio connection control Radio channel usage when GPRS is in use is discussed in this section. This section describes the BSC's functions in relation to suspend and resume. The PCU uses each radio timeslot which the BSC has allocated for the GPRS territory. flush. The MS initiates uplink TBF establishment on the Random Access Channel (RACH). GPRS paging is made on the Paging Channel (PCH). For more information refer to GSM Specification (04. one MS may use multiple PDTCHs in parallel for individual packet transfer. Common Control Channel (CCCH) signalling The Common Control Channel (CCCH) signalling is used for paging and uplink and downlink temporary block flow (TBF) setup. Network-initiated TBF establishment is done on the AGCH. Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) The Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) conveys signalling information related to a given MS. GPRS-specific cell parameters are sent to the MS in a SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13 message. as well as traffic administration and power control in GPRS. It is temporarily dedicated to one MS. GPRS territories are described in Radio resource management. The network responds to the MS on the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). PDTCH/U and PDTCH/D can be assigned to an MS simultaneously. coding scheme selection. It can be allocated both on both uplink and downlink regardless of whether the corresponding traffic channel assignment is for uplink or downlink.

the PCU sends it to the SGSN and releases it from the PCU buffer. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 109 . Logical Link Control (LLC) and Radio Link Control (RLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) layer provides a highly reliable ciphered logical link. 9. or to both.2 Data Transfer Protocols and Connections Temporary Block Flow (TBF) Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is a physical connection used by two radio resource entities to support the unidirectional transfer of Logical Link Control (LLC) PDUs on packet data physical channels. the PCU receives the RLC data blocks from the MS and reassembles them into LLC PDUs. Network operation modes The BSC supports network operation modes I and II. Based on the provided mode. GPRS pages always come from the SGSN through the Gb interface. The TBF is allocated radio resources on one or more PDTCHs and comprises a number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs. RLC blocks are sent between the MS and the BSC (PCU). see GPRS. A TBF is identified by a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI) and maintained only for the duration of the data transfer. and it must be the same in each cell of a Routing Area. In mode I circuit switched paging messages are routed through the Gb interface for GPRS-attached mobiles. In downlink data transmission. segments them to the RLC blocks and sends the RLC blocks to the MS.3 Paging The network may provide co-ordination of paging for circuit switched services and GPRS depending on the network operation modes supported. In mode II circuit switched paging messages are transferred through the A interface from the MSC to the BSC. In uplink data transmission. LLC is independent of the underlying radio interface protocols in order to allow introduction of alternative GPRS radio solutions with minimum changes to the NSS. The network operation mode is indicated as system information to mobiles. LLC PDUs are sent between the MS and the SGSN. There are two RLC modes: acknowledged and unacknowledged mode. The LLC PDUs have to be sent to the SGSN in the order they were transmitted by the MS. The LLC PDU is buffered in the PCU until it has been sent to the MS or discarded. 9. The Radio Link Control (RLC) function provides a radio-solution-dependent reliable link.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control opposite direction the MS multislot capability has to be taken into account when allocating the PACCH. For an overview of GPRS. an MS can choose (according to its capabilities) whether it attaches to GPRS services or to nonGPRS services. Mode I requires Gs interface between the SGSN and MSC/HLR. The latter does not have retransmission. the PCU receives LLC PDUs from the SGSN. When the LLC PDU is ready.

☞ Gs interface is obligatory in order to support CS paging.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Mode I I II Circuit Paging Channel CCCH Packet Data Channel CCCH GPRS Paging Channel CCCH N/A CCCH Gb interface Yes Yes No Paging co. Circuit switched paging via GPRS in network operation mode I In order to initiate circuit-switched transmission between the MSC and the MS. If the SGSN provides a P-TMSI. The SGSN indicates the MS's IMSI and DRX parameters. then the BSC does not use the IMSI to address the MS. or a BSC area is associated with one or more NSEIs (PCUs). Otherwise IMSI is used to address the MS. These PDUs contain the information elements necessary for the BSS to initiate paging for an MS within a group of cells at an appropriate time. The paging area indicates the cells within which the BSC pages the MS and they can be: • • • • all cells within the BSC all cells of the BSC within one Location Area all cells of the BSC within one Routing Area one cell (identified with a BSSGP virtual connection identifier (BVCI)). It sends one or more PAGING_PS_PDUs messages to the BSC (PCU). BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP).ordination Yes Yes No Table 40 Supported Network Operation Modes GPRS paging The SGSN initiates the GPRS paging process. If no radio context iden- 110 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The MS's paging response to the SGSN is handled in the PCU as any other uplink TBF. If the cells in which to page the MS are served by several NSEIs. ☞ RA0 is a routing area for cells that do not support GPRS. A Routing Area. If a radio context identified by the TLLI exists within the BSS. then the paging message is directly sent to the MS on PACCH. If the SGSN provides the TMSI. The BSC translates the incoming GPRS and circuit switched paging messages into one corresponding Abis paging message per cell. For more information. a Location Area. which enables the BSS to derive the paging group. A GPRS paging message is sent only to cells that support GPRS services. then the BSC uses it to address the MS. The SGSN indicates the MS's IMSI and DRX parameters. then the SGSN sends one paging message to each of these NSEIs. the SGSN sends one or more PAGING CS PDUs to the BSC. which enable the BSS to derive the paging group. The paging area is the same as in GPRS paging. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. In GPRS paging the BSS forwards the PACKET_PAGING_REQUEST message from the SGSN to the MS on the CCCH(s). These PDUs contain the information elements necessary for the BSS to initiate paging for an MS within a group of cells.

