Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE BSS, rel.

RG10(BSS), operating documentation, issue 05

Feature description

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description
DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Approval Date 2010-06-04

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This documentation is intended for the use of Nokia Siemens Networks customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be used, reproduced, modified or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Siemens Networks. The documentation has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Siemens Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this documentation concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products are given "as is" and all liability arising in connection with such hardware or software products shall be defined conclusively and finally in a separate agreement between Nokia Siemens Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Siemens Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Siemens Networks will, if deemed necessary by Nokia Siemens Networks, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Siemens Networks will correct errors in this documentation as soon as possible. IN NO EVENT WILL Nokia Siemens Networks BE LIABLE FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENTATION OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY LOSSES, SUCH AS BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFIT, REVENUE, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY OR DATA,THAT MAY ARISE FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION IN IT. This documentation and the product it describes are considered protected by copyrights and other intellectual property rights according to the applicable laws. The wave logo is a trademark of Nokia Siemens Networks Oy. Nokia is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Siemens is a registered trademark of Siemens AG. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright © Nokia Siemens Networks 2010. All rights reserved

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Important Notice on Product Safety
Elevated voltages are inevitably present at specific points in this electrical equipment. Some of the parts may also have elevated operating temperatures. Non-observance of these conditions and the safety instructions can result in personal injury or in property damage. Therefore, only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the system. The system complies with the standard EN 60950 / IEC 60950. All equipment connected has to comply with the applicable safety standards.

The same text in German: Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit In elektrischen Anlagen stehen zwangsläufig bestimmte Teile der Geräte unter Spannung. Einige Teile können auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen. Eine Nichtbeachtung dieser Situation und der Warnungshinweise kann zu Körperverletzungen und Sachschäden führen. Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die Anlagen installiert und wartet. Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Angeschlossene Geräte müssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfüllen.

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Table of Contents
This document has 127 pages. Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 GPRS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS data transfer protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimised GPRS Radio Resource Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Relay and Gb Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS in Nokia Siemens Networks Base Stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Software related to GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Uplink TBF Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPRS Coding Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link Adaptation for GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Priority Class Based Quality of Service (QoS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System Level Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on BSS performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC MMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BTS MMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BSC parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements and counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interworking with other features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of GPRS related software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on BSS performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interworking with other features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 15 17 19 21 22 22 23 26 27 29 32 32 33 34 34 35 35 35 35 39 40 45 46 46 47 47 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 59

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Recovery in restart and switchover. . . . . . . . . . . 109 Mobile terminated TBF (GPRS) . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Territory method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Channel allocation and scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Radio resource management . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . . . . 76 Routing Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7. . . . . 64 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Impact on BSS performance. . . 62 Interworking with other features .3. . . . . . . . . 108 Radio channel usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . .5 8. . . . 73 Additional GPRS hardware needed in BSCi and BSC2i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Paging . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Mobile originated TBF. . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . 68 Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Packet Control Unit (PCU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4. . . 69 Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . 63 Requirements . . 108 Data Transfer Protocols and Connections . . . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Error situations in GPRS connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 NS-VC management function . . .1 7. .4 4. .2. . 69 Interworking with other features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Circuit switched traffic channel allocation in GPRS territory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 105 GPRS radio connection control. .1 5. . . . . . . . . . .5 Impact on BSS performance. . . . . . . 62 Impact on interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 BTS selection for packet traffic . . . . . . . .2. 61 Impact on mobile terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 4 Id:0900d80580782d3f DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . . . . . . . . 59 User interface . . . . 64 User interface .7 4. . . .6 4. 95 Quality of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Radio network management for GPRS. . . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . 69 Requirements for GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Gb interface functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 79 Load sharing function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 MS Multislot Power Reduction (PCU2) . . . . . .5 8 8. . . . .9 5 5. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 System impact of System Level Trace . . . . . . . . . . . 76 PCU selection algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Impact on NetAct products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Gb interface configuration and state management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. .6 4. . .2 8. . . . . . . . 63 Impact on transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Protocol stack of the Gb interface . . 81 BVC management function . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . .2 4. . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Implementing GPRS overview . . . . . . . . .7 9. .9 9. .6 9. . Cell selection and re-selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 116 116 117 119 126 126 Implementing GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 10 10. . . . . . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 9. . . . . . . . . . . . MS Radio Access Capability update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d3f 5 . . . .11 9. . .1 Suspend and resume GPRS . . . Coding scheme selection in GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SGSN interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 BSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Dynamic Allocation MAC mode . . . . . 29 Architecture of the GPRS network and related network elements . . . . . . . . 21 GPRS Coding Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Transmission and reception data flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 PCU connections to BTS and SGSN when Frame Relay is used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Extended Dynamic Allocation MAC mode . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN when Frame Relay (FR) is used 75 Relationship of Routing Areas and PCUs . . . 102 Uplink power control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Example of a GPRS capable cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Gb logical structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 The protocol stack on the Gb interface . . . . . . . . . 23 Example of transmission turns . . . . . . . . . 79 Territory method in BSC . . . 126 6 Id:0900d80580782d3f DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . . . . . . . . . . 13 GPRS architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Transmission plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 GPRS DCH dedicated channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Air interface traffic management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Protocol stack of the Gb interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 GPRS territory upgrade when a timeslot is cleared for GPRS use with an intra cell handover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Trace activation/deactivation and report generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 GPRS network seen by another data network . . . . . . . . . 21 Gb interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 24 Required software by network elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service on BSC units . . . . 55 Counters of 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement . . . . .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description List of Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Table 18 Table 19 Table 20 Table 21 Table 22 Table 23 Table 24 Table 25 Table 26 Table 27 Table 28 Table 29 Table 30 Table 31 Table 32 Table 33 Table 34 Table 35 Table 36 Table 37 Table 38 Table 39 Table 40 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Counters of Packet Control Unit Measurement related to GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Defining the margin of idle TCHs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Counters of Frame Relay Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement related to GPRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 BVC operational states . . . . . 58 Required software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Impact of System Level Trace on BSC units . . . . . . 63 Required software . . . 61 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Radio network parameters for Priority Based Scheduling . . 44 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 RX Quality Limit for UL . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Required software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . % . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Defining the margin of idle TCH/Fs . . . 81 NS-VC reset cases . . . . . . . 71 NS-VC operational states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 CS and MCS codecs in the initial coding scheme and new MCS fields 68 Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU product family . . 70 PCU maximum connectivity per logical PCU . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 PCUs in BSC product variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Counters of PCU Utilization Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Counters of GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Counters of RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement . 110 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d3f 7 . . . . . . . 32 Impact of GPRS on BSC units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 BVC reset cases . . . . . . . 66 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Report . . . . . . 54 Required software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 BVC blocking cases . . . 94 GMSK Mean BEP Limit for UL . . . . 54 Impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode on BSC units . . . . . . 105 Supported Network Operation Modes . . . . . 56 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 8 Id:0900d80580782d3f DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

Information regarding the feature BSS21238 “Merged P-&E-GSM900” has been updated in section Interworking with other features in the chapter System impact of GPRS. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d39 9 . Therefore. System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service Software versions have been updated to S14 level. the latest document issue contains all changes made to previous issues. Requirements for GPRS Information on Flexi BSC and PCU2-E has been added. Changes made between issues 3-1 and 3-0 Information on InSite BTS has been removed. System impact of GPRS Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Chapters Support for PBCCH/PCCCH and System impact of Support for PBCCH/PCCCH have been removed. GPRS Coding Schemes Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. System Level Trace Section System Level Trace in BSC has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. Changes made between issues 2-0 and 1-1 The contents of GPRS in BSC have been merged into this document. Changes made between issues 3-2 and 3-1 Information on Flexi Multiradio and BTSplus support have been added. System impact of System Level Trace Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Chapters Dynamic Abis and System Impact of Dynamic Abis have been moved from this document to Dynamic Abis. The capacity information has been updated. Internal PCU2-E restrictions have been added.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Summary of changes Summary of changes Changes between document issues are cumulative. System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Information on PCU2 capacity has been updated. Changes made between issues 3-0 and 2-0 GPRS References have been updated. GPRS Coding Schemes Software versions have been updated to S14 level. Chapter Software related to GPRS has been modified to only include descriptions of such GPRS-related features that do not have their own separate description documents.

System impact of System Level Trace Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. System Documentation pilot release. Requirements for GPRS The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. A reference to GPRS/EDGE Support for PGSM-EGSM BTS was added. System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. 10 Id:0900d80580782d39 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .PGSM 900 BTS has been updated. Extended Cell Range restriction has been removed. New counters have been added to 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace.Summary of changes BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. Section PACKET PSI STATUS procedure has been removed. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. Changes made between issues 1-1 and 1-0 Changes made between issues 1-1 and 1-0 lists the changes made to the document after the GSM/EDGE BSS. Rel. A reference to Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling has been added. The name of alarm 3273 (E)GPRS TERRITORY FAILURE has been updated to 3273 GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE. 110 PCU Utilization Measurement has been added. New PRFILE parameters have been added. 91 PBCCH Availability Measurement has been removed. Radio resource management The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode Support for 2nd generation BTS and PrimeSite BTS has been removed. Gb interface configuration and state management The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. Section Restrictions has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. GPRS radio connection control The chapter has been moved here from GPRS in BSC. Interworking with EGSM 900 . BSS12. A reference to Multipoint Gb Interface has been added. Information on PCCCH/PBCCH has been removed. New counters have been added to 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement. The following changes have been made: • PCU2 support for PBCCH/PCCCH has been removed from chapter Packet Control Unit in BSC. Radio network management for GPRS The chapter has been moved here from (E)GPRS in BSC. The GPRS implementing instructions have been combined into a single chapter.

the high bitrates that GPRS provides by using multiple time slots give short response times. The main functions of the BSC with GPRS are to: • • • • • manage GPRS-specific radio network configuration control access to GPRS radio resources share radio resources between GPRS and circuit switched use handle signalling between the MS. the line is occupied even when no data is transferred in a packet-switched system. GPRS has minimal effects on the handling of circuit switched calls. GPRS is licence key controlled. see Licence Management in BSC. and businesses for the operators DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 11 . network capacity is allocated when needed and released when not needed. from less than 100 bit/s to over 100 kbit/s. Applications that need less than one time slot benefit from GPRS's ability to share one time slot among several users. For more information. Benefits of GPRS GPRS offers the following additional benefits for the operators/end users: • • • resources are used more efficiently. thus there is less idle time circuit switched traffic is prioritised. application. Moreover. BTS and Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) transfer GPRS data. the terminal sends a request. The data to be transferred is encapsulated into short packets with a header containing the originating and destination address. On a general level. and resources are again reserved only for the duration of transmitting the request and initiating a second data transfer.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS 1 GPRS General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) provides packet data radio access for GSM mobile phones. GPRS uses statistical multiplexing instead of static time division multiplexing: when the user is ready to receive new data. Support for coding schemes CS-3 and CS-4 is an application software product that requires PCU2 and Dynamic Abis. It upgrades GSM data services to allow an interface with Local Area Networks (LANs). BSC operational software includes support for GPRS coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2. but the interoperability of existing circuit switched functionalities needs to be taken into account. Instead. GPRS makes the radio interface usage more efficient: • • • GPRS enables a fast method for reserving radio channels GPRS uses the same resources with circuit switched connection by sharing the overhead capacity GPRS provides immediate connectivity and high throughput. No pre-set time slots are used. GPRS offers a very flexible range of bitrates. Wide Area Networks (WANs) and the Internet. even if a lot of data is transmitted. but quality is guaranteed by reserving time slots for GPRS traffic only new services. GPRS is therefore well adapted to the bursty nature of data applications. the resources are released so they can be used by other subscribers. GPRS connections use the resources only for a short period of time when sending or receiving data: • • in a circuit-switched system.

Required network changes Nokia Siemens Networks offers a total end-to-end General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) solution including the GPRS core. low data rates). as seen in the figure below. the Nokia Siemens Networks BSS offers GPRS support in the BSS with powerful radio resource management algorithms. GPRS paves the way and is already part of the third generation (3G) network infrastructure. As a part of the GPRS solution. and charging gateway with high capacity. These networks consider the GPRS to be a normal subnetwork. A gateway in the GPRS network acts as a router and hides GPRS-specific features from the external data network. Introducing UMTS will complement the GSM network – not replace it.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • fast connection set-up for end users high bit rate in data bursts possibility of being charged only for transferred data generally. the main objective of the GPRS is to offer access to standard data networks such as LAN using the TCP/IP protocol. any service that can be run on top of IP protocols (the UDP or TCP transfer) is supported by the Nokia Siemens Networks GPRS solution (taking into account data rate and delay requirements). The WAP is essential in creating applications that are 'useable' in the mobile environment (for example. preserving the Core Network investments is a top priority. and carrier class availability. small screen display. Migration to 3G comprises deployment of the new WCDMA radio interface – served by the GSM and GPRS core networks. Many of the 3G services are based on IP. 12 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . An investment in the GPRS infrastructure is an investment in future services. Wireless Markup Language (WML) based services in the GPRS can be accessed using the standard WAP gateways. WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) based services see the GPRS as one carrier (UDP). While the current GSM system was originally designed with an emphasis on voice sessions. and transmission solutions to ensure an optimal investment to operators and high capacity and quality service for end users. optimised BSS network topology. scalability. network management. When migrating to 3G services. and the GPRS Core network is the key step of introducing the IP service platform into the present GSM networks.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS Figure 1 GPRS network seen by another data network GPRS is the first GSM Phase 2+ service that requires major changes in the network infrastructure. GPRS is based on a number of new network elements: • • • Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) GPRS backbone Legal Interception Gateway (LIG). the following functions are needed: • • • GPRS-specific mobility management Network management capable of handling the GPRS-specific elements A new radio interface for packet traffic DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 13 . In addition to the current GSM entities. Figure 2 GPRS architecture Along with the new network elements.

GSM Timer and BSC Parameter Handling . Related topics in GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Extended Uplink TBF Mode GPRS Coding Schemes Link Adaptation for GPRS Priority Class Based Quality of Service (QoS) System Level Trace System impact of GPRS System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service System impact of System Level Trace Requirements for GPRS Radio network management for GPRS Gb interface configuration and state management Radio resource management GPRS radio connection control Implementing GPRS overview Other related topics Descriptions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BSS21228: Downlink Dual Carrier BSS20088: Dual Transfer Mode BSS10045: Dynamic Abis BSS20094: Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE BSS20089: Extended Dynamic Allocation BSS10103: Gb over IP BSS20084: High Multislot Classes BSS20394: Inter-System Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection BSS20086: Multipoint Gb Interface BSS115006: Network-Assisted Cell Change BSS11112: Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection BSS20106: Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling Activating and testing BSS9006: GPRS .Gb Interface Handling Instructions Reference EA EE EG EQ ER ES EU FX 14 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .Power Control Parameter Handling .Adjacent Cell Handling .Abis Interface Configuration .Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC .GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • New security features for the GPRS backbone and a new ciphering algorithm New MAP and GPRS-specific signalling.Transceiver Handling .Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC .

re-assembly. The LLC layer has two transfer modes.1 GPRS data transfer protocols Figure 3 Transmission plane The GSM RF is the normal GSM physical radio layer. and multiplexing. The Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) is a mapping and compression function between the network layer and lower layers. the acknowledged and unacknowledged. The Logical Link Control (LLC) layer offers a secure and reliable logical link between the MS and the SGSN to upper layers and is independent of the lower layers. that is. The Medium Access Control (MAC) function handles the channel allocation and the multiplexing. and SNDCP packets. SMS. the use of physical layer functions. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 15 . It also performs segmentation. The RLC and the MAC together form the OSI Layer 2 protocol for the Um interface.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • PCU2 Service Terminal Commands 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace 27 GPRS Cell Re-selection Report 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement 74 Frame Relay Measurement 76 Dynamic Abis Measurement 79 Coding Scheme Measurement 90 Quality of Service Measurement 95 GPRS Cell Re-selection Measurement 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement 98 Gb Over IP Measurement 105 PS DTM Measurement 106 CS DTM Measurement 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary PAFILE Timer and Parameter List PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List 1. The Radio Link Control (RLC) function offers a reliable radio link to the upper layers. The LLC conveys signalling.

LLC frames are segmented into RLC Data Blocks. • The Channel Codec Unit (CCU) takes care of the channel coding functions. The L1bis is a vendor-dependent OSI Layer 1 protocol. it is forwarded to the LLC layer.065 and the details on LLC in 3GPP TS 44. In the RLC/MAC layer. received signal level. broadcast control information. LLC frames are of variable length. When a complete LLC frame is successfully transferred across the RLC layer. See 3GPP TS 23.064: • • • • • • • LLC layer PDU segmentation into RLC blocks for downlink transmission LLC layer PDU re-assembly from RLC blocks for uplink transmission PDCH scheduling functions for the uplink and downlink data transfers PDCH uplink ARQ functions. and SN-PDUs are encapsulated into one or several LLC frames. The Packet Control Unit is responsible for the following GPRS MAC and RLC layer functions as defined in 3GPP TS 43. including FEC and interleaving Radio channel measurement functions. The Network Services relays the BSSGP packets over the Gb interface and has load sharing and redundancy on top of Frame Relay. • For more information on the PCU. 16 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . and information related to timing advance measurements. The Relay function relays LLC PDUs (Protocol Data Units) between the LLC and BSSGP. etc.064. for example. The details on SNDC can be found in 3GPP TS 44. including buffering and retransmission of RLC blocks Channel access control functions. The maximum size of the LLC frame is 1600 octets minus GP protocol control information. see Packet Control Unit (PCU).GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) transfers control information and data between a BSS and an SGSN. access requests and grants Radio channel management functions. a selective ARQ protocol (including block numbering) between the MS and the network provides retransmission of erroneous RLC Data Blocks. The Network Protocol Data Units (N-PDU) are segmented into the Subnetwork Protocol Data Units (SN-PDU) by the Subnetwork Dependent Convergence (SNDC) protocol.060 for information on SNDC and LLC. including received quality level. congestion control. for example. including RLC block ack/nack PDCH downlink ARQ function. power control.

An MS can also have a bi-directional connection while using GPRS. by having simultaneous uplink and downlink packet transfers. A Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is made for every new data flow.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS Figure 4 Transmission and reception data flow 1.2 Optimised GPRS Radio Resource Management The Nokia Siemens Networks BSS offers dynamic algorithms and parameters to optimise the use of radio resources. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 17 . A dynamic and flexible GPRS radio resource management is important in effective usage of the Air interface capacity to ensure maximum and secure data throughput. The figure below introduces the dedicated GPRS DCH channels: Figure 5 GPRS DCH dedicated channels GPRS packets are sent uni-directionally. One or more packet data traffic channels (PDTCHs) are allocated for the TBF. The TBF is used to send RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PCUs. The limited radio resources must be used effectively. uplink and downlink are separate resources.

The PACCH is a bi-directional channel and is located in the PDCH. The adjustable parameters help the network planners to control and optimise GPRS radio resources. There will be no extra blocking to any user. but Dedicated GPRS traffic channels are reserved to carry PS traffic. all users and all applications get the same service level. but one TBF is receiving or sending at a time. TRX 1 TRX 2 BCCH Circuit Switched Territory GPRS Territory Max GPRS Capacity Additional GPRS Capacity Dedicated GPRS Capacity Default GPRS Capacity Territory border moves based on Circuit Switched and GPRS traffic load Figure 6 Example of a GPRS capable cell The BSS is upgraded with enhanced RLC/MAC protocols and TRAU for the radio and Abis interfaces. Basically all TBFs have the same priority. The needs of different applications differ and mechanisms to have separate service levels are required. that is. Reallocations are done when the transfer mode is changed between uni-directional (only uplink or downlink data transfer) and bi-directional (simultaneous uplink and downlink data transfer). It transmits signalling in both directions although data is transmitted (PDTCH) only in the assigned direction. throughput and priority. The number of TSLs allocated for a multislot MS is determined by the mobile's multislot capability and network resources. ETSI specifications define QoS functionality which gives the possibility to differentiate TBFs by delay. but the PDTCH is dedicated to one MS (TBF) at a time.GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The TBF reservations of PDTCHs are released when all the RLC/MAC blocks have been sent successfully. In a CS congestion situation. Priority Based Scheduling is introduced as a first step towards QoS. 18 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . only the experienced service quality changes. With Priority Based Scheduling the operator can give users different priorities so that higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users. the CS may use the Default GPRS traffic channels. such as: • • • • GPRS capacity cell by cell and TRX by TRX GPRS only traffic channels (Dedicated GPRS capacity) Default amount of GPRS capable traffic channels (Default GPRS capacity) and Whether BCCH TRX or non-BCCH TRX is preferred for GPRS. Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) conveys signalling information related to a given MS. Circuit Switched (CS) traffic has priority over Packet Switched (PS) traffic. All the GPRS TBFs allocated to a PDTCH are served equally. With the GPRS solution. This means that the PDTCH is reserved for multiple TBFs. All the full rate or dual rate traffic channels are GPRS capable. the operator can define dynamically multiple parameters related to network configuration. Multiple MSS can share one PDTCH.

When the GPRS pool is upgraded. intra-cell handovers of CS connections may be needed to allow for the selection of consecutive timeslots for GPRS use. or there can be a Frame Relay network located between the BSC and SGSN. New CS connections may be allocated to a TCH in the GPRS pool only when all the TCHs not belonging to the GPRS pool are occupied. see Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE. The protocol stack comprises BSSGB. see Gb over IP. IUO super reuse frequencies are not used for GPRS traffic. and L1. the Extended Cell GPRS channels (EGTCH) in Extended TRX (E-TRX) are reserved only for fixed GPRS traffic and dynamic GPRS radio resource management is not used for them at all. which are always switched to the PCU when allowed by CS traffic load. On top of the physical layer in the Gb-interface. Frame Relay can be either point-to-point (PCU–SGSN). Frame Relay as stated in standards is a part of the Network Service (NS) layer. The following figure displays examples of Gb interface transmission solutions: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 19 .3 Frame Relay and Gb Interface Gb is the interface between a BSC and an SGSN. TSL 0 is not used for GPRS traffic. if the CS traffic load allows it. but the feature itself can be used to release resources for GPRS usage. Figure 7 Air interface traffic management Dedicated. For more information on Gb over IP. When Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE application software is used. NS. The FR network will be comprised of third-party off-the-shelf products. It is implemented using either Frame Relay or IP. default. With these TCHs. The physical layer is implemented as one or several PCM-E1 lines with G. 1.703 interface. the direct point-to-point Frame Relay connections or intermediate Frame Relay network can be used. In cells where Base Band Frequency Hopping is in use.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS The default GPRS capacity determines the number of traffic channels (TCHs). During peak GPRS traffic periods. and additional GPRS TCHs form a GPRS pool consisting of consecutive radio interface timeslots. the operator can supply the need for fast GPRS channel reservations for the first data packets. additional channels are switched to GPRS use. For more information.

The Gb timeslots are transparently through connected in the TCSM and in the MSC. If free capacity exists.SGSN interface In the first solution (1) spare capacity of Ater and A interfaces is used for the Gb. In many cases. it is best to multiplex all Gb traffic to the same physical link to achieve possible transmission savings. or multiplex them on the A interface towards the MSC and cross-connect them to the SGSN from there. the SGSN will be located in the MSC site. Considering the transmission protection. The Gb interface allows the exchange of signalling information and user data. One PCU1 can handle a maximum of 64 BTSs and 128 TRXs. it also needs to be decided whether two Frame Relay bearers are needed for each PCU using different ETs (external 2Ms) or if the transmission is protected with cross connection equipment. The Gb interface allows the exchange of signalling information and user data. One PCU2-E can handle a maximum of 384 BTSs and 1024 TRXs. The second solution (2) represents any transmission network that provides a point-topoint connection between the BSC and the SGSN. At least one timeslot of 64 kbps is needed for each activated PCU bearer. One PCU2-D/PCU2-U can handle a maximum of 128 BTSs and 256 TRXs. and thus the multiplexing has to take place there as well. Nokia Siemens Networks DN2 can be used for that purpose. The logical structure of the point-to-point Gb interface is presented in the following figure: 20 Id:0900d8058078e154 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Figure 8 BSC . Normal cross-connect equipment. or an ET can be dedicated to the Gb interface. It is possible to multiplex more than one Gb interface directly to the SGSN. The PCU has to be installed into every BCSU for redundancy reasons. but the FR bearer has to be connected only to the active ones. In the third solution (3) Frame Relay network is used. This capacity cannot be shared with other cells connected to other PCUs in the BSC so there is no pooling. for example. The Gb interface allows many users to be multiplexed over the same physical resources. The 2M carrying the Gb timeslots can be one of the BSC's existing ETs. It also allows many users to be multiplexed over the same physical resources.

The CCU (Channel Coding Unit) in the BTS DSP performs channel coding for the following rates: • • • • CS-1 (Channel Coding Scheme 1) . messages are routed via TRXSIG link between the BTS and BSC. Each Bearer channel carries one to four Network Service Virtual Connections (NS-VC).05 kbps CS-2 (Channel Coding Scheme 2) .13.14.20. The NSE takes care of the multiplexing of BSSGP Virtual Connections into the NS Virtual Connections and load sharing between the different NS Virtual Connections (= Bearer Channels).9. Each BTS has a BSSGP Virtual Connection of its own. The following figure displays the Gb protocol layers: Figure 10 Gb interface 1.0 kbps In Packet Transfer Mode. GPRS data itself is transparent to the BTS. each PCU represents one Network Service Entity with own Identifier (NSEI). The BCCH/CCCH is scheduled by the BTS.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS Figure 9 Gb logical structure In the BSC. The Access Rate of a FR Bearer Channel can be configured in 64kbit steps. the MS will use the continuous timing advance update procedure.4 GPRS in Nokia Siemens Networks Base Stations Radio resources are allocated by the BSC (PCU). Each PCU can have one to four (ffs) FR bearer channels. divided into 12 blocks (of four frames) and four idle frames.4 kbps CS-4 (Channel Coding Scheme 4) . routed via TCH channels in Abis. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058078e154 21 . The mapping in time of these logical channels is defined by a multi-frame structure. The procedure is carried out on all PDCH timeslots. It consists of 52 TDMA frames.4 kbps CS-3 (Channel Coding Scheme 3) .

