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Planning is the process of preparing a blueprint of actions to attain stated objectives within a time frame.
The determination of objectives, the specifications of targets, the strategy for mobilization of resources, the allocation of outlays to different development sectors.
The blueprint of actions (including their operationalisation in the shape of policies, programmes and their delivery system) which have to be considered in any planning exercise.
To formulate with some accuracy what we intend to achieve within a given time frame Prioritization among various objectives enables us to distinguish more important objectives from those and which are less concerned Possible considering the resources at hand and how additional resources can be mobilized .
Kahn defines planning as follows: ◦ Planning is policy choice and programming in the light of facts. Alfred J. ◦ Planning is a policy formulation and realization through choices and rationalization. All of these may be summarized briefly as. . projections and application of values.
and foreign governments. Government agencies engage in large-scale development. and policies. • For example. services. • Social planning is a process for planning social services programs. the Social Security program during the Great Depression and the anti-poverty programs of the 1960s were developed by government planners relying on research. state. previous theories.• Social planning is a PROCESS that helps communities to identify strengths and weaknesses and determine ways to improve the quality of life in the community. and planning to address social problems. research. . and model programs initiated by local.
Rothman describes the primary goal of social planning as problem solving. government agencies. These policies may take the form of laws. information a wide range of possibilities. media campaigns. regulations. . legislators. incentives. Rothman 1979and Rothman 1996 identify social planning as one of three primary models of community organization in addition to social action and community development. planners. programs or services.try to solve community problems or improve conditions in the community by devising and implementing policies intended to have certain results. Social planning is the process by which policymakers. funders . and often.
social planning has to be put into practice through social policy. Social planning is also referred to as “neighborhood planning” if it takes place in community settings. . where by the process of social services planning and implementation becomes open and clear. Though. The term “social planning” is used generically to describe the planning of social services or efforts to improve the quality of life in communities.
To increase production to the maximum possible extent so as to achieve higher level of national and per capita income To achieve full employment To reduce inequalities of income and wealth To set up a socialist society based on equality and justice and absence of exploitation. .
involving concurrent planning at the national and state level. . targets and outlays ◦ First Five Year Plan (1951-56) ◦ 11th Five years plan continue Multi-Level Structure of Planning Planning in India operates in a democratic framework. Five Year Plans ◦ Five Year Plans is basically a simple exercise of putting together programmes. through a centralized system.
Planning Level Political/Administrative Territorial Equivalent Planning Concept Macro-level (National Plan) Mezzo-level (State Plan) Nation Central planning/policy planning/ State Plan/Sectoral budgetary planning/Regional planning State Micro-level (Decentralized Plan) District District planning area development District planning area development Block level planning Block Village production plan & Planning for target group. Village .
National level Planning ◦ Planning Commission is the technical body for facilitating the planning process in India chief function is to make an assessment of the material. capital and human resources of the country It performs role as an advisory body functioning at the highest policy level without further being involved in the responsibilities of day-to-day administration. It provide feedback to the planners and implementing agencies. .
◦ National Development Council Economic and Social level planning is in the concurrent list where Centre as well as the states are interested and have to work in union. Co-ordination between two integrating structure centralized set-up is brought about through a process of mutual consultation .
State Level Planning State Planning Department ◦ It is responsible for the preparation of the Five Year Plans. Manpower and Evaluation planning and monitoring of programmes assesses the requirements and need for manpower District Level Planning need to supplement the national and state plans Block Level Planning community development block Lowest administration level within a specified time frame . Annual plans. monitoring of the plans and generally the evaluation of programmes Department of Economics and Statistics.
which give direction to a particular course of action by the government or by an organization. in a very specific sense. It also refers to. an intended or executed course of action. The term ‘policy’ refers to the general guidelines or principles. .
” . ◦ the circumstances of living of individuals and groups in that society and ◦ the nature of intrasocietal relationships among individuals. According to Kulkarni “Social policy is the strategy of action indicating means and methods to be followed in successive phases to achieve the declared social objectives. groups and society as a whole.” According to David Gill: “Social policies are principles /course of action designed to influence: ◦ the overall quality of life in a society.
deliberately designed to improve the welfare of people. Social Policy is a written course of action for achieving pre-determined. well defined objective” Marshall states that the term. “social policy represents a summation of acts of government.” According to Prof.” . by providing them with services or income. “Social policy refers to the policy of governments with regard to action having a direct impact on the welfare of citizens. Titmuss.
Improvement of quality of life of people To achieve social objectives To plan out short term and long term objectives To prevent mismanagement To evaluate existing social services To gear social development and social change To develop and mentor effective and efficient human resources . Social policies aim to bring about social change Minimization of sufferings and maximization of welfare.
social policy is with social and economic justice based on the principle of equality social policy is its concern with weaker and vulnerable sections of society social policies do not exist in isolation .
Indian constitution focus on liberty. equality and solidarity Involves social equity and social justice + secularism Fundamental rights and Directive principle influence social policy in India . fraternity.
protection of interest of minority ◦ Article 32provides remedy for enforcement of fundamental rights .protection of life ◦ Article 23. Fundamental Rights (Article 12-35) Political and Civil Rights ◦ Article 15.freedom of speech ◦ Article 21.prohibition of human traffic ◦ Article 24.abolition of untouchability ◦ Article 19.prohibits child labour ◦ Article 26.freedom to manage religious affairs ◦ Article 29.equality before law ◦ Article 17.
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