the MS GPRS multislot class must be taken into account. Downlink TBF establishment on CCCH The PCU allocates one PDTCH for the TBF. The PCU sends the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT message. and gives the whole configuration together with the Timing Advance value to the MS. and sends an IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message to the MS. the PCU sends the PACKET_POWER_CONTROL/TIMING_ADVANCE message to the MS to indicate the Timing Advance value. After the paging procedure. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). if the SGSN indicates to the BSC to initiate paging for an MS within a Routing Area the BSC sends one circuit switched paging message to all cells in the Routing Area and one message to all the cells in RA0. Each LLC PDU is encapsulated in one DL-UNITDATA PDU.4 Mobile terminated TBF (GPRS) When the SGSN knows the location of the MS. When the MS is ready to receive on PACCH.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control tified by the TLLI exists within the BSS. The SGSN indicates the cell identification in every DL-UNITDATA PDU. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. which is included in the DL-UNITDATA_PDU message. used when a concurrent UL TBF exists or when the timer T3192 is running in the MS on CCCH. The PCU allocates one or more PDTCHs for the TBF. and indicates it and the TFI to the MS in the assignment message. the LLC PDU is discarded and the BSC sends a LLC-DISCARD message to the SGSN. If the channel configuration to be allocated for the downlink TBF consists of only one channel already assigned to the MS. Otherwise IMSI is used to address the MS. the cells are grouped under a 'null RA' (RA0). When multiple PDTCHs are allocated to the MS. For example. then the TMSI is used to address the MS. For more details about the downlink data message contents. The MS GPRS multislot class is part of the MS Radio Access Capability IE. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. the PCU sends a PACKET_POLLING_REQUEST message to the MS and requests an acknowledgement. it can send LLC PDUs to the correct PCU. In case there are no radio resources for the new TBF. For more details about the paging message contents. The assignment procedure is DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 111 . This is done in order to determine the initial Timing Advance for the MS. RA0 covers all the cells in the indicated paging area that do not support GPRS services. the circuit switched connection is set up as usual as described in Basic Call. The possible multislot allocation is done later and indicated to the MS by a reallocation message. and T3192 is not running These alternatives are described in the following subchapters. used when there is no concurrent UL TBF. 9. If within the SGSN area there are cells that do not support GPRS services. The TBF establishment is done in one of the following ways: • • on PACCH. The RA0 in this case is all the cells that do not support GPRS services in a Location Area derived from the Routing Area.

There is no uplink flow control. Mobile-specific flow control is done for every MS that has a downlink TBF. The establishment is done with a PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message. the MS recognises the transmitted Radio Link Control (RLC) blocks based on the TFI. The window size is 64 blocks in GPRS mode. The PCU can change the downlink PDTCH configuration whenever needed by sending the MS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message. it increments a counter. the MS starts the timer T3192 and continues monitoring the PACCH of the released TBF until T3192 expires. If reallocation is impossible in the case of GPRS territory downgrade. or a change of requirements of the SGSN. After the counter reaches its maximum value of 8. Each TBF has a transmit window. and therefore better transmission rate in radio interface (more air time). the BSC considers the MS as lost. The BSC signals this to the SGSN by setting the Radio Cause information element (IE) value to 'radio contact lost with MS'. This is discussed more at the end of Mobile originated TBF. There may still be some retransmission after 112 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Mobile specific flow control also ensures that if an MS has better QoS. which is the maximum number of unacknowledged RLC blocks at a time. The BSC thus recommends the SGSN to stop sending LLC PDUs for the MS to the cell. Data transfer During the actual data transfer. Downlink TBF establishment when timer T3192 is running and no UL TBF exists When the DL TBF is released. If the PCU does not receive the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message when polled. Downlink TBF establishment when an uplink TBF exists Downlink TBF establishment when an uplink TBF exists follows the same principles as uplink TBF establishment when a downlink TBF exists. The PCU can send further RLC data blocks along with the acknowledgement procedure. It works together with the SGSN to provide a steady data flow to the mobile from the network. The PCU can request the MS to send an PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message by setting a polling flag to the RLC data block header. During the timer T3192 the PCU makes the establishment of a new DL TBF by sending a PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT on the PACCH of the 'old' DL TBF. MS-specific flow control Mobile specific flow control is part of the QoS solution in the PCU. releases the downlink TBF and discards the LLC PDU from the PCU buffer. This indicates to the SGSN that attempts to communicate between the MS and the SGSN via the cell should be suspended or abandoned. It is also an effective countermeasure against buffer overflows in the PCU. The normal downlink TBF release is initiated by the PCU by setting a Final Block Indicator (FBI) bit in the last RLC block header. The counter is reset after each correctly received PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK. uplink TBF establishment. The reasons for this reallocation may be a GPRS territory downgrade.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description guarded with two timers. which is included in every RLC block header. one for resending the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message and one for aborting the establishment. the PCU may release channels with a PDCH_RELEASE message. it will also get more data from the SGSN. The TBF mode is always the same as the mode of the existing UL TBF.

