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• Environment means “surroundings” • Includes air (atmosphere), water (hydrosphere), soil ( lithosphere) and living entities ( biosphere ). • Growth of cities, population explosion and rapid industrial development have led to the release of various contaminants • Quality of life on earth is linked to the quality of the environment sustaining it.
• Onslaught of the environment :
overexploitation of land, air and water resources destruction of biodiversity and natural resources injection of hazardous substances
HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
• • • • Advent of the Industrial Revolution Release of industrial pollutants. Waste generation in tremendous amounts Result : environmental deterioration
Historical Significance of the Industrial Revolution • An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life was not much different – agriculture and technology were not much changed in 2000+ years • The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically • More was created in the last 250+ years than in the previous 2500+ years of known human history .
from human labor to machines • The more efficient means of production and subsequent higher levels of production triggered far-reaching changes to industrialized societies .What was the Industrial Revolution? • The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced.
iron. steam. . kerosene) Some historians place advances in atomic. electricity. and wind energy at the later stages of the Industrial Revolution Increased use of metals and minerals Aluminum. oil (gas. solar. copper. coal.The Industrial Revolution Machines were invented which replaced human labor New energy sources were developed to power the new machinery – water. etc.
The Industrial Revolution Transportation improved Ships ○ Wooden ships → Iron ships → Steel ships ○ Wind-powered sails → Steam-powered boilers Trains Automobiles Communication improved Telegraph Telephone Radio .
Developments Mass production of goods Increased numbers of goods Increased diversity of goods produced Development of factory system of production Rural-to-urban migration People left farms to work in cities Development of capitalism Financial capital for continued industrial growth Development and growth of new socio-economic classes Working class. and wealthy industrial class Commitment to research and development Investments in new technologies Industrial and governmental interest in promoting invention. and overall industrial growth . bourgeoisie. the sciences.
etc. Voltaire. Atmosphere of discovery and free intellectual inquiry Greater knowledge of the world Weakened superstition and tradition Encouraged learning and the search for better and newer ways of doing things . Intellectual Revolution 17th and 18th centuries Writings of Locke.Background of the Industrial Revolution Scientific Revolution 17th and 18th centuries Discoveries of Boyle. Newton. Lavoisier. etc.
England: Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution • No concrete start date for the Industrial Revolution • Marked by gradual. slow changes • After 1750 – these changes were noticeable first in England .
Why the Industrial Revolution Started in England Capital for investing in the means of production Colonies and Markets for manufactured goods Raw materials for production Workers Merchant marine Geography .
“Necessity Is the Mother of Invention” Spinning machine Need to speed up weaving Power loom created .
“Necessity Is the Mother of Invention” Power loom Increased demand for raw cotton Invention of the cotton gin .
“Necessity Is the Mother of Invention” Cotton gin Demands for stronger iron Improvements in iron smelting and the development of steel (Bessemer process) .
factories needed more coal to create this steam Mining methods improved to meet the demand for more coal •The process of inventing never ends •One invention inevitably leads to improvements upon it and to more inventions .“Necessity Is the Mother of Invention” As more steam-powered machines were built.
• Cell phone towers were built around the globe. • Compare between the original cell phone and the current I Phone .• An excellent example of this phenomenon is the personal computer or cell phone. • Cell phones were initially used by professionals who needed fast communications for business. increasing demand. • The everyday usefulness of cell phones was quickly apparent. and cell phone technology continues to grow more complex.
and experimental stations Progress in agriculture Pesticides. new foods. much more food is grown by far fewer farmers than was grown 200 years ago (or is grown today in the non-industrialized world) .Agricultural Revolution Agriculture became a science during the Agricultural Revolution Farmers and governments invested in agricultural research Established agricultural schools. new farming techniques and irrigation methods. frozen foods Result Today. in the industrialized world. stock breeding. food preservation. societies.
or old.The First and Second Industrial Revolutions The first. the United States. Belgium. Industrial Revolution took place between about 1750 and 1870 Took place in England. and France Saw fundamental changes in agriculture. the development of factories. and rural-to-urban migration .
Japan. particularly of consumer goods Use of electrical power saw electronics enter the marketplace (electric lights. and Russia Electricity became the primary source of power for factories. television sets) . and homes Mass production.The second Industrial Revolution took place between about 1870 and 1960 Saw the spread of the Industrial Revolution to places such as Germany. radios. fans. farms.
Industrial Staffordshire .
Problems of Polution The Silent Highwayman .1858 .
The New Industrial City .
Early-19c London by Gustave Dore .
Worker Housing in Manchester .
The effect of DDT residues on bird population • Minamata Bay – mercury poisoning • Agent Orange – used in chemical warfare in the Vietnam War • Hazardous waste production in developed countries – US. Japan – 180.Major Landmarks • 1960s – the first landmark episode of toxic chemical pollution – reported by Ms Rachel Carson – Silent Spring.5kg per capita per year . 100 and 5. Netherlands.
THE PROBLEM • • • • • • Chemicals in the environment Natural chemical compounds Atmospheric pollutants Water contamination Solid Wastes Hazardous wastes .
metalloids. organic compounds. flora and fauna • Release of non-metals. contamination of ground and surface water heavy metals – mercury. Cd. . biodiversity. hormones. ozone depletion. global warming. undergo processes in the atmosphere and transform into toxic compounds photochemical reaction. acid rain. antibiotics.I) CHEMICALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT • Agriculture – use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Pb – effect on wildlife.
II) ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS • Ambient air quality – very much lower and impact more pronounced in metropolitans and urban areas. refineries. industries. thermal powerplants. • Indoor air pollution . • Emissions from vehicles.
30 .Criteria : Air Pollutants • EPA uses six "criteria pollutants" as indicators of air quality • EPA established for each of them a maximum concentration above which adverse effects on human health may occur.
pneumonia – precursor both to ozone (O3) and acid rain – oxidation of the primary air pollutant nitric oxide (NO) – The two major emissions sources are transportation and stationary fuel combustion sources such as electric utility and industrial boilers. NO2. NOx sum of NO.Criteria : air pollutants • Nitrogen Dioxide: NO2 – brownish gas irritates the respiratory system originates from combustion (N2 in air is oxidized). other oxides of N – Causes bronchitis. 31 .
chemical manufacturing. reduces lung function and sensitizes the lungs to other irritants. dry cleaners. • VOCs are emitted from sources as diverse as autos. The reactivity of O3 causes health problems because it damages lung tissue. . paint shops and other sources using solvents.• Ozone: ground level O3 – primary constituent of urban smog – concentrations of O3 at ground level are a major health and environmental concern • reaction of VOC + NOx in presence of heat +sun light = ozone • Peak O3 levels occur typically during the warmer times of the year. Both VOCs and NOx are emitted by transportation and industrial sources.
manual dexterity. • Exposure to elevated CO levels can cause impairment of visual perception. • 77% of the nationwide CO emissions are from transportation sources . learning ability and performance of complex tasks. odorless and poisonous gas produced by incomplete burning of carbon in fuels. • When CO enters the bloodstream. • Health threats are most serious for those who suffer from cardiovascular disease.• Carbon monoxide (CO) • colorless. it reduces the delivery of oxygen to the body's organs and tissues. particularly those with angina or peripheral vascular disease.
including inhalation of air and ingestion of Pb in food. non-ferrous smelters. kidney. toxic to liver. soil or dust.• Lead: Pb – cause learning disabilities in children . and battery plants are the most significant contributors to atmospheric Pb emissions – tetraethyl lead – anti knock agent in gasoline • leaded gasoline has been phased out 34 . water. – Excessive Pb exposure can cause seizures. blood forming organs – Exposure to lead (Pb) can occur through multiple pathways. mental retardation and/or behavioral disorders – Lead gasoline additives.
children and the elderly. steel mills. visibility impairment Ambient SO2 results largely from stationary sources such as coal and oil combustion.affects breathing and may aggravate existing respiratory and cardiovascular disease. pulp and paper mills and from nonferrous smelters. refineries. or acid rain. individuals with bronchitis or emphysema. - • .asthmatics. crops. primary contributor to acid deposition. Sensitive populations .• Sulfur dioxide (SO2) . historic buildings and statues. which causes acidification of lakes and streams and can damage trees.
construction activity. . soot. dirt. smoke and liquid droplets directly emitted into the air by sources such as factories.wind-blown dust. power plants. vehicles traveling on unpaved roads.5fine) – respiratory disorders – industrial and residential combustion and vehicle exhaust – Sources of Coarse particles . cars. fires and natural windblown dust. materials handling. and crushing and grinding operations.• Particulate Matter: PM10 (PM 2. – Air pollutants called particulate matter include dust.
• Sulfur Dioxide: SO2 – formed when fuel (coal. or acid rain – Health problems – aggravates respiratory problems and cardiovascular disease – Visibility impairment – Sources – coal and oil combustion. steel mills. pulp and paper mills and from nonferrous smelters. oil) containing S is burned and metal smelting – precursor to acid rain along with Nox – SO2 is also a primary contributor to acid deposition. . refineries.
condensation deposition Volatilization. sprays. musts Atmosphere Particles Masses Air deposition terrestrial Uptake Bioaccumulation Volatilization. coagulation. sedimentation. reaction. dust Release soil water Uptake plants animals Bioaccumulation Soil solids sorption organisms Soil solids sorption microorganisms release release Release Soil water Erosion and Run-off Irrigation .Pollutants – diffusion.
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT • Biotech methods used in : – assessing the well-being of ecosystems – transformation of pollutants to benign substances – generate biodegradeable materials – develop eco-friendly manufacturing and dsiposal processes .
it has added a new dimension in pollution biosurveillance. bio-sensing and bio-abatement using GMO’s with upgraded efficiency yo scavenge pollutants • Minimization of pollution load. DDT concentration in dolphins is 1000 times more than sea water . biomethylation of toxic metals.• Biotechnology – technology that employs biomaterials and biological principles to produce beneficial products of human need. • Better understanding of the mechanisms of pollutant action at cellular and molecular levels – biomagnification. • In the environmental arena.
situ Bioremediation Process Engineering Engineering molecular protein biosensor & microassay In-situ Bioremediation Molecular biology catabolic genes and proteins Toxicology.Plant based bioremediation & transgenics Microbe-based Bioremediation Phytoremediation Ex. and Soil Biotechnology Bioenvironment & Engineering Environmental Biotechnology Microbiology and microbial ecology Chemistry inorganic and Organic . Water. Toxicogenomics and Detoxification Biochemistry Catabolic Proteins and Intermediate Metabolites ENVIRONMENT Air.