4 GERAN feature package 1 mobile stations. causing more delay and signalling load. Right after the MS has new data to send. • • • Related topics • Activating and Testing BSS11151: Extended Uplink TBF Mode 22 Id:0900d8058077eaf4 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .Software related to GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2 Software related to GPRS 2. Without Extended Uplink TBF Mode a new uplink TBF has to be established after every inactive period. Benefits of the Nokia Siemens Networks solution • With Extended UL TBF Mode the UL TBF release can be delayed in order to make it possible to establish the following downlink TBF using Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH). Extended UL TBF Mode saves capacity. Extended Uplink TBF Mode requires 3GPP Rel. When both the MS and the network support Extended Uplink TBF Mode. in speech delivery in PoC. for example. Extended UL TBF Mode is effective in preventing the breaks in data transfer. Using PACCH enables faster TBF establishment compared to using CCCH. the same uplink TBF can be used and data transmission can be reactivated. the release of the uplink TBF can be delayed even if the MS occasionally has nothing to transmit. which increases the perceived service quality by the end user.1 Extended Uplink TBF Mode With Extended Uplink TBF Mode the uplink TBF may be maintained during temporary inactive periods. Extended UL TBF Mode allows the mobile station to continue the data transfer if it gets more data to send when the countdown procedure has begun. the release of the current TBF is required and a new one is established. Without Extended UL TBF Mode. Occasional short breaks in data transmission do not delay the activation of a new Uplink TBF. when a TBF is needed for the other direction. because it decreases the number of random access procedures during and after an active stream. where the mobile station has no data to send.

from CS-1 to CS-4.05 to 21. see section Requirements. With average real network conditions (average C/I value distribution) a throughput increase of 0-30% can be achieved depending on the network’s C/I values. CS-3 and CS-4 can boost GPRS throughput bit rates by a maximum of 60% compared to CS-1 & CS-2. offering data rates from 9. In acknowledged mode. Figure 11 GPRS Coding Schemes Coding schemes CS-1-CS-4 can be used in unacknowledged RLC mode with PCU2. and both CS-1 and CS-2 are supported.4 and 20. All GPRS-capable mobile stations support CS-3 and CS-4. Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 can be used in both GPRS and EGPRS territories. Requirements The hardware and software requirements of Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are specified in the tables below.4 kbit/s per channel. With the rates of 14. Dynamic Abis makes it possible to use CS-3 and CS-4. CS-3 and CS-4 provide a considerable gain in data rates for GPRS mobile stations not supporting EGPRS (the mandatory RLC header octets are excluded from the data rate values). or Link Adaptation (LA).0 kbps. Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 Before the introduction of Dynamic Abis. RLC data blocks are acknowledged. coding scheme CS-1 is always used in unacknowledged RLC mode.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. only CS-1 and CS-2 GPRS coding schemes were supported because of Abis frame restrictions. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eadb 23 . Retransmitted RLC data blocks must be sent with the same coding as was used initially.0 and 12. The link adaptation algorithm is based on the RLC BLER (Block Error Rate). With PCU-1.0 kbps per timeslot. it is possible to support CS-1 and CS-2. Each TBF can use either a fixed coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2). For hardware requirements. By using PCU1 and 16 kbit/s Abis links. Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are an application software product and require a valid licence in the BSC.2 GPRS Coding Schemes GPRS provides four coding schemes. CS1 and CS2 offer data rates of 8.

1 EP2 CX6.0 CXM6. EDGE capable TRXs are required. No requirements No requirements TCSM SGSN Table 1 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 BRG1 EX3.0 Not supported Not applicable Not applicable OSS4.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Network element BSC BTS Hardware/firmware required PCU2 The BaseBand hardware of the BTS must support Dynamic Abis. BSC MMI The following MML commands are used to handle Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4: • Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQV. EQO BSC radio network object parameters The following parameters are introduced due to Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4: • • • • coding schemes CS3 and CS4 enabled (CS34) DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) 24 Id:0900d8058077eadb DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .2 CD Set 1 Table 2 Required software by network elements User interface BTS MMI Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 cannot be managed with BTS MMI.

see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List. Interworking with other features CS-3 and CS-4 do not fit into one 16kbit/s Abis/PCU channel and require the use of Dynamic Abis and EDGE TRXs. see Diagnosis Reports (3700-3999). Measurements and counters Two new object values are added to the 79 Coding Scheme Measurement due to Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) Due to a new Link Adaptation algorithm the following existing parameters are no longer relevant when CS-3 and CS-4 is used: • • coding scheme no hop (COD) coding scheme hop (CODH) For more information on radio network parameters. For more information on PRFILE parameters. Alarms The following new alarm is introduced due to Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4: • 3273 GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE For more information. see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary. Related topics • • Activating and testing BSS11088: Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 79 Coding Scheme Measurement DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eadb 25 . No new counters are needed. PRFILE parameters The values of the following MS-specific flow control parameters must be increased due to CS-3 and CS-4: • • • FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF FC_MS_R_DEF FC_R_TSL.

Although the Coding Schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are licence-based. Link Adaptation algorithm for PCU2 A new Link Adaptation algorithm is introduced with PCU2.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. 26 Id:0900d80580590b3b DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The new LA algorithm can be used in both RLC acknowledged and unacknowledged modes in both uplink and downlink direction. RXQUAL is measured for each received RLC block. the LA algorithm determines which coding scheme will give the best performance. the use of which depends on the PCU type (PCU1 or PCU2). Based on the estimates. and CS-4 if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory in question The following BTS-level parameters define. the LA algorithm is provided with PCU2. CS-2. The LA algorithm measures the signal quality for each TBF in terms of the received signal quality (RXQUAL). which replaces the previous GPRS LA algorithm and covers the following coding schemes: • • CS-1 and CS-2 if CS-3 and CS-4 support is disabled in the territory in question CS-1. CS-1 is always used in unacknowledged RLC mode. Regardless of the parameter values. The parameters can also be used to define the initial CS value at the beginning of a TBF: • • • • • DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) For more information on radio network parameters.5 onwards. which makes it a more accurate estimate than BLER. the initial CS value at the beginning of a TBF is CS-2. When the LA algorithm is deployed. The PCU determines the average BLER value separately for each BTS by continuously collecting statistics from all the connections in the territory in question. CS-3. Link Adaptation algorithm for PCU1 The GPRS Link Adaptation (LA) algorithm selects the optimum channel coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2) for a particular RLC connection and is based on detecting the occurred RLC block errors and calculating the block error rate (BLER). there are two GPRS Link Adaptation algorithms. The BSC level parameters coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) define whether a fixed CS value (CS-1 or CS-2) is used or if the coding scheme changes dynamically according to the LA algorithm. whether a fixed CS value (CS-1 . see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary.3 Link Adaptation for GPRS From BSS11.CS4) is used or if the coding scheme changes dynamically according to the LA algorithm.

Mobile-specific flow control is performed for every MS that has a downlink TBF. Mobile-specific flow control is part of the QoS solution in the PCU. The PCU receives the QoS (Precedence class) information to be used in DL TBFs from the SGSN in a DL unitdata PDU.4 Priority Class Based Quality of Service (QoS) With Priority Based Scheduling. In each scheduling round. There will be no extra blocking to any user. only the experienced service quality changes. Higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users. the TBF with the lowest service time is selected. Exceptions to this rule are one phase access and single block requests. The higher the scheduling step size. and this is used for UL QoS. equal air time does not provide equal data rates for the TBFs in the same time slot. After that packets with a higher priority are sent before packets that have a lower priority. TBFs in the same time slot that have the same QoS get an equal share of air time. it only guarantees that inside a QoS group the air time is divided equally and that a higher QoS class gets more air time. The concept of ‘Priority Class’ is based on a combination of the GPRS Delay class and GPRS Precedence class values. Priority Class Based Quality of service is an operating software in the BSC and is always active in an active PCU.5 release the step sizes depend on the priority class of the TBF: each priority class has its own scheduling step size that can be adjusted by the operator. The best effort customers are an exception to the rule and are only given a small share of the radio interface. In the BSS10. Each service class is given a fair amount of radio time. Each TBF allocated to a timeslot has a timeslot-specific latest service time. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b3e 27 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. PCU2 implementation emulates this operation closely. Packets will be evenly scattered within the (E)GPRS territory between different time slots. an operator can give users different priorities. The priority based scheduling algorithm hands out radio resources according to the latest service time and scheduling step size of the TBFs. the MS informs its radio priority in a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST (PCR) or a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST (PRR). The subscriber priority must be defined in the HLR once Priority Class Based QoS is taken into use. before which the TBF should get a chance to use the radio resource. in these cases the PCU always uses Best Effort priority. However. In case of UL TBF. its latest service time is incremented by a predefined scheduling step size. After the TBF has sent a radio block. There is no uplink flow control. It works together with the SGSN to provide a steady data flow to the mobile from the network. In BSS9 (GPRS Release 1) the scheduling steps of all TBFs are set to the same constant value. Priority based scheduling algorithm The description below covers the PCU1 implementation. There are 4 QoS classes for uplink and 3 QoS classes for downlink. The allocation process is designed to ensure that better priority TBFs are not gathered into the same radio timeslot. the less often the TBF is selected and given a transmission turn. It is also an effective countermeasure against buffer overflows in the PCU.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Figure 12 Example of transmission turns 28 Id:0900d80580590b3e DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

The network management can use the facility. Equipment tracing can be defined in the SGSN. Therefore. it must be implemented in all main network elements of the GPRS network: the SGSN. and also the network quality of service as perceived by the PLMN. The HLR. where it refers both to subscriber tracing (activated using IMSI) and equipment tracing (activated using IMEI). SGSN) and changes old principles. a suspected equipment malfunction or if authorities request for a subscriber trace for example in an emergency situation.5 System Level Trace System Level Trace is an operating software. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b41 29 . In particular. new tracing facilities are needed. The subscriber tracing can be defined for a certain subscriber in the HLR or in a specific SGSN. which result in events occurring in the PLMN. In order to get full advantage of System Level Trace. but introduction of GPRS-service adds new network elements to the GSM network (GGSN. in connection with a customer complaint. for example. Figure 13 Trace activation/deactivation and report generation The trace is already implemented in the GSM network. System Level Trace enables customer administration and network management to trace activities of various entities (IMSIs and IMEIs). and BSS send trace records to OSS when an invoking event occurs. The ETSI specifies the tracing facility for GSM. GPRS trace is activated by OSS. which extends the current GSM tracing to the GPRS service. MSC/HLR. GGSN. GGSN. the network integrity. it may be used in conjunction with test-MSS to ascertain the digital cell 'footprint'. BSC. The trace facility is a useful maintenance aid and development tool.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 2. which can be used during system testing. GSM tracing is available in the network elements of the GSM network to trace circuit switched calls. SGSN. and OSS. The figure GPRS network and related network elements presents the overall picture of GPRS trace and shows all the network elements that can send trace reports to NetAct.

In case of a handover between BSCs. the trace is first activated in the HLR. The amount of active trace cases can be limited. the HLR waits until the subscriber becomes active in HPLMN before it activates a trace in the SGSN.018) message to the BSS when SGSN trace becomes active or when SGSN receives a trace request. three different scenarios can be identified from an operator's point of view: • HPLMN operator traces its own IMSI within the HPLMN When an operator wishes to trace a GPRS subscriber in its own (home) network. The trace of a subscriber is in a state of active pending until an invoking event occurs. The HPLMN operator can use the HLR parameters to define whether the trace settings are sent to the VPLMN. • • The tracing of roaming IMSIs and the exchange of data is subject to bilateral agreements. the tracing is deactivated in the source BSC side and activated in the target BSC side by an SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE message from SGSN. the trace is activated directly via MMI commands to all SGSNs in operator's network. and the request to trace a particular IMSI comes through administrative channels. System Level Trace in BSC The SGSN invokes the trace by sending a BSSGP SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE (3GPP TS 48. the trace is activated directly via MMI commands to all SGSNs in an operator's network. Otherwise. 30 Id:0900d80580590b41 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The amount of active trace cases can be limited.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Figure 14 Architecture of the GPRS network and related network elements Trace from an operator's viewpoint In the SGSN trace. HPLMN operator tracing a foreign roaming subscriber (IMSI) within its own HPLMN When an operator wants to trace a foreign subscriber. The BSS does not send an acknowledgement of the BSSGP message to the SGSN. the HLR activates the trace in a specified SGSN. If a subscriber is not roaming outside the HPLMN and he/she is represented as a register in the HLR. When the BSC receives this message it starts tracing. When an operator wants to trace equipment. HPLMN operator tracing equipment (IMEI). The trace of equipment is in a state of active pending until an invoking event occurs.

which is then ready for post-processing. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b41 31 . see 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace. MCS changes and MS Flow Control changes. TBF Observation for GPRS Trace records resource consumption by the user and call quality related transactions. It contains information about NCCR triggering. be started or stopped by MML commands or from the NMS. The report is closed and sent further to NetAct when flush is received from the SGSN. During TBF allocation. or NCCR context is released in the PCU. If you attempt to start these observations (without trace) from NetAct. GPRS Cell Re-selection Report GPRS Cell Re-selection is a trace report for GPRS trace. see 27 GPRS Cell Re-selection Report. the MS returns to source cell by Packet Cell Change failure. see 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The System Level Trace for GPRS in the BSC is implemented as three different observation types: • • • TBF Observation for GPRS Trace GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report GPRS RX Level and Quality Report These observations cannot. The report contains the following information: • • • downlink RX level of serving cell and neighbour cells from packet (enhanced) measurement report downlink RX quality class or BEP values from (EGPRS) PACKET DOWNLINK ACKNOWLEDGEMENT message uplink RX level and quality from BTS measurements. The trace as a whole is handled only by the SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE messages from the SGSN. however. so simultaneous TBF allocations produce multiple reports. TBF Observation for GPRS Trace A TBF report is created when a subscriber performs actions causing an allocation of TBF in BSS during tracing. The BSC sends the generated trace reports to NetAct. the BSC replies with an error status. TBF release completes the report. recorded events include TBF reallocations. For further information. For further information. In addition to TBF allocation and release. For further information. GPRS RX Level and Quality Report GPRS RX Level and Quality Report is a report type needed to periodically record serving and neighbour cell measurements and quality data. Trace reports are also stored in observation files on the BSC's disk. There is one report per each allocated TBF. NACC usage and possible failures.

GPRS is licence key controlled.1 Requirements The following network elements and functions are required to implement GPRS: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Serving GPRS Support Nodes (SGSN) Gateway GPRS Support Nodes (GGSN) GPRS backbone Point-to-multipoint Service Centre (PTM SC) Lawful Interception Gateway (LIG) Charging Gateway (CG) Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN Packet Control Unit (PCU) GPRS-specific mobility management. coding schemes CS-3 & CS-4 require EDGE-capable TRXs (EDGE hardware and attached to EDAP) For the full use of GPRS all these need to be taken into consideration.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 3 System impact of GPRS The system impact of BSS09006: GPRS is specified in the sections below. see GPRS. 3.0 CX6. For an overview. Additionally.0 No requirements Table 3 Required software 32 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .0 CXM6. where the location of the MS is handled separately by the SGSN and by the MSC/VLR even if some cooperation exists the network management must be capable of handling the GPRS-specific elements new security features for the GPRS backbone a new ciphering algorithm a new radio interface (Um) for packet data traffic new MAP and GPRS-specific signalling. For implementation instructions. Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs Software release required S13 BRG1 EX3. The radio interface and GPRS signalling are relevant to the functioning of the BSC.1 EP2. see Implementing GPRS overview.

) Frequency band support The BSC supports GPRS on the following frequency bands: • • • • • GSM 800 PGSM 900 EGSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 3. In acknowledged RLC mode.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Network element MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required M14 SG7 OSS4. An exception to this is that EDGE-capable and non-EDGE-capable TRXs can be configured to the same BTS object. and it has the GTRX parameter set to Y. and these TRXs cannot be attached to EDAP. radio timeslot 0 of any TRX in the BTS will not be used for GPRS. In PCU1 Coding Scheme CS-1 is always used in unacknowledged RLC mode. In PCU2. Network operation mode III is not supported. GPRS territory can be defined to each BTS object separately. If they use different PCM lines. • To get BCCH recovery to work correctly.2 CD Set 1 Table 3 Required software (Cont. when unlocked EDGE and nonEDGE-capable TRXs or unlocked CS–3 & CS–4 and non-CS–3 & CS–4capable TRXs exist in the same EGPRS or CS-3 & CS-4 enabled BTS: • If a BCCH TRX is EDGE hardware-capable. which are added to • • • • DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 33 . Paging reorganisation is not supported. GPRS must be disabled in the non-EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable TRXs. added to EDAP. the EDAP and the TRXs tied to it shall use a single PCM line. An EDGE/CS–3 & CS–4capable TRX has EDGE hardware and is added to EDAP. there is a new Link Adaptation algorithm that uses all the Coding Schemes in both unacknowledged and in acknowledged RLC mode. The master and slave channels must be cross-connected in the same way. TRXs inside a BTS object must have common capabilities. the Link Adaptation algorithm uses both CS-1 and CS-2. transmission delay between the lines may differ. In this case. A non-EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable TRX has no EDGE hardware or it is not added to EDAP. it is recommended that the operator takes the following conditions into account. This may cause a timing difference with the result that synchronisation between the master and slave channels is not successful. because of CS-3 & CS-4 implementation. BTS testing cannot be executed on the packet control channel.2 Restrictions • • • • If Baseband hopping is employed in a BTS. GPRS and EGPRS territories cannot both be defined to a BTS object at the same time. if EGPRS or CS-3 & CS-4 is enabled in the BTS. then all unlocked TRXs.

TRX signalling No impact. • If a BCCH TRX is non EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable. and have GTRX set to Y. Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA). and has the parameter GTRX set to N. For restrictions related to Dynamic Abis. 34 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see EDGE BTSs and hopping in System impact of EDGE in EDGE System Feature Description. The maximum output power is 2dB lower than with GMSK. which have GTRX set to N. High Multislot Classes (HMC) or Dual Transfer Mode (DTM). see Dynamic Abis. No impact Table 4 Impact of GPRS on BSC units Impact on BTS units No impact. Impact on BSC units BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact No impact No impact The PCU controls the GPRS radio resources and acts as the key unit in the following procedures: • • • • • TCSM GPRS radio resource allocation and management GPRS radio connection establishment and management data transfer coding scheme selection PCU statistics. PCU1 does not support CS–3 & CS–4. then all non-EDGE/non-CS–3 & CS–4-capable unlocked TRXs.4 Impact on BSS performance OMU signalling No impact.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • EDAP. For information on restrictions when baseband hopping is used. should be marked Preferred BCCHs. should be marked Preferred BCCHs.3 Impact on transmission No impact. 3. The BSS does not restrict the use of 8PSK modulation on TSL7 of the BCCH TRX. This is fully compliant with 3GPP Rel 5. 3. are EDGE hardware-capable. using the highest output power.

3 BSC parameters Base Transceiver Station parameters • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GPRS non BCCH layer rxlev upper limit (GPU) GPRS non BCCH layer rxlev lower limit (GPL) direct GPRS access BTS (DIRE) max GPRS capacity (CMAX) GPRS rxlev access min (GRXP) GPRS MS txpwr max CCH (GTXP1) GPRS MS txpwr max CCH 1x00 (GTXP2) priority class (PRC) HCS threshold (HCS) RA reselect hysteresis (RRH) routing area code (RAC) GPRS enabled (GENA) network service entity identifier (NSEI) default GPRS capacity (CDEF) dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED) prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG) transport type (TRAT) coding schemes CS3 and CS4 enabled (CS34) BTS downlink throughput factor for CS1-CS4 (TFD) (PCU2) BTS uplink throughput factor for CS1-CS4 (TFU) (PCU2) quality control GPRS DL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGDRT) quality control GPRS UL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGURT) DL adaption probability threshold (DLA) DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 35 .5 3.5. 3.1 User interface BSC MMI The following command groups and MML commands are used to handle GPRS: • • • • • • • • Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC: EE GSM Timer and BSC Parameter Handling: EG Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQ Transceiver Handling: ER Power Control Parameter Handling: EU Gb Interface Handling: FX Licence and Feature Handling: W7 Parameter Handling: WO For more information on the command groups and commands.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS 3. 3. see MML Commands under Reference/Commands in the PDF view.5.2 BTS MMI GPRS cannot be managed with BTS MMl.5.

System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • UL adaption probability threshold (ULA) DL BLER crosspoint for CS selection no hop (DLB) UL BLER crosspoint for CS selection no hop (ULB) DL BLER crosspoint for CS selection hop (DLBH) UL BLER crosspoint for CS selection hop (ULBH) coding scheme no hop (COD) (PCU1) coding scheme hop (CODH) (PCU1) DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) (PCU2) UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) (PCU2) DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) (PCU2) UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) (PCU2) adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) (PCU2) EGPRS inactivity alarm weekdays (EAW) EGPRS inactivity alarm start time (EAS) EGPRS inactivity alarm end time (EAE) Adjacent Cell parameters • • • • adjacent GPRS enabled (AGENA) HCS signal level threshold (HCS) GPRS temporary offset (GTEO) GPRS penalty time (GPET) Gb Interface Handling parameters • • • • • • • data link connection identifier (DLCI) committed information rate (CIR) network service virtual connection identifier (NSVCI) network service virtual connection name (NAME) network service entity identifier (NSEI) bearer channel identifier (BCI) bearer channel name (BCN) Gb Interface Handling parameters (IP) • • • • • • • • • • • • • network service virtual link identifier (NSVLI) network service virtual connection name (NAME) network service entity identifier (NSEI) BCSU logical index (BCSU) PCU logical index (PCU) local UDP port number (LPNBR) remote IP address (RIP) remote host name (RHOST) remote UDP port number (RPNBR) preconfigured SGSN IP endpoint (PRE) remote data weight (RDW) remote signalling weight (RSW) packet service entity identifier (PSEI) 36 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary. PAFILE parameters These parameters have no Q3 interface and are stored in PAFILE. not BSDATA: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 37 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Power Control Handling parameters • • • • binary representation ALPHA (ALPHA) binary representation TAU (GAMMA) idle mode signal strength filter period (IFP) transfer mode signal strength filter period (TFP) TRX Handling parameters • • GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) dynamic abis pool ID (DAP) Base Station Controller parameters • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • GPRS territory update guard time (GTUGT) maximum number of DL TBF (MNDL) maximum number of UL TBF (MNUL) CS TCH allocate RTSL0 (CTR) CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC) PFC unack BLER limit for SDU error ratio 1 (UBL1) (PCU2) PFC ack BLER limit for transfer delay 1 (ABL1) (PCU2) QC NCCR action trigger threshold (QCATN) (applicable if NCCR is activated) QC reallocation action trigger threshold (QCATR) free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) EGPRS inactivity criteria (EGIC) events per hour for EGPRS inactivity alarm (IEPH) supervision period length for EGPRS inactivity alarm (SPL) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 2 UL TSL (BL02) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 3 UL TSL (BL03) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 4 UL TSL (BL04) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 2 UL TSL (BL12) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 3 UL TSL (BL13) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 4 UL TSL (BL14) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 3 UL TSL (BL23) mean BEP limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 4 UL TSL (BL24) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 2 UL TSL (RL02) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 3 UL TSL (RL03) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 0 with 4 UL TSL (RL04) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 2 UL TSL (RL12) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 3 UL TSL (RL13) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 1 with 4 UL TSL (RL14) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 3 UL TSL (RL23) RX quality limit MS multislot pwr prof 2 with 4 UL TSL (RL24) For more information on radio network parameters.

PRFILE parameters The following parameters are related to Gb interface configuration and state management. the PCU. see PAFILE Timer and Parameter List.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • DRX TIMER MAX MSC RELEASE SGSN RELEASE For more information on PAFILE parameters. and the MAC and RLC protocols (Abis interface): • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • TNS_BLOCK TSNS_PROV TNS_RESET TNS_TEST TNS_ALIVE SNS_ADD_RETRIES SNS_CONFIG_RETRIES SNS_CHANGEWEIGHTS_RETRIES SNS_DELETE_RETRIES SNS_SIZE_RETRIES NS_BLOCK_RETRIES NS_UNBLOCK_RETRIES NS_ALIVE_RETRIES NS_RESET_RETRIES TGB_BLOCK TGB_RESET TGB_SUSPEND BVC_BLOCK_RETRIES BVC_UNBLOCK_RETRIES BVC_RESET_RETRIES SUSPEND_RETRIES TGB_RESUME RESUME_RETRIES RAC_UPDATE_RETRIES TGB_RAC_UPDATE RAC_UPDATE_RETRIES FC_B_MAX_TSL FC_B_MAX_TSL_EGPRS FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF FC_MS_R_DEF FC_MS_R_MIN FC_R_DIF_TRG_LIMIT FC_R_TSL GPRS_DOWNLINK_PENALTY GPRS_DOWNLINK_THRESHOLD GPRS_UPLINK_PENALTY GPRS_UPLINK_THRESHOLD MEMORY_OUT_FLAG_SUM 38 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

3. see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List. Keep in mind that several other alarms may also be generated with the use of GPRS.4 Alarms This section lists the main GPRS-related alarms.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • PRE_EMPTIVE_TRANSMISSIO TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD TBF_SIGNAL_GRD_THRSHLD TERRIT_BALANCE_THRSHLD TERRIT_UPD_GTIME_GPRS UPLNK_RX_LEV_FRG_FACTOR DL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY UL_TBF_RELEASE_DELAY UL_TBF_REL_DELAY_EXT UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT (PCU1) POLLING_INTERVAL (PCU2. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0125 PCU PROCESSOR LOAD HIGH 0136 PCU CONNECTIVITY EXCEEDED 2114 FR VIRTUAL CONNECTION FAILED 2115 FR USER LINK INTEGRITY VERIFICATION FAILED 2188 FR ACCESS DATA UPDATING FAILED 2189 COMMUNICATION FAILURE BETWEEN FR TERMINAL AND FRCMAN 3019 NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE 3020 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE 3021 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNBLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3022 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION BLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3023 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED 3024 NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY CONFIGURATION MISMATCH 3025 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION TEST PROCEDURE FAILED 3026 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION PROTOCOL ERROR 3027 UPLINK CONGESTION ON THE NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 39 . For more information on PRFILE parameters.5. replaces UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT) CHA_CONC_UL_FAVOR_DIR CHA_CONC_DL_FAVOR_DIR GPRS_UL_MUX_DEC_FACTOR (PCU2) BACKGROUND_ARP_1 BACKGROUND_ARP_2 BACKGROUND_ARP_3 PCU_LOAD_NOTIF_LIMIT SUSPEND_PCU_LOAD_NOTIF The following parameters are related to alarm 0125 PCU PROCESSOR LOAD HIGH.

see System impact of Network Controlled Re-selection.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3028 NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION IDENTIFIER UNKNOWN 3029 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNBLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3030 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION BLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED 3031 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED 3032 BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION PROTOCOL ERROR 3033 UNKNOWN ROUTING AREA OR LOCATION AREA DURING PAGING 3068 EGPRS DYNAMIC ABIS POOL FAILURE 3073 FAULTY PCUPCM TIMESLOTS IN PCU 3164 PCU PROCESSOR OVERLOAD ALARM 3209 SUB NETWORK SERVICE SIZE PROCEDURE FAILED 3210 SUB NETWORK SERVICE CONFIGURATION PROCEDURE FAILED 3211 LAST REMOTE IP DATA ENDPOINT DELETED 3261 FAILURE IN UPDATING BSC SPECIFIC PARAMETERS TO PCU 3273 GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE 3324 FAILURE IN UPDATING CONFIGURATION DATA TO PCU 7724 CONFLICT BETWEEN BSS RADIO NETWORK DATABASE AND CALL CONTROL 7725 TRAFFIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION FAILURE 7730 CONFIGURATION OF BCF FAILED 7738 BTS WITH NO TRANSACTIONS 7769 FAILURE IN UPDATING CELL SPECIFIC PARAMETERS TO PCU 7789 NO (E)GPRS TRANSACTIONS IN BTS For more information on alarms.5.5 Measurements and counters The following measurements are related to GPRS: • • • • 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement 74 Frame Relay Measurement 76 Dynamic Abis Measurement • For counters of 76 Dynamic Abis Measurement. 79 Coding Scheme Measurement 90 Quality of Service Measurement 95 GPRS Cell Re-selection Measurement • For counters of 95 GPRS Cell Re-selection Measurement. 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement 98 Gb Over IP Measurement • For counters of 98 Gb over IP Measurement. Failure Printouts (2000-3999) and Base Station Alarms (7000-7999). see System impact of Dual Transfer Mode. see Notices (0-999). see System impact of Dynamic Abis. see System impact of Gb over IP. 105 PS DTM Measurement • For counters of 105 PS DTM Measurement. 106 CS DTM Measurement • • • • • • • 40 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . 3.

see 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS • For counters of 106 CS DTM Measurement. 73 RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement Name UR DL RLC MAC BLOCKS RETRANS DL RLC MAC BLOCKS SCHED UNUSED RADIO BLOCKS DL RLC MAC BLOCKS Number 073000 073001 073002 073003 Table 6 Counters of RLC Blocks per TRX Measurement For more information. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 41 . see System impact of Dual Transfer Mode. 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement • 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement Name RLC DATA BLOCKS UL CS1 RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS1 RLC DATA BLOCKS UL CS2 RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS2 RETRA RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS1 RETRA RLC DATA BLOCKS DL CS2 BAD FRAME IND UL CS1 BAD FRAME IND UL CS2 RETRA DATA BLOCKS UL CS1 RETRA DATA BLOCKS UL CS2 WEIGHTED DL TSL ALLOC GPRS NUMERATOR WEIGHTED DL TSL ALLOC GPRS DENOMINATOR RLC RETRANSMITTED DL CS1 DUE OTHER THAN NACK RLC RETRANSMITTED DL CS2 DUE OTHER THAN NACK DL CS1 DATA FOR DUMMY LLC IGNORED RLC DATA BLOCKS UL DUE TO BSN CS1 IGNORED RLC DATA BLOCKS UL DUE TO BSN CS2 1-PHASE UL GPRS TBF ESTABLISHMENT REQUESTS Number 072062 072063 072064 072065 072068 072069 072070 072071 072173 072174 072195 072196 072222 072223 072224 072225 072226 072227 1-PHASE UL GPRS TBF SUCCESSFUL ESTABLISHMENTS 072229 Table 5 Counters of Packet Control Unit Measurement related to GPRS For more information. see 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement.