it requests the establishment of an uplink TBF from the BSC. When the PCU has sent the last buffered LLC PDU to the MS. schedules a certain radio interface TDMA frame number for the block. but the PCU releases the TBF and removes the LLC PDU from the PCU buffer when the MS sends the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message with the Final Ack Indicator bit on. used when a concurrent DL TBF exists on CCCH. These alternatives are described in the following subsections. it sends an IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT_REJECT message to the MS. for example one phase access or two phase access. GPRS In a one phase access the MS sends a CHANNEL_REQUEST message with the establishment cause 'one phase access'. used when there is no concurrent DL TBF Additionally. and informs it to the MS in the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message. One phase access is guarded by a timer in the PCU. in other words the same downlink TBF continues normally. If the PCU has no PDTCHs to allocate to the MS. The PCU allocates a PDTCH for the request.5 Mobile originated TBF When the MS wants to send data or upper layer signalling messages to the network. the MS GPRS multislot class must be taken into account. The MS sends its TLLI in the first data blocks and the one phase access is finalised when the PCU sends the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message to the MS containing the TLLI (contention resolution). the PCU cancels the delayed release and begins to send RLC data blocks to the MS. 9.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control this. There are the following main alternatives for the TBF establishment: • • on PACCH. Two phase access on CCCH. The PCU allocates the actual configuration for the uplink TBF according to the information received in this message. If there is no concurrent UL TBF. The PCU indi- DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 113 . during the delay time DUMMY LLC PDUs are sent to the MS (with polling). If the PCU receives more data during the delay time. depending on the needs for the data transfer. The PCU may force the MS to make a two phase access. When multiple PDTCHs are allocated to an MS. and informs the MS in the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message along with TFI and USF values. The MS then uses the allocated block to send a more accurate request to the PCU with the PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message. the PCU delays the release of the TBF (by 1 s by default). for instance if there is no room for the TBF in the BCCH band. One phase access on CCCH. Random access on CCCH The MS can send a CHANNEL_REQUEST message on CCCH (RACH). in order to allow the MS to request for a UL TBF. on CCCH there are different options for TBF establishment. The MS GPRS multislot class is a part of the MS Radio Access Capability IE. GPRS In a two phase access the MS sends a CHANNEL_REQUEST message with the establishment cause 'single block access'. The PCU allocates one uplink block for the request. even if the MS requested some other access type. which is included in the PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message.

but the assigned PDTCH(s) may be elsewhere. Data transfer In uplink data transfer. The PCU delivers the LLC PDU with a UL-UNITDATA PDU to the SGSN. There may still be some retransmission. the PCU releases channels with a PDCH_RELEASE message to the MS. see section Channel allocation and scheduling. but when the PCU has received all the RLC data blocks correctly. The MS sends a PACKET UPLINK DUMMY CONTROL BLOCK in the scheduled block if it has no data to send. The window size is 64 blocks in GPRS mode. it sends a PACKET_ACCESS_REJECT message to the MS. the MS is considered lost and therefore the PCU releases the uplink TBF. downlink TBF establishment. the network schedules USF turns to the MS in extended mode. The underlying network service has to be available for the BSSGP level in order to deliver data to the SGSN. The PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message includes a bitmap which tells the correctly received blocks. The PCU has a counter to control the MS's ability to send RLC blocks in the frames it has been assigned by the USF values. If reallocation during a downgrade is impossible. 114 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The PCU can schedule the MS to send further the RLC data blocks along with the acknowledgement procedure. which also affects the frequency of the acknowledgements. The MS responds with a PACKET_CONTROL_ACK message and the PCU releases the TBF. Instead of sending a PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK (final ack) immediately. the RLC data blocks are collected to the PCU buffer. and the PCU includes it in the PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message to the MS (contention resolution). The channel allocation in this second phase is independent of the first phase. The PCU can change the uplink PDTCH configuration whenever needed by sending the MS a PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message. For more information on Extended UL TBF Mode. USF value for each PDTCH. and after that the PCU cancels the delayed TBF release. which is the maximum number of unacknowledged RLC blocks. The second part of the two phase access is guarded with a timer in the PCU.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description cates the PDTCH configuration. the normal uplink release is delayed. and the TFI to the MS in the PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message sent in the same timeslot in which the single block was allocated. for example to change the coding scheme. If the counter reaches its maximum value of 15. where the MS counts down the last RLC data blocks (15 or less) with the last block numbered 0. but with a lower rate as normally. and the TBF continues with the normal scheduling rate. it sends the LLC PDU to the SGSN. and a PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message with final ack indicator to the MS. The PCU can use the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message for other purposes too. A normal uplink TBF release is made by countdown. There is only one LLC PDU per UL-UNITDATA PDU. The two phase access is finalised when the PCU receives the first block on the assigned PDTCH . If the MS has got new data. Otherwise the data is discarded and a counter is updated. Reasons for reallocation may be a GPRS territory downgrade. The MS sends its TLLI in the PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message. it sends an RLC data block. The counter is always reset when the MS uses the frame it has been assigned to. The PCU can at any time send the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message to the MS. The TBF has a transmit window. and if the PCU has no PDTCHs to allocate to the MS. or a change of an MS's requirements. If the MS supports Extended UL TBF Mode (indicated in MS RAC).

