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Sheet 1.

Equations, Inequalities and Sets


Exercise 1.1. Solve the given equations.
a) (x − 3)(x + 5) = 0 b) (2 − x)(x + 3) = 0 c) x2 + 8x + 12 = 0

d) x2 + x + 1 = 0 e) x2 − x − 30 = 0 f) x(x − 2) = 3(x − 2)

g) (3x + 2)2 = 7(3x + 2) h) x4 − 10x2 + 9 = 0 i) |2x − 5| = 3

j) 22x = 32 k) 4x − 3 · 2x − 4 = 0 l) log2 x = 0
1
m) logx 8 = m) log2 (x − 4) = 3 o) (log x)3 − log x = 0
8
Exercise 1.2. Solve the given inequalities.
a) 4 ≤ 3x − 2 < 13 b) 2x + 1 ≤ 4x − 3 ≤ x + 7 c) |x − 5| < 2

d) |3x + 2| ≥ 4 e) x2 − 5x + 6 ≥ 0 f) x2 + 2x + 1 ≤ 0
µ ¶4x
1 1
g) x3 + 3x2 − 4x > 0 h) 2x < 32 i) <
4 64
µ ¶ 3x−2
x−3
1
x
j) 7 ≤ 1 k) ≤3 l) log 1 (x + 1) > 3
3 2

m) log3 (x2 + 2) > 3 n) log2 (x + 1) + log2 (x − 1) < 3

Exercise 1.3. For given sets A and B nd A ∪ B, A ∩ B, A \ B. Mark the results on the real axis.
a) A = {x ∈ R : x2 + 8x + 12 < 0} B = {x ∈ R : (x − 2)(x + 1) ≥ 0}
½ ¾ ½ ¾
1 1+x
b) A = x ∈ R : x < B= x∈R: >1
x 1−x
c) A = {x ∈ R : 2x2 + x ≤ 1} B = {x ∈ R : |x − 1| > 2}

d) A = {x ∈ R : ||x + 1| + 2| = 2} B = {x ∈ R : x2 + x > 1}

e) A = {x ∈ R : x2 < 3} B = {x ∈ R : |x + 2| > 3}
½ ¾
x2 − 2x
f) A = x ∈ R : 2 B = {x ∈ R : |x − 1| ≤ 5}
x −4
g) A = {x ∈ R : x3 + 3x < 4x2 } B = {x ∈ R : (x + 1)(x − 2)(x + 3) ≥ 0}

h) A = {x ∈ R : (2 − x)(x + 1)(x + 3) ≥ 0} B = {x ∈ R : x3 − x2 ≤ 0}
½ ¾ ½ ¾
1 4
i) A = x ∈ R : < 4 B= x∈R: <x
x x
½ ¾
x2 − 1 © ¯ ¯ ª
j) A = x ∈ R : 2 ≥0 B = x ∈ R : ¯x + 12 ¯ < 1
x +1
n ¡ ¢2x o
k) A = {x ∈ R : 2x+1 > 4} B = x ∈ R : 13
1 Equations, Inequalities and Sets

n 3x−5 √ o n x+3 o
¡ 1 ¢ 1−x
l) A = x ∈ R : 7 x+2 ≥ 7 B= x∈R: 3

m) A = {x ∈ R : 2x+1 + 2x−1 ≤ 20} B = {x ∈ R : 5x + 3 · 5x−2 > 28}


½ ¾
x
n) A = {x ∈ R : 4 x+1
+2 2−2x
< 17} B = x ∈ R : >3
x+1
o) A = {x ∈ R : log2 (x2 − 1) < 3} B = {y ∈ R : 0 < |y| < 3}
n o
p) A = x ∈ R : log 1 (x + 5) > 0 B = {x ∈ R : log(x + 2) >}
2

© √ ª n ¡ 1 ¢ 1−x o
q) A = x ∈ R : log x+1=2 B= x∈R: 2
x
≤1
½ ¾
2+x
r) A = {x ∈ R : logx (x + 1) > 1} B= x∈R: ≤1
3−x

Exercise 1.4. In the Cartesian (rectangular) coordinate system mark the sets A × B and B × A,
where:
a) A = [1, 5] B = [2, 3] b) A = [1, 5] B = [2, ∞] c) A = [1, 4] ∪ (5, 7) B = (1, 2]

d) A = {2} B = (1, 3) e) A = (∞, −1) B = [1, ∞) f) A = R B = {3}

g) A = R B = {3} ∪ (4, 5) h) A = {1, 2, 3} B = {4, 5}