System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 74 Frame Relay Measurement Name FRMS WRONG CHECK SEQ ERR FRMS WRONG DLCI OTHER FRAME ERROR T391 TIMEOUT STAT MSG WRONG SEND SEQ NBR STAT MSG WRONG REC SEQ NBR BEAR CHANGED UNOPER BEAR RET OPER STAT MSG UNKNOWN PVC STAT MSG SENT TOO OFTEN TIME BEAR UNOPERATIONAL DLCI 1 ID DLCI 1 SENT FRMS DLCI 1 KBYTES SENT DLCI 1 REC FRMS DLCI 1 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 1 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 1 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 1 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 1 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 1 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 1 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 1 DISC UL NS UDATA DLCI 5 ID DLCI 5 SENT FRMS DLCI 5 KBYTES SENT DLCI 5 REC FRMS DLCI 5 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 5 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 5 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 5 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 5 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 5 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 5 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 5 DISC UL NS UDATA Number 074000 074001 074002 074003 074004 074005 074006 074007 074008 074009 074010 074011 074012 074013 074014 074015 074016 074017 074018 074019 074020 074021 074022 074059 074060 074061 074062 074063 074064 074065 074066 074067 074068 074069 074070 Table 7 Counters of Frame Relay Measurement 42 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

) For more information.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS Name DLCI 6 ID DLCI 6 SENT FRMS DLCI 6 KBYTES SENT DLCI 6 REC FRMS DLCI 6 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 6 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 6 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 6 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 6 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 6 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 6 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 6 DISC UL NS UDATA : DLCI 16 ID DLCI 16 SENT FRMS DLCI 16 KBYTES SENT DLCI 16 REC FRMS DLCI 16 KBYTES REC FRMS DLCI 16 DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 16 BYTES DISC SENT FRMS DLCI 16 DISC REC FRMS DLCI 16 BYTES DISC REC FRMS DLCI 16 STAT ACT TO INACT DLCI 16 INACTIVITY TIME DLCI 16 DISC UL NS UDATA Number 074071 074072 074073 074074 074075 074076 074077 074078 074079 074080 074081 074082 : 074191 074192 074193 074194 074195 074196 074197 074198 074199 074200 074201 074202 Table 7 Counters of Frame Relay Measurement (Cont. see 74 Frame Relay Measurement. 79 Coding Scheme Measurement Name Number NUMBER OF DL RLC BLOCKS IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079000 NUMBER OF DL RLC BLOCKS IN UNACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079001 NUMBER OF UL RLC BLOCKS IN ACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079002 NUMBER OF UL RLC BLOCKS IN UNACKNOWLEDGED MODE 079003 Table 8 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 43 .

see 90 Quality of Service Measurement.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Name NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH VALID HEADER UL UNACK MODE NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH BAD HEADER UL UNACK MODE NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH VALID HEADER UL ACK MODE NUMBER OF BAD RLC DATA BLOCKS WITH BAD HEADER UL ACK MODE RETRANSMITTED RLC DATA BLOCKS UL RETRANSMITTED RLC DATA BLOCKS DL Number 079004 079005 079006 079007 079008 079009 Table 8 Counters of Coding Scheme Measurement (Cont.) For more information. 90 Quality of Service Measurement Name NUMBER OF TBF ALLOCATIONS TOTAL NBR OF RLC BLOCKS TOTAL DURATION OF TBFS DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO OVERFLOW DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO LIFETIME EXPIRY AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE DEN VWTHR NUMERATOR GPRS VWTHR DENOMINATOR GPRS Number 090000 090001 090002 090003 090004 090005 090006 090007 090008 Table 9 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement related to GPRS For more information. see 79 Coding Scheme Measurement. 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement RXL UP BOUND CLASS 0 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 1 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 2 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 3 RXL UP BOUND CLASS 4 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 0 096000 096001 096002 096003 096004 096005 096012 096013 Table 10 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement 44 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 7 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 0 UL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 0 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 1 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 2 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 3 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 4 RXQ 7 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 0 DL SAMPLES WITH RXL 5 RXQ 7 096020 096021 096028 096029 096036 096037 096044 096045 096052 096053 096060 096061 096068 096069 096076 096077 096084 096085 096092 096093 096100 Table 10 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement (Cont. 3.6 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) No impact. see 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 45 . see 96 GPRS RX Level and Quality Measurement. 110 PCU Utilisation Measurement PEAK RESERVED PCUPCM CHANNELS PEAK OCCUPIED PDTCH UL PEAK OCCUPIED PDTCH DL 110000 110001 110002 Table 11 Counters of PCU Utilization Measurement For more information.) For more information.

For a list of the alarms. 46 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . see Measurements and counters. With Class C terminals. Time Management. Data Tracing must be supported by the BSS and the Packet Core Network. Class C terminals cannot accept paging from both CS and PS at the same time. User Group Profiles. GPRS defines three classes of mobile terminals: • • • Class A terminals support simultaneous circuit-switched (CS) and packet-switched (PS) traffic.8 Impact on mobile terminals GPRS-capable mobile terminals are required. GPRS can be taken into consideration when network traffic is planned and simulated with NetAct Planner. or the terminals can be set up to accept data only. NetAct Configurator NetAct Configurator can be used to configure the radio network parameters related to GPRS. and Service Access Control are used to administer GPRS.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 3. users must manually select either CS or PS mode. Class B terminals can accept paging of any type when in idle mode. NetAct Tracing NetAct Tracing supports GPRS-capable Nokia Siemens Network network elements in OSS3.7 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Reporter NetAct reporter can be used to view reports from measurements related to GPRS. However.1 ED2. For a list of the measurements. For a list of the radio network parameters. For more information. However. see BSC parameters. 3. see Alarms. Class C terminals may support both CS and PS services. NetAct Optimizer No impact. NetAct Monitor NetAct Monitor can be used to monitor all alarms related to GPRS. Class B terminals attach to the network as both CS and PS clients but only support traffic from one service at a time. NetAct Planner GPRS has no direct impact on NetAct Planner. see BSS RNW Parameters and Implementing Parameter Plans in NetAct Product Documentation. such as Network Editor. Authority Manager. NetAct Administrator Standard NetAct Administration applications.

Impact on Abis interface • • Dynamic Abis Dynamic Abis pools need to be configured for GPRS if CS-3 & CS-4 is in use.018. more effective radio resource usage with combined GPRS/IMSI attach/detach and combined RA/LA updates. 3. GPRS messages The Abis interface supports GPRS messages. Impact on A interface No impact. that is.9 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface No impact. Impact on Gb interface The Nokia Siemens Networks BSC supports the Gb interface (BSC-SGSN) as specified in GSM Recommendations (3GPP): • • 3GPP TS 48. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). see: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 47 .10 Interworking with other features The implementation of GPRS causes changes to the following existing functions of the BSC: • • • • • • • the PCU plug-in unit is introduced in Hardware Configuration Management GPRS-related radio network parameters are introduced in Radio Network Configuration Management co-operation between circuit-switched traffic and GPRS traffic is defined in Radio Channel Allocation GPRS traffic is monitored with GPRS-specific measurements and counters the serving PCU must be the same for all TRXs under one segment.016. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) 3GPP TS 48. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Network Service Impact on Gs interface Nokia Siemens Networks SGSN and MSC support the Gs interface (SGSN-MSC/VLR) although it is specified as optional by 3GPP.Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN). Base Station System (BSS) .Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) interface. The advantages of Gs interface include: • • • support for TIA/EIA-136 networks by offering a connection for the tunneling of nonGSM signalling messages via the GPRS network to a non-GSM MSC/VLR. the possibility to page GPRS terminals for circuit-switched services (for example circuit-switched calls) via GPRS. Implementing GPRS overview Radio network management for GPRS For more information on the implementation procedure. reduced signalling over the radio interface.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS 3. Base Station System (BSS) .

Dynamic SDCCH allocation The BSC selects a traffic channel timeslot to be reconfigured as a dynamic SDCCH timeslot always within the circuit-switched territory. Frequency Hopping In Baseband hopping. However. Circuit-switched traffic In the BSC the introduction of GPRS means dividing the radio resources (circuitswitched and GPRS traffic) into two territories. For some features only the resources of the circuit-switched territory are included in the decisions. to allow the performing of optimisation of the MS power level. For more information on the division of territories. This makes radio timeslot 0 unusable for multislot connections. no prioritisation is used between the different TRX types when the GPRS territory is formed. Intelligent Underlay-Overlay. see section Radio resource management.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • Gb interface configuration and state management Radio resource management GPRS/EDGE radio connection control The GPRS related measurements are introduced in section Measurements and counters. When the BSC has to allocate a traffic channel for a circuit-switched request in the GPRS territory. Now. This has an effect on the radio channel allocation features in which the BSC makes decisions based on the load of traffic. the interference level recommendation is no longer the guiding factor. radio timeslot 0 belongs to a different hopping group than the other radio timeslots of a TRX. Optimisation of MS Power Level The BSC attempts to allocate traffic channels within the circuit-switched territory according to the interference level recommendation the BSC has calculated. Trunk Reservation In trunk reservation. The BSC adds together the number of idle traffic channels in the circuit-switched territory and the 48 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . If no preference is indicated. Only if there are radio timeslots that are permanently reserved for GPRS use (dedicated GPRS resources). the BSC defines the number of idle traffic channels. because radio timeslots (RTSL) in the GPRS territory may be allocated for circuit-switched traffic if necessary. TRX prioritisation in TCH allocation The operator can set the BCCH TRX or the non-BCCH TRXs as preferred TRX for the GPRS territory with the parameter prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG). these cannot be used for circuit-switched calls and the BSC excludes these in its decisions on traffic load. radio timeslot 0 of any TRX in the BTS is not used for GPRS. for most features also the traffic channels in the GPRS territory need to be taken into consideration when the BSC defines the traffic load. Enhanced Coverage by Frequency Hopping. Handover Support for Coverage Enhancements Super-reuse TRX frequencies are not supported for GPRS. the first GPRS radio timeslot next to the territory border is taken regardless of whether its interference level is among the recommended ones or not. If Baseband hopping is employed in a BTS.

the load limits used in the procedure are calculated using the operator defined BSC and BTS parameters lower limit for HR TCH resources (HRL). High Speed circuit-switched Data (HSCSD) If GPRS has been enabled in a BTS. the BSC determines the possibility of a GPRS territory upgrade in another TRX. The BSC releases the ongoing calls and the call control resources. excluding the ones that have been allocated permanently to GPRS the number of occupied TCH/F resources includes all the occupied TCH/Fs of the circuit-switched territory. Depending on the value of CTC either only CS territory or both CS and GPRS territories (excluding the dedicated GPRS timeslots) are used to calculate the load limits. the radio timeslots on the TRX are blocked from use. Additionally. excluding the GPRS radio timeslots defined as dedicated • DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 49 . If the faulty TRX is EDGE-capable. the value of the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter is also transferred to the new TRX. Therefore. The BSC downgrades the traffic channels belonging to the GPRS territory in the faulty TRX from GPRS use. To replace the lost GPRS capacity. Half Rate Permanent type half rate timeslots are not used for GPRS traffic. and upper limit for FR TCH resources (FRU). the BSC’s indication on the resources concerns traffic channels of a BTS excluding those allocated permanently to GPRS (dedicated GPRS channels). see section Radio resource management. the system tries to reconfigure its functionality to another EDGE-capable TRX in the BTS. When the BSC can select the channel rate (full rate or half rate) to be used for a circuitswitched call based on the traffic load of the target BTS. GPRS territory resources other than the dedicated ones are regarded as working and idle resources. the HSCSD-related load limits are calculated based on the existing HSCSD parameters and the following rules: • the number of working resources includes all the working full rate traffic channel (TCH/F) resources of a BTS. and GPRS in enabled in the TRX and CS-3 & CS-4 or EGPRS is enabled in the BTS. are excluded.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS number of traffic channels in the radio timeslots of the GPRS territory. upper limit for HR TCH resources (HRU). The BSC parameter CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC) defines how the GPRS territory is seen when the load limits are calculated. TRX fault When a TRX carrying traffic channels becomes faulty. Resource indication to MSC In general. For more information on GPRS territory upgrades and downgrades. The traffic channels in the radio timeslots that the BSC has allocated permanently for GPRS. lower limit for FR TCH resources (FRL). with the CTC parameter the user can define whether the resources in GPRS territory are seen as idle resources or as occupied resources. If the faulty TRX functionality is reconfigured to another TRX in the cell. it is recommended not to configure permanent half rate timeslots in TRXs that are planned to be used for GPRS. as well as the default GPRS territory TCH/Fs.

the BSC examines if there are more HSCSD traffic channels than the parameter HSCSD TCH capacity minimum (HTM) requires and if so. the BSC does not try to move it elsewhere with an intra cell handover. executes an HSCSD downgrade • 50 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . For more information on how the resources form the territories. At the start of the handover. In order for the non-transparent call to get the needed number of timeslots. that is. If a sufficient margin exists. If the number of idle resources is below the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). it tries to replace the lost GPRS capacity by extending the GPRS territory on the circuit-switched side of the territory border. the actions proceed as follows: • if there are GPRS radio timeslots that are above and beyond the operator defined default GPRS territory then these additional GPRS radio timeslots are the first target for the GPRS territory downgrade if there are no additional GPRS radio timeslots. The non-transparent HSCSD requests are always served in the circuit-switched territory as long as there is at least one TCH/F available. thus the one that limits HSCSD traffic earlier is used. it is also applied within the GPRS territory to serve the non-transparent request. If the BTS load later decreases. and only if necessary in the GPRS territory. Instead. the BSC checks first if the margin of idle resources defined by the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) exists. the non-transparent HSCSD call is handed over to another location in the BTS so that the GPRS territory can be extended. if the call starts with less channels than needed and allowed. The parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) defines a margin of radio timeslots that the BSC tries to keep idle for circuit-switched traffic by downgrading the GPRS territory when necessary. see section Radio resource management. the BSC rejects the transparent HSCSD requests and serves the non-transparent HSCSD requests with one timeslot. the BSC performs an HSCSD downgrade if necessary. the BSC acts as without GPRS. If multislot allocation was originally defined as allowed. A non-transparent HSCSD call enters the GPRS territory only if there is congestion in the circuit-switched territory. When the transparent HSCSD call inside the GPRS territory is later released. If the timeslot share in HSCSD allocation is not restricted. A normal HSCSD upgrade procedure is applied later to fulfill the need of the non-transparent request. enabling a GPRS territory upgrade. the BSC checks that a single slot call can be moved to another radio timeslot and that an HSCSD upgrade is generally allowed. the transparent requests are served preferably in the circuit-switched territory. the BSC starts an intra cell handover for suitable single slot calls beside the non-transparent HSCSD call. If a transparent HSCSD call ends up in the GPRS territory. If HSCSD multislot allocation is denied based on the appropriate parameters. the BSC returns the released radio timeslots back to GPRS use to keep the GPRS territory continuous and undivided. using the state information that the HSCSD parameters define for the BTS.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • HSCSD parameter HSCSD cell load upper limit (HCU) is replaced with the radio network GPRS parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) if the latter is more restricting. When deciding whether to downgrade an HSCSD call or the GPRS territory.

Super-reuse frequencies are not supported in GPRS. PS territory can be defined to each BTS object separately. and for more information on HSCSD. For information on restrictions when baseband hopping is used. The segment can have BTS objects. If the BSC starts no HSCSD upgrade. the BSC first examines the need and possibility for an HSCSD upgrade. Radio Network Supervision does not apply to the packet control channel. it further checks the need and possibility for a GPRS upgrade. GPRS and EGPRS territories cannot both be defined to a BTS object at the same time. see HSCSD and 14. Radio Network Supervision Actions of the radio network supervision do not apply for timeslots that have been included in the GPRS territory. PGSM900. For more information on GPRS territories.4 kbit/s Data Services in BSC. TRXs inside a BTS object must have common capabilities. The reason for this requirement is that in cases when the MS RAC of the GPRS mobile is not known by the BSC. the temporary block flow (TBF) must be allocated on the BCCH frequency band first. An exception to this is that EDGE-capable and non-EDGE-capable TRXs can be configured to the same BTS object. The only reasonable thing to monitor is the uplink interference on timeslots in GPRS use. see section Resrictions. During the first TBF allocation. The parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) and the margin it defines is the limiting factor for a GPRS territory upgrade. Several BTS objects can belong to one segment. You must define GPRS territory to the BCCH frequency band in a Common BCCH cell in which more than one frequency band is in use. For more information. Common BCCH Control Multi BCF introduces a radio network object called the segment.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS • if the minimum HSCSD capacity is not in use. Parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) defines the number of radio timeslots that have to remain idle in the circuit-switched territory after the planned GPRS territory upgrade has been performed. Multi BCF Control. EGSM900. and GSM1900) power levels (Talk-family and UltraSite base stations) regular and super-reuse frequencies EDGE capability. The GPRS territory can be upgraded although the parameter HSCSD TCH capacity minimum (HTM) is not in use and there are pending HSCSD connections in the cell. a GPRS territory downgrade is made to maintain the margin defined by the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). As a TCH/F becomes free through a channel release. the GPRS DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 51 . Only one BTS object of the segment can have a BCCH. There is only one BCCH /CCCH in one segment. When EGPRS or CS-3 & CS-4 is enabled in the BTS. see section Radio resource management. see EDGE BTSs and hopping in System impact of EDGE in EDGE System Feature Description. BTS testing BTS testing cannot be executed on the packet control channel. there exist some restrictions related to TRX configuration. which differ in: • • • • frequency band (GSM800. Otherwise GPRS does not work properly in the cell. GSM1800.

GPRS/EDGE cannot be used in the PGSM 900 TRXs in the BTS. which in the Nokia Siemens Networks BSS contains GPRS Mobile Allocation only for the BCCH BTS. If GPRS is deactivated when DTM is in use. EGSM 900 . If not. Set the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter of the RF hopping TRXs to value 'N'. indirect encoding can only refer to the SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 13 message. Later. Set the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter of the PGSM 900 TRXs to value 'N'. direct 1 and 2 encoding cannot be used. This is because hopping frequency parameters are encoded to the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message on CCCH with indirect encoding. the TBFs may be reallocated to other BTSs as well. The limitation to use only indirect encoding with hopping frequency parameters in IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT comes from the fact that IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message segmentation is not supported in the BSS. in a segment where BCCH band GPRS channels are on hopping BTS(s). Large sized frequency parameters cause control message segmentation. See Common BCCH Control and Multi BCF Control for more information on Multi BCF and Common BCCH. A DTM TBF is established in EGPRS mode if the MS is EGPRS capable and if the DTM call is allocated from an EGPRS-capable PS territory. see Dual Transfer Mode. GPRS has to be disabled in the RF hopping TRXs. After that. The other two possible hopping frequency encodings. GPRS/EDGE cannot be used in the EGSM 900 TRXs in the BTS. the DTM TBF is established in GPRS mode. When the allocated BTS is hopping.System impact of GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description mobile indicates its frequency capability to the BSC. other frequency bands of the cell can be used for the GPRS mobile accordingly. the TBFs must initially be allocated to the BCCH BTS. direct 1 and 2.PGSM 900 BTS When the BCCH is on PGSM 900 frequency band in the PGSM-EGSM BTS and RF hopping is used. • 52 Id:0900d8058077eafd DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . When BCCH is on PGSM 900 frequency band and there is a TRX on EGSM 900 frequency band in the BTS. Set the GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX) parameter of the EGSM 900 TRXs to value 'N'. the MSS that have an active DTM connection keep their CS connection but lose their TBFs. might use a large number of octets for the frequency hopping. Dual Transfer Mode GPRS must be available and active in the network for Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) to work. For more information on DTM. Thus as IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT segmentation is not supported. The BSC supports DTM data transfer in both GPRS and EGPRS modes. The following restrictions apply when there are EGSM 900 and PGSM 900 frequencies in the BTS and GPRS/EDGE Support for PGSM-EGSM BTS is not used: • When BCCH is on EGSM 900 frequency band and there is a TRX on PGSM 900 frequency band in the BTS. Therefore. GPRS territory must be configured into the BCCH BTS of a segment with two or more BTSs on the BCCH band if BTS(s) containing GPRS channels are hopping.

GPRS is allowed to be used in RF hopping TRXs even if the BCCH is on PGSM 900 frequency band in the PGSM-EGSM BTS.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS BSS21238 “Merged P-&E-GSM900” If the feature BSS21238 “Merged P-&E-GSM900” is activated in the cell. EGTCHs constitutes of fixed PS channels and they cannot be used for CS traffic. For more information. see: • • Activating and Testing BSS21161: SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX BSS21161: SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eafd 53 . if BSS21161: SDCCH and PS Data Channels on DFCA TRX is active. Extended Cell Range GPRS/EDGE cannot be used in Extended TRXs (E-TRX) without extended cell GPRS/EDGE channels (EGTCH). Dynamic Frequency and Channel Allocation GPRS/EDGE can be used in DFCA TRXs. Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE With GPRS/EDGE and Extended Cell for GPRS/EDGE application software products GPRS/EDGE traffic can be used in EGTCH channels of Extended TRXs (E-TRX).

2 CD Set 1 Table 13 Required software Frequency band support The BSC supports Extended Uplink TBF Mode on the following frequency bands: • GSM 800 54 Id:0900d80580783c54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .1 Requirements Hardware requirements Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Hardware/firmware required No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements Table 12 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware. see Extended Uplink TBF Mode.1. For an overview. Extended Uplink TBF Mode requires GPRS as a prerequisite.System impact of GPRS related software BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4 System impact of GPRS related software 4.1 System impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode The system impact of BSS11151: Extended Uplink TBF Mode is specified in the sections below. For implementation instructions. see Activating and Testing BSS11151: Extended Uplink TBF Mode. 4. Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite BTSs MetroSite BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements OSS4.

Faster uplink data flow continuing after short breaks. WOC Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC: EQV For more information on the command groups and commands. No impact. BTS MMI Extended Uplink TBF Mode cannot be managed with BTS MMI. 4. WOI. No impact.3 Impact on BSS performance OMU signalling No impact. TRX signalling No impact.1. 4. Impact on BSC units BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact. Table 14 Impact of Extended Uplink TBF Mode on BSC units Impact on BTS units No impact.2 Impact on transmission No impact.1.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS related software • • • GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 4.4 User interface BSC MMI The following command groups and MML commands are used to handle Extended Uplink TBF Mode: • • Parameter Handling: WOA.1. BSC parameters PRFILE parameters • • UL_TBF_REL_DELAY_EXT UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580783c54 55 . see the respective MML commands manuals.

NetAct Optimizer No impact. see 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement. For a list of the measurements.6 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Administrator No impact. NetAct Monitor No impact. see Measurements and counters. NetAct Configurator No impact. see PRFILE and FIFILE Parameter List. 56 Id:0900d80580783c54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .5 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) No impact. 4. 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement Name UL DATA CONT AFTER COUNTDOWN EXTENDED UL TBFS Number 072115 072116 Table 15 Counters of 72 Packet Control Unit Measurement The counters are collected on BTS level. NetAct Planner No impact.1.1. Alarms No alarms are specifically related to Extended Uplink TBF Mode. 4. For more information. NetAct Reporter NetAct reporter can be used to create reports from measurements related to Extended Uplink TBF Mode. Measurements and counters The following measurements and counters are related to Extended Uplink TBF Mode.System impact of GPRS related software BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • POLLING_INTERVAL_STRM POLLING_INTERVAL_IA POLLING_INTERVAL_BG POLLING_INTERVAL_STR_LOW POLLING_INTERVAL_IA_LOW POLLING_INTERVAL_BG_LOW For more information on PRFILE parameters.

1. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580783c54 57 . Impact on Gb interface No impact.1. Impact on Abis interface Support for Extended UL TBF Mode related signalling with the MS. 4.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description System impact of GPRS related software NetAct Tracing No impact.9 Interworking with other features No impact.7 Impact on mobile terminals 3GPP Rel. Impact on A interface No impact. 4.8 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface No impact.4 GERAN feature package 1 MS required. 4.1.

see Priority Class based Quality of Service.2 System impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service The system impact of BSS10084: Priority Class based Quality of Service is specified in the sections below.2 CD Set 1 Table 17 Required software Frequency band support The BSC supports Priority Class based Quality of Service on the following frequency bands: • • • GSM 800 GSM 900 GSM 1800 58 Id:0900d8058077eb5c DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4.1 Requirements Hardware requirements Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Required hardware or firmware PCU1/PCU2 No requirements No requirements No requirements Table 16 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus BTSs Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR GGSN SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements M14 GGSN2 CG2/3 SG7 OSS4.2. For an overview. 4.