The GPRS_SUSPENSION_REQUEST message is an indication to the SGSN not to send downlink data. USF values for each PDTCH. and the uplink and downlink TFIs.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control Even if the MS does not support Extended UL TBF Mode. or a DTM-capable MS is handed over from a non-DTM cell to a cell that supports DTM. The SGSN typically stops paging for a suspended mobile. The establishment is ready when the PCU receives the first block on the assigned uplink PDTCHs. When a GPRS attached MS in an (E)GPRS-capable but non-DTM-capable cell leaves dedicated mode. Uplink TBF establishment when downlink TBF exists During a downlink TBF the MS can request resources for an uplink TBF by including a Channel Request Description IE in the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message. The MS initiates the GPRS suspension procedure by sending a message to the BSC. the Routing Area of the MS and the cause of the negative acknowledgement. If the PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message fails. This is done when there is no concurrent DL TBF for the same MS. The BSC sends the SUSPEND_PDU message to the SGSN. and when the MS or network limitations make it unable to handle both dedicated mode and either packet idle mode or packet transfer mode simultaneously (in other words DTM cannot be used). The message contains the TLLIand the Routing Area of the MS. If the PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message fails. the uplink TBF is released. No USF turns are scheduled during this delay. both downlink and uplink TBFs are released. 9. The SGSN acknowledges with a SUSPEND-ACK PDU message. the Routing Area of the MS. which contains the TLLI. This establishment is also guarded by a timer in the PCU. and the Suspend Reference Number. When a mobile station which is IMSI attached for GPRS services enters dedicated mode. the PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message from the PCU informs the MS of both the uplink and downlink PDTCH configurations. If there is no need to change the downlink PDTCH configuration. If the downlink PDTCH configuration is changed. If the SGSN is not able to suspend GPRS services.6 Suspend and resume GPRS The GPRS suspension procedure enables the network to discontinue GPRS packet flow in the downlink direction. for instance due to MS multislot capability restrictions. the reason for the suspension dis- DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 115 . it sends a negative response to the BSC with the SUSPEND-NACK PDU message. USF values for the uplink PDTCHs. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. a PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message from the PCU to the MS contains the uplink PDTCH configuration. which occurs when a circuit switched call interrupts a GPRS packet flow and the GPRS connection is thus discontinued or suspended. and TFI. For more details about the uplink data message contents. The purpose of the delay is to speed up the possibly following DL TBF establishment.5s by default). the MS performs the GPRS suspension procedure. The message contains the TLLI. the PCU may delay the UL TBF release (by 0. disconnecting the MS from the MSC. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). The TBF mode of the new UL TBF is always the same as the mode of the existing DL TBF. Suspend is referred to as the situation.

the BSC either instructs the MS to initiate the Routing Area Update procedure or signals to the SGSN that the MS's GPRS service shall be resumed. If the BSC has not been able to resume GPRS services or in case of a DTMcapable MS. If the suspension procedure has been successfully completed and the reason for the suspension is still valid. for instance a DTM-capable MS has not been handed over from a non-DTM cell to a DTM-capable cell. The signal level threshold criterion parameter C31 for hierarchical cell structures (HCS) is used to determine whether prioritised hierarchical GPRS and LSA cell reselection shall apply. depending on the network control mode. the services are still suspended.7 Flush The flush procedure is used. • 116 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The SGSN acknowledges the procedure with a RESUME-ACK PDU message. The MS starts the Routing Area Update procedure after detecting the DTM service in the cell. which contains the TLLI and the Routing Area of the MS. the BSC sends a CHANNEL RELEASE message to the MS indicating that the resume procedure has been successfully completed. for example. is given. the BSC resumes the GPRS services before the circuit switched call is released by sending a RESUME PDU message to the SGSN. BVCI (new).8 Cell selection and re-selection Cell selection and re-selection is performed autonomously by the MS or by the network.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description appears. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. the Routing Area of the MS and the Suspend Reference Number. the MS shall perform the Routing Area Update procedure to resume GPRS services in the new cell. When the circuit switched call is released. The following cell re-selection criteria are used for GPRS: • • The path loss criterion parameter C1 is used as a minimum signal level criterion for cell re-selection for GPRS in the same way as for GSM Idle mode. The cell ranking criterion parameter (C32) is used to select cells among those with the same priority. when the MS has stopped data sending in a given cell and has moved to another cell. 9. 9. The BSC deletes all buffered LLC PDUs in the cell and all contexts for the MS. If an optional new cell. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). The MS's TLLI indicates which mobile's data is in question and the BVCI (old) indicates the cell. In this case. the MS resumes the services by sending the Routing Area Update Request to the SGSN after the circuit switched connection has been released. For more details on flush. The SGSN sends a FLUSH-LL PDU to the BSC to ensure that LLC PDUs queued for transmission in a cell for an MS are either deleted or transferred to the new cell. the BSC transfers all buffered LLC PDUs to the new cell on the condition that both the BVCI (old) and the BVCI (new) are served by the same PCU and the same Routing Area. If a DTM-capable MS is handed over from a non-DTM cell to a cell that supports DTM during a dedicated connection. The message contains the TLLI.

