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SEMINAR on HCCI Engine

HOMOGENEOUS CHARGE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. HISTORY DEFINITION HCCI & OTHERS SI , CI & HCCI PRINCIPLE HCCI CONCEPT OPERATION METHODS CONTROL OF HCCI ADVANTAGES DIS- ADVANTAGES CHALLENGES FUTURE OF HCCI CONCLUDING REMARKS

HISTORY
engines have a long history, even though HCCI has not been as widely implemented as spark ignition or diesel injection.
HOT-BULB ENGINE

HCCI

In fact, HCCI was popular before electronic spark ignition was used. One example is the HOT-BULB ENGINE .Another example is the DIESEL MODEL AIRCRAFT ENGINE.

DEFINITION
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. HCCI has characteristics of the two most popular forms of combustion used in SI engines: spark ignition (gasoline engines) and CI engines: compression ignition (diesel engines).

HCCI & others


In SI , the fuel and oxidizer are mixed together and an electric discharge is used to ignite a portion of the mixture. CI also relies on temperature and density increase resulting from compression, but combustion occurs at the boundary of fuel-air mixing, caused by an injection event, to initiate combustion. However in HCCI , rather than using an electric discharge to ignite a portion of the mixture, the density and temperature of the mixture are raised by compression until the entire mixture reacts spontaneously and auto-ignites.

SI , CI and HCCI

SI Engine

HCCI

Traditional combustion (left) uses a spark to ignite the mixture. HCCI (right) uses piston compression for a more complete ignition.

SI , CI & HCCI
In SI & CI, the combustion occurs in a flame front and only a portion of the air-fuel mixture burns at a time. In HCCI, combustion initiates simultaneously at multiple sites within the combustion chamber and there is no discernable flame propagation.

HCCI CONCEPT

OPERATION METHODS
Fuel-air will ignite when the conc. and temp. of reactants is sufficiently high. It can be increased by : High compression ratio Pre-heating of induction gases Forced induction Retained or re-inducted exhaust gases Once ignited, combustion occurs very quickly. When autoignition occurs too early or with too much chemical energy, combustion is too fast and high in-cylinder pressures can destroy an engine. For this reason, HCCI is typically operated at lean overall fuel mixtures.

CONTROL OF HCCI
In an HCCI engine, the homogeneous mixture of fuel and air is compressed and combustion begins whenever the appropriate conditions are reached. This means that there is no well-defined combustion initiator that can be directly controlled. Engines can be designed so that the ignition conditions occur at a desirable timing. To achieve dynamic operation in an HCCI engine, the control system must change the conditions that induce combustion. Thus, the engine must control either the compression ratio, inducted gas temperature, inducted gas pressure, fuel-air ratio, or quantity of retained or re-inducted exhaust.

CONTROL APPROACH
Several control approaches are discussed below. Variable compression ratio Variable induction temperature Variable exhaust gas percentage Variable valve actuation Variable fuel ignition quality Direct Injection: PCCI or PPCI Combustion

ADVANTAGES
HCCI provides up to a 30-percent fuel savings, while meeting current emissions standards. Since HCCI engines are fuel-lean, they can operate at a Diesel-like compression ratios (>15), thus achieving higher efficiencies than conventional SI gasoline engines. Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air leads to cleaner combustion and lower emissions. Actually, because peak temperatures are significantly lower than in typical SI engines, NOx levels are almost negligible.

ADVANTAGES
HCCI is closer to the ideal Otto cycle than spark-ignited combustion. Additionally, the premixed lean mixture does not produce soot. HCCI engines can operate on gasoline, diesel fuel and most alternative fuels. Since HCCI runs throttle less, it eliminates throttling losses.

DIS-ADVANTAGES
High in-cylinder peak pressures may cause damage to the engine. High heat release and pressure rise rates contribute to engine wear. The auto-ignition event is difficult to control, unlike the ignition event in gasoline and diesel engines which are controlled by spark plugs and in-cylinder fuel injectors, respectively. CO and HC pre-catalyst emissions are higher than a typical SI engine, caused by incomplete oxidation (due to the rapid combustion event and low in-cylinder temperatures) and trapped gases, respectively.

CHALLENGES
Controlling Ignition Timing over a Range of Speeds and Load . Extending the Operating Range to High Load . Cold-Start Capability. Unburnt Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emission .

THE FUTURE OF HCCI


The future of HCCI looks promising specially with partial HCCI mode. Major companies such as GM, Mercedes-Benz, Honda, and Volkswagen have invested in HCCI research. General Motors has demonstrated Opel Vectra and Saturn Aura with modified HCCI engines. Mercedes-Benz has developed a prototype engine called DiesOtto, with controlled auto ignition. It was displayed in its F 700 concept car at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show.

THE FUTURE OF HCCI


Volkswagen are developing two types of engine for HCCI operation. Combined Combustion System(CCS); is diesel engine but uses homogenous intake charge rather than traditional diesel injection. Gasoline Compression Ignition(GCI); it uses HCCI when cruising and SI when accelerating. The company expects them to be ready for production in about 2015. In October 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported that Honda was developing an HCCI engine as part of an effort to produce a next generation hybrid car.

HCCI ENGINE ON ROAD

CONCLUDING REMARKS
HCCI is a high-risk, long-term alternative technology deserving of increased support and develpoment. HCCI engines have the potential to match or exceed the efficiency of diesel-fueled CIDI engines without the major challenge of NOx and PM emission control or a major impact on fuel-refining capability. A high-efficiency, gasoline-fueled HCCI engine represents a major step beyond SIDI engines for light-duty vehicles. For heavy-duty vehicles, successful development of the dieselfueled HCCI engine is an important alternative strategy in the event that CIDI engines cannot achieve future NOx and PM emissions standard.

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