2. 4. Table 18 Impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service on BSC units Impact on BTS units No impact. Impact on BSC units BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact No impact No impact Both PCU1 and PCU2 support Priority Class based Quality of Service.2.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • GSM 1900 4. EEO BTS MMI Priority Class based Quality of Service cannot be managed with BTS MMI. Table Radio network parameters for Priority Based Scheduling describes the correspondence of these parameters between PCU1 and PCU2. The following parameters apply to PCU1: • • • DL high priority SSS (DHP) DL normal priority SSS (DNP) DL low priority SSS (DLP) DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eb5c 59 .3 Impact on BSS performance OMU signalling No impact. TRX signalling No impact.2.2 Impact on transmission No impact. 4. BSC parameters BSC radio network parameters There are different radio network parameters for priority based scheduling in PCU1 and PCU2.4 User interface BSC MMI The following command group and MML commands are used to handle Priority Class based Quality of Service: • Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC: EEV.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • UL UL UL UL priority priority priority priority 1 2 3 4 SSS SSS SSS SSS (UP1) (UP2) (UP3) (UP4) The following parameters apply to PCU2: background traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (BGSW1) background traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (BGSW2) background traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (BGSW3) interactive 1 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (ISW11) interactive 1 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (ISW12) interactive 1 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (ISW13) interactive 2 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (ISW21) interactive 2 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (ISW22) interactive 2 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (ISW23 interactive 3 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (ISW31) interactive 3 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (ISW32) interactive 3 traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (ISW33) streaming traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 1 (SSW1) streaming traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 2 (SSW2) streaming traffic class scheduling weight for ARP 3 (SSW3) Scheduling weight (PCU2) 60 30 20 15 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 Scheduling step size (PCU1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Table 19 Radio network parameters for Priority Based Scheduling For more information on radio network parameters. 60 Id:0900d8058077eb5c DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Alarms No impact. see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary.

2. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d8058077eb5c 61 . NetAct Monitor No impact.2. 4.1). NetAct Optimizer TRECs are supported in Service Optimizer (OSS3.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Measurements and counters The following measurement and counters are related to Priority Class based Quality of Service: 90 Quality of Service Measurement Name NUMBER OF TBF ALLOCATIONS TOTAL NBR OF RLC BLOCKS TOTAL DURATION OF TBFS DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO OVERFLOW DROPPED DL LLC PDUS DUE TO LIFETIME EXPIRY AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE AVERAGE MS SPECIFIC BSSGP FLOW RATE DEN VWTHR NUMERATOR GPRS VWTHR DENOMINATOR GPRS VWTHR NUMERATOR EDGE OTHER 4 VWTHR DENOMINATOR EDGE OTHER 4 VWTHR NUMERATOR EDGE 4 VWTHR DENOMINATOR EDGE 4 Number 090000 090001 090002 090003 090004 090005 090006 090007 090008 090009 090010 090011 090012 Table 20 Counters of Quality of Service Measurement For more information.6 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Administrator No impact. 4.5 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) The subscriber priority must be defined in the DX HLR (HLR) once Priority Class based Quality of Service is introduced in the network. see 90 Quality of Service Measurement.

see BSS RNW Parameters and Implementing Parameter Plans in NetAct Product Documentation. NetAct Reporter NetAct Reporter can be used to view and create reports based on measurements related to Priority Class based Quality of Service. 62 Id:0900d8058077eb5c DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The differentiation is implemented by tuning the scheduling step size parameters (SSS). NetAct Configurator Configurator can be used to configure the radio network parameters related to Priority Class based Quality of Service. For a list of the measurements. For a list of the radio network parameters. There is an efficient Quality of Service differentiation mechanism in Priority Class based Quality of Service with PCU1. NetAct Tracing The Quality of Service type is shown in the GPRS trace report in NetAct Tracing.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description NetAct Planner Priority Class based Quality of Service is supported in NetAct Planner.2. 4. see BSC parameters. These parameters correspond to the scheduling weight parameters with PCU2.2.2. see Measurements and counters.8 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface See Priority Class based Quality of Service for details. Impact on A interface No impact. For more information. 4. The precedence class and traffic class can be set for packet switched services.7 Impact on mobile terminals GPRS/EDGE-capable mobile terminals are required. 4. Impact on Gb interface No impact. The SSS parameters cannot be used with PCU2. Impact on Abis interface No impact.9 Interworking with other features PCU and Priority Class based Quality of Service Priority Class based Quality of Service works with both PCU1 and PCU2.

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 4.3 System impact of System Level Trace The system impact of BSS10089: System Level Trace is specified in the sections below. 4.3. see System Level Trace.1 Requirements Hardware requirements Network element BSC BTS TCSM SGSN Hardware/firmware required No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements Table 21 Required additional or alternative hardware or firmware Software requirements Network element BSC BTSplus Flexi Multiradio BTSs Flexi EDGE BTSs UltraSite EDGE BTSs MetroSite EDGE BTSs Talk-family BTSs MSC/HLR GGSN SGSN NetAct Software release required S13 No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements No requirements M14 GGSN2 SG7 OSS4. For an overview.2 CD Set 1 Table 22 Required software Frequency band support The BSC supports System Level Trace on the following frequency bands: • • • • GSM GSM GSM GSM 800 900 1800 1900 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d2d 63 .

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

4.3.2

Impact on transmission
No impact.

4.3.3

Impact on BSS performance
OMU signalling No impact. TRX signalling No impact. Impact on BSC
BSC unit OMU MCMU BCSU PCU Impact No impact No impact No impact Faster uplink data flow continuing after short breaks.

Table 23

Impact of System Level Trace on BSC units

Impact on BTS units No impact.

4.3.4

User interface
BSC MMI No impact. BTS MMI System Level Trace cannot be managed with BTS MMI. BSC parameters No impact. Alarms No impact. Measurements and counters The following observations and counters are related to System Level Trace. 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace
Name SEGMENT ID Number 025000

Table 24

Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace

64

Id:0900d80580782d2d

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Name BTS ID TRX ID IMSI TBF ALLOCATION TIME TBF ALLOCATION CALENDAR TIME TBF RELEASE TIME TBF DIRECTION QOS PRIORITY CLASS NBR OF FLOW CNTRL CHANGES FLOW CTRL CHANGE TIME 0 BUCKET SIZE 0 QOS LEAK RATE 0 ... FLOW CTRL CHANGE TIME 19 BUCKET SIZE 19 QOS LEAK RATE 19 NBR OF TCHS IN BEG NBR OF REALLOC REALLOC TIME 0 REALLOC CAUSE 0 BTS ID 0 TRX ID 0 NEW NBR OF TCHS 0 ... REALLOC TIME 19 REALLOC CAUSE 19 BTS ID 19 TRX ID 19 NEW NBR OF TCHS 19 AMOUNT OF LLC DATA NBR OF RLC BLOCKS LAST MCS INITIAL CODING SCHEME NBR OF DYNABIS MCS CHANGES MCS CHANGES MCS CHANGE TIME 0 CAUSE MCS CHANGE 0

Number 025001 025002 025003 025004 025005 025006 025007 025008 025009 025010 025011 025012 ... 025067 025068 025069 025070 025071 025072 025073 025074 025075 025076 ... 025167 025168 025169 025170 025171 025172 025173 025174 025175 025176 025177 025178

Table 24

Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace (Cont.)

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

Id:0900d80580782d2d

65

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Name NEW MCS 0 NBR OF RLC BLOCKS PREV MCS 0 AMOUNT OF LLC DATA PREV MCS 0 ... MCS CHANGE TIME 19 CAUSE MCS CHANGE 19 NEW MCS 19 NBR OF RLC BLOCKS PREV MCS 19 AMOUNT OF LLC DATA PREV MCS 19 CAUSE TBF RELEASE TRACE STATUS TBF DTM FLAG MULTISLOT CLASS DTM MULTISLOT CLASS

Number 025179 025180 025181 ... 025272 025273 025274 025275 025276 025277 025278 025312 025313 025314

Table 24

Counters of TBF Observation for GPRS Trace (Cont.)

For more information, see 25 TBF Observation for GPRS Trace. 27 GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report
Name LAC CI RAC SEGMENT ID BTS ID TRX ID IMSI NC MODE CELL RESEL START TIME CELL RESEL START CAL TIME NCCR TRIGGERING CAUSE TARGET CELL ID TARGET RNC ID NACC START TIME CELL CHANGE TIME CELL RESEL END CAUSE CELL RESEL END TIME Number 027000 027001 027002 027003 027004 027005 027006 027007 027008 027009 027010 027011 027012 027013 027014 027015

Table 25

Counters of GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report

66

Id:0900d80580782d2d

DN7036138 Issue 3-2

. IS PACKET TRANSF MODE 16 REPORT TIME SEC AND 100TH SEC 16 DL RX LEV AND QUAL 16 NCELL MEAS RESULTS 16 NCELL INDEX 1 NCELL RADIO TYPE 1 NCELL ID 1 . 028208 028209 028210 Table 26 Counters of GPRS RX Level and Quality Report For more information...... see 27 GPRS Cell Re-Selection Report.. UL MEAS RESULTS 16 IS PACKET TRANSF MODE 1 REPORT TIME SEC AND 100TH SEC 1 DL RX LEV AND QUAL 1 NCELL MEAS RESULTS 1 .. NCELL INDEX 40 NCELL RADIO TYPE 40 NCELL ID 40 Number 028000 028001 028002 028003 028004 028005 028006 028007 028008 028009 028010 028011 . 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report Name LAC CI RAC BTS ID TRX ID IMSI REP PERIOD IDLE REP PERIOD TRANSF BEP USED RECORD START TIME RECORD END TIME NR OF MEASUREMENTS UL MEAS RESULTS 1 .. 028087 028088 028089 028090 028091 028092 028093 ... 028026 028027 028028 028029 028030 .. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d2d 67 . see 28 GPRS RX Level and Quality Report.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description For more information.

4 kbps) GPRS CS4 (GMSK 20 kbps) dummy value.6 Impact on NetAct products NetAct Administrator No impact.2 kbps) Table 27 CS and MCS codecs in the initial coding scheme and new MCS fields 4.5 kbps) EGPRS MCS6 (8-PSK 29. 68 Id:0900d80580782d2d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . NetAct Planner No impact.4 kbps) EGPRS MCS2 (GMSK 11.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Counter value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Codec (Modulation and user data rate) GPRS CS1 (GMSK 8 kbps) GPRS CS2 (GMSK 12 kbps) GPRS CS3 (GMSK 14.8 kbps) EGPRS MCS5 (8-PSK 22. NetAct Optimizer No impact.3.8 kbps) EGPRS MCS4 (GMSK 16. bad header in ack mode EGPRS MCS1 (GMSK 8. NetAct Monitor No impact.4 kbps) EGPRS MCS9 (8-PSK 59.8 kbps) EGPRS MCS8 (8-PSK 54.5 Impact on Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) No impact. NetAct Configurator No impact. 4. see Measurements and counters.3.6 kbps) EGPRS MCS7 (8-PSK 44. NetAct Reporter NetAct reporter can be used to create reports from measurements related to System Level Trace. For a list of the measurements.2 kbps) EGPRS MCS3 (GMSK 14.

3. Impact on Gb interface The SGSN invokes the trace by sending a BSSGB SGSN-INVOKE-TRACE (3GPP TS 48. 4.3.7 Impact on mobile terminals GPRS-capable terminals are required. Impact on Abis interface Support for Extended Uplink TBF Mode related signalling with the mobile station is required. 4.9 Interworking with other features No impact. 4. Impact on A interface No impact.3. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580782d2d 69 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description NetAct Tracing No impact.8 Impact on interfaces Impact on radio interface No impact.018) message to the BSS when the SGSN trace becomes active or when the SGSN receives a trace request.

BSC3i 1000. Packet Control Unit. BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC. a general term for all Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU variants Name of PCU product variant PCU PCU-S PCU-T PCU-B Nokia Siemens Networks Second Generation Packet Control Unit PCU2 PCU2-U PCU2-D First generation PCU for BSC3i 660.Requirements for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 5 Requirements for GPRS 5. which implements both the Gb interface and RLC/MAC protocols in the BSS.1 Packet Control Unit (PCU) For GPRS the BSC needs the Packet Control Unit. BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC Explanation First generation PCU for BSCi and BSC2i PCU General name Nokia Siemens Networks First Generation Packet Control Unit PCU1 PCU2-E Table 28 Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU product family BSC product variant BSCi Amount of PCUs One PCU plug-in unit (PIU) in each BCSU. includes two logical PCUs Second generation PCU for BSC3i 660. Table Nokia Siemens Networks GSM/EDGE PCU product family lists the available PCU variants and table PCUs in BSC product variants shows the amount of PCUs for each BSC product variant. a total of 8 (+1 spare) logical PCUs. BSC3i 1000. Table 29 PCUs in BSC product variants 70 Id:0900d80580590b54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . includes two logical PCUs Second generation PCU for BSCi and BSC2i Second generation PCU for BSC3i 660. PCU functions The PCU controls the GPRS radio resources and acts as the key unit in the following procedures: • • • • • GPRS radio resource allocation and management GPRS radio connection establishment and management Data transfer Coding scheme selection PCU statistics PCU and BSC product variants The PCU hardware is positioned at the BSC site as a plug-in unit in each BCSU.

) When installing the PCUs to BSCi and BSC2i. a total of 24 (+4 spares) logical PCUs. the operator has to make sure that the GSWB has enough capacity. Note that only two of the PCU PIUs can be of the type PCU-B. Table 29 PCUs in BSC product variants (Cont. 16 kbit/s. If Gb over Frame Relay is used. a total of 16 (+2 spares) logical PCUs. Note that only two of the PCU PIUs can be of the type PCU-B. Flexi BSC Five PCU2 PIUs in each BCSU. Three PCU2-E PIUs in each BCSU. BSC3i 1000 Five PCU PIUs in each BCSU. One PCU2-E PIU in each BCSU. Abis) 64 64 128 256 PCU1 variants PCU and PCU-S : 128 Table 30 PCU maximum connectivity per logical PCU DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b54 71 . a total of 30 (+ 5 spares) PCU PIUs. BSC3i 2000 Five PCU PIUs in each BCSU. installing the second PCU plug-in unit requires four SW64B plug-in units in the GSWB (GSWB size 256 PCMs). Three PCU2-E PIUs in each BCSU.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Requirements for GPRS BSC product variant BSC2i BSC3i 660 Amount of PCUs Two PCU PIUs in each BCSU. PCU capacity and connections PCU1 PCU2-U/-D 128 64 256 256 PCU2-E 384 256 1024 1024 (Flexi BSC) 512 (other BSC3i variants) BTS IDs Cells/Segments TRXs Connectivity (traffic channels. then the operator also has to consider the need for E1/T1 (ET) extensions. Installing the first PCU plug-in unit into the BCSUs requires three SW64B plug-in units in the GSWB (GSWB size 192 PCMs). a total of 50 (+10 spares) logical PCUs. a total of 100 (+10 spares) logical PCUs. Two PCU PIUs in each BCSU.

BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC PCU2-E for BSC3i 660.Requirements for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description SGSN ETs Abis ETs Packets in TRAU frames 4 Mbit/s internal PCM 256 channels PCU GSWB Gb Packets in FR ET FR: bearer channel + optional load sharing redundant bearer (2 Mbit/s) DMC bus Figure 15 PCU connections to BTS and SGSN when Frame Relay is used See Enabling GPRS in BSC for instructions on how to equip and connect the PCU. an introduction for more information on the plug-in unit hardware. There are three PCU2 plug-in unit variants: • • • PCU2-U for BSCi and BSC2i PCU2-D for BSC3i 660. PCU1 does not support CS–3 & CS–4. High Multislot Classes (HMC) or Dual Transfer Mode (DTM). In the PCU2-D or PCU2-U. The PCU2-D or PCU2-U can allocate the SMCHs to both PCUPCMs 0 and 1. Support for PCU2 PCU2 is a high capacity embedded plug-in unit that provides additional processing power and extended functionality from BSS11. there is one synchronisation master channel (SMCH) for every DSP. In the PCU1s. The maximum number of 16 kbit/s channels per PCU1 is 256. BSC3i 1000. one DSP core can handle 0 to 20 channels (16 kbit/s). Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA). one DSP core can connect 0 to 32 GPRS channels (16 kbit/s). BSC3i 1000. PCU1 and PCU1-S can handle 128 radio timeslots. and PCU-B. The maximum number of 16 kbit/s channels per PCU2 is 256. BSC3i 2000 and Flexi BSC Internal PCU1 restrictions • • • In one logical PCU1 there are 16 digital signal processor (DSP) cores. In PCU2-D or PCU2-U.5 onwards. 72 Id:0900d80580590b54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . This issue should be taken into account in PCU dimensioning. Second Generation PCUs have an enhanced design architecture that enable the network to meet the real time traffic requirements of new services and provide means to new enhanced functionality (GERAN) beyond GPRS and EGPRS. the supported maximum number of GPRS channels is 128. • Internal PCU2-U and PCU2-D restrictions • • • In one logical PCU2-D or PCU2-U there are 8 digital signal processor (DSP) cores.

• • Common restrictions for both PCU1 and PCU2 • EDAP resource usage in a PCU dynamically reserves the DSP resources in the PCU. One EDAP cannot be divided between several DSPs but one DSP can have a maximum of 10 EDAPs.2 Gb interface functionality The Gb interface is an open interface between the BSC and the SGSN. The interface consists of the Physical Layer. In Flexi BSC.E. the PCU DSP resource capacity used for the EDAPs decreases. one DSP core can handle up to 212 channels (16 kbit/s). but their functions are discussed in more detail in Gb interface configuration and state management. This may lead to a situation where the desired CS cannot be assigned to the TBFs. see Gb over IP. the TBFs can adjust the DL data according to limited Dynamic Abis capacity. Not more than 204 EDAP channels can be configured in one PCU1. Not more than 816 EDAP channels can be configured in one PCU2. the maximum number of Abis channels per PCU2-E is 1024. BSC3i 1000. When GPRS calls (TBFs) in EGPRS territory use EDAP resources. and BSC3i 2000. • • • 5. EGPRS channels. In DL direction. and the Base Station Subsystem GPRS Protocol (BSSGP).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Requirements for GPRS Internal PCU2-E restrictions • In the PCU2-E. including active EDAP channels. In UL direction. When new packet switched radio timeslots are added/upgraded to the PCU. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b54 73 . This is because there must also be space for at least one EGPRS channel for every four EDAP channels (51 EGPRS channels + 204 EDAP channels = 255 Abis channels). PCU2-U or PCU2-D. for example if adequate UL Dynamic Abis resources cannot be allocated. The Sub-network Service uses either Frame Relay or UDP/IP based protocol. and GPRS channels. the PCU DSP resource load situation may cause a situation in which the UL transmission turns cannot be assigned for the MSS. This is because there must also be space for at least one EGPRS channel for every four EDAP channels (204 EGPRS channels + 816 EDAP channels = 1020 Abis channels). The EDAP size itself also limits the CS usage for both DL and UL TBFs. For more information on Gb over IP. The layers are briefly described here. Network Service layer (NS). The maximum number of Abis channels per PCU2. The Network Service layer further divides into Sub-network Service and Network Service Control. PCU2-E has 6 DSP cores. allocation of the new packet switched radio timeslots to the PCU may fail due to the current EDAP and DSP resource load.E is 512 in BSC3i 660.

and flow control support. The PCUs cannot be multiplexed to use a common bearer. 74 Id:0900d80580590b54 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . or an intermediate Frame Relay network may be placed between both ends of the Gb interface. one PCU can have up to four Frame Relay Bearer channels that are routed to the SGSN through different transmission paths. For load sharing and transmission security reasons. BSSGP virtual connection (BVC) management. The Network Service Control is responsible for the following tasks: • • • • • • • • NS protocol encoding and decoding NS data transfer NS Service Data Unit (NS SDU) transmission uplink congestion control on Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC) load sharing between NS-VCs NS-VC state management GPRS-specific addressing. which maps cells to virtual connections Network Service Virtual Link (NS-VL) management The Frame Relay protocols provide a link layer access between the peer entities.Requirements for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description LLC RELAY RLC MAC BSSGP NS L1 BSSGP NS L1 BSS NS Gb SGSN Network Service Control / Network Service Control protocol Sub-Network Service Control / Sub-Network Service Control protocol Figure 16 Protocol stack of the Gb interface The BSSGP protocol functions are BSSGP protocol encoding and decoding. paging support. In Frame Relay. the physical link is provided by the Frame Relay Bearer channels. In the BSC this physical connection is a maximum of one 2 Mbit/s PCM for each active PCU. Frame Relay offers permanent virtual circuits (PVC) to transfer GPRS signalling and data between the BSC and SGSN. In the case of an intermediate Frame Relay network. BSSGP data transfer. both BSS and SGSN are treated as the user side of the user-to-network interface. This means that the GPRS traffic from one PCU can be shared with a maximum of four physical PCM connections. The Gb interface may consist of direct point-to-point connections between the BSS and the SGSN.

DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b54 75 . On PCU2-E.3 Additional GPRS hardware needed in BSCi and BSC2i GSWB extension (optional) The PCU requires a GSWB extension (2 per BSC) for multiplexing the 256 Abis subtimeslots. the maximum combined Bearer Channel Access Rate is 4 x 2048 kbit/s. The Committed Information Rate of Network Service Virtual Connections can be configured from 16 kbit/s up to the Access Rate of the Bearer channel in 16 kbit/s steps. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. The step size is 64 kbit/s. This can be achieved by combining the different PCMs so that 32 subtimeslots are available for traffic. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). see Enabling GPRS in BSC. unless Multipoint Gb and Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling are used. For more information on configuring and handling the Gb interface. in BSCi from 56 to 88 and in BSC2i from 80 to 144. BSC BCSU 0 PCU FR GSWB PCM-TSL ET bearer channel ID=1 name=BSC1 time slots:1-31 access rate:1984 kbit/s SGSN Figure 17 Gb interface between the BSC and SGSN when Frame Relay (FR) is used For more information on the NS and BSSGP protocols. 5.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Requirements for GPRS The maximum combined Bearer Channel Access Rate is 2048 kbit/s within a PCU. Network Service Protocol (NS) and BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. The second PCU plug-in unit for the BSC requires an extension of the GSWB with a third SW64B plug-in unit. Frame Relay Bearer Channel Handling. ET5C cartridge (optional) Additional ET5C cartridges are optional. They are needed to increase the amount of external PCMs. The additional PCMs may be used for Gb over Frame Relay. In the Nokia Siemens Networks implementation each PCU represents only one Network Service Entity (NSE). (FU) and Frame Relay Parameter Handling (FN). This can be achieved by combining the different PCMs so that 4 groups of 32 subtimeslots are available for traffic.

MNC. Routing Areas are used in the PCU selection algorithm which selects a serving PCU for the cell when the operator enables the GPRS traffic in the cell. the user builds the Gb interface in two phases: first the Frame Relay bearer channels are created. 6. In the case of Frame Relay.1 Routing Area Mobility management in the GPRS network is handled in a similar way to the existing GSM system. As Routing Areas are served by SGSNs. The Routing Area is unique within a Location Area. When creating a Routing Area the user identifies the obligatory parameters mobile country code (MCC). One Routing Area is served by one SGSN. before configuring the BSC side. over the whole Location Area/Routing Area. the user needs to create the Routing Area. and routing area code (RAC). One or more cells form a Routing Area (RA). See Activating and testing BSS9006: GPRS for detailed instructions. The MCC. mobile network code (MNC). LAC and RAC parameters constitute the routing area identification (RAI): RAI = MCC+MNC+LAC+RAC The Routing Area and the BTS are linked logically together by the RAI. Routing Areas are created in the BSS Radio Network Configuration Database (BSDATA). PCU 2 RA 2 BTS BTS SGSN PCU 1 RA 1 PCU 0 BTS BTS BTS RA n BTS BTS BSC LA Figure 18 Relationship of Routing Areas and PCUs Optimal Routing Area size Paging signalling to mobiles is sent.Radio network management for GPRS BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 6 Radio network management for GPRS For Radio Network Configuration Management the preconditions are that the PCU and Gb interface have been created and configured. Before enabling GPRS on a cell level. it is important to keep in mind the network configuration plan and what has been defined in the SGSN. then the NS layer. An optimal Routing Area (RA) is balanced between paging channel load and 76 Id:0900d80580590b57 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . for example. location area code (LAC). which is a subset of one Location Area (LA).

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Radio network management for GPRS

Routing Area updates. Refer to GPRS radio connection control for more information on paging. If the Routing Area size is too large, paging channels and capacity will be saturated due to limited LAPD, Abis or radio interface CCCH paging capacity. On the other hand, with a small Routing Area there will be a larger number of Routing Area updates. Paging channel capacity is shared between the paging of the existing GSM users to the Location Areas (LA) and the GPRS users to the Routing Area. Based on the traffic behaviour of subscribers and the performance of the network (in terms of paging success), it is possible to derive guidelines regarding the maximum number of subscribers per LA/RA. The Routing Area dimensioning is similar to the dimensioning of the Location Area of the existing GSM service. Routing Area dimensioning balances paging traffic from subscribers and the paging capacity offered by a given paging channel configuration. The number of pages that are sent by the BTS within an LA/RA indicates the number of mobile terminating calls that are being sent to subscribers in the LA/RA. The paging demand thus depends on three factors: • • • the number of mobile terminating calls the number of subscribers in the LA/RA paging parameters defined by the operator in the SGSN.

The higher the number of mobile terminating sessions for subscribers in the Routing Area, the higher the number of pages that have to be sent by the BTS in the Routing Area. The success of paging, that is the number of times that a paging message has to be resent before it is answered, also has a profound effect on paging traffic. Paging traffic can thus be observed by means of: • • • the number of pages per second per user the number of subscribers the paging success ratio.

The Nokia Siemens Networks infrastructure allows a combined Routing Area and Location Area paging by implementing the Gs interface between the SGSN and MSC/HLR. An attached GPRS mobile must send a Routing Area Update to the SGSN each time it changes Routing Area. The SGSN then forwards the relevant location area update information to the MSC reducing the RACH and AGCH load. The conclusion is that the signalling load is highly dependent on the parameters. In the same LA/RA, the paging load should be monitored.

☞ The smallest cell in the LA/RA will set the paging channel limit where combined
channel structure is in use. Combined channel structure is possible if the cell is GPRS enabled (Routing Area exists).

6.2

PCU selection algorithm
The PCU selection algorithm in the BSC distributes GPRS traffic capacity between PCUs. Traffic is distributed on a cell level when the user enables GPRS in the cell. The algorithm then selects which PCU takes care of the traffic of a certain cell. When GPRS is enabled, each cell is situated in a Routing Area. In the Radio Network, each Routing Area has its own object, to which the user defines the Network Service Entity Identifiers (NSEI) serving the Routing Area. The NSEIs are further discussed in

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Radio network management for GPRS

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

Gb interface configuration and state management. The Nokia Siemens Networks implementation is such that one PCU corresponds to one NSEI (unless Multipoint Gb and Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling are used), and thus it can be said that the function of the PCU selection algorithm is to distribute GPRS traffic capacity between these NSEIs. The algorithm locates the cells (BVCIs) in the same BCF to the same NSEI. The algorithm also tries to locate the cells which have adjacencies between each other to the same NSEI. If there are no NSEIs with the same BCF or with adjacencies then the algorithm selects the NSEI to which the smallest number of GPRS capable traffic channels, defined with the parameter max GPRS capacity (CMAX), is attached. Traffic channels are counted on TRXs which are GPRS enabled but not extended or superreuse TRXs. Only unlocked NSEIs are selected. The NSEI is unlocked when it has at least one of its NS-VCs unlocked. If a Dynamic Abis Pool is defined for a TRX in a cell and when GPRS is enabled for the cell, the same NSEI (PCU) is selected for the cell as for the Dynamic Abis Pool. In this case the PCU selection algorithm is not used. The operator can choose whether the selected NSEI uses IP or FR transport with the parameter transport type (TRAT). The parameter cannot be used with manual NSEI selection. If no transport type is specified the default is that neither IP nor FR is preferred in the PCU selection algorithm. The NSEIs can also be selected manually. If manual selection is used the PCU selection algorithm is not used. For more information on manual selection refer to Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS and Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC (EQ). For information on the PCU selection algorithm when Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling is used, see chapter Functionality of Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling in Packet Control Unit (PCU2) Pooling under Feature descriptions/Data in the PDF view.