but the user can determine GPRS usage and thus prevent the overload situations from happening. the BCSU rejects messages based on the message group value. neither circuit switched nor GPRS connections can be set up.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control For information on network-controlled cell re-selection. see: • • • Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection Inter-System Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection Network-Assisted Cell Change For information on network-assisted cell change. Network Planning and Overload Protection for more information on the BSC's overload control in general. for example. BCSU protection against excessive number of paging messages on the Gb interface The BCSU cuts down the load by rejecting particular messages when the processor load or the link load exceeds the defined load limit. The count of unhandled messages in the message queue is checked every time a new P-CHANNEL_REQUIRED message is received. In the case of overload. The load control is based on the number of unhandled messages in the BCSU's message queue. Each message sent to TRXSIG has a certain message group value. Refer to section BSS overload protection and flow control in BSS (BSC) Traffic Handling Capacity. and the unit can in the worst case thus easily run itself into a state of malfunction. If the load limit is exceeded. The load the BCSU can handle has been tested. The BCSU rejects messages which are sent in the downlink direction to the TRXSIG if needed. The BCSU rejects P-CHANNEL_REQUIRED messages received from the TRXSIG if the processor load exceeds the defined load limit. If the load limit is exceeded. see: 9. to set up the GPRS connection. BCSU protection against high GPRS RACH load In the uplink direction the BCSU cuts down the load caused by GPRS random accesses. In case the message buffers of an AS7 plug-in unit begin to fill up. The BCSU cuts down the load caused by GPRS and circuit switched paging messages sent by the SGSN. The cause of an overload may be. The BCSU checks the count of unhandled messages in the message queue every time a new paging message is received. in the planning of the network and capacity being too small in a particular area. The BCSU cuts down the load by rejecting particular messages when the processor load or the link load exceeds the defined load limit. The load control is based on the number of unhandled messages in the BCSU's message queue. BCSU overload control The BCSU has an overload control to protect itself against the processor overloading and the TRXSIG link overloading. the message is deleted. Circuit switched calls are marked in the same way as GPRS connections. The BCSU continuously tries. the BCSU deletes the message. however.9 Traffic administration The BSC has many overload mechanisms to protect existing traffic flow and thus ensure good quality for end-users. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 117 .

If the lifetime of a PDU expires before the PDU is sent across the radio interface. PCU monitors the lifetime values of the buffered DL UNITDATA PDUs. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). SGSN uses the MS default values for controlling the flow of an individual MS until it receives a FLOW-CONTROL-MS PDU regarding that MS. PCU deletes the PDU locally. PCU controls the flow by indicating its buffer size and maximum allowed throughput to the SGSN. the flow control parameters in SGSN needs to be updated. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. If the leak rate difference for a flow exceeds the PRFILE parameter FC_R_DIF_TRG_LIMIT. The BVC and MS buffer sizes indicated to the SGSN are controlled by the PRFILE parameters FC_B_MAX_TSL and FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF. as well as default values for MS buffer size and leak rate. The value C in the PCU is fixed to 1 s. PCU holds a buffer for storing downlink data. Any uplink flow control is not performed. The PRFILE parameters FC_B_MAX_TSL and FC_R_TSL define the BVC specific buffer size and leak rate together with the number of actual GPRS timeslots in the cell. a new FLOWCONTROL PDU is sent to the SGSN after one second. For this purpose the PCU keeps record of the received DL data per BVC and per MS. PCU starts to perform periodic flow control in BVC and MS level. If the condition which requires flow control remains effective. For a BVC flow. 118 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The 3GPP Rel-5 specifications introduce a third layer for BSSGP flow control: a Packet Flow Context (PFC) flow control. The PFC flow control is an optional functionality. the FLOW-CONTROL-MS PDU is sent to SGSN. Flow control is performed for downlink data in BVC (cell) and MS level. no further action is taken. Local deletion is signalled to the SGSN by a LLC-DISCARDED PDU. the FLOW-CONTROL-BVC PDU and for a MS flow. and compares the actual leak rate value to the value reported earlier to the SGSN. It is used to adjust the flow of BSSGP DLUNITDATA PDUs from SGSN to the PCU. SGSN modifies its downlink transmission as instructed and ensures that it never transmits more data than can be accommodated within the BSC buffer for a BVC or an MS. The frequency of FLOW-CONTROL PDUs is limited so that the PCU may send a new PDU once in every C seconds for each flow. This message contains BVC specific buffer size and leak rate. It knows the buffer utilisation ratio and leak rate of each flow. The amount of the data to be stored in the PCU is optimised for efficient use of the available radio resources. After the initial BVC FLOW-CONTROL PDU. PCU checks the flow control status for each BVC and MS once a second and sends as a periodic FLOW CONTROL PDU to SGSN for the flows which needs to be adjusted. The parameters FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF and FC_MS_R_DEF define the MS specific default values. Upon reception of a FLOW-CONTROL PDU. For more information on BVC and MS flow control. SGSN is not allowed to transmit more data than indicated by the PCU. If the PCU does not receive confirmation to a FLOW-CONTROL PDU.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description BSSGP flow control Flow control is part of the BSSGP protocol. Flow control mode of operation The PCU sends an initial FLOW-CONTROL-BVC PDU to the SGSN after a BVC is reset in order to allow SGSN to start the downlink BSSGP data transfer.

In PCU1 the coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2 are supported. then the initial value for the CS at the beginning of a TBF is CS-2. to the SGSN as long as the CIR of the NS-VC is not exceeded. In terms of block error rate (BLER) the following equation holds at the crosspoint: 8. where: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 119 . When the Link Adaptation algorithm is deployed. In downlink packet transfer the PCU selects the CS. 9. it includes the new CS code word in the blocks. In unacknowledged RLC mode CS-1 is always used regardless of the parameter values.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control Uplink congestion control on NS-VC The BSC/PCU uses a local congestion control procedure to adapt uplink NS-UNITDATA traffic to the NS-VCs according to their throughput. However. where the two coding schemes give the same bit rate. The PCU can command the MS to change the CS by sending the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message. This updates a counter. Essential for the LA algorithm is the crosspoint. The PCU sends an NS-UNITDATA. in case the operator has both PCU1 and PCU2 in use in the same track. The alarm is cancelled automatically. which passes the procedure. Link Adaptation algorithm The Link Adaptation (LA) algorithm is used to select the optimum channel coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2) for a particular RLC connection and it is based on detecting the occurred RLC block errors. which includes the Channel Coding Command field. PCU1 The BSC level parameters coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) define whether the fixed CS value (CS-1/CS-2) is used or if the coding scheme is changed dynamically according to the Link Adaptation algorithm. In uplink data transfer.BLER_CP_CS2). the Link Adaptation algorithm is still provided with PCU2.0 kbps * (1 . Although the CS-3 and CS-4 coding schemes are licence based. and the BSC sets the alarm 3027 UPLINK CONGESTION ON THE NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION in the BSC. In retransmission the same CS has to be used as in the initial block transmission. the PCU informs the MS the initial CS to be used in either the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message. when NS-UNITDATA again passes the procedure.10 Coding scheme selection in GPRS Stealing bits in the channel coding (for more information. If the PCU changes the CS during one TBF reservation. coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2 can only be used and the Link Adaptation algorithm with coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) parameters is deployed. see ETSI specification on Channel Coding) are used to indicate the actual coding scheme (CS) which is used for each block sent between the BSC's PCU and the MS. In PCU2 the coding schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are introduced. and the code word for the selected CS is included in each RLC data block sent to the MS. The PCU deletes any NS-UNITDATA that does not pass the procedure.BLER_CP_CS1) = 12 kbps * (1 .

At certain intervals (in uplink transfer after approximately 10 transmitted RLC blocks. Reset counters N_Number and K_Number. If the hypothesis is rejected. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS1. 120 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . change to CS-2? Hypothesis: BLER > BLER_CP_CS1. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS1. The crosspoint can be determined separately for UL and DL directions as well as for frequency hopping (FH) and non-FH cases. During transmission.0 kbps is the theoretical maximum bit rate for CS-1 12. then it can be concluded that BLER < BLER_CP_CS1. BLER_CP_CS2 is larger than BLER_CP_CS1. then it would be advantageous to change to CS-2. then it would be advantageous to change to CS-1. 2. it means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the given condition of BLER > BLER_CP_CS1. and in downlink after every PACKET_DL_ACK/NACK message reception) the LA algorithm is run by performing two of the following (either 1 and 2 or 3 and 4) statistical tests: 1. Current coding scheme is CS-1.0 kbps is the theoretical maximum bit rate for CS-2 BLER_CP_CS1 is the block error rate at the crosspoint when CS-1 is used BLER_CP_CS2 is the block error rate at the crosspoint when CS-2 is used If CS-1 is used and if BLER is less than BLER_CP_CS1. P-value = If the P-value is less than a certain risk level (RL). the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. two counters are updated: N_Number gives the total number of RLC data blocks and K_Number gives the number of corrupted RLC data blocks that have been transmitted after the last link adaptation decision. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at least K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions. For this purpose the following BSC-level parameters are used by the LA algorithm: • • • • UL DL UL DL BLER BLER BLER BLER crosspoint crosspoint crosspoint crosspoint for for for for CS CS CS CS selection selection selection selection hop (ULBH) hop (DLBH) no hop (ULB) no hop (DLB) The given parameters correspond to the BLER_CP_CS1 (see equation above). Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Change to CS-2. Current coding scheme is CS-1. If this is the case. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at most K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions. If CS-2 is used and if BLER is larger than BLER_CP_CS2.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • 8. confirm CS-1? Hypothesis: BLER < BLER_CP_CS1. Since CS-1 is more robust than CS-2.

In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at most K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS2. change to CS-1? Hypothesis: BLER < BLER_CP_CS2. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 121 . 3. then it can be concluded that BLER < BLER_CP_CS2. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS2. Current coding scheme is CS-2. then it can be concluded that BLER > BLER_CP_CS1. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Change to CS-1. 4. Current coding scheme is CS-2. Reset counters N_Number and K_Number. This means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the condition of BLER < BLER_CP_CS2. This means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the condition of BLER > BLER_CP_CS2. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. confirm CS-2? Hypothesis: BLER > BLER_CP_CS2. P-value = If P-value is less than a certain risk level. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Reset counters N_Number and K_Number (CS-2 is confirmed). This means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the condition of BLER < BLER_CP_CS1. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. If this is the case. then it can be concluded that BLER > BLER_CP_CS2. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Reset counters N_Number and K_Number (CS-1 is confirmed). P-value = If P-value is less than a certain risk level. If this is the case. If this is the case. the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at least K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control P-value = If the P-value is less than a certain risk level. the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence.

however. the more quickly the LA algorithm is able react to changes in BLER by switching the coding scheme but on the other hand the reliability of the switching decision is lowered as the risk level is increased. In other words. Note. The BTS level parameter adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) defines whether the Link Adaptation algorithm is adaptive or not. CS-3 and CS-4. The BTS level parameters DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA). DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) and UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) define whether the fixed CS value (CS-1 . The new Link Adaptation algorithm replaces the current LA algorithm in GPRS and covers the coding schemes: • • • CS-1 and CS-2 if the CS-3 and CS-4 support is not enabled in the territory CS-1. The parameter DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) defines it in RLC acknowledged mode in downlink direction. The new Link Adaptation algorithm can be used both in RLC acknowledged and in unacknowledged modes both in uplink and downlink direction. On a block basis RXQUAL is thus more accurate estimate than the BLER. which has only two levels: 0 and 1. UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA). DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) and UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU). The larger the risk level.CS-4) is used or if the coding scheme is changed dynamically according to the Link Adaptation algorithm.CS-4 are supported. UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) defines it in RLC acknowledged mode in uplink direction and so on. CS-2. The new LA algorithm is based on the following principles: 122 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . they determine the sensitivity of the LA algorithm. When the Link Adaptation algorithm is deployed. PCU2 The Link Adaptation algorithm In PCU2 the coding schemes CS-1 . UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA).GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description In practice the threshold K_Number values have been computed beforehand to look-up tables indexed with respect to the N_Number and the link adaptation decisions can be performed by simply comparing the observed K_Number with the theshold K_Number values. the initial values for the CS at the beginning of a TBF can also be defined with the parameters DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA). Note that RXQUAL is measured for each received RLC radio block. The Risk Level parameters (UL adaption probability threshold (ULA) and DL adaption probability threshold (DLA)) describe the probability with which the LA algorithm may make a wrong conclusion to reject a given hypothesis. then the initial value of the CS of the new TBF is set to be the same that is currently used by the ongoing TBF. if the CS3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory The signal quality is measured for each TBF in terms of RXQUAL. The PCU chooses a lower CS than what the Link Adaptation algorithm allows. which describes the channel quality with the accuracy of eight levels (RXQUAL is expressed with three bits). if there is no room in the dynamic Abis pool for the higher CS allowed by the LA. that when a GPRS MS already has a TBF and a new TBF is established for the MS to the opposite direction.