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Gb interface configuration and state management

7 Gb interface configuration and state management
The BSC has the following functions in connection with the Gb interface: • • • • • load sharing NS-VC management NS-VL management (IP) BVC management recovery.

Only Gb over Frame Relay is covered in these guidelines. For information on Gb over IP, see Gb over IP in BSC. For information on Multipoint Gb Interface, see Multipoint Gb Interface under Feature descriptions/Data in the PDF view.

7.1

Protocol stack of the Gb interface
The Gb interface has a protocol stack consisting of three layers: Physical Layer, Network Service Layer (NS) and the Base Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). The Network Service Layer further divides into Sub-network Service and Network Service Control. The Sub-network Service uses either Frame Relay or UDP/IP protocol.

LLC RELAY RLC MAC BSSGP NS L1 BSSGP NS L1

BSS
NS

Gb

SGSN

Network Service Control / Network Service Control protocol Sub-Network Service Control / Sub-Network Service Control protocol

Figure 19

The protocol stack on the Gb interface

Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC) NS-VCs are end-to-end virtual connections between the BSS and SGSN. The physical link in the Gb interface is the Frame Relay Bearer channel or UDP/IP connection. In the case of Frame Relay, an NS-VC is the permanent virtual connection (PVC) and corresponds to the Frame Relay DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier) together with

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The reorganisation may disturb the order of transmitted SDUs. there is a one-toone correspondence between a group of NS-VCs and an NSEI. 7. The NSEI has an endto-end significance across the Gb interface at NS level. At each side of the Gb interface. LSP has only local significance at each end of the Gb interface. Each NS-VC is identified by means of a Network Service Virtual Connection Identifier (NS-VCI). Network Service Virtual Connection Group According to the 3GPP standard (TS48. All other values can be used for cell identifiers. Link Selector Parameter (LSP) All BSSGP UNITDATA PDUs related to an MS are passed to NS with the same LSP. Each BVC is unique between two peer NSs. since the LSP is always mapped to a certain NS-VC. All the NS SDUs of an MS have the same LSP. One NS-VC group is configured between two peer NS entities. This preserves the order of BSSGP UNITDATA PDUs. The use of load sharing also provides the upper layer with seamless service upon failure or user intervention by reorganising the SDU traffic between the unblocked NS-VCs. The NSEI has an endto-end significance across the Gb interface.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description the Bearer channel identifier. Frame Relay Permanent Virtual Connection (PVC) See Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC). the Network Service Virtual Connection Group groups together all NS-VCs providing communication between the same peer NS entities. Each BVC is supported by one NSE and it is used to transport Network Service Service Data Units (NS SDUs) between peer NS users. BSSGP Virtual Connection (BVC) BVCs are communication paths between peer NS user entities on the BSSGP level. Each BVC is identified by means of a BVCI which has end-to-end significance across the Gb interface. Network Service Entity (NSE) NSE identifies a group of NS-VCs in the BSC.2 Load sharing function The BSC's load sharing function distributes all uplink Network Service Service Data Units (NS SDUs) among the unblocked NS-VCs within the NSE on the Gb interface. At each side of the Gb interface. The NSEI is used to identify the Network Service Entity that provides service to a BSSGP Virtual connection (BVC). 80 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The BVCI value 0000H is used for signalling and the value 0001H is reserved for point-to-multipoint (PTM). When creating the NS-VC the operator gives a CIR value (bit/s). PTM is not supported. One NSE is configured between two peer NSs. All NS SDUs to be transmitted over the Gb interface towards the SGSN are passed from BSSGP to NS along with the Link Selector Parameter (LSP).016). there is a one-toone correspondence between a group of NS-VCs and an NSEI. One NSE per PCU is supported and within one NSE a maximum of four NS-VCs are supported. This grouping is performed by administrative means. Within BSS the user identifies a cell uniquely by a BVCI. but only local significance at the BSSGP level.

informs peer NSs. Only one substate (BL-US. Refer to NS-VC reset for more information. the cause sent to SGSN is 'Transit network failure'.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management However. the BSC raises the alarm NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION TEST PROCEDURE FAILED (3025) and blocks the NS-VC towards the SGSN through any 'live' NS-VC within the NSE. The NS may be reset only when using Frame Relay. The BL-RC state does not override any other blocking state. State Unblocked (WO-EX Available) Blocked Possible substates – BL-US (unavailable by user) BL-SY (unavailable by system) BL-RC (unavailable by remote user) Table 31 NS-VC operational states NS-VC blocking When an NS-VC is unavailable for BSSGP traffic. and reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. NS-VC management procedures can be triggered by both the BSC and the SGSN. the cause sent to SGSN is 'Transit network failure'. operational state is BL-SY During user block the BSC marks the NS-VC as user blocked. and testing of NS-VCs. An exception is when the NS-VC is in the BL-SY state and SGSN initiates an NS-RESET. unblocking. If the NS-VC is user DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 81 . BL-SY or BL-RC) is valid at a time when an NS-VC is blocked.3 NS-VC management function The Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC) management function is responsible for the blocking. blocked or unblocked. The BL-US state overrides both the BL-SY and BL-RC states. so it is only possible when the NS-VC is unblocked. operational state is BL-US. otherwise the NS-VC is marked as user blocked and the block procedure is skipped. thus making it unavailable for BSSGP traffic. The BSC blocks an NS-VC when: • • • the user locks the NS-VC. 7. After NS-VC test failure the NS-VC is marked as system blocked. SGSN distributes downlink NS SDUs. The BSC cancels any pending NS-VC management procedure and related alarm. NS SDUs with the same LSP are sent on the same NS-VC. Therefore. The BL-SY state overrides the BL-RC state. the cause sent to SGSN is 'O & M intervention'. BSSGP traffic is reorganised to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. the NS-VC is marked as blocked by the BSC and the peer NS is informed by means of the blocking procedure. The load sharing functions of the BSC and SGSN are independent. User-triggered blocking is started only when the PVC or the bearer is available. uplink and downlink NS SDUs may be transferred over different NS-VCs. resetting. The BSC also initiates the NS-VC reset procedure. several MSS may use the same LSP. an NS-VC test fails. operational state is BL-SY Frame Relay detects unavailability of a bearer or PVC.

the BSC marks the NS-VC as remote blocked. and sends no block to the SGSN. NS-VC unblocking When the NS-VC becomes available again for BSSGP traffic. If the NS-VC reset procedure fails after all the retries. the BSC actions are the same but it also stops a possible ongoing reset procedure. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNBLOCK PROCEDURE FAILED (3021) alarm and marks the NS-VC unblock as pending until NS-VC unblock can be performed and the alarm is cancelled by the BSC. the test procedure is continued. 82 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . system or remote blocked. if the blocked NS-VC is the last one in the NSE. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm for the blocked NS-VC(s) and reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description blocked while reset is attempted. If the NS-VC is already user blocked. no alarm is set. If the NS-VC(s) is already user blocked. the related NS-VC(s) is marked as system blocked and the BSC blocks it towards the SGSN through any 'live' NS-VC within the NSE. New BSSGP traffic now uses this new NS link (refer to Load sharing function). or related BVCs are implicitly blocked. After a successful reset. The BSC unblocks an NS-VC after: • • user unlocks the NS-VC thus making it available for BSSGP traffic. reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE and sets the alarm NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020). If the NS-VC is user. the system initiates a NS-VC reset. and the BSC sends System Information messages to relevant cells indicating that GPRS is disabled. blocked or unblocked. the peer NS is informed by means of the unblocking procedure. then the BSC does not change the NS-VC state and acknowledges the received block back to the SGSN. the BSC does not change the NS-VC state. During an SGSN-initiated block. otherwise the BSC marks the NS-VC as system blocked and skips the unblock procedure. system or remote blocked. does not set an alarm. but instead stops the NS-VC(s) test. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE (3019) alarm when PVC/bearers are unavailable. when the unavailability of a PVC or bearer is detected. The BSC cancels the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION TEST PROCEDURE FAILED (3025) alarm after the next successful test procedure on the NS-VC. During user unblock the BSC informs the peer NS and marks the NS-VC as unblocked after receiving an acknowledgement from the peer NS. After the BSC detects the unavailability of a PVC or a bearer. If the NS-VC(s) is already system blocked. and does not send a block to the SGSN. but instead initiates the NS-VC reset procedure. it sets no alarms. the user block is accepted and the state of the NS-VC is user blocked. the reset is stopped. it means that all BSSGP traffic to/from PCU-managed cells stops on the Gb interface. the BSC does not change the state of the NS-VC(s). if the NS-VC is not user. after which the NS-VC is marked as unblocked by the BSC. for example after a test failed NS-VC is reset or after a reset of a NS-VC whose bearer is resumed as available for NS level. User triggered unblocking starts only when the PVC or the bearer is available. the SGSN initiates the block. In all the above cases.

the BSC marks the NS-VC as remote blocked and sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm if the NS-VC is not user or remote blocked. then the BSC acknowledges the received PDU back to the SGSN and it is interpreted as an acknowledgement for the sent NS-UNBLOCK PDU.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management During system unblock the BSC cancels the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm. If the NS-VC is user or remote blocked. and sets the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED (3023) alarm. If the NS-VC is system blocked with no BSC initiated unblock procedure on. modifies or unlocks an NS-VC System or BCSU restarts Periodic NS-VC test fails Frame Relay detects an unavailability of a bearer Cause sent to the SGSN O & M intervention Equipment failure (see BCSU restart) Transit network failure Transit network failure Table 32 NS-VC reset cases During a reset triggered by user unblock. The NS-VC remains system blocked and the BSC initiates the NS-VC reset procedure by returning an NS-RESET PDU to the SGSN with the cause "PDU not compatible with the protocol state". During SGSN initiated unblock. The BSC does not start system initiated unblock if the NS-VC is user blocked. and cancels the NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE (3019) alarm in cases of system unblock and SGSN initiated unblock. if the unblocked NS-VC is the first one in the NSE. then the BSC is not able to unblock the NS-VC. The BSC starts a reset triggered by user unblock only when the PVC or the bearer is available. If the NS-VC is system blocked with a BSC initiated unblock procedure on. Network Service Protocol (NS). informs the peer NS. and reorganises BSSGP traffic to use other unblocked NS-VCs of the NSE. This NS-BLOCK PDU is sent on the NS-VC where the NSUNBLOCK PDU was received. After a completed reset procedure. The BSC sets the NS-VC reset as pending until the NS-VC reset can be performed and then cancels the alarm. In all of the above cases. NS-VC reset The NS-VC reset procedure is used to reset an NS-VC to a determined state between peer NSs. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. During an SGSN-initiated reset. it means that BSSGP traffic to/from PCU-managed cells can start again on the Gb interface. then the BSC is not able to unblock the NS-VC. otherwise it marks the NS-VC as system blocked. For more information. If the NS-VC is user blocked. Case where the BSC resets an NS-VC The user sets up. skips the reset procedure. the BSC starts a test procedure (periodic testing) and after successful testing unblocks the NS-VC. and the BSC sends System Information messages to relevant cells indicating that GPRS is enabled. The BSC triggers the BVC reset procedure for signalling BVC and cell-specific BVCs. then the DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 83 . the BSC marks the NS-VC as unblocked and cancels the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION UNAVAILABLE (3020) alarm if the NS-VC is not user or system blocked. the BSC marks the NS-VC as system blocked. The NS-VC remains user blocked and the BSC initiates the NS-VC blocking procedure by returning an NS-BLOCK PDU to the SGSN with the cause "O & M intervention".

then the received NS-RESET is interpreted as an acknowledgement and the BSC acknowledges it back to the SGSN and initiates the test procedure. Both sides of the Gb interface may initiate the NS-VC test independently from each other. For more information. the NS-VC is said to be 'live'. then the BSC changes the NS-VC state to remote blocked (to get the NS-VC up during SGSN initiated NS-VC unblock).4 BVC management function The BVC management function is responsible for the blocking. acknowledges the received reset back to the SGSN. The user can output the BVC operational state with the command EQO. Table 33 BVC operational states 84 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . if the blocked NS-VC is the last one in the NSE. and initiates the test procedure. Network Service Protocol (NS). In all the above cases. If the NS-VC is system blocked. but acknowledges the received reset back to SGSN and initiates the test procedure. Network Service Protocol (NS). and is then periodically repeated. The test procedure runs on unblocked NS-VCs and also on user blocked and remote blocked NS-VCs. and the BSC sends System Information messages to relevant cells indicating that GPRS is disabled. If the NS-VC reset is stopped. unblocking and reset of BVCs. Operational state WO-EX Explanation The BVC is operational. otherwise it is 'dead'. The test procedure is stopped when the underlying bearer or PVC is unavailable. but BVC blocking and unblocking procedures can only be triggered by the BSC. instead it is always marked as blocked and a reset procedure is initiated.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description BSC does not change the state. This procedure is initiated after successful completion of the reset procedure. The possible states are shown in the table below. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. The user can define the test procedure with the PRFILE parameter TNS_TEST. 7. then the action depends on whether the NS-VC reset is ongoing or not. it means that all BSSGP traffic to/from PCU-managed cells stops on the Gb interface. except after NS-VC reset. The BSC sets the NETWORK SERVICE ENTITY UNAVAILABLE (3019) alarm in a SGSN initiated reset and blocks the related BVCs implicitly. The BVC reset procedure can be triggered by both the BSC and the SGSN. NS-VC test The NS-VC test procedure is used when the BSC checks that end-to-end communication exists between peer NSs on a given NS-VC. If the NS-VC reset is ongoing. A 'dead' NS-VC cannot be in the unblocked state. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. When end-to-end communication exists. For more information. but not on system blocked NS-VCs.

No indication is sent to the SGSN. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 85 . BTS or BCF) is blocked so that the cell does not have GPRS capability. This situation can be resolved by disabling. related BVCs are locally blocked by the BSC. The BSC then unblocks the BVC with the BVC-UNBLOCK PDU. Table 33 BVC operational states (Cont. The BSC blocks a BVC after: Case where the BSC blocks a BVC Cause sent to the SGSN O & M intervention A user disables GPRS in a cell. SGSN initiates a BVC-RESET procedure (if necessary). The NSE is not functional. and the reenabling GPRS in the cell. BVC reset A BVC reset is initiated by the BSC to bring GPRS data into use in a BVC.) BVC blocking and unblocking BVC blocking is initiated by the BSC to remove a BVC from GPRS data use. A cell level fault. In the latter case the user should check the status of the PCU. For more information. or the cell has no GPRS TSLs. BVC reset is used instead of BVC unblock because of the dynamic configuration of BVCs in the SGSN. but the BVC's flow control is not yet operational. for example at the beginning of site reset. BVCI-blocked Equipment failure Table 34 BVC blocking cases BVC unblocking is used only in an exceptional condition when the BSC receives an unexpected BVC-BLOCK-ACK PDU relating to a BVC that is locally unblocked. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). unblocked Either GPRS has been enabled in the cell and the BVC has been created in the SGSN. or the PCU does not report the state of the BVC within the time limit because of some fault situation. or by executing BCSU switchover. blocks the BCCH TRX in a cell or deletes a BVC by disabling GPRS in a cell. or the configuration has been lost from the PCU. A user or system block of the last NS-VC of the NSE serving the BVC. BTS reset or TRX reset. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management Operational state BL-SY Explanation Unavailable by system. BVC conf lost unknown The enquired BVCI is outside the allowed value range. or a radio network object (a TRX. disables the last GPRS-supporting TRX in a cell. The BVC has not been configured for the PCU.

For more information. see BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. or creates a BVC by enabling GPRS in a cell. The PCU sets others as pending and raises the NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED (3023) alarm for each NS-VC. Diagnostics is run automatically. 7. after BCSU switchover (either user or system initiated). Spontaneous indications come from the SGSN to the BSC's PCU on Frame Relay level about bearer channel availability for NS-VCs. also downlink BSSGP data delivery is possible on that BVC. and cancels the alarm. BCSU restart If the Gb interface uses Frame Relay.5 Recovery in restart and switchover In a recovery situation the BCSU and PCU are always handled together as a pair. enables the first GPRS. and after successful tests unblocks all tested NS-VCs. then all BVCs are created after cell-specific block indications. deblocks the BCCH TRX in a cell. After successful BVC reset the uplink BSSGP data delivery is possible on that BVC. The BSC cancels the alarm after the next successful BVC block.O & M intervention supporting TRX in a cell. skips the BVC reset procedure. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). the BSC recreates the Gb interface on the target PCU right after Frame Relay 86 Id:0900d80580590b5a DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . BCSU switchover If the Gb interface uses Frame Relay. otherwise the BSC marks the BVC as unblocked in order to get the BVC up and running when the NS-level becomes available again. The reset procedure is completed when the PCU receives a suitable DLCI from the network. then the rest). A user or system unblock of the first NS-VC of the NSE serving the BVC (signalling BVC is reset first. but the operator may also start the diagnostics routine if needed. after user or system initiated BCSU restart. unblock or reset. Flow control is discussed in more detail in GPRS radio connection control. and resets the signalling BVC. and sets the BSSGP VIRTUAL CONNECTION RESET PROCEDURE FAILED (3031) alarm. First all NS-VCs are created. BTS or TRX reset. when the restarted object is working Network service transmission capacity modified from zero kbit/s to greater than zero kbit/s Equipment failure Table 35 BVC reset cases With the BVC reset the underlying network service must be available for use. for example after site.Gb interface configuration and state management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Case where BSC resets a BVC Cause sent to the SGSN A user enables GPRS in a cell. The PCU then initiates the test procedure on the successfully reset NS-VCs. The PCU starts Frame Relay level periodic polling towards the SGSN. the BSC recreates the Gb interface on the restarted PCU right after Frame Relay level setup. The NS-VCs which have received DLCIs from the network are reset when the bearer channel is available. After an initial flow control procedure for the BVCs. A cell restart. The diagnostics of the PCU is included in the diagnostics of the BCSU. The PCU maintains only user blocked information of NS-VCs.

☞ Only GPRS data connections that are connected to the PCU are released. If a PCU gets faulty the system may initiate the BCSU switchover. After the switchover — whether user or system initiated — the BSC unblocks TRXs and delivers new territory to the PCU. The Gb interface configuration is from the source PCU and the setting up of the Gb interface is similar to what was described in section BCSU restart. If the switchover is cancelled for some reason.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Gb interface configuration and state management level set-up. The BSC allows new GPRS connection setups in the old working PCU again. the PCU sees the data as lost and thus releases all its PCU PCM connections and unblocks its BTSs. After an unsuccessful switchover the PCU uses the same GPRS territory as it had before the switchover. In a successful switchover. Forced BCSU switchover The operation in a forced BCSU switchover is very similar to the operation in a BCSU restart. The system cancels the switchover command if the execution would lead to a situation where some of the circuit switched calls would drop. All GPRS data connections will drop after the PCU PCM connections are released. The BSC does not send NS level blocks from the source PCU in order not to interrupt the BVC configurations of the SGSN. the original working PCU is restored back to the working state. At the end of the switchover the spare PCU is restarted regardless of the switchover being successful or not. the original working BCSU is restored back to the working state. If the switchover is cancelled. The user defines between which BCSUs the switchover is made. The PCU releases all PCU PCM connections related to the restarted PCU. the BSC moves the control of the working BCSU/PCU pair to the spare BCSU/PCU pair as in the forced switchover. but data is copied only from the working BCSU to the spare BCSU. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5a 87 . and the BSC resumes GPRS territory updatings. The BSC resets the new spare PCU to the working state. Controlled BCSU switchover A controlled BCSU switchover is either a user or a system initiated action. Because GPRS data is not copied to the PCU. and defines its new GPRS territory.

The radio resource management function which is responsible for the CS/PS territory management also takes care of traffic channel allocation for circuit switched calls.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 8 Radio resource management GPRS radio resource management in BSC involves two processes: division of radio timeslots between circuit switched and packet switched timeslot territories on the one hand. and channel allocation for individual MSS within the PS territory on the other hand. Uplink and downlink scheduling processes are independent of each other. These procedures are explained in detail in the sections below. To enable GPRS traffic in a cell.1 Territory method The BSC divides radio resources semipermanently between circuit switched services and GPRS. and for downlink up to nine GPRS TBFs can share the resources of a single radio timeslot. The BSC can later broaden the GPRS territory based on the actual need and according to the requests of the PCU. This is referred to as the default GPRS capacity. Only after the BSC has an update on the BTS parameters and other parameters indicating GPRS usage. does it count the number of default and dedicated GPRS timeslots in the BTS and select a TRX where it starts to establish the GPRS territory. Division of radio timeslots into territories means that BSC selects the radio timeslots that shall be used primarily for packet data traffic and which shall therefore be avoided in traffic channel allocation for circuit switched services. and to initiate the creation of the necessary PS territory. The BSC can upgrade or downgrade the number of radio resources allocated for GPRS use according to the varying needs of the circuit switched and GPRS traffic. 8. thus forming two territories. GPRS has a predefined set of resources which it can utilise when the circuit switched load allows. GPRS releases its resources as soon as they are needed for circuit switched traffic. the operator has to first activate GPRS in the BSC with the cell-specific parameter GPRS enabled (GENA) and define which TRXs are capable of GPRS with the parameter GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX). Only Full Rate and Dual Rate traffic channels are GPRS compatible. During channel allocation for individual MSS PCU assigns PS territory timeslots for GPRS TBFs. PCU has its own radio channel allocation that takes care of allocating channels for GPRS TBFs. Up to seven uplink GPRS TBFs can share the resources of a single radio timeslot. The PCU uses the GPRS territory resources. and within a cell only such channels may be configured into the PS territory. GPRS capacity can be divided into three types: • • • default GPRS capacity dedicated GPRS capacity additional GPRS capacity. In principle. The initial territories are formed on a BTS-to-BTS basis according to the operatordefined parameters. Part of these default traffic channels can be reserved solely for GPRS and this means they are blocked altogether 88 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The circuit switched services have priority over GPRS in channel allocation within common resources.

Additional GPRS capacity is referred to with radio timeslots that are above and beyond the default GPRS capacity and that the BSC has allocated for GPRS use according to the requests of the PCU. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 89 . The user can modify these two capacities by using the respective parameters default GPRS capacity (CDEF) and dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED). The prefer BCCH frequency GPRS (BFG) parameter indicates if the BCCH-TRX is the first or the last choice for the GPRS territory or if it is handled equally with nonBCCH-TRXs. The GPRS timeslots are always allocated from TSL7 towards TSL0 per TRX. and the actual traffic situation in the TRX. max GPRS capacity (CMAX) parameter minimum value is 1 (range 1–100%). The super reuse TRXs (Intelligent Underlay Overlay) and the extended area TRXs (Extended Cell Range) are never included as available resources in the GPRS territory calculation. then the TRX containing permanent TCH/F timeslots is preferred to one with Dual Rate timeslots to avoid wasting Half Rate capability in the GPRS territory. then the territory size 1 is used default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter minimum value is 1. if possible. This is referred to as dedicated GPRS capacity. TRX type. If there are two or more TRXs that have the same number of idle successive Full Rate-capable timeslots. TRX configuration. The calculation is as follows: • • • • the product of default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter and the number of radio timeslots is rounded down to a whole number. There is a GPRS territory update guard time defining how often the PCU can request new radio timeslots for GPRS use. TRX 1 TRX 2 BCCH Circuit Switched Territory GPRS Territory Max GPRS Capacity Additional GPRS Capacity Dedicated GPRS Capacity Default GPRS Capacity Territory border moves based on Circuit Switched and GPRS traffic load Figure 20 Territory method in BSC The BSC calculates these defined resources from percentages to concrete numbers of radio timeslots based on the number of traffic channel radio timeslots (both blocked and working) capable of Full Rate traffic in the TRXs with GPRS enabled (set with the parameter GPRS enabled TRX (GTRX)).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management from circuit switched use. GPRS territory size can be restricted by the user-modifiable parameter max GPRS capacity (CMAX). TRXs with permanent TCH/H timeslots or multislot HSCSD calls are also avoided. The best candidate for GPRS territory according to the traffic load is the TCH TRX that holds the most idle successive Full Rate-capable (TCH/F or TCH/D) timeslots counted from the end of the TRX (timeslot 7). The BSC starts to create the GPRS territory by first selecting the most suitable TRXs in the BTS according to its GPRS capability. if default GPRS capacity (CDEF) parameter value is > 0 but the rounded product equals 0.

The number of timeslots given for GPRS use is defined by the operator with the parameters dedicated GPRS capacity (CDED). the PCU can request more resources for a GPRS territory upgrade based on the actual need caused by GPRS use. After the default capacity (which includes also the dedicated part) has been delivered. the BSC fulfils the defined GPRS capacity as soon as possible. The BSC performs upgrades of continuous sets of successive timeslots. the BSC selects a new TRX and starts to define the territory. although not as actual GPRS channels. the BSC next begins a GPRS territory upgrade procedure where it allocates the selected radio timeslots of the TRX for GPRS use and informs the PCU. default GPRS capacity (CDEF) and max GPRS capacity. The BSC starts a handover to move a non-transparent multislot HSCSD call. an intra cell handover is started. the HSCSD timeslots are left inside the GPRS territory. The BSC extends the GPRS territory on the other side of the timeslots reserved for the transparent HSCSD call. 90 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The BSC starts the GPRS territory upgrade procedure when the user enables GPRS in a BTS. GPRS territory upgrade The BSC uses a GPRS territory upgrade procedure to allocate part of the resources for GPRS use. the BSC includes in a GPRS territory upgrade the timeslots according to need and availability. All the defined timeslots cannot necessarily be delivered immediately due to the circuit switched traffic load of the BTS. However. even if the defined margin of idle timeslots is not met but there is at least one timeslot available. If the GPRS territory of a BTS needs more timeslots than one TRX can offer. Each GPRS territory upgrade concerns timeslots of one TRX. The aim of the handover is to move the circuit switched call to another timeslot and clear the timeslot for GPRS use (refer to the figure below). thus an upgrade is a TRXspecific procedure. the BSC starts a handover to be able to allocate dedicated GPRS channels. If the GPRS territory cannot be extended to its full size due to a timeslot being occupied by circuit switched traffic. For a transparent HSCSD call. Starting from the end of the first TRX in the GPRS territory.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Having defined the GPRS capacity share and having selected the best TRX for GPRS. When the user enables GPRS in a cell. The BSC then continues with the upgrading of the GPRS territory after the release of the source channel of the handover. but not for a transparent multislot HSCSD call.

The operator can modify the period with the BSC parameter CSU. When defining the margin. In the two-dimensional table the columns are for different amounts of available resources (TRXs) in the BTS. a two-dimensional table is used. it results in an increase in the timeslot share that should be provided for GPRS traffic. The rows indicate a selected time period (seconds) during which probability for an expected downgrade is no more than 5%. The default value for the period length is 4 seconds. the parameter defines how many traffic channel radio timeslots have to be left free after the GPRS territory upgrade. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 91 . previous GPRS territory change in the BTS has been completed sufficient margin of idle TCH/Fs in the BTS idle GPRS capable resources available in the BTS available capacity in the PCU controlling the BTS. When the user adds GPRS capable TRXs in a BTS. In fact. • • • • • • Other general conditions for a GPRS territory upgrade are: The margin of idle TCH/Fs that is required as a condition for starting a GPRS territory upgrade is defined by the BSC parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management B S C C C C C B = BCCH TSL S = SDCCH TSL C = Circuit Switched call C C C C C C C C C C C C Default GPRS capacity (d)= 20% Dedicated GPRS capacity (D) = 10% C C d d D D D = Circuit Switched territory GPRS territory upgrade = GPRS territory Figure 21 GPRS territory upgrade when a timeslot is cleared for GPRS use with an intra cell handover Situations leading to the starting of a GPRS territory upgrade are related to configuration and traffic channel resource changes. The BSC starts the GPRS territory upgrade procedure when: • • • • the user enables GPRS in a cell the user or BSC unblocks a GPRS enabled TRX thus enabling a pending GPRS territory upgrade the user or BSC unblocks a radio timeslot inside the GPRS territory enabling it to be included in the GPRS territory the BSC releases a circuit switched TCH/F causing the number of idle resources in the BTS to increase above a margin that is required before GPRS territory upgrade can be started the BSC releases a circuit switched TCH/F beside the GPRS territory border (as a consequence of handover) so that the pending GPRS territory upgrade can be performed the PCU requests a GPRS territory upgrade.

The BSC has not been able to add more radio channels to the territory within the informing delay of the alarm.5 after the allocation of 92 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . In the GPRS territory upgrade. a statistics counter is updated. the BSC simply does nothing but updates related statistics. There are three reasons for a GPRS territory upgrade request being rejected: lack of GPRS radio resources. circuit switched traffic load. if a GPRS territory contains less channels than could be allocated to a mobile according to its multislot class. The PCU will request additional channels. If two successive connection failures of a PCUDSP circuit with different Abis circuits occur. the BSC marks the PCUDSP channel as faulty and sets the alarm FAULTY PCUPCM TIMESLOTS IN PCU (3073). and the capacity limit of the PCU unit. which the PCU has to wait between successive requests for GPRS territory configuration updates. If an error occurs when connecting the PCUPCM circuit to the Abis circuit. The BSC obeys this guard time also when it performs GPRS territory upgrades to fulfil the operator-defined default GPRS territory.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description TRXs Time period: 0s 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10 s 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 10 0 11 0 12 0 13 0 14 0 15 0 16 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 2 3 3 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 2 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 3 4 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 3 4 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 3 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 3 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 Table 36 Defining the margin of idle TCH/Fs The user can define and modify with the parameter GPRS territory update guard time (GTUGT) the guard time. In case the PCU asks for several timeslots in one request and only a part of the requested resources are available. If the conditions required for a GPRS territory upgrade are not met at the time the PCU requests a GPRS territory upgrade. The BSC initiates a new GPRS territory upgrade after a guard period. the PCU selects a free circuit from the PCUPCM and the BSC connects it to an Abis circuit. the BSC cancels the upgrade and saves information on the detected fault. Additional GPRS territory upgrade The need for additional GPRS channels is checked when a new TBF is established or an existing TBF is terminated. Alarm GPRS/EDGE TERRITORY FAILURE (3273) is set if the GPRS territory size in the BTS is below the limit specified by the BTS specific radio network parameter default GPRS capacity (CDEF). or if the average number of TBFs per TSL is more than 1.

but the need for additional timeslots has ceased. a territory upgrade would be possible. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 93 . The PCU will first allocate one channel for the TBF and it will request for (at least) 2 more channels. One of the additional channels is taken into CS use. When the previously reserved channel is freed from the CS side. the TBF will be reallocated to utilise all channels. These additional channels will be requested only if all GPRS default channels are already in the GPRS territory.5). This means that the PCU has requested these timeslots for GPRS traffic in addition to the default capacity. and the downlink TBF is reallocated to these channels. for example when there is an increase in the circuit switched traffic load. Example: The GPRS territory consists of three channels (one default and two additional) and a mobile of multislot class 4 has a downlink TBF of three timeslots (performing ftp for example). as the mobile is capable of using 3 downlink channels. GPRS territory downgrade The BSC uses a GPRS territory downgrade procedure when it needs to reduce the share of timeslots in the GPRS territory. the territory is decreased to two channels. If the BSC cannot start a GPRS territory downgrade at the time the PCU requests it. • Example: The GPRS territory consists of one (default) channel and resources should be allocated for a downlink TBF of a multislot class 4 mobile. the PCU will have to request a downgrade again after the territory update guard time has expired. because the system only checks for need for upgrade when a new TBF is established. However. When the PCU receives this additional capacity. The BSC starts a GPRS territory downgrade procedure when • • • • • • the user disables GPRS in a cell the user or BSC blocks the TRX that is carrying GPRS traffic the user or BSC blocks the timeslot that is carrying GPRS traffic the user or BSC blocks circuit switched resources causing the number of idle resources in the BTS to decrease below the required margin the BSC allocates a traffic channel for circuit switched use causing the number of idle resources in the BTS to decrease below the required margin the PCU requests for a GPRS territory downgrade The PCU initiates a GPRS territory downgrade procedure for additional type GPRS radio timeslots. The number of additional channels the PCU will request is the greater of the following two numbers: • the number of additional channels needed in the allocation according to the MS's multislot class (this criterion is used only when the GPRS territory contains fewer channels than the MS is capable of using).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management the new TBF (average TBF/TSL>1. if the existing TBF is terminated and a new one is established or if the concurrent uplink TBF is terminated the need and possibility of the territory upgrade is re-evaluated. and the number of additional channels needed for the average number of allocated TBFs per TSL to be 1 (average TBF/TSL=1). but nothing happens (no upgrade of the territory). if the need for the downgrade still exists.

new circuit switched traffic channel requests may come before the GPRS territory downgrade procedure has been completed.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description The operator defines the margin of idle TCHs that the BSC tries to maintain free in a BTS for the incoming circuit switched resource requests using the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD).5). Default probability 95% can be changed through the free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD) parameter. % Additional GPRS territory downgrade Additional channels are taken into CS use whenever more channels are needed on the CS side. Another index of the table is the needed number of idle TCHs. a GPRS territory downgrade is started if possible. 8. 94 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The PCU will request the removal of additional channels. The definition of the margin involves a two-dimensional table. During a sudden burst of traffic channel requests. The need for additional GPRS channels is always checked when an existing TBF is terminated. the BSC may not be able to maintain the margin with the GPRS territory downgrade procedure and the circuit switched territory may run out of idle traffic channels. Depending on the size of the margin and on the amount of traffic on the BTS.5 (average TBF/TSL<0. If the number of idle TCH resources in the circuit switched territory of the BTS decreases below the defined margin.2 Circuit switched traffic channel allocation in GPRS territory The BSC maintains a safety margin of idle traffic channels for circuit switched traffic by starting a GPRS territory downgrade when the number of free traffic channels in the circuit switched territory of a BTS decreases below the limit defined by the parameter free TSL for CS downgrade (CSD). if the average TBFs per TSL is less than 0. Actual table items are percentage values indicating probability for TCH availability during a one-second downgrade operation with the selected resource criterion. One index of the table is the number of TRXs in the BTS. TRX s 1 TCH 94 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 99 100 2 84 98 99 100 3 76 96 99 4 69 93 99 5 63 91 98 99 6 58 87 97 99 7 54 85 96 99 8 50 82 94 98 99 9 48 79 93 98 99 10 45 77 92 97 99 11 43 74 90 97 99 12 41 72 89 96 99 13 40 70 87 95 98 99 14 38 68 86 94 98 99 15 37 66 84 94 98 99 16 35 64 83 93 97 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 100 Table 37 Defining the margin of idle TCHs.

A transparent HSCSD call can be allocated partly over the GPRS territory so that traffic channels for the call are allocated from both territories or the whole HSCSD call can be allocated over the GPRS territory. Load limit calculation The BSC parameter CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC) defines how the GPRS territory is seen when the load limits for CS TCH allocation are calculated. The BSC cannot allocate a traffic channel in the GPRS territory for circuit switched use. The BSC first releases the channel in GPRS use from the PCU and then activates it in the BTS for circuit switched use. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 95 . Value 0 of the parameter means that the default GPRS territory timeslots are preferred in CS traffic channel allocation. in the order presented. and the GPRS territory resources are seen as idle resources. Traffic channel queuing during GPRS territory upgrade does not require the normal queuing to be in use in the target BTS. the BSC can allocate a traffic channel for circuit switched use in the GPRS territory — if there is one not dedicated for GPRS. Value 0 of the parameter means that only the resources in the CS territory are taken into account in load calculations. This kind of queuing can be performed if the MSC allows it for the request. the RTSL-0 hopping group is searched. it defines whether the resources in the GPRS territory are seen as idle resources or as occupied resources. in every allocation and reallocation instance. If no free resources are available in the RTSL-0 hopping group. 8. If no free resources are available in the default GPRS territory. A non-transparent HSCSD call is placed inside the GPRS territory only in the case of total congestion of the CS territory.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management If the circuit switched territory becomes congested.3 BTS selection for packet traffic Channel allocation goes through all the following steps. the default GPRS territory is searched. After every step. Additionally. Baseband Hopping BTS The BSC parameter CS TCH allocate RTSL0 (CTR) defines the order of preference between the RTSL-0 hopping group and the default GPRS territory in CS TCH allocation. Value 1 of the parameter means that both the CS territory resources and the GPRS territory resources (excluding the dedicated GPRS timeslots) are taken into account. In that case the HSCSD call can have one or more TSLs depending on the HSCSD parameters of the BTS in question. Value 2 of the parameter means that both the CS territory resources and the GPRS territory resources (excluding the dedicated GPRS timeslots) are taken into account. if the radio timeslot in question is involved in a GPRS territory upgrade procedure that has not been completed yet. Multislot traffic channel allocation for an HSCSD call within the GPRS territory follows the same principles as for single slot requests. the list of valid BTSs is relayed to the next step and the BTSs that did not meet the requirements are discarded. In this case the circuit switched traffic channel request is put in queue to wait for the GPRS territory upgrade to finish. The use of the parameter free TSL for CS upgrade (CSU) aims at avoiding collisions between a GPRS territory upgrade and circuit switched requests. Value 1 of the parameter means that the RTSL-0 hopping group is preferred in CS traffic channel allocation. and the GPRS territory resources are seen as occupied resources.

NBL > GPU) • In reallocation case. the PCU uses the radio priority received from the MS. Qos. This is based on combinations of GPRS Delay class and GPRS Precedence class values. Higher priority users will get better service than lower priority users. in this case the PCU always uses the lowest priority. then the old serving BTS is discarded in the very beginning. or a PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK (PDAN) and this is used for UL QoS.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description BTS selection in a segment with more than one BTS 1. In the UL direction. • Reallocation based on signal level is triggered by: (RX_level (BCCH) . In UL reallocation. QoS). In PCU1 each TBF allocated to a timeslot has a so-called latest (timeslot-specific) service time. (RX_level (BCCH). If the reallocation was due to bad uplink RX level or triggered by Quality Control due to service quality degradation (see section Quality Control). Exception to this rule is GPRS one phase access on CCCH. Mobile Radio Access Capability (bands) 2. ETSI specifications define QoS functionality which gives the possibility to differentiate TBFs by delay.4 Quality of Service The concept of 'Priority Class' is introduced at system level. BTS throughput factor takes MS and BTS GPRS capability into account and the BTS providing highest relative throughput is selected. DIRE is used for ruling out some BTSs. This IE includes Precedence class information which indicates the priority of the PDU. Capability and throughput • PCU1 only: Mobile capability vs BTS capability . 5. In each scheduling round (performed every 20 ms).NBL < GPL) • In reallocation between different valid BTSs. if no BTS fullfilling (RX_level (BCCH) . the MS informs its radio priority in a PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST (PCR) or a PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST (PRR). Packets having higher 'Priority' are sent before packets having lower 'Priority'. Priority Based Scheduling is introduced as a first step towards QoS. throughput and priority. 8. NBL is used for comparing levels and ruling out BTSs. Signal Level • In case of initial allocation (DL signal level not known). • PCU2 only: Throughput (Penalty. BTS throughput factor). PCU1 only: Load (Penalty. Check maximum TBF/TSL in BTS 3. only the experienced service quality changes. There will be no extra blocking to any user. the old BTS is selected. In case of UL TBF.NBL > GPU) is found. The PCU receives the QoS profile information element in the DL unitdata. the uplink RX level of the TBF in the serving BTS is compared to GPL to check if the reallocation was triggered by a bad uplink RX level (uplink RX level < GPL). the TBF with the lowest 96 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . With Priority Based Scheduling the operator can give users different priorities. The PCU receives the QoS information to be used in DL TBFs from the SGSN in a DL unitdata PDU. 4. BTS with NBL value greater than DIRE is ruled out.

and there similar behaviour is obtained using scheduling weight. In PCU2. For more information on EDA. the lower the scheduling weight of the TBF. Exended Dynamic Allocation (PCU2) allows an MS to use a maximum of four UL timeslots. channel allocation also involves other criteria in case EDA is active. To get more detailed information about QoS in Gb. but the traffic channel is dedicated to one MS at a time — this is referred to as temporary GPRS connection block flow or Temporary Block Flow (TBF) — meaning that one MS is transmitting or receiving at a time. each priority class has its own scheduling step size which is operator adjustable. Scheduling step sizes/weights depend on the priority class of the TBF. The PCU2 scheduling uses the Bucket Round Robin (BRR) algorithm. see Overview of Extended Dynamic Allocation. see Packet scheduling. see BSC-SGSN interface description.5 Channel allocation and scheduling GPRS channels are allocated according to the following rules: • • downlink and uplink are separate resources multiple mobiles can share one traffic channel. The same applies also to PCU2 scheduling weight which is operator adjustable. • • • Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is explained in GPRS radio connection control. within the restrictions of the multislot class of the mobile. See parameter conversion in section BSC parameters of System Impact of Priority Class based Quality of Service. The sizes of the scheduling steps/weight determine the handing out of radio resources. The PCU determines the number of traffic channels that are needed and counts the best throughput for that number of traffic channels. The allocation process tries to ensure that better priority TBFs do not gather into the same radio timeslot. Priority Based Scheduling in BSC is an operating software product and is always active in an active PCU. For more information. Exceptions are TBFs for which only one channel is allocated. the uplink and downlink scheduling are independent channels allocated to a TBF must be allocated from the same TRX The traffic channels which would provide the maximum possible (priority based) capacity. Dynamic Allocation MAC mode allows an MS to use a maximum of two UL timeslots.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management service time is selected and given a turn to send a radio block (provided that no control blocks have to be sent). are allocated for a TBF. the less often it is selected and given a turn. seven uplink and nine downlink TBFs can share the resources of a single timeslot. 8. In PCU1 the traffic channel combinations are first compared by QoS load. The QoS load of a channel is defined as a weighted sum of the TBFs in the channel. then by capacity type (additional < default < dedicated) and then by the Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) load. The weights used cor- DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 97 . In PCU1. MAC mode does not affect the DL capability of an MS. Also. If several TBFs have been allocated to a timeslot. then the higher the scheduling step size or respectively. BSS GPRS protocol (BSSGP). Priorities are also taken into account in allocations of TBFs. the Medium Access (MAC) mode capability of a mobile affects its UL transmission capability (within the Multislot Class restrictions). the latest service time of the selected TBF is incremented by the scheduling step size of the TBF in PCU1.

The traffic channel combinations are first compared by relative throughput and then by capacity type (additional < default < dedicated). If the mobile being evaluated already has an existing TBF in one direction and it requires resources from the other direction. resources from the default area will be allocated. If effective resources received in the adjoining allocation are the same as with concurrent reallocation. therefore they will cause more load on the channel.favour UL. TBF allocation After the BTS has been selected. however.which result in different emphasis in resource division between UL and DL. see Functionality of Extended Dynamic Allocation in Extended Dynamic Allocation in BSC. Example: The GPRS territory consists of three channels. If DL TBF exists and UL TBF is allocated as concurrent. These parameters have three values . In PCU2 the PACCH load is monitored by the scheduler and that is used together with the scheduling weights when the relative throughput of the channel combination is estimated. where existing TBF is reallocated from its current allocation. In PCU2. If a mobile is using only one direction (UL or DL). and an MS of multislot class 4 has a downlink TBF of three timeslots (performing FTP for example) and also uses an uplink TBF of one timeslot to acknowledge the received data (Note that the UL TBF is not always present as it is not always needed). and PCU uses reallocations to modify the timeslot configuration to give preference to the direction with more traffic. a comparison of estimated throughputs is carried out between DA (max. Among multiplexed TSLs. only the resources of the direction used are evaluated. In the evaluation of the resources. for example 3+1 or 2+2 (DL+UL). When optimum resources for a mobile are searched for. CHA_CONC_DL_FAVOR_DIR defines the preferred direction. For more information. two slots) and EDA (max. dedicated and default territory areas are preferred. Higher priority TBFs will get more turns. PACCH is defined in more detail in GPRS radio connection control. CHA_CONC_UL_FAVOR_DIR defines the direction that should be preferred in allocation. Furthermore in PCU2. the adjoining allocation is preferred. favour DL and share resources . Channel combination in concurrent allocation is determined from operator modifiable parameters CHA_CONC_UL_FAVOR_DIR and CHA_CONC_DL_FAVOR_DIR. QoS is the selection criteria. the PCU monitors PACCH load (in other words signalling load) in TSLs and takes that into account in allocation. Multiplexed and nonmultiplexed TSLs are also prioritised by a penalty value. QoS and TBF type are compared simultaneously. four slots) connections in uplink. so if similar resources are found from the additional and default territory. During concurrent TBFs the PCU monitors the traffic. Respectively. Preferred direction takes place only with certain multislot classes that can have different channel combinations. Different QoS classes result in different penalties for load comparing. These will be allocated to it and the optimum resources are evaluated for 98 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description respond with the scheduling rate of the QoS class of TBFs in the channel. In PCU1 the PACCH load is the number of TBFs using a certain TCH as PACCH. In addition. no preference is given to adjoining allocations when concurrent TBF is being created. when allocating DL TBF as concurrent. A second mobile of multislot class 4 requests UL resources. the evaluation of concurrent resources received is first done for the adjoining allocation beside existing allocation and then for different concurrent reallocations. both UL and DL resources are evaluated and the decision for the allocation is made depending on the amount of effective resources received in both directions.

If MS2 had been allocated in the same way as MS1 (with re-allocation). The adjoining allocation is made. A concurrent allocation for the DL TBF is made for MS2 if MS1 has an UL TBF in use when the DL TBF of MS2 is allocated. MS2 does not receive the maximum number of timeslots in the DL direction in this phase. downlink resources are needed for the second mobile. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF 6 DEF 7 DEF DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 99 . Now the allocation depends on the resource usage of MS1 in both UL and DL directions. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL 6 DEF MS1 MS2 DL MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 7 DEF In case of PCU. MS2 is allocated similarly to MS1. 3+1 allocation is reserved for MS2. As a result. the second MS will get its UL resource from a channel that is not used by the first mobile. because the reallocation does not provide any better resources for MS2 in this phase.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management the UL direction only. As a result. Available resources are evaluated for both directions and the allocation is made in such a way that optimum resources are used in both directions. but it will receive them later. 2+2 allocation is made. In other words. it would have resulted in both MSS having only 2 effective timeslots (the total sum of UL and DL resources). the allocation is made according to multislot class capabilities. adjoining allocation with fewer channels that multislot class allows is not made. when the territory upgrade has been completed. if the favoured direction is UL. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL DL MS1 6 DEF MS1 MS1 MS2 7 DEF MS2 MS1 MS2 As a result. If the favoured direction is set to favor DL. 1. In case of PCU2. TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL DL MS1 6 DEF MS1 MS1 7 DEF MS2 MS1 Example: Continuing from the previous example. MS1 has the resources of 3 effective timeslots (the total sum of UL and DL resources) and MS2 has the resources of 2 effective timeslots.

TSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 DEF UL DL MS1 MS2 6 DEF MS2 MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 7 DEF In this allocation.5 timeslots in the DL direction and 1 timeslot in the UL direction. Both mobiles will get 3 timeslots in the DL direction and 1 timeslot in the UL direction. because better resources are achieved with it. if it is the only GPRS TBF in the TSL thus causing multiplexing 100 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . the following allocations will be made: 1. three channels will be requested). DL resources for MS2 are given with reallocation if MS1 does not have a UL TBF in use when the DL TBF of MS2 is allocated. Then the PCU would request a territory upgrade according to the rules explained in the section additional GPRS territory upgrade (in case a.5 effective timeslots (the total sum of UL and DL resources) and MS2 has the resources of 2. TSL 0 1 2 3 ADD UL DL MS2 4 ADD MS2 MS2 MS1 MS2 5 DEF 6 DEF MS1 MS1 MS1 7 DEF 2.Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description UL DL MS1 MS1 MS2 MS1 MS2 MS2 MS1 MS2 2. the PCU has received the additional capacity it has requested and the reallocation of the TBF(s) will be made. if the channel is multiplexed 2. TSL 0 1 2 ADD UL DL MS2 3 ADD MS2 MS2 MS2 MS1 4 ADD 5 DEF 6 DEF MS1 MS1 MS1 7 DEF After the TBF is created in a BTS When a GPRS TBF is in a multiplexed TSL. As a result. Both mobiles will get 2. The reallocation is made. Example: Continuing from the previous example. MS1 has the resources of 1.5 effective timeslots. two channels will be requested and in case b. PCU1 will constantly check: 1.

The target in the downgrade is to achieve an average TBF/TSL equal of 1. Consequently. In addition. The maximum number of GPRS channels is limited by CMAX. PCU constantly checks if reallocation should take place to achieve better relative capacity. Additional channels are taken into CS use whenever more channels are needed on the CS side. Packet scheduling Uplink and downlink scheduling are independent of each other. if the average TBF/TSL is less than 0. The BSC releases from S9 onwards support Dynamic Allocation. For example. The use of additional channels is less efficient compared to the default channels. The PCU will request the removal of additional channels. The parameter defines reallocation check interval for a TBF in block periods. Radio Link Control is defined in more detail in GPRS radio connection control. The scheduling of the RLC data block in each timeslot is independent of other timeslots. Reallocation check interval is determined by operator modifiable parameter TBF_LOAD_GUARD_THRSHLD. if there are multiplexed channels where it is allowed to reallocate In PCU2. allocation is done to achieve the highest possible relative throughput. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 USF USF T T 0 Figure 22 Dynamic Allocation MAC mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 101 . and releases from S12 onwards also support Extended Dynamic Allocation (PCU2 only). The PCU can assign multiple MSS to the same uplink traffic channels. When ensuring the best quality and speed for end-users. Whenever the MS finds the USF value in the downlink RLC block. the BSC gives the MS a USF value for each assigned traffic channel in the assignment message. The MS monitors the downlink Radio Link Control (RLC) blocks on the traffic channels it has been assigned.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management 3. In DA and EDA. there can be a CS call in the timeslot. ETSI specifications allow the scheduling of uplink transmission turns to be done by two different Medium Access Control (MAC) modes: Dynamic Allocation (DA) and Extended Dynamic Allocation (EDA). planning may not rely on additional channels in the dimensioning of the GPRS territory. it may send an uplink RLC block in the corresponding uplink frame. which is to be moved to the GPRS territory. DA allows an MS to use a maximum of two timeslots in UL. The need for additional GPRS channels is always checked when an existing TBF is terminated. The PCU will request for more additional channels. the above mentioned checks do not apply since there is no attempt to remove multiplexing and USF Granularity 4 is used. The reason for this is that the additional channels (territory upgrade) are always requested from circuit-switched (CS) territory and there is always some delay before the channel is moved to the GPRS territory. if a GPRS territory contains less channels than what could be allocated to a mobile according to its multislot class. and intracell handover is needed before the territory upgrade can be completed. These additional channels will be requested only if all GPRS default channels are already in the GPRS territory.5).5 (average TBF/TSL<0.

Radio resource management

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description

EDA allows an MS to use more than two uplink timeslot by removing the need of detecting USFs separately for each assigned traffic channel: a received USF gives the MS a permission to send, during the next transmission turn, on the corresponding UL channel and on all the following channels of the UL TBF.
0 1
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Figure 23

Extended Dynamic Allocation MAC mode

Scheduling in PCU1 is based on a kind of weighted round robin (WRR) method, which means that a higher priority (QoS) Temporary Block Flow (TBF) gets a bigger share of the PDTCHs allocated for it than a lower priority TBF. Scheduling in PCU2 is based on a Bucket Round Robin (BRR) algorithm. USF granularity 4 is only used with DA, not EDA. The main difference to PCU1 WRR algorithm implementation is that BRR distributes transmission turns per MS and not per TCH as WRR in PCU1 implementation. Both WRR and BRR distribute capacity according to connection specific scheduling weights. See Quality of service for more information on adjusting weight in priority based QoS. Extended Uplink TBF mode Extended UL TBF mode is an optional functionality. If the MS supports Extended UL TBF Mode (indicated in MS RAC), the normal uplink release is delayed. The delay time is operator adjustable with parameter UL_TBF_REL_DELAY_EXT. During delay time MS is in extended mode. In extended mode network schedules USFs to MS with lower scheduling rate. If MS in extended mode has data to send data it returns to normal mode. For more information, see Data transfer. Scheduling in extended mode for an uplink TBF is based on operator modifiable parameters UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT in PCU1 and POLLING_INTERVAL in PCU2. In PCU1, UL_TBF_SCHED_RATE_EXT defines the next block period when a TBF in extended mode is given a transmission turn. However, a TBF in extended mode cannot have better residual capacity than it would in normal mode. In PCU2, POLLING_INTERVAL defines the time in block periods that TBF in extended state cannot have transmission time. After POLLING_INTERVAL is elapsed, TBF is returned to scheduling and once it is scheduled it is restricted again unless it is returned to normal mode. Dynamic Scheduling for Extended UL TBF Mode In PCU2, Dynamic Scheduling for Extended UL TBF Mode optimises the scheduling algorithm applied to mobile stations in extended uplink TBF mode (EUTM). When any of the uplink TSLs which can be used for polling an MS in EUTM accommodates more than one UL TBF, the POLLING_INTERVAL parameter defines the frequency of UL transmission turns scheduled for the MS in EUTM. When none of the uplink TSLs which can be used for polling an MS in EUTM accommodates more than one UL TBF, the POLLING_INTERVAL_BG_LOW parameter defines the frequency of UL transmission turns scheduled for the MS in EUTM. This method helps to improve the RTT perfor-

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mance for MSS in EUTM under light or moderate traffic density without affecting adversely the radio throughput of other users.

8.6

Quality Control
The purpose of Quality Control is to monitor and detect degradation periods in service quality, and to perform corrective actions to remove the service degradation. The possible actions include TBF reallocation and Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection. Monitoring of degradation in service quality includes BLER and bitrate per radioblock monitoring. The PCU monitors bitrate per radio block for each TBF in RLC ACK mode, for UL and DL separately. When the PCU sends or receives a radio block, it updates the number of bits transmitted/received in the radio block. The PCU ignores LLC dummy blocks in this calculation. For the retransmissions, the PCU shall calculate the number of bits transmitted as zero. The PCU calculates the bitrate per radio block value and checks it against the corresponding threshold value. The threshold values are operator parameters and there is a separate value for UL and DL: QC GPRS DL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGDRT), QC GPRS UL RLC ack throughput threshold (QGURT) . If the calculated value is below threshold, degradation duration time is increased. The PCU monitors the bitrate per radio block degradation duration counter. If the counter is larger than predefined triggering levels, the corresponding corrective action is performed. The PCU monitors also RLC Block Error Ratio (BLER) for each TBF. The BLER value shall be checked against the required maximum BLER. In PCU1, maximum BLER is defined by operator parameter maximum BLER in acknowledged mode (BLA) or maximum BLER in unacknowledged mode (BLU), depending on the RLC mode of the TBF. In PCU2, maximum BLER is defined by operator parameters PFC ACK BLER limit (ABL1) and PFC UNACK BLER limit (UBL1). If BLER is above maximum, degradation duration time is increased and if the counter is larger than predefined triggering levels, the corresponding corrective action is performed. When any of the degradation duration counters monitored by the PCU gets larger than a predefined action trigger threshold, the PCU shall perform a corresponding corrective action. Each action shall be triggered only once for a TBF in PCU. For example, if reallocation is already done, the next action to be performed is Network-Controlled Cell Reselection (NCCR), triggered when a degradation duration counter exceeds the NCCR trigger threshold. The flags of already performed actions are cleared when the degradation ends, that is when all the degradation duration counters are cleared. The action trigger thresholds are expressed in block periods and the values can be set by operator (see parameter QC Action Trigger Threshold). It is possible to change the order of different actions by modifying the action trigger threshold values. If two or more actions are set to the same threshold value, the order of actions is first reallocation and then NCCR. Although possible, it is not recommended to set the values very close to each other, for example reallocation 100, NCCR 101. Otherwise, there is no time to execute the triggered action before the next is already triggered. The default action trigger threshold values are shown below.

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Action Reallocation NCCR (*)

Block periods 25 100

(*) Applicable if NCCR is activated.

8.7

MS Multislot Power Reduction (PCU2)
When multiple timeslots have been assigned to an uplink GPRS radio connection (UL TBF), the mobile station may reduce its transmission power as a function of the number of these timeslots: the more UL timeslots assigned, the larger the transmission power reduction applicable. This power reduction helps the MS to meet radiation regulations and to avoid heating problems. Every mobile station (Rel 5 or later) conforms to one of four standardised Multislot Power Profiles (0-3), which determine the maximum output power supported by an MS for different UL TBF configurations. An MS of Multislot Power Profile 3 does not apply power reduction to connections of four UL timeslots and less, while the amount of applicable reduction increases with each lower Power Profile. The effect of Multislot Power Reduction needs to be observed in radio resource allocation because the output power of an MS contributes to radio path quality, and consequently affects both the choice of the channel coding scheme to be used (CS1-CS4) and the achievable throughput per timeslot within the chosen scheme. In other words, large power reduction leads to poorer radio path quality, which in turn decreases throughput per timeslot both by necessitating robust channel coding and by increasing the number of transmission errors and retransmissions. In resource allocation, the effect of power reduction is observed by using UL signal quality measurements by the BTS to determine the maximum number of UL timeslots that can be assigned to the MS and still keep the signal quality at an acceptable level in spite of the entailing transmission power reduction. Multislot power reduction is applicable to all multislot UL connections. If EDA is enabled, up to four timeslots may be assigned to an UL TBF. If EDA is not enabled, up to two timeslots may be assigned in UL. UL signal quality and the maximum number of timeslots If the MS UL signal quality (GMSK Mean BEP or RX Quality measured by the BTS) is known during radio resource allocation, which is normally the case during two-phase access, the PCU uses this information to determine the maximum number of UL timeslots that may be allocated for the MS. The PCU uses the signal quality measurement that is available, but typically Mean BEP is used if Dynamic Abis is supported, and RX Quality is used in other cases. The operator can define the signal quality limits for different UL timeslot configurations by modifying the Mean BEP Limit and RX Quality Limit parameters. In determining these limits, the appropriate signal quality - as typically required by applications used in the network - must be considered together with the power reduction characteristics of different mobile stations. The limits should be set so that the signal quality remains

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The following tables define the default values for the two signal quality limits (for Rel 5 mobiles and later). three UL timeslots may be assigned to a Multislot Power Profile 1 MS if the measured RX Quality is three or lower. the maximum number of timeslots that can be assigned to the reallocated connection is determined on the basis of the general RX level in the new BTS. 8.8 Error situations in GPRS connections Synchronisation errors When the PCU detects a synchronisation error between itself and the BTS. The BSC upgrades the radio timeslots back to GPRS use after a guard period.would allow at least the same average RX level to be achieved under the new BTS as under the old one. the PCU handles the MS according to Power Profile 0. MS Multislot Power Profile 1 — 5 3 1 MS Multislot Power Profile 2 — — 3 2 MS Multislot Power Profile 3 — — — — MAX Number of UL TSLs 1 2 3 4 MS Multislot Power Profile 0 — 5 3 1 Table 39 RX Quality Limit for UL For instance. When an UL TBF is reallocated to another BTS. This is done by checking what number of timeslots .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management acceptable even when the MS applies maximum power reduction. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 105 . three UL timeslots may be assigned to a Multislot Power Profile 1 MS if the measured GMSK Mean BEP value is 25 or higher. If no Multislot Power Profile has been defined for an MS (Rel 4 or earlier) or the Profile is not known by the PCU for some other reason. MS Multislot Power Profile 0 — 21 26 30 MS Multislot Power Profile 1 — 20 25 30 MS Multislot Power Profile 2 — — 24 29 MS Multislot Power Profile 3 — — — — MAX Number of UL TSLs 1 2 3 4 Table 38 GMSK Mean BEP Limit for UL For instance. the BSC downgrades the related channels from GPRS use.considering the Multislot Power Profile of the MS . where the mobile station specific GMSK Mean BEP and RX Quality measurements are not available for the MS.

Radio resource management BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Traffic channel activation failures The BSC sets the alarm TRAFFIC CHANNEL ACTIVATION FAILURE 7725 if the Abis synchronisation for an GPRS traffic channel repeatedly fails. The alarm is automatically cancelled when the synchronisation succeeds and the channel is taken back into GPRS use. The recommended triggering criteria is the lack of normal TBF releases both in UL and DL. Although the supervision period length is common for all BTSs within a BSC. Traffic threshold means the required number of TBF allocation attempts per hour.. GPRS Inactivity (Sleeping BTSs) The BSC sets the alarm NO (E)GPRS TRANSACTIONS IN BTS 7789 if there have been no normal TBF releases within the supervision period in a BTS where this alarm is enabled. length of the supervision period and traffic threshold. you define the triggering criteria. which will be monitored. The BSC level configuration of this alarm is done by modifying the following parameters with the MML command EEJ: EGIC=<EGPRS Inactivity Alarm criteria> 0x00: Alarm disabled on BSC Level (default) 0x01: No normal UL TBF releases 0x02: No normal DL TBF releases 0x03: No normal UL TBF releases and no normal DL TBF releases (recommended) IEPH=<Required number of TBF allocation attempts per hour> Default: 10 Range: 0 .. although there have been allocation TBF attempts. To enable this alarm functionality in the BSC. Default value for traffic threshold is 10 TBF allocation attempts per hour. The length of the supervision period shall be defined according to estimated traffic density. This is done by configuring the related BTS level parameters. the supervision periods (weekdays and hours) can be defined separately for each BTS. The BTS level configuration of this alarm is done by modifying the following parameters with the MML command EQV: EAW = <(E)GPRS Inactivity Alarm weekdays (bitmask)> Default: 00000000b (alarm disabled in BTS) Examples: 01000000 (Monday) 00100000 (Tuesday) 01111100 (Monday thru Friday) 01111111 (Every day) EAS = <(E)GPRS Inactivity Alarm start time (hours-minutes)> Default: 08-00 Range: 00-00 . 255 SPL=<Supervision period in minutes> Default: 15 minutes Range: 0 .... 1440 minutes The alarm also needs to be enabled on the BTSs. 23-45 106 Id:0900d80580590b5d DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . to ensure that the alarm is not raised due to low traffic volume. but you may choose to monitor only one of the directions. recommended values ranging from 15 minutes (default) to 60 minutes..

and there have been at least the required number of TBF allocation attempts. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b5d 107 . The alarm is cancelled if a normal TBF release is detected within the subsequent supervision periods. Note that the cancellation is not dependent on the setting criteria.. 23-45 The alarm is set if the criteria is met at the end of the supervision period.The criteria is that no normal TBF releases have been detected within a 15 minute (default) period during the hours when the alarm is active on the given weekdays. but a normal TBF release in either direction cancels the alarm..BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Radio resource management EAE = <(E)GPRS Inactivity Alarm end time (hours-minutes)> Default: 18-00 Range: 00-00 .

Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCHs) The Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH) is a channel allocated for data transfer. It is temporarily dedicated to one MS. GPRS territories are described in Radio resource management.02) define the possibility to use dedicated broadcast and common control channels for GPRS. PDTCH/U and PDTCH/D can be assigned to an MS simultaneously. The network responds to the MS on the Access Grant Channel (AGCH). The MS initiates uplink TBF establishment on the Random Access Channel (RACH). This section describes the BSC's functions in relation to suspend and resume. All PDTCHs are uni-directional. Cell selection and re-selection are also defined. one MS may use multiple PDTCHs in parallel for individual packet transfer. One PACCH is associated to one or several traffic channels that are assigned to one MS. GPRS-specific cell parameters are sent to the MS in a SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_13 message. 9. Paging is described in a section of its own. System information messages on BCCH The support of GPRS is indicated in a SYSTEM_INFORMATION_TYPE_3 message. acknowledgements and resource assignment and reassignment messages. either uplink (PDTCH/U) for a mobile originated packet transfer or downlink (PDTCH/D) for a mobile terminated packet transfer.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 9 GPRS radio connection control Radio channel usage when GPRS is in use is discussed in this section. For more information refer to GSM Specification (04. Assigned traffic channels are used for PACCH in the direction the data is sent.18). Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) The Packet Associated Control Channel (PACCH) conveys signalling information related to a given MS. as one PDTCH. It can be allocated both on both uplink and downlink regardless of whether the corresponding traffic channel assignment is for uplink or downlink.1 Radio channel usage ETSI specifications (05. In the 108 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . In multislot operation. The GPRS radio connection establishment (TBF establishment) and data transfer are described from the point of view of a mobile terminating (MT) and mobile originating (MO) GPRS TBF. GPRS paging is made on the Paging Channel (PCH). coding scheme selection. The PCU uses each radio timeslot which the BSC has allocated for the GPRS territory. In the Nokia Siemens Networks implementation. as well as traffic administration and power control in GPRS. PACCH is a bidirectional channel. for example. Network-initiated TBF establishment is done on the AGCH. The signalling information includes. Common Control Channel (CCCH) signalling The Common Control Channel (CCCH) signalling is used for paging and uplink and downlink temporary block flow (TBF) setup. flush. traffic channels belonging to a GPRS territory are PDTCHs and traffic channels belonging to circuit switched territory are TCHs.

2 Data Transfer Protocols and Connections Temporary Block Flow (TBF) Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is a physical connection used by two radio resource entities to support the unidirectional transfer of Logical Link Control (LLC) PDUs on packet data physical channels. Mode I requires Gs interface between the SGSN and MSC/HLR. In uplink data transmission. The TBF is allocated radio resources on one or more PDTCHs and comprises a number of RLC/MAC blocks carrying one or more LLC PDUs. For an overview of GPRS. When the LLC PDU is ready. 9. GPRS pages always come from the SGSN through the Gb interface. The LLC PDUs have to be sent to the SGSN in the order they were transmitted by the MS. an MS can choose (according to its capabilities) whether it attaches to GPRS services or to nonGPRS services. the PCU sends it to the SGSN and releases it from the PCU buffer. Network operation modes The BSC supports network operation modes I and II. The Radio Link Control (RLC) function provides a radio-solution-dependent reliable link.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control opposite direction the MS multislot capability has to be taken into account when allocating the PACCH. see GPRS. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 109 . 9. LLC PDUs are sent between the MS and the SGSN. The LLC PDU is buffered in the PCU until it has been sent to the MS or discarded. and it must be the same in each cell of a Routing Area. segments them to the RLC blocks and sends the RLC blocks to the MS. In downlink data transmission. The network operation mode is indicated as system information to mobiles. LLC is independent of the underlying radio interface protocols in order to allow introduction of alternative GPRS radio solutions with minimum changes to the NSS. the PCU receives the RLC data blocks from the MS and reassembles them into LLC PDUs.3 Paging The network may provide co-ordination of paging for circuit switched services and GPRS depending on the network operation modes supported. In mode I circuit switched paging messages are routed through the Gb interface for GPRS-attached mobiles. RLC blocks are sent between the MS and the BSC (PCU). Based on the provided mode. The latter does not have retransmission. In mode II circuit switched paging messages are transferred through the A interface from the MSC to the BSC. or to both. There are two RLC modes: acknowledged and unacknowledged mode. the PCU receives LLC PDUs from the SGSN. A TBF is identified by a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI) and maintained only for the duration of the data transfer. Logical Link Control (LLC) and Radio Link Control (RLC) The Logical Link Control (LLC) layer provides a highly reliable ciphered logical link.

If a radio context identified by the TLLI exists within the BSS. It sends one or more PAGING_PS_PDUs messages to the BSC (PCU).GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Mode I I II Circuit Paging Channel CCCH Packet Data Channel CCCH GPRS Paging Channel CCCH N/A CCCH Gb interface Yes Yes No Paging co. the SGSN sends one or more PAGING CS PDUs to the BSC. which enable the BSS to derive the paging group. then the SGSN sends one paging message to each of these NSEIs. The BSC translates the incoming GPRS and circuit switched paging messages into one corresponding Abis paging message per cell. For more information. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. Circuit switched paging via GPRS in network operation mode I In order to initiate circuit-switched transmission between the MSC and the MS. In GPRS paging the BSS forwards the PACKET_PAGING_REQUEST message from the SGSN to the MS on the CCCH(s). If the SGSN provides the TMSI. ☞ RA0 is a routing area for cells that do not support GPRS. The paging area is the same as in GPRS paging. ☞ Gs interface is obligatory in order to support CS paging. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). which enables the BSS to derive the paging group. or a BSC area is associated with one or more NSEIs (PCUs). then the paging message is directly sent to the MS on PACCH. These PDUs contain the information elements necessary for the BSS to initiate paging for an MS within a group of cells. If the cells in which to page the MS are served by several NSEIs. The SGSN indicates the MS's IMSI and DRX parameters. A GPRS paging message is sent only to cells that support GPRS services. The MS's paging response to the SGSN is handled in the PCU as any other uplink TBF. then the BSC does not use the IMSI to address the MS. A Routing Area. The paging area indicates the cells within which the BSC pages the MS and they can be: • • • • all cells within the BSC all cells of the BSC within one Location Area all cells of the BSC within one Routing Area one cell (identified with a BSSGP virtual connection identifier (BVCI)). a Location Area. Otherwise IMSI is used to address the MS. The SGSN indicates the MS's IMSI and DRX parameters.ordination Yes Yes No Table 40 Supported Network Operation Modes GPRS paging The SGSN initiates the GPRS paging process. If no radio context iden- 110 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . These PDUs contain the information elements necessary for the BSS to initiate paging for an MS within a group of cells at an appropriate time. then the BSC uses it to address the MS. If the SGSN provides a P-TMSI.

used when there is no concurrent UL TBF. and indicates it and the TFI to the MS in the assignment message. 9. The PCU sends the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT message.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control tified by the TLLI exists within the BSS. RA0 covers all the cells in the indicated paging area that do not support GPRS services. When multiple PDTCHs are allocated to the MS. Downlink TBF establishment on CCCH The PCU allocates one PDTCH for the TBF. The PCU allocates one or more PDTCHs for the TBF. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. The TBF establishment is done in one of the following ways: • • on PACCH. the circuit switched connection is set up as usual as described in Basic Call. the MS GPRS multislot class must be taken into account. In case there are no radio resources for the new TBF. When the MS is ready to receive on PACCH. For more details about the paging message contents.4 Mobile terminated TBF (GPRS) When the SGSN knows the location of the MS. If the channel configuration to be allocated for the downlink TBF consists of only one channel already assigned to the MS. The MS GPRS multislot class is part of the MS Radio Access Capability IE. This is done in order to determine the initial Timing Advance for the MS. The possible multislot allocation is done later and indicated to the MS by a reallocation message. If within the SGSN area there are cells that do not support GPRS services. The RA0 in this case is all the cells that do not support GPRS services in a Location Area derived from the Routing Area. the PCU sends a PACKET_POLLING_REQUEST message to the MS and requests an acknowledgement. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). After the paging procedure. then the TMSI is used to address the MS. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. the cells are grouped under a 'null RA' (RA0). For example. and sends an IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message to the MS. and gives the whole configuration together with the Timing Advance value to the MS. which is included in the DL-UNITDATA_PDU message. The SGSN indicates the cell identification in every DL-UNITDATA PDU. and T3192 is not running These alternatives are described in the following subchapters. The assignment procedure is DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 111 . the LLC PDU is discarded and the BSC sends a LLC-DISCARD message to the SGSN. it can send LLC PDUs to the correct PCU. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). the PCU sends the PACKET_POWER_CONTROL/TIMING_ADVANCE message to the MS to indicate the Timing Advance value. Each LLC PDU is encapsulated in one DL-UNITDATA PDU. For more details about the downlink data message contents. Otherwise IMSI is used to address the MS. used when a concurrent UL TBF exists or when the timer T3192 is running in the MS on CCCH. if the SGSN indicates to the BSC to initiate paging for an MS within a Routing Area the BSC sends one circuit switched paging message to all cells in the Routing Area and one message to all the cells in RA0.

The PCU can send further RLC data blocks along with the acknowledgement procedure. MS-specific flow control Mobile specific flow control is part of the QoS solution in the PCU. The BSC signals this to the SGSN by setting the Radio Cause information element (IE) value to 'radio contact lost with MS'. There is no uplink flow control. The normal downlink TBF release is initiated by the PCU by setting a Final Block Indicator (FBI) bit in the last RLC block header. The TBF mode is always the same as the mode of the existing UL TBF. the PCU may release channels with a PDCH_RELEASE message. Mobile-specific flow control is done for every MS that has a downlink TBF. It is also an effective countermeasure against buffer overflows in the PCU. Mobile specific flow control also ensures that if an MS has better QoS. Downlink TBF establishment when timer T3192 is running and no UL TBF exists When the DL TBF is released. releases the downlink TBF and discards the LLC PDU from the PCU buffer. and therefore better transmission rate in radio interface (more air time). The reasons for this reallocation may be a GPRS territory downgrade. This indicates to the SGSN that attempts to communicate between the MS and the SGSN via the cell should be suspended or abandoned. or a change of requirements of the SGSN. If the PCU does not receive the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message when polled. the BSC considers the MS as lost. Downlink TBF establishment when an uplink TBF exists Downlink TBF establishment when an uplink TBF exists follows the same principles as uplink TBF establishment when a downlink TBF exists. The BSC thus recommends the SGSN to stop sending LLC PDUs for the MS to the cell. which is included in every RLC block header. The PCU can change the downlink PDTCH configuration whenever needed by sending the MS_PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message. The establishment is done with a PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message. During the timer T3192 the PCU makes the establishment of a new DL TBF by sending a PACKET_DOWNLINK_ASSIGNMENT on the PACCH of the 'old' DL TBF. which is the maximum number of unacknowledged RLC blocks at a time. The window size is 64 blocks in GPRS mode.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description guarded with two timers. The PCU can request the MS to send an PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message by setting a polling flag to the RLC data block header. the MS recognises the transmitted Radio Link Control (RLC) blocks based on the TFI. the MS starts the timer T3192 and continues monitoring the PACCH of the released TBF until T3192 expires. There may still be some retransmission after 112 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . It works together with the SGSN to provide a steady data flow to the mobile from the network. The counter is reset after each correctly received PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK. one for resending the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message and one for aborting the establishment. After the counter reaches its maximum value of 8. it increments a counter. This is discussed more at the end of Mobile originated TBF. Data transfer During the actual data transfer. uplink TBF establishment. If reallocation is impossible in the case of GPRS territory downgrade. Each TBF has a transmit window. it will also get more data from the SGSN.

the PCU cancels the delayed release and begins to send RLC data blocks to the MS. even if the MS requested some other access type. depending on the needs for the data transfer. the PCU delays the release of the TBF (by 1 s by default). Two phase access on CCCH. but the PCU releases the TBF and removes the LLC PDU from the PCU buffer when the MS sends the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message with the Final Ack Indicator bit on. These alternatives are described in the following subsections. The PCU allocates a PDTCH for the request. during the delay time DUMMY LLC PDUs are sent to the MS (with polling). The MS then uses the allocated block to send a more accurate request to the PCU with the PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message. which is included in the PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message. and informs it to the MS in the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message. There are the following main alternatives for the TBF establishment: • • on PACCH. The PCU allocates one uplink block for the request. GPRS In a one phase access the MS sends a CHANNEL_REQUEST message with the establishment cause 'one phase access'. in other words the same downlink TBF continues normally. One phase access is guarded by a timer in the PCU. on CCCH there are different options for TBF establishment. GPRS In a two phase access the MS sends a CHANNEL_REQUEST message with the establishment cause 'single block access'. The PCU may force the MS to make a two phase access. When the PCU has sent the last buffered LLC PDU to the MS. the MS GPRS multislot class must be taken into account. One phase access on CCCH.5 Mobile originated TBF When the MS wants to send data or upper layer signalling messages to the network. 9. The MS GPRS multislot class is a part of the MS Radio Access Capability IE. If the PCU has no PDTCHs to allocate to the MS. in order to allow the MS to request for a UL TBF. schedules a certain radio interface TDMA frame number for the block. for example one phase access or two phase access. The MS sends its TLLI in the first data blocks and the one phase access is finalised when the PCU sends the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message to the MS containing the TLLI (contention resolution). If there is no concurrent UL TBF. used when a concurrent DL TBF exists on CCCH. it requests the establishment of an uplink TBF from the BSC. it sends an IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT_REJECT message to the MS. The PCU indi- DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 113 . used when there is no concurrent DL TBF Additionally. When multiple PDTCHs are allocated to an MS. for instance if there is no room for the TBF in the BCCH band.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control this. Random access on CCCH The MS can send a CHANNEL_REQUEST message on CCCH (RACH). and informs the MS in the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT message along with TFI and USF values. If the PCU receives more data during the delay time. The PCU allocates the actual configuration for the uplink TBF according to the information received in this message.

The underlying network service has to be available for the BSSGP level in order to deliver data to the SGSN. the PCU releases channels with a PDCH_RELEASE message to the MS. Otherwise the data is discarded and a counter is updated. but the assigned PDTCH(s) may be elsewhere. The PCU delivers the LLC PDU with a UL-UNITDATA PDU to the SGSN. for example to change the coding scheme. and the TFI to the MS in the PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message sent in the same timeslot in which the single block was allocated. where the MS counts down the last RLC data blocks (15 or less) with the last block numbered 0. The window size is 64 blocks in GPRS mode. The PCU has a counter to control the MS's ability to send RLC blocks in the frames it has been assigned by the USF values. and if the PCU has no PDTCHs to allocate to the MS. Instead of sending a PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK (final ack) immediately. For more information on Extended UL TBF Mode. it sends the LLC PDU to the SGSN. If reallocation during a downgrade is impossible. and a PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message with final ack indicator to the MS. There may still be some retransmission. The PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message includes a bitmap which tells the correctly received blocks. A normal uplink TBF release is made by countdown. The PCU can use the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message for other purposes too. The MS responds with a PACKET_CONTROL_ACK message and the PCU releases the TBF. Reasons for reallocation may be a GPRS territory downgrade. If the MS supports Extended UL TBF Mode (indicated in MS RAC). the network schedules USF turns to the MS in extended mode. If the counter reaches its maximum value of 15. The PCU can at any time send the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message to the MS. The second part of the two phase access is guarded with a timer in the PCU. it sends an RLC data block. downlink TBF establishment. but with a lower rate as normally.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description cates the PDTCH configuration. The two phase access is finalised when the PCU receives the first block on the assigned PDTCH . and the TBF continues with the normal scheduling rate. which also affects the frequency of the acknowledgements. If the MS has got new data. The MS sends its TLLI in the PACKET_RESOURCE_REQUEST message. and after that the PCU cancels the delayed TBF release. The PCU can change the uplink PDTCH configuration whenever needed by sending the MS a PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message. The PCU can schedule the MS to send further the RLC data blocks along with the acknowledgement procedure. the MS is considered lost and therefore the PCU releases the uplink TBF. or a change of an MS's requirements. The MS sends a PACKET UPLINK DUMMY CONTROL BLOCK in the scheduled block if it has no data to send. 114 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . Data transfer In uplink data transfer. it sends a PACKET_ACCESS_REJECT message to the MS. the normal uplink release is delayed. The TBF has a transmit window. the RLC data blocks are collected to the PCU buffer. but when the PCU has received all the RLC data blocks correctly. There is only one LLC PDU per UL-UNITDATA PDU. USF value for each PDTCH. The channel allocation in this second phase is independent of the first phase. which is the maximum number of unacknowledged RLC blocks. The counter is always reset when the MS uses the frame it has been assigned to. see section Channel allocation and scheduling. and the PCU includes it in the PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message to the MS (contention resolution).

and the uplink and downlink TFIs. the Routing Area of the MS. the PCU may delay the UL TBF release (by 0. Uplink TBF establishment when downlink TBF exists During a downlink TBF the MS can request resources for an uplink TBF by including a Channel Request Description IE in the PACKET_DOWNLINK_ACK/NACK message. or a DTM-capable MS is handed over from a non-DTM cell to a cell that supports DTM. USF values for the uplink PDTCHs. The BSC sends the SUSPEND_PDU message to the SGSN. The SGSN typically stops paging for a suspended mobile. the reason for the suspension dis- DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 115 . When a GPRS attached MS in an (E)GPRS-capable but non-DTM-capable cell leaves dedicated mode. The message contains the TLLI. If the PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message fails. it sends a negative response to the BSC with the SUSPEND-NACK PDU message. and the Suspend Reference Number. The message contains the TLLIand the Routing Area of the MS. If the downlink PDTCH configuration is changed. 9. the MS performs the GPRS suspension procedure. No USF turns are scheduled during this delay. If the SGSN is not able to suspend GPRS services. and TFI. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). If the PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message fails. The SGSN acknowledges with a SUSPEND-ACK PDU message. a PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message from the PCU to the MS contains the uplink PDTCH configuration. disconnecting the MS from the MSC. the Routing Area of the MS and the cause of the negative acknowledgement. The TBF mode of the new UL TBF is always the same as the mode of the existing DL TBF. the uplink TBF is released. the PACKET_TIMESLOT_RECONFIGURE message from the PCU informs the MS of both the uplink and downlink PDTCH configurations.6 Suspend and resume GPRS The GPRS suspension procedure enables the network to discontinue GPRS packet flow in the downlink direction. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. The purpose of the delay is to speed up the possibly following DL TBF establishment. USF values for each PDTCH. both downlink and uplink TBFs are released. The GPRS_SUSPENSION_REQUEST message is an indication to the SGSN not to send downlink data. For more details about the uplink data message contents. This establishment is also guarded by a timer in the PCU. which contains the TLLI. which occurs when a circuit switched call interrupts a GPRS packet flow and the GPRS connection is thus discontinued or suspended. for instance due to MS multislot capability restrictions. When a mobile station which is IMSI attached for GPRS services enters dedicated mode.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control Even if the MS does not support Extended UL TBF Mode. and when the MS or network limitations make it unable to handle both dedicated mode and either packet idle mode or packet transfer mode simultaneously (in other words DTM cannot be used). The MS initiates the GPRS suspension procedure by sending a message to the BSC. Suspend is referred to as the situation. If there is no need to change the downlink PDTCH configuration.5s by default). The establishment is ready when the PCU receives the first block on the assigned uplink PDTCHs. This is done when there is no concurrent DL TBF for the same MS.

When the circuit switched call is released. The SGSN sends a FLUSH-LL PDU to the BSC to ensure that LLC PDUs queued for transmission in a cell for an MS are either deleted or transferred to the new cell. is given. the services are still suspended.8 Cell selection and re-selection Cell selection and re-selection is performed autonomously by the MS or by the network. The signal level threshold criterion parameter C31 for hierarchical cell structures (HCS) is used to determine whether prioritised hierarchical GPRS and LSA cell reselection shall apply. If a DTM-capable MS is handed over from a non-DTM cell to a cell that supports DTM during a dedicated connection. the MS shall perform the Routing Area Update procedure to resume GPRS services in the new cell.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description appears. If the BSC has not been able to resume GPRS services or in case of a DTMcapable MS. The following cell re-selection criteria are used for GPRS: • • The path loss criterion parameter C1 is used as a minimum signal level criterion for cell re-selection for GPRS in the same way as for GSM Idle mode. which contains the TLLI and the Routing Area of the MS. depending on the network control mode. 9. when the MS has stopped data sending in a given cell and has moved to another cell. for instance a DTM-capable MS has not been handed over from a non-DTM cell to a DTM-capable cell. For more details on flush. for example. In this case. BVCI (new). the Routing Area of the MS and the Suspend Reference Number. The SGSN acknowledges the procedure with a RESUME-ACK PDU message. the BSC either instructs the MS to initiate the Routing Area Update procedure or signals to the SGSN that the MS's GPRS service shall be resumed. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. • 116 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . The MS's TLLI indicates which mobile's data is in question and the BVCI (old) indicates the cell. the BSC transfers all buffered LLC PDUs to the new cell on the condition that both the BVCI (old) and the BVCI (new) are served by the same PCU and the same Routing Area. The message contains the TLLI. the BSC resumes the GPRS services before the circuit switched call is released by sending a RESUME PDU message to the SGSN. the MS resumes the services by sending the Routing Area Update Request to the SGSN after the circuit switched connection has been released. The MS starts the Routing Area Update procedure after detecting the DTM service in the cell. The cell ranking criterion parameter (C32) is used to select cells among those with the same priority. If the suspension procedure has been successfully completed and the reason for the suspension is still valid.7 Flush The flush procedure is used. the BSC sends a CHANNEL RELEASE message to the MS indicating that the resume procedure has been successfully completed. The BSC deletes all buffered LLC PDUs in the cell and all contexts for the MS. If an optional new cell. 9. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP).

BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control For information on network-controlled cell re-selection. In case the message buffers of an AS7 plug-in unit begin to fill up. The BCSU rejects messages which are sent in the downlink direction to the TRXSIG if needed. The BCSU checks the count of unhandled messages in the message queue every time a new paging message is received. and the unit can in the worst case thus easily run itself into a state of malfunction. The cause of an overload may be. The BCSU continuously tries.9 Traffic administration The BSC has many overload mechanisms to protect existing traffic flow and thus ensure good quality for end-users. If the load limit is exceeded. If the load limit is exceeded. In the case of overload. Refer to section BSS overload protection and flow control in BSS (BSC) Traffic Handling Capacity. in the planning of the network and capacity being too small in a particular area. BCSU protection against high GPRS RACH load In the uplink direction the BCSU cuts down the load caused by GPRS random accesses. The BCSU cuts down the load caused by GPRS and circuit switched paging messages sent by the SGSN. The BCSU cuts down the load by rejecting particular messages when the processor load or the link load exceeds the defined load limit. neither circuit switched nor GPRS connections can be set up. to set up the GPRS connection. the message is deleted. The load control is based on the number of unhandled messages in the BCSU's message queue. BCSU overload control The BCSU has an overload control to protect itself against the processor overloading and the TRXSIG link overloading. see: 9. see: • • • Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection Inter-System Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection Network-Assisted Cell Change For information on network-assisted cell change. however. the BCSU deletes the message. Network Planning and Overload Protection for more information on the BSC's overload control in general. for example. Circuit switched calls are marked in the same way as GPRS connections. Each message sent to TRXSIG has a certain message group value. The load the BCSU can handle has been tested. BCSU protection against excessive number of paging messages on the Gb interface The BCSU cuts down the load by rejecting particular messages when the processor load or the link load exceeds the defined load limit. The load control is based on the number of unhandled messages in the BCSU's message queue. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 117 . The count of unhandled messages in the message queue is checked every time a new P-CHANNEL_REQUIRED message is received. The BCSU rejects P-CHANNEL_REQUIRED messages received from the TRXSIG if the processor load exceeds the defined load limit. but the user can determine GPRS usage and thus prevent the overload situations from happening. the BCSU rejects messages based on the message group value.

SGSN modifies its downlink transmission as instructed and ensures that it never transmits more data than can be accommodated within the BSC buffer for a BVC or an MS. SGSN uses the MS default values for controlling the flow of an individual MS until it receives a FLOW-CONTROL-MS PDU regarding that MS. This message contains BVC specific buffer size and leak rate. PCU starts to perform periodic flow control in BVC and MS level. If the lifetime of a PDU expires before the PDU is sent across the radio interface. PCU checks the flow control status for each BVC and MS once a second and sends as a periodic FLOW CONTROL PDU to SGSN for the flows which needs to be adjusted. The amount of the data to be stored in the PCU is optimised for efficient use of the available radio resources. refer to BSC-SGSN Interface Specification. the FLOW-CONTROL-MS PDU is sent to SGSN. SGSN is not allowed to transmit more data than indicated by the PCU. Upon reception of a FLOW-CONTROL PDU. The PRFILE parameters FC_B_MAX_TSL and FC_R_TSL define the BVC specific buffer size and leak rate together with the number of actual GPRS timeslots in the cell. For more information on BVC and MS flow control. For a BVC flow. After the initial BVC FLOW-CONTROL PDU. BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP). the FLOW-CONTROL-BVC PDU and for a MS flow. If the PCU does not receive confirmation to a FLOW-CONTROL PDU. as well as default values for MS buffer size and leak rate. Any uplink flow control is not performed. The PFC flow control is an optional functionality. The value C in the PCU is fixed to 1 s. For this purpose the PCU keeps record of the received DL data per BVC and per MS. Local deletion is signalled to the SGSN by a LLC-DISCARDED PDU. The frequency of FLOW-CONTROL PDUs is limited so that the PCU may send a new PDU once in every C seconds for each flow. The parameters FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF and FC_MS_R_DEF define the MS specific default values.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description BSSGP flow control Flow control is part of the BSSGP protocol. the flow control parameters in SGSN needs to be updated. The BVC and MS buffer sizes indicated to the SGSN are controlled by the PRFILE parameters FC_B_MAX_TSL and FC_MS_B_MAX_DEF. and compares the actual leak rate value to the value reported earlier to the SGSN. Flow control is performed for downlink data in BVC (cell) and MS level. If the leak rate difference for a flow exceeds the PRFILE parameter FC_R_DIF_TRG_LIMIT. The 3GPP Rel-5 specifications introduce a third layer for BSSGP flow control: a Packet Flow Context (PFC) flow control. a new FLOWCONTROL PDU is sent to the SGSN after one second. no further action is taken. It knows the buffer utilisation ratio and leak rate of each flow. It is used to adjust the flow of BSSGP DLUNITDATA PDUs from SGSN to the PCU. 118 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . PCU monitors the lifetime values of the buffered DL UNITDATA PDUs. If the condition which requires flow control remains effective. PCU holds a buffer for storing downlink data. Flow control mode of operation The PCU sends an initial FLOW-CONTROL-BVC PDU to the SGSN after a BVC is reset in order to allow SGSN to start the downlink BSSGP data transfer. PCU deletes the PDU locally. PCU controls the flow by indicating its buffer size and maximum allowed throughput to the SGSN.

and the code word for the selected CS is included in each RLC data block sent to the MS. which passes the procedure. The PCU sends an NS-UNITDATA.BLER_CP_CS2). In PCU1 the coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2 are supported.0 kbps * (1 . In unacknowledged RLC mode CS-1 is always used regardless of the parameter values. The PCU deletes any NS-UNITDATA that does not pass the procedure. The PCU can command the MS to change the CS by sending the PACKET_UPLINK_ACK/NACK message. then the initial value for the CS at the beginning of a TBF is CS-2. which includes the Channel Coding Command field. see ETSI specification on Channel Coding) are used to indicate the actual coding scheme (CS) which is used for each block sent between the BSC's PCU and the MS. Although the CS-3 and CS-4 coding schemes are licence based. coding schemes CS-1 and CS-2 can only be used and the Link Adaptation algorithm with coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) parameters is deployed. This updates a counter. If the PCU changes the CS during one TBF reservation. In downlink packet transfer the PCU selects the CS. in case the operator has both PCU1 and PCU2 in use in the same track.BLER_CP_CS1) = 12 kbps * (1 . where the two coding schemes give the same bit rate. Essential for the LA algorithm is the crosspoint. When the Link Adaptation algorithm is deployed. and the BSC sets the alarm 3027 UPLINK CONGESTION ON THE NETWORK SERVICE VIRTUAL CONNECTION in the BSC. it includes the new CS code word in the blocks.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control Uplink congestion control on NS-VC The BSC/PCU uses a local congestion control procedure to adapt uplink NS-UNITDATA traffic to the NS-VCs according to their throughput. The alarm is cancelled automatically. In terms of block error rate (BLER) the following equation holds at the crosspoint: 8. In retransmission the same CS has to be used as in the initial block transmission. In PCU2 the coding schemes CS-3 and CS-4 are introduced.10 Coding scheme selection in GPRS Stealing bits in the channel coding (for more information. 9. where: DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 119 . when NS-UNITDATA again passes the procedure. PCU1 The BSC level parameters coding scheme no hop (COD) and coding scheme hop (CODH) define whether the fixed CS value (CS-1/CS-2) is used or if the coding scheme is changed dynamically according to the Link Adaptation algorithm. However. the PCU informs the MS the initial CS to be used in either the IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT or PACKET_UPLINK_ASSIGNMENT message. the Link Adaptation algorithm is still provided with PCU2. In uplink data transfer. Link Adaptation algorithm The Link Adaptation (LA) algorithm is used to select the optimum channel coding scheme (CS-1 or CS-2) for a particular RLC connection and it is based on detecting the occurred RLC block errors. to the SGSN as long as the CIR of the NS-VC is not exceeded.

For this purpose the following BSC-level parameters are used by the LA algorithm: • • • • UL DL UL DL BLER BLER BLER BLER crosspoint crosspoint crosspoint crosspoint for for for for CS CS CS CS selection selection selection selection hop (ULBH) hop (DLBH) no hop (ULB) no hop (DLB) The given parameters correspond to the BLER_CP_CS1 (see equation above). change to CS-2? Hypothesis: BLER > BLER_CP_CS1. 2. 120 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . two counters are updated: N_Number gives the total number of RLC data blocks and K_Number gives the number of corrupted RLC data blocks that have been transmitted after the last link adaptation decision. then it would be advantageous to change to CS-2. confirm CS-1? Hypothesis: BLER < BLER_CP_CS1. Since CS-1 is more robust than CS-2. During transmission. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Change to CS-2. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at most K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS1. Reset counters N_Number and K_Number.0 kbps is the theoretical maximum bit rate for CS-2 BLER_CP_CS1 is the block error rate at the crosspoint when CS-1 is used BLER_CP_CS2 is the block error rate at the crosspoint when CS-2 is used If CS-1 is used and if BLER is less than BLER_CP_CS1. it means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the given condition of BLER > BLER_CP_CS1. If CS-2 is used and if BLER is larger than BLER_CP_CS2. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS1. then it can be concluded that BLER < BLER_CP_CS1. then it would be advantageous to change to CS-1. and in downlink after every PACKET_DL_ACK/NACK message reception) the LA algorithm is run by performing two of the following (either 1 and 2 or 3 and 4) statistical tests: 1. If this is the case. P-value = If the P-value is less than a certain risk level (RL).GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description • • • • 8. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at least K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions. The crosspoint can be determined separately for UL and DL directions as well as for frequency hopping (FH) and non-FH cases. Current coding scheme is CS-1. BLER_CP_CS2 is larger than BLER_CP_CS1. At certain intervals (in uplink transfer after approximately 10 transmitted RLC blocks. If the hypothesis is rejected.0 kbps is the theoretical maximum bit rate for CS-1 12. Current coding scheme is CS-1.

4. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. confirm CS-2? Hypothesis: BLER > BLER_CP_CS2. then it can be concluded that BLER > BLER_CP_CS2. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at most K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS2. This means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the condition of BLER < BLER_CP_CS1. change to CS-1? Hypothesis: BLER < BLER_CP_CS2. Current coding scheme is CS-2. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Change to CS-1. then it can be concluded that BLER > BLER_CP_CS1. If this is the case. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Reset counters N_Number and K_Number (CS-2 is confirmed). then it can be concluded that BLER < BLER_CP_CS2. This means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the condition of BLER < BLER_CP_CS2. the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence. Action in case the hypothesis is accepted: No actions. P-value = If P-value is less than a certain risk level. 3. In this reference case the number of erroneous blocks follow binomial distribution and the P-value gives the probability to get at least K_Number of block errors out of N_Number of transmissions. Reset counters N_Number and K_Number. Current coding scheme is CS-2. P-value = If P-value is less than a certain risk level. If this is the case. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 121 .BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control P-value = If the P-value is less than a certain risk level. If this is the case. Reference case: N_Number of blocks have been transmitted with a constant BLER value of BLER_CP_CS2. This means that the reference case would hardly give the observed measures with the condition of BLER > BLER_CP_CS2. Action in case the hypothesis is rejected: Reset counters N_Number and K_Number (CS-1 is confirmed). the hypothesis can be rejected with (1-RL) confidence.

which has only two levels: 0 and 1. the initial values for the CS at the beginning of a TBF can also be defined with the parameters DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA). CS-2. they determine the sensitivity of the LA algorithm. The parameter DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA) defines it in RLC acknowledged mode in downlink direction. which describes the channel quality with the accuracy of eight levels (RXQUAL is expressed with three bits). that when a GPRS MS already has a TBF and a new TBF is established for the MS to the opposite direction. then the initial value of the CS of the new TBF is set to be the same that is currently used by the ongoing TBF.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description In practice the threshold K_Number values have been computed beforehand to look-up tables indexed with respect to the N_Number and the link adaptation decisions can be performed by simply comparing the observed K_Number with the theshold K_Number values. The larger the risk level. The new LA algorithm is based on the following principles: 122 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . When the Link Adaptation algorithm is deployed. On a block basis RXQUAL is thus more accurate estimate than the BLER. if there is no room in the dynamic Abis pool for the higher CS allowed by the LA. The PCU chooses a lower CS than what the Link Adaptation algorithm allows. PCU2 The Link Adaptation algorithm In PCU2 the coding schemes CS-1 . CS-3 and CS-4. The BTS level parameter adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) defines whether the Link Adaptation algorithm is adaptive or not.CS-4) is used or if the coding scheme is changed dynamically according to the Link Adaptation algorithm. DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) and UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU). The new Link Adaptation algorithm can be used both in RLC acknowledged and in unacknowledged modes both in uplink and downlink direction.CS-4 are supported. The BTS level parameters DL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (DCSA). DL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (DCSU) and UL coding scheme in unacknowledged mode (UCSU) define whether the fixed CS value (CS-1 . however. Note. UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA). the more quickly the LA algorithm is able react to changes in BLER by switching the coding scheme but on the other hand the reliability of the switching decision is lowered as the risk level is increased. The new Link Adaptation algorithm replaces the current LA algorithm in GPRS and covers the coding schemes: • • • CS-1 and CS-2 if the CS-3 and CS-4 support is not enabled in the territory CS-1. if the CS3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory The signal quality is measured for each TBF in terms of RXQUAL. Note that RXQUAL is measured for each received RLC radio block. UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA) defines it in RLC acknowledged mode in uplink direction and so on. In other words. The Risk Level parameters (UL adaption probability threshold (ULA) and DL adaption probability threshold (DLA)) describe the probability with which the LA algorithm may make a wrong conclusion to reject a given hypothesis. UL coding scheme in acknowledged mode (UCSA).

To solve this. there is no need for pre-determined threshold values that are traditionally used in link adaptation. the RLC does not update ACKS and NACKS tables but only the initial values of those tables will be used when the LA algorithm selects the optimal CS. both figures are divided by 2. In these tables. Whenever an RLC block is negatively acknowledged. The PCU has separate ACKS and NACKS tables as well as separate initialisation for hopping and non-hopping BTSs. that is the highest throughput in RLC acknowledged mode. When the PCU receives a valid Packet DL Ack/Nack message for the DL TBF that operates in an RLC acknowledged mode. ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. Therefore. the RLC updates the ACKS and NACKS tables as follows: • Whenever an RLC block is positively acknowledged. CS3 or CS4 were deployed for this TBF. the PCU is able to estimate what the BLER would be if CS1. This is done separately in each cell by collecting statistics continuously from all the connections in the corresponding cell. Based on the statistics (common for all the TBFs in the cell) and the received RXQUAL estimate (specific to the given TBF). The RXQUAL is averaged over the received RLC blocks and the averaged RXQUAL estimate is sent to the network in the Packet DL Ack/Nack messages. NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. the operation of the LA algorithm is initially based on the simulation results. Therefore. if a negative acknowledgement is received. the received bitmap is analysed and the corresponding RLC blocks are marked as ACKED. During the DL data transfer the mobile station measures the signal quality (RXQUAL) from the RLC radio blocks that are successfully decoded and addressed to the mobile station. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was originally transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value received in this particular Packet DL Ack/Nack message. Initially the ACKS and NACKS tables are initialised with values obtained from the simulations. the first index refers to the coding scheme and the second index refers to the RXQUAL value. In the long run the figures would overflow resulting in erroneous behavior. • If the value of the parameter adaptive LA algorithm (ALA) is N (disabled). when the sum (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) for CS and RXQ exceeds a certain threshold value. based on these BLER estimates the PCU can compute which coding scheme would give the best performance. There can be eight different values for the RXQUAL. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the RXQUAL value received in this particular Packet DL Ack/Nack message. Operation in downlink direction The PCU uses two 2-dimensional tables (ACKS and NACKS) for the LA operation (another set of ACKS and NACKS tables are needed for UL direction). CS2.BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control • • • The PCU determines internally the average BLER separately for each coding scheme and reported RXQUAL value. Moreover. In this procedure. or as NACKED. if a positive acknowledgement is received. Coding scheme selection in downlink direction in RLC acknowledged mode DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 123 . The ACKS and NACKS tables contain ever-increasing figures. The new LA algorithm adapts to the radio characteristics of the cell because the BLER is dynamically measured as a function of RXQUAL and coding scheme.

then the coding scheme is changed to CS-1 Operation in uplink direction In UL direction the channel quality estimate can be either RXQUAL or GMSK_BEP depending on the Abis interface. the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. If the MS does not aswer to polling. The PCU data frame used in the non-EDGE Abis interface reports the channel quality in terms of RXQUAL. then the coding scheme is changed to CS-3. CS-4. which is expressed with three bits. The PCU uses two 2-dimensional tables (ACKS and NACKS) for LA operation. • K is a correction factor that takes into account the throughput reduction due to the RLC protocol stalling • RXQ is the RXQUAL value that was received in the newly-processed Packet DL Ack/Nack message • RATE[4] -table contains the theoretical maximum throughput values for the available channel coding schemes 2. otherwise CS = CS-1. In this case the only possible coding schemes are CS-1 and CS-2. If no CS fulfills this condition. CS-2. the coding number will be decreased step-by-step as follows: • • • If one Packet DL Ack/Nack message is missed with CS-4. The correction factor K depends on the BLER and on the number of RLC radio blocks scheduled to the TBF within the RLC acknowledgement delay. The coding schemes that are in an unacknowledged mode are selected by choosing the highest CS for which BLER (CS) < QC_UNACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. 124 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 . If two subsequent Packet DL Ack/Nack messages are missed with CS-3. then the coding scheme is changed to CS-2. The throughput of the link is estimated for each coding scheme separately as follows: throughput [CS] = K * ACKS [CS][RXQ] / (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) * RATE[CS]. Coding scheme selection in downlink direction in RLC unacknowledged mode In unacknowledged mode RLC does not have to update the ACKS and NACKS tables but it can use the same ACKS and NACKS tables updated by the TBFs in acknowledged mode. the first index refers to the coding scheme and the second index refers to the RXQUAL or GMSK BEP value. The PCU has separate ACKS and NACKS tables as well as separate initialisation for hopping and non-hopping BTSs.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description After the bitmap is processed. Its value has been determined by simulations. If three subsequent Packet DL Ack/Nack messages are missed with CS-2. CS-2. CS-3. if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory. The coding scheme is selected based on the highest throughput with the condition of BLER (CS) < QC_ACK_BLER_LIMIT_T . where BLER(CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS[CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]). In these tables. Initially the ACKS and NACKS tables are initialised to the values obtained from the simulations. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS[CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]) and RXQ is the RXQUAL estimate that is received in the Packet DL Ack/Nack message. the LA algorithm selects the optimal coding scheme for a TBF as follows: 1. where: CS = CS-1. If these conditions are not fulfilled the coding scheme CS-1 is selected.

This is done for each uplink TBF. RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF and RATE [4] -table contains the theoretical maximum throughput values for the available channel coding schemes. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS [CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]) and RXQ is the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. If no CS fulfills this condition. K is a correction factor that takes into account the throughput reduction due to the RLC protocol stalling. the RLC averages the GMSK_BEP estimates sent by the BTS for both correctly and erroneously received RLC radio blocks. Coding scheme selection in uplink direction in RLC acknowledged mode 1. Whenever a RLC block is received unsuccessfully. Coding scheme selection in uplink direction in RLC unacknowledged mode In unacknowledged mode the RLC message does not have to update the ACKS and NACKS tables but it can use the same ACKS and NACKS tables that are updated by the TBFs in acknowledged mode. if CS-3 and CS-4 support is enabled in the territory. This is done for each UL TBF. otherwise CS = CS-1. both figures are divided by 2. CS-3. ACKS [CS][RXQ] = ACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. The coding schemes are selected in unacknowledged mode as follows: The coding schemes that are in an unacknowledged mode are selected by choosing the highest CS for which BLER (CS) < QC_UNACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. CS-2. NACKS [CS][RXQ] = NACKS [CS][RXQ] + 1. the RLC averages the RXQUAL estimates sent by the BTS for the correctly received RLC radio blocks. The coding scheme is selected based on the highest throughput with the condition of BLER (CS) <QC_ACK_BLER_LIMIT_T. As in the DL case the figures in the ACKS and NACKS tables are limited so that when the sum (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) for certain CS and RXQ exceeds a certain threshold value. If these conditions are not fulfilled for any CS the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. where BLER (CS) = NACKS [CS] [RXQ] / (ACKS [CS] [RXQ] + NACKS [CS] [RXQ]). the coding scheme CS-1 is selected. 2. During the UL data transfer the PCU updates the ACKS and NACKS tables as follows: Whenever a new RLC block is successfully received. In case of GMSK_BEP. where CS indicates the coding scheme with which this RLC block was transmitted and RXQ refers to the current RXQUAL or GMSK BEP estimate for this UL TBF. The throughput of the link is estimated for each coding scheme separately as follows: throughput [CS] = K * ACKS [CS][RXQ] / (ACKS [CS][RXQ] + NACKS [CS][RXQ]) * RATE [CS]. CS-2. CS-4. The same correction factor table K can be used as in the DL case. The GMSK_BEP estimate is made also from the bad frames because the GMSK_BEP estimate for successfully received CS-4 blocks alone approaches zero in all radio conditions (there is no error correction in CS-4).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description GPRS radio connection control In case of RXQUAL. where: CS = CS-1. DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b60 125 .

The operator can use the cell-specific parameters binary representation ALPHA (ALPHA) and binary representation TAU (GAMMA) to optimise the signal strength.3 .018/. Due to the data bursts in traffic. There are two PRFILE parameters controlling the procedure. The enquiry is carried out by the Gb interface Radio Access Capability Update procedure defined in 3GPP 48.8 gamma_ch = 20. The gamma parameter ( Γ CH in the figure) sets the minimum MS output power level... alfa = 0. and the alpha parameter ( α in the figure) sets the slope for field strength effect to uplink power level.GPRS radio connection control BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description 9. but the information is not available in the PCU.. the power control is not as effective as for circuit switched traffic..018/.. Power control is used for optimising the signal strength from MS to BTS... • Uplink power control M S Outpu t Po we r (dBm) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 gamma_ch = 30 alfa = 0...11 Power control GPRS power control consists of the uplink power control.018.. Parameter TGB_RAC_UPDATE defines T5 /48. and parameter RAC_UPDATE_RETRIES defines RA-CAPABILITY-UPDATE-RETRIES /48.12 MS Radio Access Capability update When the PCU needs to know the MS's RAC information... 126 Id:0900d80580590b60 DN7036138 Issue 3-2 .45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 10 10 11 0 5 0 Signal Strength (dBm) Figure 24 Uplink power control The power of each block needs to be sufficient for two MSS: • • The MS receiving the data The MS receiving the Uplink State Flag (USF determines the uplink transmission turn in case several mobiles have been assigned to the same uplink PDTCH). 9. the PCU initiates an MS RAC enquiry from the SGSN.

This way. you only need to activate GPRS again in the cell or the TRX to bring GPRS into use. modifying the Gb interface or routing areas (RAs).BSS09006: GPRS System Feature Description Implementing GPRS 10 Implementing GPRS 10. and related tasks could thus be. Modify GPRS. For detailed instructions. Typical instances for modifying GPRS are caused by changes in capacity. You can implement GPRS in the network by using BSC MMI or NetAct. It is possible to disable GPRS on a cell or TRX level. 3 Disable GPRS in the BSC. Disabling GPRS is a reverse operation to that of taking GPRS into use. for example. starting from disabling GPRS on a cell level to deleting the Routing Areas (RAs) and removing the Gb interface connection and required units. Further information • • Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS Enabling GPRS in the GSM radio network in NetAct Product Documentation DN7036138 Issue 3-2 Id:0900d80580590b66 127 . and not to disable GPRS altogether. you must have valid licences for the following: • • PCU or PCU2 GPRS or EGPRS Steps 1 2 Enable GPRS in the BSC. Before you start To enable GPRS in a BSC. see Activating and Testing BSS9006: GPRS. In NetAct.1 Implementing GPRS overview Purpose Implementing GPRS means activating GPRS in BSC. GPRS parameters can be modified with Plan Editor and the Routing Area can be created with CM Editor.

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