where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was originally transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value received in this particular Packet DL Ack/Nack message. There can be eight different values for the RXQUAL. Coding scheme selection in downlink direction in RLC acknowledged mode DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 123 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control • • • The PCU determines internally the average BLER separately for each coding scheme and reported RXQUAL value. The PCU has separate ACKS and NACKS tables as well as separate initialisation for hopping and non-hopping BTSs. ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. Operation in downlink direction The PCU uses two 2-dimensional tables (ACKS and NACKS) for the LA operation (another set of ACKS and NACKS tables are needed for UL direction). In this procedure. CS3 or CS4 were deployed for this TBF. NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. if a negative acknowledgement is received. the operation of the LA algorithm is initially based on the simulation results. Therefore. when the sum (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) for CS and RXQ exceeds a certain threshold value. When the PCU receives a valid Packet DL Ack/Nack message for the DL TBF that operates in an RLC acknowledged mode. In these tables. based on these BLER estimates the PCU can compute which coding scheme would give the best performance. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value received in this particular Packet DL Ack/Nack message. the received bitmap is analysed and the corresponding RLC blocks are marked as ACKED. or as NACKED. CS2. Initially the ACKS and NACKS tables are initialised with values obtained from the simulations. This is done separately in each cell by collecting statistics continuously from all the connections in the corresponding cell. Based on the statistics (common for all the TBFs in the cell) and the received RXQUAL estimate (specific to the given TBF). The new LA algorithm adapts to the radio characteristics of the cell because the BLER is dynamically measured as a function of RXQUAL and coding scheme. both figures are divided by 2. there is no need for pre-determined threshold values that are traditionally used in link adaptation. To solve this. In the long run the figures would overflow resulting in erroneous behavior. the RLC does not update ACKS and NACKS tables but only the initial values of those tables will be used when the LA algorithm selects the optimal CS. • If the value of the parameter adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) is N (disabled). Therefore. Moreover. During the DL data transfer the mobile station measures the signal quality (RXQUAL) from the RLC radio blocks that are successfully decoded and addressed to the mobile station. the RLC updates the ACKS and NACKS tables as follows: • Whenever an RLC block is positively acknowledged. Whenever an RLC block is negatively acknowledged. The ACKS and NACKS tables contain ever-increasing figures. The RXQUAL is averaged over the received RLC blocks and the averaged RXQUAL estimate is sent to the network in the Packet DL Ack/Nack messages. the first index refers to the coding scheme and the second index refers to the RXQUAL value. that is the highest throughput in RLC acknowledged mode. if a positive acknowledgement is received. the PCU is able to estimate what the BLER would be if CS1.

CS-4. If no CS fulfills this condition. In this case the only possible coding schemes are CS-1 and CS-2. then the coding scheme is changed to CS-3. If the MS does not aswer to polling. The PCU has separate ACKS and NACKS tables as well as separate initialisation for hopping and non-hopping BTSs. Coding scheme selection in downlink direction in RLC unacknowledged mode In unacknowledged mode RLC does not have to update the ACKS and NACKS tables but it can use the same ACKS and NACKS tables updated by the TBFs in acknowledged mode. CS-2. CS-3. the coding number will be decreased step-by-step as follows: • • • If one Packet DL Ack/Nack message is missed with CS-4. Its value has been determined by simulations. the first index refers to the coding scheme and the second index refers to the RXQUAL or GMSK BEP value. The coding schemes that are in an unacknowledged mode are selected by choosing the highest CS for which BLER (CS) < QC_UNACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. CS-2. The coding scheme is selected based on the highest throughput with the condition of BLER (CS) < QC_ACK_BLER_LIMIT_T . the LA algorithm selects the optimal coding scheme for a TBF as follows: 1. Initially the ACKS and NACKS tables are initialised to the values obtained from the simulations. the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. • K is a correction factor that takes into account the throughput reduction due to the RLC protocol stalling • RXQ is the RXQUAL value that was received in the newly-processed Packet DL Ack/Nack message • RATE[4] -table contains the theoretical maximum throughput values for the available channel coding schemes 2. if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory. then the coding scheme is changed to CS-2. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS[CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]) and RXQ is the RXQUAL estimate that is received in the Packet DL Ack/Nack message. If these conditions are not fulfilled the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. where: CS = CS-1. The throughput of the link is estimated for each coding scheme separately as follows: throughput [CS] = K * ACKS [CS][RXQ] / (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) * RATE[CS]. then the coding scheme is changed to CS-1 Operation in uplink direction In UL direction the channel quality estimate can be either RXQUAL or GMSK_BEP depending on the Abis interface. The PCU uses two 2-dimensional tables (ACKS and NACKS) for LA operation. In these tables. where BLER(CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS[CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]). 124 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . If three subsequent Packet DL Ack/Nack messages are missed with CS-2. If two subsequent Packet DL Ack/Nack messages are missed with CS-3.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description After the bitmap is processed. which is expressed with three bits. The PCU data frame used in the non-EDGE Abis interface reports the channel quality in terms of RXQUAL. The correction factor K depends on the BLER and on the number of RLC radio blocks scheduled to the TBF within the RLC acknowledgement delay. otherwise CS = CS-1.

As in the DL case the figures in the ACKS and NACKS tables are limited so that when the sum (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) for certain CS and RXQ exceeds a certain threshold value.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control In case of RXQUAL. both figures are divided by 2. CS-2. Whenever a RLC block is received unsuccessfully. the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. The coding schemes are selected in unacknowledged mode as follows: The coding schemes that are in an unacknowledged mode are selected by choosing the highest CS for which BLER (CS) < QC_UNACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. This is done for each uplink TBF. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 125 . The throughput of the link is estimated for each coding scheme separately as follows: throughput [CS] = K * ACKS [CS][RXQ] / (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) * RATE [CS]. During the UL data transfer the PCU updates the ACKS and NACKS tables as follows: Whenever a new RLC block is successfully received. K is a correction factor that takes into account the throughput reduction due to the RLC protocol stalling. The coding scheme is selected based on the highest throughput with the condition of BLER (CS) <QC_ACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. CS-2. CS-4. ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. The same correction factor table K can be used as in the DL case. This is done for each UL TBF. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. the RLC averages the GMSK_BEP estimates sent by the BTS for both correctly and erroneously received RLC radio blocks. In case of GMSK_BEP. 2. CS-3. if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory. otherwise CS = CS-1. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS [CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]) and RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. Coding scheme selection in uplink direction in RLC acknowledged mode 1. If no CS fulfills this condition. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. If these conditions are not fulfilled for any CS the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS [CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]). where: CS = CS-1. The GMSK_BEP estimate is made also from the bad frames because the GMSK_BEP estimate for successfully received CS-4 blocks alone approaches zero in all radio conditions (there is no error correction in CS-4). the RLC averages the RXQUAL estimates sent by the BTS for the correctly received RLC radio blocks. NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF and RATE [4] -table contains the theoretical maximum throughput values for the available channel coding schemes. Coding scheme selection in uplink direction in RLC unacknowledged mode In unacknowledged mode the RLC message does not have to update the ACKS and NACKS tables but it can use the same ACKS and NACKS tables that are updated by the TBFs in acknowledged mode.

8 gamma_ch = 20. Parameter TGB_RAC_UPDATE defines T5 /48. The enquiry is carried out by the Gb interface Radio Access Capability Update procedure defined in 3GPP 48.018. the PCU initiates an MS RAC enquiry from the SGSN... and the alpha parameter ( α in the figure) sets the slope for field strength effect to uplink power level. the power control is not as effective as for circuit switched traffic.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 9.. The operator can use the cell-specific parameters binary representation ALPHA (ALPHA) and binary representation TAU (GAMMA) to optimise the signal strength.12 MS Radio Access Capability update When the PCU needs to know the MS's RAC information.. 9. but the information is not available in the PCU. There are two PRFILE parameters controlling the procedure..018/. Power control is used for optimising the signal strength from MS to BTS.11 Power control GPRS power control consists of the uplink power control. alfa = 0. 126 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .. • Uplink power control M S Outpu t Po we r (dBm) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 gamma_ch = 30 alfa = 0.3 . Due to the data bursts in traffic.. The gamma parameter ( Γ CH in the figure) sets the minimum MS output power level...018/...45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 10 10 11 0 5 0 Signal Strength (dBm) Figure 24 Uplink power control The power of each block needs to be sufficient for two MSS: • • The MS receiving the data The MS receiving the Uplink State Flag (USF determines the uplink transmission turn in case several mobiles have been assigned to the same uplink PDTCH). and parameter RAC_UPDATE_RETRIES defines RA-CAPABILITY-UPDATE-RETRIES /48..

Modify GPRS.1 Implementing GPRS overview Purpose Implementing GPRS means activating GPRS in BSC. For detailed instructions. Typical instances for modifying GPRS are caused by changes in capacity. GPRS parameters can be modified with Plan Editor and the Routing Area can be created with CM Editor. 3 Disable GPRS in the BSC. You can implement GPRS in the network by using BSC MMI or NetAct. and related tasks could thus be. and not to disable GPRS altogether. In NetAct. starting from disabling GPRS on a cell level to deleting the Routing Areas (RAs) and removing the Gb interface connection and required units. for example. you must have valid licences for the following: • • PCU or PCU2 GPRS or EGPRS Steps 1 2 Enable GPRS in the BSC. see Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS. you only need to activate GPRS again in the cell or the TRX to bring GPRS into use. Further information • • Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS Enabling GPRS in the GSM radio network in NetAct Product Documentation DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b66 127 . It is possible to disable GPRS on a cell or TRX level. modifying the Gb interface or routing areas (RAs). Before you start To enable GPRS in a BSC. Disabling GPRS is a reverse operation to that of taking GPRS into use. This way.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Implementing GPRS 10 Implementing GPRS 10.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful