Forced Draft and Induced Draft Fan Maintenance Guide

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Technical Report

Forced Draft and Induced Draft Fan Maintenance Guide
1009651

Final Report, December 2004

EPRI Project Manager M. Pugh

EPRI • 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 • PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 • USA 800.313.3774 • 650.855.2121 • askepri@epri.com • www.epri.com

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THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY ELECTRICITY INNOVATION INSTITUTE NEITHER ELECTRICITY INNOVATION INSTITUTE, ANY MEMBER OF ELECTRICITY INNOVATION INSTITUTE, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF ELECTRICITY INNOVATION INSTITUTE OR ANY ELECTRICITY INNOVATION INSTITUTE REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT EPRI

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Requests for copies of this report should be directed to EPRI Orders and Conferences, 1355 Willow Way, Suite 278, Concord, CA 94520, (800) 313-3774, press 2 or internally x5379, (925) 609-9169, (925) 609-1310 (fax). Electricity Innovation Institute and E2I are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. EPRI. ELECTRIFY THE WORLD is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright © 2004 Electricity Innovation Institute. All rights reserved.

CITATIONS This report was prepared by EPRI Fossil Maintenance Applications Center (FMAC) 1300 W. NC 28262 This report describes research sponsored by EPRI. EPRI. 1009651.T. The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Forced Draft and Induced Draft Fan Maintenance Guide. iii . Charlotte. Harris Blvd. Palo Alto. CA: 2004.

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vibration problems (resulting from improper balancing or buildup of deposits). Experience-proven practices and techniques were identified during this effort and are summarized here for use by all power plant personnel. is created and sustained by stacks and/or fans. and industry experts was formed. particularly on flow control dampers. Some stations also use fans to move the gaseous combustion products through heat exchanger surfaces to the stack. Background Reliability of this equipment is important to plant efficiency and availability. This issue ranked Number 1 in the 2003 FMAC Maintenance Issues Survey and. Objectives • To provide information on axial and centrifugal fans used for boiler draft service • • To assist fossil power plant maintenance personnel in troubleshooting and maintaining fans To provide routine and preventive maintenance guidance to assist in improving the reliability of fans Approach In cooperation with interested FMAC members. This group identified key design and maintenance issues facing plant personnel and provided input that was used in the preparation of the guidance set forth in this report. In fossil stations. and maintenance of these components becomes an important task for plant personnel. a task group of utility engineers. Also reported are problems with dampers. lubrication. heat exchangers. v . Maintenance issues that are most often cited include bearing and alignment problems. equipment suppliers. which passes through ducts. These are often referred to as induced draft (ID) fans. This flow. and erosion and wear of blades from entrained particles. the boiler. supply air fans are often referred to as forced draft (FD) fans and are used to push air through the combustion air supply system into the furnace. because of this.REPORT SUMMARY A continuous flow of air and combustible gases in fossil power plants is required to supply the correct amount of combustion air and to remove the gaseous combustion products. FMAC plans to begin a project to produce a guide that will address many of the common problems that members are facing with this equipment. and flues and stacks.

including techniques and good practices. both now and in the future. Through the use of this guide. common materials of construction. EPRI Perspective The information contained in this guide represents a significant collection of technical information. This will help members achieve increased reliability and availability at a decreased cost.Results This guide provides the user with an understanding of FD and ID fans. preventive. and typical applications. and good installation practices. failure modes and troubleshooting guidance. including “how to” information on important steps. and corrective maintenance programs related to this equipment. condition monitoring and predictive maintenance techniques. recommendations on fan repair and inspection techniques. The scope of the guide includes common applications and criteria for selection. related to the maintenance. monitoring. preventive maintenance strategies. including elemental component descriptions. and troubleshooting of this important piece of plant equipment. Keywords Plant maintenance Plant operations FD and ID fans Fossil vi . EPRI members should be able to significantly improve and optimize their existing plant predictive. Assembly of this information provides a single point of reference for power plant personnel. Industry knowledge from recent experiences and improvements has been included in this report.

Howden Buffalo – John Magill and Robin Flemming Flatwoods – Jim Greenzweigs vii . Mark Litzenger Alan Parkinson Arnold Van Geuns Scott Hall Edward Weeks Michael Stewart Herman Kleynhans Ken Leung Imraan Dindar Travis Houn Christopher Rauch Ray Henry Petrus Kruger Robert Vihnicka Bala Gogineni Alan Grunsky AmerenUE AmerenUE ESKOM Salt River Project Salt River Project AmerenUE ESKOM Hong Kong Electric ESKOM Great River Energy AmerenUE Sargent and Lundy ESKOM Sargent and Lundy Sargent and Lundy EPRI FMAC also acknowledges the following organizations for permitting the generous use of figures and various materials from their literature and in-house resources and for reviewing and providing valuable comments on this document.EPRI Licensed Material ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FMAC would like to acknowledge the following individuals for their contributions during the development of this report.

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..........2 Conversions for Units Used in This Report ....................................................................1-1 1............................2 Axial Fans................2 Inlet Dampers .....3...............................................1 Inlet Vanes .......................5.....................................................1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................2.............3-18 ix ................1......3 Key Points ...3-16 3...........................................................2 Organization .....1-1 1...................................3-7 3...............1-1 1....................4 Cold Primary Air Fans ............................................................................5....3-6 3.......................................2......................3...................................................................3-15 3.................3 Balanced Draft...................3-3 3......5...........................3-13 3......3-5 3.................................................................3-5 3...........3-3 3...............................................................................3-16 3...................................1 Induced Draft Fans ...........1 Purpose ........................7 Number of Fans.............................................................................................................3 Fan Types ..........2 Forced Draft Fans.......2.................2 Fan Applications....................................................5 Hot Primary Air Fans ........................................3-17 3............5 Fan Controls.................................................................................................EPRI Licensed Material CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................5................................................3-4 3....................................1-2 2 GLOSSARY OF TERMS ..................................................................................................3-16 3............................................................................................2........................................3 Two-Speed Motors...............6 Gas Recirculation Fans ....................................2................2.......................2-3 3 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION............3-7 3....................................................................................4 Fan Drives ..........................................................................................................................3-6 3.......1 Terms and Acronyms ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................3-1 3......................1..............................................................................1 Centrifugal Fan Controls............................3-1 3................................................................................................2.....................................3-3 3..................................................................................................1 Centrifugal Fans .....2-1 2..2-1 2..........................................................1....................................

...........................................11.......3-35 3.7 Control of Vanes and Dampers ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Fan Outlet Dampers ....................................................7....11.......................2 Startup Procedures..2 Uncontrolled Shutdown.............................................3 Alarm Conditions to Monitor ...3-40 3...1 Electric Motor Restrictions ......................5.........11.........................................................3-22 3....................................................1 Variable-Pitch Blades..........................................................................................................6 Turbine-Driven Fans .......................1 Bearings ...................................5....3-34 3................................3-35 3........................3-20 3.............11.................3-37 3....................3-39 3.....2 Lubrication Systems .........................11..........5 Emergency Actions........11...........5............................................6.....................5 Variable-Speed Motors .11..2 Fan Pressure Definition ...............2....................................EPRI Licensed Material 3.................3-24 3.............................................5.......10 Fan Testing ...........3-22 3.........................................4 Operating Parameters to Monitor .....9 Fan Requirements.....3-20 3..6....3-36 3....................................3-22 3......5...........................................................1 Controlled Shutdown.....................................................................3-19 3........................2.........2 Axial Fan Control ..............................10...............................3-33 3..........11................................................................................................10..............3-35 3..................................................5.7 Fan Performance............................................................3-28 3....................................11................11.........................3-41 x .......................................................3-38 3.....................................................7.......................................................................................................................................................3-39 3.....................................3-40 3.........11.........3-29 3......................3-33 3...........3-34 3.....................................................................6.1..................11.............................................6...............................................11....................................................................................................................3-21 3.......2.......11 Parallel Fan Operation..................3 Turning Gear ..........................................8 Selection of Fan Type ..........................11...............................................2..........3 Variable Inlet Vanes..............................................................10 Draft Fan Shutdown...............11............1.............................3-23 3.............6 Fan Control.......3-22 3.....................................................5..6 Other Components .........3-36 3..........5...................2 Variable-Speed Drives .........................................................................2 Sequence of Steps for Startup.........3-34 3...............1 Axial Fan Performance ....3-38 3.......................3-18 3..4 Cooling Fans....................................................3-32 3..........................................................4 Fluid Drive.....1...................................2.......................................3-24 3.............................................................................3-19 3............9 Stall Prevention for Axial Fans ........1 Prestart Checks .11 Operation .................................................

.................7 Electric Motors..............................6-3 6..........3-42 4 FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS ...........4-7 4...................................................................................................1..3 Phase Angle .........................1.........................................................................................................................................1..........................................17 Ductwork .............................................................................................................................................................1...........4-14 4..........................4-10 4.....................................................................................................................................3 Time Waveform Analysis ......................................2 Vibration Analysis ..........................1 Blades ....4-6 4........4 Vibration Form ................................................................................................4-12 4...............................................1..........................................4-12 4..........................................................2.................................................................................................1....................................................................................14 Isolating Dampers ........6-1 6...............................................................................4-10 4..................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Real-Time Spectrum Analysis..............................................................................................................................................................................6-2 6...................................................................5-1 6 CONDITION MONITORING ........................................1.......................................................4-10 4.4-13 4.....12 Center Plate .........................................................4-11 4..............................................................................................9 Housing ....................................6-2 6...........................6 Hydraulic Actuating Mechanism ......6-4 6.....12 National Standards.............................EPRI Licensed Material 3................8 Hubs ...............................4-14 5 TROUBLESHOOTING .................................................2 Frequency ......11 Shaft ...................................1 Vibration Monitoring ........................1......6-1 6............6-3 6......................16 Controls ....................................................1 Amplitude Versus Frequency Analysis ............................................................4-14 4.................................6-3 6........4-8 4...............................................4 Inlet Vanes .........13 Inlet Dampers ................................................3 Foundations ..........6-4 xi ..1.....1 Amplitude ..............................2 Bearings .........................................................................................6-2 6........4-11 4..........10 Turning Gears .....................................................................6-1 6.6-2 6...1 Parameters .....................................................................................5 Couplings .......15 Variable-Speed Drive ........................................................................4-13 4..................................5 Vibration Mode Shape ....................................4-13 4.......1........................................................................................2....................................1..........4-9 4...................2.............................1.....1..............................................................................4-1 4.....................................1.................1........................................

.............3 Coupling Alignment...............................................5 Centrifugal Fan Wheels ...............................................7-15 7............2 Basic Rules for Conducting Maintenance ................2 Coupling Overhaul .............................7-10 7............5.........................................4...3 Periodic Maintenance Recommendations......1 Bearings ...1......2 Inlet Vane Overhaul ...3............................................7-5 7...............................................7-15 7...............................................................................................................................4...........................................................................4.......................................1...............................................1.6-7 6.........7-16 7....7-18 7.................................1 Routine Maintenance .................................................................................................................................................6.............................7-12 7...............5 Motor Current Analysis.......1 Machine Diagram................................................3...............................................................................................................................4....................2 Bearing Overhaul ...................................................7-15 7...............................................4........................4 Component Maintenance ........4.....6-11 6................................1..........7-18 7.............1 Developing a Preventive Maintenance Program .............4..............4...............6-8 6......................7-2 7...............................................................6 Data Acquisition............................................4................................7-21 7...........................7 Hubs ..........................................3 Couplings......2 Tri-Axial Readings ................2 Circulating Lube Oil System Overhaul ..........................................................5 Accelerometer Probes ...4 Infrared Thermography................7-8 7..................................................................................................1...................................................................3 Proximity Probes ...6-5 6...........................................2....................................4.....6-10 6.......1..........................................................2 Blades ......6-11 6........6-11 7 MAINTENANCE .............7-22 xii .................4....4........................7-3 7...........................4...........................................................4 Velocity Probes.................................4 Variable Inlet Vanes and Control Dampers ...................7-10 7...........7-3 7.....................4.............4......2 Routine Maintenance Recommendations ......5.................4........2.........................................................................................................................7-10 7...................................................................7-13 7........................6-8 6....3 Nondestructive Examination.....................3 Center Plate/Side Plate ........................................................................1 Routine Maintenance Recommendations .....................................4...................................................................6.2 Oil Analysis .4.........7-6 7...........................................3.......5.............................................4.......1 Centrifugal Fan Wheel NDE.......1...............7-7 7..........6-6 6......................................2 Lubrication System ......................................................................................6 Shaft ...1 Routine Maintenance .............................................6-9 6................................................7-21 7......................7-14 7.......................4.............................4...........7-1 7...7-12 7................1........................EPRI Licensed Material 6.........

...........................................13 Turning Gear ....3 Fan Wheel Clearance ........4......8........................................................................11.4............................................5..........4..............7-26 7......................................12.....7-24 7...........7-22 7.....................................7-29 7..........7-28 7.......................................................................5...........9..............................................8...............9 Housing ...................................................................4....9..................4..4.................2 Inlet Cones.........7-38 7...................7-33 7............................8................5 Fan Wheel Balancing .......................8-1 8.................................................7-32 7.5........7-23 7..............................................EPRI Licensed Material 7...............................................................................................12 Fluid Drives........................................7-35 7................7-30 7...............4......4..............................5 Anchor Bolts.....................2 Repairing Concrete Foundations ..................2 Overhaul Fluid Drive ......................2 Moisture .....7-22 7............................14 Hydraulic Supply System............11........1 Size of the Balance Weight ....4.........................7-30 7........8...................................................4............................................................................................7-24 7.....................7-24 7................4 Access Plates/Doors..............4.7-34 7............4 Crack Repair ......................8...........12........................................................11 Electric Motors............4..........3 Friction ......2 Location of the Balance Weight........................7-31 7.4 Vibration............4...............11.....................................................3 Vibration Sensitivity ..........................5...........15 Axial Fan Blade Adjustment System ...............................................1 Routine Maintenance ....7-26 7..........................4............8...........................................................1 Forces Affecting Anchor Bolts..................................................7-38 7...............9.............................8-1 xiii ............4.........................................7-28 7....................4....4.................................................................................4.........11........................7-36 7...10 Expansion Joints .......4....7-25 7............................................................4..................................................7-29 7..1 Dirt ......4.....................................3 Surface Cleaning ......................4...................................7-35 7........................................................4.......4....................................................7-25 7..............................................................7-32 7.....................................................................................................2 Proper Installation ............................1 Concrete Foundation .................4.............7-35 7....................11..................4...............7-38 8 SPECIAL MAINTENANCE TASKS..................................17 Axial Flow Fan Rotor Overhaul..................................................16 Axial Fan Blade Bearings ....7-36 7...................................................................................................................4...........5 Rotor Shaft End Play ...........................5......................................................1 Housing...........................7-23 7.....................................9................................................4.............................7-30 7.............................................8..8 Structural Support System............7-22 7...................1 Extended Shutdown ..................................................

......................................................................................................................................EPRI Licensed Material 9 FAN UPGRADE OPTIONS ...............................4 Housing Modifications .......................................................................................... C-1 Français (French) .............9-1 9.........................................................................................................................................................3 Wheel Replacement ........................................................................ C-24 xiv ...................................................................................................1 Reasons for Fan Upgrade .........................................................................................................................................................10-2 11 TRAINING..........................................................................................................2 Tipping ........................................... B-2 C TRANSLATED TABLE OF CONTENTS ..........5 Coatings ................7 Fan Movement ..................................................................................................10-1 10...............................5 Operation Testing.....................................1 Rotating Equipment............................................................................................... C-2 日本語 (Japanese) ......................10-2 10...........................................................10-1 10.10-1 10.............9-2 9..............................................................................................................................................10-1 10.................................................................2 Confined Space........................................................................9-1 9.......................................................................... C-12 Español (Spanish) .................................................................. A-1 B KEY POINT SUMMARY ..........................................................................................4 Electrical.........................................................................9-1 9..10-1 10...................................................9-3 10 SAFETY...................................................................9-3 9......................................................................................................3 Burn Hazards .........................................10-2 10.........................................................................................12-1 A CENTRIFUGAL FAN WHEEL INSPECTION AND REPAIR .........6 Cleaning Operations.......11-1 12 REFERENCES .........................................................................................................

........ A-11 Figure A-5 Hand-Held Yoke Probe with Articulated Legs ................4-12 Figure 7-1 Centrifugal Fan Wheel.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-32 Figure 9-1 Airfoil Blade with the Blade Tipped...........3-12 Figure 3-7 Centrifugal Fan Rotor Components .....................................................................................3-9 Figure 3-4 Centrifugal Fan Components and Accessories .................................................3-13 Figure 3-8 Two-Stage Axial Fan Assembly..................................................................................................................................................................9-2 Figure A-1 Blade Map Example ....................................................................................................3-14 Figure 3-9 Two-Stage Axial Fan Impeller ...............3-27 Figure 3-15 Typical Centrifugal Fan with Speed Control ..........................................................................3-30 Figure 3-18 Fan Correction for Inlet Density .........7-20 Figure 7-3 Cross-Section View of a Fan Illustrating Clearance Requirements Between the Wheel Inlet and the Inlet Bell ...... A-8 Figure A-4 Example of Undercut and Overlap .............................................................................................................................................3-10 Figure 3-5 Typical Rotor with Forward Curved Blades for a Centrifugal Fan.................................3-14 Figure 3-10 Inlet Vane Control Assembly ..3-20 Figure 3-12 Sleeve Bearing Components...........................EPRI Licensed Material LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3-1 Boiler Air Flow Schematic............................. A-15 xv ....................................................................................................... A-6 Figure A-2 Blade Map Example .............................3-23 Figure 3-13 Typical Centrifugal Fan with Variable Inlet Vanes ...............................3-31 Figure 4-1 Centrifugal Fan Housing Components ...........................7-17 Figure 7-2 Wear and Erosion Protective Accessories ....................3-17 Figure 3-11 Variable-Pitch Axial Fan Components ..........................................................................................................................3-26 Figure 3-14 Typical Centrifugal Fan with Variable Inlet Vanes and Showing System Curve......................................................................3-29 Figure 3-17 Fan Pressure Definitions ...................................................................................................................................... A-7 Figure A-3 Blade Map Example ............................................................................................................................................................3-28 Figure 3-16 Performance Field for Variable-Pitch Axial Flow Fan .................................................................................................................................................3-11 Figure 3-6 Wheel Blade Types and Rotation (Viewed from the Drive End) ......................................................3-2 Figure 3-2 Section of a Centrifugal Fan .........................................7-27 Figure 7-5 Basic Block Diagram of a Hydraulic Regulating System .......................3-8 Figure 3-3 Cross-Section View of a Centrifugal Fan...7-26 Figure 7-4 Enlarged View of Figure 7-3 .................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................................EPRI Licensed Material Figure A-6 Orientation of an Articulated Yoke Probe to Produce Flux Lines at Right Angles .............. A-16 Figure A-7 Indications Are Consecutively Numbered and Circled .................................................................. A-19 xvi .............. A-19 Figure A-8 Marking Multiple Indications............................................................................................

..4-2 Table 4-2 Summary of Axial Fan Problem Areas............................................................... A-13 Table A-3 Typical Materials in Power Plant Fans ................EPRI Licensed Material LIST OF TABLES Table 4-1 Summary of Centrifugal Fan Problem Areas ...............................................................................................................5-3 Table 5-3 Lubrication System Troubleshooting .......................................................................5-6 Table 5-6 Troubleshooting Fluid Drive.......................................................4-3 Table 4-3 FD Fan Failure Data for U............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... A-25 xvii ...............................................................7-3 Table A-1 Summary of Inspection Practices for Centrifugal Fan Wheels ................................... A-3 Table A-2 Percent of Fans Undergoing NDE ..............................................................5-4 Table 5-4 Hydraulic System Troubleshooting .....5-7 Table 5-7 Fan Performance Troubleshooting ................. Fossil Plants from 1982 Through 1995 (NERC/GADS Data) .................................................4-4 Table 5-1 Fan Troubleshooting.......5-1 Table 5-2 Bearing Troubleshooting.................................................................5-5 Table 5-5 Troubleshooting Noise Level .........................................................................................S............................................................................................5-9 Table 7-1 Surveillance and Preventive Maintenance Frequencies ......................

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This guide addresses FD and ID fans. Routine and preventive maintenance guidance is provided to aid in improving the reliability of fans. 1-1 . Section 4 provides an analysis of failure modes and effects as well as failure data. and gas recirculation (GR). A troubleshooting guide assists in diagnosing problems that have been encountered in various fan failure reports. Draft fans are typically used in four principal applications: forced draft (FD). definitions. 1. Section 2 is a glossary of items. industry surveys on failure reports. Section 5 provides guidance for troubleshooting and corrective actions. which are the largest and most common applications. Section 6 is a discussion of condition monitoring. Draft fans are primary auxiliaries that support boiler operation for all types of fuel and firing methods. Other applications include booster fans and mill exhausters. Section 3 provides technical description. A discussion of fan characteristics and components that serves as a reference for understanding the basics of fan performance and mechanical construction is provided. basic discussion of fan performance characteristics.2 Organization The organization of this guide is as follows: Section 1 is an introduction and discussion of the guide’s purpose and organization. The maintenance recommendations for these fans are easily adapted for most other draft fan applications. induced draft (ID). and acronyms used in this guide. Data for this guide were obtained from direct experience in fossil plants.EPRI Licensed Material 1 INTRODUCTION Fired steam generators (that is. and reviews of plant literature and industry documentation. primary air (PA). vendor input.1 Purpose This FD and ID fan maintenance guide provides information on axial and centrifugal fans used for boiler draft service and is intended to assist fossil power plant maintenance personnel in troubleshooting and maintaining fans. 1. and the mechanical components. boilers) require large draft fans to move air into the furnace and to remove the combustion products.

Appendix A discusses centrifugal fan wheel inspection and repair.3 Key Points Throughout this guide. Section 11 provides training recommendations. users of this guide can determine whether they have taken advantage of key information that the writers of the guide believe would benefit their plants. the consultants. 1. Section 11 is a list of references. operating. The information included in these Key Points was selected by Fossil Maintenance Applications Center (FMAC) personnel. to draw attention to it when quickly reviewing the guide. as shown below. Section 10 provides recommendations for safety. Technical. key information is summarized in “Key Points. By reviewing this listing. or maintenance costs. Appendix B provides a list of all the key points indicated in the guide. Appendix B contains a listing of all of the key points in each category. The listing restates each key point and provides reference to its location in the body of the report. and utility personnel that prepared this guide. 1-2 . and Human Performance. Section 8 includes recommendations for special maintenance tasks. Section 9 presents upgrade options. making the key points easier to locate.” Key Points are boldlettered boxes that succinctly restate information covered in detail in the surrounding text. Key O&M Cost Point Emphasizes information that will result in reduced purchase. Each category has an identifying icon.EPRI Licensed Material Introduction Section 7 provides guidance for preventive maintenance. The Key Points are organized according to three categories: Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Costs. The primary intent of a Key Point is to emphasize information that will allow individuals to take action for the benefit of their plant.

Key Human Performance Point Denotes information that requires personnel action or consideration in order to prevent injury or damage or ease completion of the task.EPRI Licensed Material Introduction Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability. 1-3 .

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American Society for Metals American Society for Testing and Materials American Welding Society Blade tip speed cubic feet per minute Electric Power Research Institute Forced draft Fossil Maintenance Applications Center feet per minute Fan static pressure Fan total pressure Fan velocity pressure Generating Availability Data System Gas recirculating Heat-affected zone 2-1 .EPRI Licensed Material 2 GLOSSARY OF TERMS 2. Inc.1 Terms and Acronyms ABMA acfm AMCA ASM ASTM AWS BTS cfm EPRI FD FMAC fpm FSP FTP FVP GADS GR HAZ American Boiler Manufacturers Association actual cubic feet per minute Air Movement and Control Association.

EPRI Licensed Material Glossary of Terms hp ID ksi MT MTBF NDE NEMA NERC NFPA O&M PA PM psi psig PWHT SCR SMAW SPR SSS UT Horsepower Induced draft kips per square inch Magnetic particle testing Mean time between failures Nondestructive examination National Electrical Manufacturers Association North American Electric Reliability Council National Fire Protection Association Operation and maintenance Primary air Preventive maintenance pound(s) per square inch pound(s) per square inch. gauge Post-weld heat treatment Selective catalytic reduction Shielded metal arc welding Static pressure rise Structural support system Ultrasonic test 2-2 .

3 m 6.45 kg 16 kg/m3 6.2 Conversions for Units Used in This Report °C 1 hp 1 lb = = = (°F – 32) x 5/9 746 W 0.45 cm2 1.30 mpm 0.4 mm 0. = 1 fpm = 1 ft 1 in2 = = 1 ft-lb = 1 ksi = 2-3 .35 joules 6.EPRI Licensed Material Glossary of Terms VT WG WMP WR2 Visual test Water gauge Wet fluorescent magnetic particle (test) Moment of inertia 2.9 kPa 25.9 MPa 1 lb/ft3 = 1 psi(g)= 1 in.

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Discussion of these topics follows.” defines a fan as providing a compression ratio of 1. ASME PTC-10. and noise. Draft fans provide one or a combination of the following functions in a boiler: • • • • Supply air required for combustion Remove products of combustion Deliver fuel to the burners Circulate the gases for better heat transfer In addition. To increase a flow. Figure 3-1 is a typical schematic of air and gas flow through a boiler. horsepower. ISO 5801 defines the upper limit of fans as a pressure increase of 120 inches Wg (30 kPa). static pressure. The choice of whether a device is a fan or a compressor is not regulated or standardized.1 Introduction A fan is a device that produces a flow of gas by the movement of a surface. Fans are similar to compressors. there were specific criteria defining the difference between fans and compressors.” states that compressors are usually intended to produce considerable density change. a fan is defined as a turbo machine with a rotating impeller enclosed in a casing. In the past. the 1946 edition of ASME PTC-11. 3-1 .1 or a density change of 7%. the fan selected must be adequate for the required duty with regard to air volume.EPRI Licensed Material 3 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION 3. the difference is that fans create a flow of gas whereas compressors increase the pressure of the gas. As used in this guide. For example. “Performance Test Code on Compressors and Exhausters. “Performance Test Code for Fans. fans must increase the pressure of the gas and compressors must create a flow.

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-1 Boiler Air Flow Schematic 3-2 .

The PA fan application is similar to the FD fan.2. it is not uncommon for the ID fans to be the limiting factor on the output of a coal-fired unit. Key Technical Point Temperature affects fan performance.2 Forced Draft Fans FD fans provide combustion air for boilers. Some boiler designs use PA fans. problem area. The margins are typically 15% on flow.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description 3. and 25°F on temperature. and precipitator or the baghouse. and thus. a margin on temperature should be included to allow for variations in operation. Temperature affects fan performance.2. ID fans are included in the top 25 causes of fossil plant outages and are responsible for approximately 2% of the total outages of fossil-fired units. the description. which may take suction from the atmosphere and operate in parallel with the FD fans or may take suction from the FD fan discharge and operate in series with the FD fans. therefore. and finally through the burners into the furnace. ID fans have the largest design margins of any major equipment in a fossil-fueled power plant. and thus. 3. and maintenance requirements described for 3-3 . an air heater into the boiler windbox. a margin on temperature should be included to allow for variations in operation. and chimney to the atmosphere. In pulverized coal-fired boilers. The FD fan inlet is open to the atmosphere and discharges through air preheating coils. The temperature of gas to be handled by the ID fan is based on the calculated unit performance at maximum boiler load. They are a major component of a fossilfired plant and typically consume approximately 2% of the gross electrical output. scrubber. approximately one-third of the combustion air is PA that is used to transport the pulverized coal to the burners.1 Induced Draft Fans ID fans move the combustion flue gas through the boiler. 30% on head. The large margins are intended to allow for the following: • • • • • Uncertainty in determining system requirements Allowance for wear Operating flexibility Allowance for pluggage and leakage Air infiltration Even with these large margins.2 Fan Applications 3. air heater.

FD fans are normally equipped with sound trunks (inlet boxes) for noise attenuation. Key Technical Point When specifying FD fans. burners. ID. Other boiler designs use mill exhausters that take the air and pulverized coal mixture from the mill outlet and transport the mixture to the burners.3 Balanced Draft The balanced draft system uses both an FD fan system and an ID fan system to move air through the boiler. Because of the erosive nature of the pulverizer coal-air mixture. When specifying FD fans. air heater. 3-4 . pressure loss through the silencers (if they are provided) must be taken into consideration. Margins of 15% on flow and 30% on head at the maximum expected ambient temperature are common. or PA fans and are not addressed in this guide. This involves the use of open inlet FD fans located in a specially designed room with acoustical baffles for air entry. FD fans for coal-fired plants rank close behind ID fans as the cause of outages.2. the FD fan is sized for the entire system to the stack or to the pollution control system. mill exhausters have a very different application than the FD.7% of the gross electrical output. plus air heater losses and discharge pressure high enough to equal the total resistance of air ducts. plus the gas passages between the furnace and stack. The causes of FD fan failures are similar to those for ID fans. pollution control system(s). and any other resistance between fan discharge and the furnace. pressure loss through the silencers (if they are provided) must be taken into consideration. For pressurized units without ID fans. The FD fans for a coal-fired plant consume approximately 0. ID fans in a balanced draft boiler move the gaseous products of combustion over convection heating surfaces.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description FD fans are essentially the same for PA fans. An alternative method of noise attenuation is using a fan room. The design margins on FD fans are typically smaller than the margins on ID fans but still larger than on other major equipment. FD fans on a balanced draft boiler must have the necessary volume output of air required for combustion. 3.

net draft requirement. 3. heat.4 Cold Primary Air Fans Cold primary air fans take ambient air and discharge it through the air heater. where the air is heated up to 650ºF (the actual temperature depends on the moisture content of the coal).2. and then into the pulverizers—where it is used to dry. and gas temperature. safety margins are added to the net weight requirement. and convey the pulverized coal to the burners.5 Hot Primary Air Fans Hot primary air fans take heated air from the air heater and blow it into the pulverizers where it is used to dry.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description The weight of gas to be handled by the ID fan is the sum of the following: • • • • Theoretical air for combustion Excess air required at burner Infiltration Leakage air-to-gas through the air heater The draft to be provided by the fan is determined by losses through the following boiler components: • • • • • • • • • Furnace Boiler and superheater Economizer Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) Air heater Precipitator or baghouse Ductwork Flue gas desulfurization system (scrubber) Stack For fan design. This system is used on large boilers where fans are installed in parallel in order to service a bank of pulverizers. 3. 3-5 .2. heat. and convey the pulverized coal to the burners.

Maximum flow can occur at either full boiler load or some reduced boiler load point.6 Gas Recirculation Fans A gas recirculation system performs either or both of the following functions: • Controls steam temperature over a wide boiler load range. The variation in operating cost with the number of fans will be less for a unit that operates at or near full load most of the time than for a unit that operates at lower loads. with serious consequences. Radial tip blade fans (see Figure 3-6) can be applied for gas recirculation duty. flexibility of operation. and reliability.2. the cost of motors. • The volume requirements of the gas recirculating fan are determined by the amount of recirculation necessary to obtain the required steam temperature. therefore. 3-6 . control equipment. This is known as gas recirculation. The factors to be considered in selecting the number of fans are initial cost. backflow of high-temperature furnace gas will result through the fan. but the straight blade fan may be needed where high concentrations of fly ash will be encountered. The remaining fans will then operate closer to their design points and. Maintenance cost increases as the number of fans increases. This is called gas tempering and may be used to control NOX. insulation. operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Fans usually have their highest efficiency near their design points. more efficiently. When evaluating initial cost. Operating cost usually decreases as the number of fans increases. An important parameter for evaluating operating cost is the projected loading schedule for the generating unit. 3. ductwork. To accomplish steam temperature control. a portion of the flue gas from the economizer outlet is introduced in the lower part of the furnace by means of a suitable fan and ducts. Inlet dampers are the principal means of accomplishing volume control. depending on the ash properties. Controls furnace gas temperature when a portion of the flue gas from the economizer outlet is recirculated to the furnace outlet. electrical equipment. At lower loads. Key O&M Cost Point The fewest number of fans usually results in the lowest initial cost. and foundations must be considered in addition to the cost of the fans. The fewest number of fans usually results in the lowest initial cost. depending on boiler design. some of the fans can be shut off in a system with more fans.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description 3. The gas recirculation fan must be sized so its pressure capability will always exceed the pressure differential developed by the boiler.7 Number of Fans One of the major design decisions for a fan system is the number of fans.2. otherwise.

The overall equivalent availability of one full-size feed pump is slightly higher than two half-size pumps. this concept has been challenged. In addition to the factors discussed above. but statistical studies (using the NERC-GADS database) of boiler feed pumps verify this theory. There is not a large enough database of boilers with single FD and ID fans to verify this probability. The same number of FD and ID fans is usually selected to simplify operation of the fans. Above this size. which is perpendicular to the fan shaft. For centrifugal fans. On large units with four ID fans. In recent years. the equivalent availability is about the same. the unit will essentially have an installed spare. A boiler with one full-size boiler feed pump has more full forced outages than units with two 50% capacity pumps but fewer forced deratings. and axial fans. but the bulk of the savings comes from the reduced number of ducts as well as capital costs. Centrifugal fans are sometimes referred to as radial fans. practical aspects should also be considered.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description It is difficult to assign cost values to the differences in reliability and flexibility of operation with different numbers of fans. Thus. but the impact of a failure is approximately one-half. where the flow is axial along the fan shaft. For these reasons. They are usually classified by the direction of flow through the impeller. Thus. it is not practical to build ID fans that are large enough to use two fans. The flow through the fan is controlled with inlet dampers or variable-pitch inlet vanes. Plant arrangements can be improved by reducing the number of fans. the unit will probably be capable of operating at full load with three fans under normal operating conditions. 3. The trend in the power industry has been to use two FD and two ID fans up to approximately 700 MW. with two fans. It is also difficult to assign a cost value to plant arrangement. Centrifugal fans are available with and without inlet boxes and with single or double inlets. The two types used in boiler draft applications are centrifugal fans. Figure 3-2 is a photograph of a cut-out section of a centrifugal fan. However. Obviously. 3.3 Fan Types Fans are a type of turbo machinery that transfers energy to air in order to increase pressure to induce flow. 3-7 . the selection of the number of fans is not a straightforward economic evaluation.1 Centrifugal Fans The centrifugal fan produces movement by throwing air off the blades in a radial direction by means of centrifugal force. where the flow is radially outward. The number of ID fans can have an effect on unit availability. the probability of a fan failure is roughly twice that for one fan. the cost for one fan and motor is less than for two. Many owners believe that two fans will provide better availability than one. because of fan size limitations.3. which should result in improved availability. and units with one FD and one ID fan have been built up to a limit of 500 MW. the maximum unit size for which two ID fans can be used is approximately 700 MW. The air or gas enters the inlet boxes and travels through the inlet vanes into the spinning fan wheel and then discharges through the scroll outlet.

Inc. 3-8 .) Figures 3-3 and 3-4 illustrate the cross-sectional view of various parts of a typical centrifugal fan.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-2 Section of a Centrifugal Fan (Courtesy of Howden Buffalo.

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-3 Cross-Section View of a Centrifugal Fan 3-9 .

3-10 . Inc.) A typical rotor for a centrifugal fan is shown in Figure 3-5.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-4 Centrifugal Fan Components and Accessories (Courtesy of Howden Buffalo.

Inc. as shown in Figure 3-6: • • • • • Airfoil backward inclined Flat bladed backward inclined Radial tip Straight radial Forward curved 3-11 .EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-5 Typical Rotor with Forward Curved Blades for a Centrifugal Fan (Courtesy of Howden Buffalo.) Centrifugal fans are available with the following various blade profiles.

In an application where the fan is subject to erosion due to heavy dust loading. a straight radial type fan provides erosion resistance.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-6 Wheel Blade Types and Rotation (Viewed from the Drive End) In most power plant applications where the fans will handle clean air or clean gas. 3-12 . but at the expense of efficiency. the highly efficient backward inclined airfoils are the preferred design.

and exits through the diffuser section.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description The airfoil centrifugal fan is the most frequently applied fan for forced draft duty because of its inherently high efficiency. 3-13 . Figure 3-7 Centrifugal Fan Rotor Components 3. particularly when fans are operating in parallel. The parts of a typical centrifugal fan rotor are shown in Figure 3-7. passes through the impellers. Forced draft service tends to be a good application for axial fans.2 Axial Fans Axial fans produce movement of air along their axis or in an axial direction. and steep rising pressure curve. These features ensure good operation.and two-stage models.3. stable performance. Air or gas enters through a single inlet box where it makes a 90-degree turn through straightening vanes. Axial fans are offered in single. They are available with fixed-pitch and variable-pitch blading. Figures 3-8 and 3-9 illustrate sectional views through a two-stage axial fan. The variable-pitch fan is more sophisticated and efficient than the fixed-pitch fan. low noise.

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-8 Two-Stage Axial Fan Assembly Figure 3-9 Two-Stage Axial Fan Impeller 3-14 .

Variable-speed motors are the optimum type of drive 3-15 . A brief description of each of the main components of the axial fan follows. or forged aluminum blades with stainless steel inserts are available. In the centrifugal fan. This arrangement has a higher initial cost and is less reliable than a single-speed motor and inlet vanes. ductile iron. forged steel shafts required for centrifugal fans. are small in diameter and relatively inexpensive in comparison to the large-diameter. The shafts. and highly efficient over a wide load range. relatively inexpensive cast aluminum blades are generally used. For fans of more than a few horsepower. two-stage fans may be required. Axial flow fans are more complicated than centrifugal fans but have the advantage. a worn set of blades can be replaced in a few shifts. In the axial fan. Blade shaft bearings are used to transfer the centrifugal force from the blades to the fan hub. however. It is frequently used in large sizes with a hydraulic coupling for variable-speed installations. Blades. if the fans are operated for long periods with precipitators performing at low efficiencies. This is true for either type of fan. Various materials are used for axial fan blades. of higher efficiency over a wider load range. In induced draft service. Two-speed ac electric motors can be used in conjunction with inlet vanes to obtain slightly higher efficiencies at lower loads. cast steel. This type of motor is relatively inexpensive. the main shaft does not carry large loads over long spans between bearings as in a centrifugal fan. Blade Shaft Bearings. Main Shaft and Main Shaft Bearings. in most cases. squirrel-cage induction motors are more widely used.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Where higher pressures are necessary. reliable. therefore. The rotor hub is the major component of an axial fan. In the axial fan. For forced draft service. For induced draft service.4 Fan Drives Electric motors are normally used for fan drives because they are less expensive and more efficient than any other type of drive. The rotating masses are low. excessive blade wear will occur no matter what blade material is used. The hub serves as the retaining ring for the blades and their bearings and as the housing and protective cover for the blade-actuating mechanism. Two-stage fans are offered for large-capacity induced draft service. Rotor Hub. cast steel with hardened surfaces. where high wear resistance is required. Blade material selection is influenced by the blade velocity and the size and hardness of the dust particles. days of welding and balancing may be required to repair the fan. 3. long. and the bearings are located close to the rotor.

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description for centrifugal fans. controllability is good. Recent developments in variable-speed motors make them an excellent choice for centrifugal fans. The major disadvantage of inlet vanes is poor efficiency at lower loads. The vane linkage and bearings can bind or become damaged if they are located in the gas stream. Steam turbines have higher initial and maintenance costs and are less reliable but do provide a variable-speed drive. Inlet vanes are subject to erosion if ash concentrations are high.5 Fan Controls 3. and is very common for ID fans.1 Inlet Vanes Inlet vanes introduce a swirl to the flow entering a fan. 3. the pressure and flow requirements from the fans in the system vary. Therefore. although the high initial cost of variable-speed motors is not justified in all applications. and fan erosion is substantially reduced at lower speeds.5. these components should be located outside the fan inlet housing.5.1. 3. is a simple method of control. Steam turbines are not competitive with electric motors for fan drives. where inspection and maintenance can be performed without entering the fan. The duct connections at the fan inlet or outlet should be flexible to isolate the fan from duct expansion and vibration. 3-16 . Figure 3-10 is an illustration of an inlet vane control assembly. They allow the fan to operate near its peak efficiency over the entire load range. The most widely used methods to control centrifugal fans are by means of inlet vanes and variable-speed drives.1 Centrifugal Fan Controls As the load on a boiler varies. The duct should be separately anchored and not supported by the fan. This changes the angle of attack between the flow and the fan blade and effectively changes the fan characteristics. Inlet vane control has a low initial cost.

5. Ensure that shut-off dampers are closed tightly to provide air/gas seal before startup. 3. are simple.) Watch for control or mechanical problems that will cause vane flutter. To optimize system performance.1.2 Inlet Dampers Inlet dampers control air flow by introducing a swirl in the flow and pressure drop. this limits the inertia acceleration load on the motor. The control linkage on inlet dampers is simpler than that for inlet vanes and can be located completely outside the duct. an operator should perform the following: • • • • Operate with all dampers fully open in order to limit pressure head losses. (Vane position should be set based on the load requirement. However. system pressure pulsations are more common with inlet dampers than inlet vanes. 3-17 . Inlet dampers have a low initial cost. and are not as prone to erosion as inlet vanes. The biggest disadvantage of inlet dampers is their low efficiency at low loads. Inlet dampers can create vortices in the inlet boxes or around the fan shaft.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-10 Inlet Vane Control Assembly Inlet vane control is more efficient than inlet damper control because inlet vanes use part of the pressure head loss to accelerate the incoming gas in the direction of wheel rotation. Manually position the inlet vane control during initial startup to avoid pressure excursions.

but it is higher at lower loads. Fluid drive control provides better overall efficiency than inlet vane configuration. Speed control allows the fan to operate near peak efficiency over the entire load range. Do not use louver dampers or inlet vanes as flow control devices to throttle the fan output volume in a system that was backfitted with a fluid drive. non-control dampers) are fully open before startup to prevent pressure head losses. To optimize system performance for a fluid drive system. The fans for two-speed motors are often sized so that the fan can operate on low speed at full load and at normal operating temperature. Start the motor under a no-load condition (that is. This will limit the inertia acceleration load on the motor by accelerating the inertia of the fan to its running speed at a controllable rate.1.4 Fluid Drive Fluid drive is a method of varying the fan speed for flow control. 3-18 .3 Two-Speed Motors The fan selection with two-speed motors is the same as with inlet vane control or inlet damper control. This will cause energy losses.5. the operator should perform the following: 1. The fan selection is essentially the same as the inlet damper alternative. Watch for control or mechanical problems that could cause the system to hunt from one point to another. The combined efficiency of the fan and fluid drive is slightly lower than inlet vane control at full load. The high speed provides the design margin. This problem can be overcome by a careful design of the control system and requires a review of the damper or vane control response. Using speed control with the dampers full open can result in a significant power savings (200 hp on a 6000-hp fan) with only minor modifications. This is usually based on their past experience.1. Operators at some plants with two-speed ID fan motors do not change the motor speed while the unit is operating. 3. The control system should be tuned to allow a variable-speed drive to have control with the dampers in the fully open position for a given flow range. The use of the dampers for control during normal operation is typical but can be eliminated in most installations.5. 3. except that a fluid drive is located between the motor and the fan to control the fan speed. the allowable furnace pressure limits. ensure that the fluid coupling is empty and the inlet vane or damper is closed). 2. when the unit has tripped because of furnace pressure excursions that occur when speeds are changed. and the time it takes for the motor to change speed. and it decreases at lower speeds. However. The major disadvantage of a fluid drive is the high initial cost. the fluid drive has a maximum efficiency of approximately 95%. which is approximately the same as that of the fan. Inlet dampers are typically used in addition to the fluid drive to increase the speed of response to avoid furnace pressure excursions during transients.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description 3. Verify that all shut-off dampers (that is. 4.

Fans with variable-speed motors do not require a turning gear because the main motor can operate at the turning gear speed for extended periods. and most FD fan service.5. turbine-driven ID fans do not result in a fuel cost savings over ID fans with variable-speed motors. a variable-speed fan can operate near its best efficiency over the entire load range.6 Turbine-Driven Fans Turbine-driven ID fans have been studied by architect-engineers and turbine manufacturers. Because fan efficiency is essentially constant over similar flow-head squared curves.5 Variable-Speed Motors Variable-speed motors are directly connected to the fan. and motor (95%) result in an overall efficiency approximately the same as that of turbine-driven fans. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards for explosion prevention require that a master fuel trip shall not trip the fans.1. The system resistance for ID service.5. The efficiency of a turbine drive is typically 81%. Synchronous or induction motors can be used with variable frequency drives. an auxiliary steam source. the control is stable down to essentially zero flow. which converts it to an adjustable ac power output. To meet this requirement. such as a cross connection to a second unit or an auxiliary boiler on continuous standby. In most cases. Turbine drives are less reliable than motor drives. Also. The adjustable dc power is connected to an inverter.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description 3. The speed of the motor is continuously variable from approximately 10% up to the full speed. the capital cost of turbine-driven fans is considerably more than the cost for centrifugal fans with variable-speed motors. is essentially a square curve. The incoming ac power is converted to adjustable voltage dc power by a thyristor. but very few have been installed. For a motor-driven fan. 3. the efficiencies of the main generator (98%).1. The costs for this auxiliary source would have to be added to the estimated costs above. Speed control is the optimum method of controlling centrifugal fans. transmission (98%). Based on previous studies. 3-19 . which is less than the main turbine efficiency of 88%. and the frequency of the power to the motor is controlled by an electronic system. The advantage of turbine-driven fans is the improved plant heat rate. turbine drives are not recommended for ID fans. Because the availability of variable-speed motors—including the associated electrical equipment—is higher than that of turbine drives. would be required with turbine-driven fans.

variable inlet vanes are used occasionally.5. Variable-speed axial fans are not normally used because variable-pitch axial fans are lower in cost and achieve similar efficiency. blade adjustment levers are located within the hub and are actuated hydraulically. inlet vanes. 3.5.2 Axial Fan Control Axial flow fans can be controlled by using variable-pitch blades. or variable-speed drives. Figure 3-11 Variable-Pitch Axial Fan Components 3-20 . Variable-pitch axial fans respond quickly and smoothly to system demand changes.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description 3. and variable-speed control is rare. Figure 3-11 shows the components of a variable-pitch axial fan.2. In a variable-pitch axial fan. Variable-pitch blades can provide efficiency as high as that of variable-speed control over most of the load range for a lower initial cost. Either varying the blade pitch or using variable inlet vanes controls the flow by operating on the same principle as do variable inlet vanes on a centrifugal fan.1 Variable-Pitch Blades Axial fans can be controlled by varying the blade pitch or speed or by using variable inlet vanes. Varying the blade pitch is more efficient than using variable inlet vanes because the flow resistance of the vanes is absent. Variable-pitch blades are the most common method of control.

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description

The most common blade actuation system for variable-pitch axial fans is a hydraulic system with a rotating union between the rotating and stationary parts. A critical design area of variable-pitch axial fans is the blade thrust bearings. These bearings experience very little movement and loads in excess of 100,000 pounds. Also, the shaft rotation acts as a centrifuge that separates particles out of the bearing lubricant and separates the lubricant if it is a mixture of elements of different densities. Ball bearings are accepted as the best type of bearing for this application. The impeller blade adjustment system is made up of a stationary servomechanism, rotating seal, and rotating piston rod. Alignment between the servomechanism and rotating piston rod is maintained by antifriction-type bearings. This unit provides a transition between the non-rotating regulating levers and the rotating piston rod; and the servomechanism’s pilot valve transforms a mechanical input signal from the regulating lever to a hydraulic signal. This hydraulic signal, in turn, is received by the hydraulic cylinder in the rotor assembly. The impeller blade adjustment system provides interface between the lever assembly and the rotor assembly. The impeller blade adjustment system receives its input signals from the boiler control system through an electric actuator (located outside the axial fan housing) and the hydraulic supply system. A clevis arm provides a mechanical link between the lever and the servo. Lever motion is translated into the clevis arm moving axially. The clevis arm’s motion causes three oil ports inside the servo to close or open in a specific sequence in order to allow oil to flow to or from the hydraulic supply system. Oil movement determines which side of the hydraulic cylinder is under pressure, ultimately resulting in movement of the blades to an ordered position. In some applications, a combined lube oil/hydraulic supply system is used to provide oil that both lubricates main fan bearings and provides pressurized hydraulic oil to serve as the working medium to vary the blade pitch. Basic components of the hydraulic oil system include primary and secondary pumps, heat exchangers (either air- or water-cooled type), reservoir, instrumentation (such as pressure switches, temperature switches, gauges, and alarms), supportive piping, and isolation valves. 3.5.2.2 Variable-Speed Drives It is possible to have fixed pitch blades with an axial fan and control the fan using a variablespeed drive. Although the arrangement would be slightly more efficient at low flow rates than a variable-pitch blade axial flow fan, the cost would be higher. Variable-speed axial flow fans are therefore rarely used in boiler draft applications.

3-21

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description

3.5.2.3 Variable Inlet Vanes This alternative has fixed blades and variable inlet vanes. The inlet vanes change the angle of attachment between the flow and the blades, similar to the effect of inlet vanes on a centrifugal fan. The design is less complicated than the variable-pitch blade design but is also considerably less efficient. Fixed blade axial fans have most of the disadvantages of variable-pitch blade axial fans without the advantage of high efficiency. 3.5.2.4 Cooling Fans All the bearings (that is, main shaft bearings and blade bearings) in an axial flow fan are inside a fairing inside the fan. For an ID fan or any other hot air or gas service, an external cooling fan is used to provide cool, clean air to pressurize and cool the main shaft bearings and vibration probes.

3.6 Other Components
3.6.1 Bearings Two general types of bearings used in draft fan applications are rolling contact and sliding contact. Both types, depending on the application, can be designed to support axial or radial loads. Both centrifugal and axial fans can use either ball or roller bearings; however, ball and roller bearings are more common on axial fans. Sliding contact bearings are more common on centrifugal fans. Ball and roller bearings consist of four major components: • • • • Outer race Inner race Rolling elements Spacer for the rolling elements

A sliding contact type bearing known as a journal or sleeve bearing is used extensively on centrifugal draft fans and some axial fans. This type of bearing is made up of four parts: journal, upper and lower sleeves, and (where required) thrust collars and oil rings. A journal bearing can be further categorized as a fixed or floating type, depending on whether the axial movement of the shaft is allowed. Fixed bearings can have either one or two thrust collars. Floating-type bearings are used to allow for thermal growth in center-hung fans and are installed at the opposite end of the fan motor. A typical sleeve bearing is shown in Figure 3-12.

3-22

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description

Figure 3-12 Sleeve Bearing Components

3.6.2 Lubrication Systems Various techniques are used to provide oil to fan and motor bearings. Static lubrication in which each bearing has a fixed supply of oil in their sumps is very common. This method is simple and very cost-effective; however, it relies on operator vigilance to detect low oil levels or poor oil quality. Use of temperature sensors to provide remote warning to the control room operators, in case of a hot bearing, offers added protection for this method. A gear pump attached to the input shaft of the driver is a second method used to provide lube oil to fan and motor bearings. A third method, the use of fluid drives to supply oil to the bearings, is also used on some fans. A fourth method involves the use of a dedicated circulating lube oil system. Two variations of this system involve the use of a forced lubricating oil system in which oil is supplied to the bearings under pressure. The second variation involves the use of a circulating oil system, which supplies oil to the bearing sump; oil rings then move the oil to the bearing surface. The latter variation is the one used most often.

3-23

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description

3.6.3 Turning Gear Turning gears are sometimes installed with ID or gas recirculating fans where exposure to hightemperature flue gas (while the fan is idle) could result in warping or thermal growth of fan internals. Once a fan is stopped and the inlet and outlet dampers are closed, a fixed volume of hot flue gases remains inside the fan housing. As these hot gases cool down, a natural temperature gradient forms. Consequently, the fan rotor cools unevenly. The result is thermal distortion, which causes the fan shaft to bow upwards in the center. It is interesting to note that many mistakenly believe that the shaft sags under the weight of the wheel. A thermally distorted fan wheel will cause vibration when the fan is restarted because the fan is out of balance due to the distortion. Power stations may choose any one of three solutions to resolve vibration caused by thermal growth. One approach involves starting the fan and accepting the accompanying vibrations. Over a period of time, the fan rotor geometry is restored as a consequence of the rotor becoming evenly heated once again. The second approach involves the operator’s initiating a series of start-stop cycles to allow the fan wheel temperature to balance out. As with the first approach, high vibration becomes an accepted condition. This, however, in addition to exposing the fans to low cycle stresses, makes this option even less attractive. The third approach involves the installation of a turning gear. A turning gear consists of a small motor, a reduction gear, and an overrunning clutch. The turning gear is used to keep the fan rotor turning at a slow speed (approximately 60 to 90 rpm) when the fan is hot but not operating. This provides an optimum solution to prevent thermal distortion. The design speed of the turning gear is critical. Most centrifugal fans have sleeve bearings that have a minimum speed. Below the minimum speed, the oil film between the journal and the sleeve is not adequate to prevent metal-to-metal contact, and the bearing will be damaged. The turning gear should be designed to operate above the minimum bearing speed (usually 60 to 90 rpm). The bearing manufacturer should be consulted to determine the minimum speed. Key Technical Point The design speed of the turning gear is critical. Most centrifugal fans have sleeve bearings that have a minimum speed. Below the minimum speed, the oil film between the journal and the sleeve is not adequate to prevent metal-to-metal contact, and the bearing will be damaged.

3.7 Fan Performance
Because boiler draft fans are among the highest auxiliary power consumers in the plant, the performance of the fans is important for efficient plant performance. Deficiencies in fan performance can cause a load limitation on plant output. In many coal-fired plants, the ID fans are the limiting factor on plant electrical output. Although the ID fans may be the apparent cause of a load limit, in many cases the root cause is high air heater leakage, air heater pluggage, high gas temperatures, precipitator infiltration, or something similar.

3-24

Key Technical Point Note that most curves are labeled as cfm. in many cases the root cause is high air heater leakage. Fan manufacturers usually present their curves in terms of vane angle. high gas temperatures. or something similar. care must be taken not to confuse inlet vane position in degrees and percent open. These curves are essentially independent of inlet density. Fan curves are usually plotted as pressure in inches of water gauge ("Wg) versus volumetric flow in actual cubic feet per minute (acfm). Many boiler controls identify inlet vane position in terms of percent open. precipitator infiltration. where it is understood that cfm is acfm. As with most other turbo machinery. in inches of water)—versus volumetric flow. Both centrifugal and axial fans must be capable of meeting conditions well beyond the expected conditions at full plant operating load. the actual vane position should be verified. Because fan performance depends on inlet density. Figure 3-13 charts the performance field for a typical centrifugal fan with inlet vane control. where it is understood that cfm is acfm. It is a customary design practice to specify a test block condition (which contains flow) and head margin above the expected operating requirements at full unit load. the performance of fans is best illustrated by a curve of pressure versus flow. Note that most curves are labeled as cfm. air heater pluggage. with 90 degrees being the full open position. Some European fan suppliers plot curves in head—in feet (meters) of fluid (rather than pressure.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Key Technical Point In many coal-fired plants. When using these curves. similar to a centrifugal pump curve that is plotted as head versus volumetric flow. Because control room and actuator position indicators may not accurately indicate actual vane positions. 3-25 . with 100% being full open. the fan curve should specify the density. Although the ID fans may be the apparent cause of a load limit. the ID fans are the limiting factor on plant electrical output. Because fan performance depends on inlet density. the fan curve should specify the density.

Many boiler controls identify inlet vane position in terms of percent open.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-13 Typical Centrifugal Fan with Variable Inlet Vanes Key Technical Point Fan manufacturers usually present their curves in terms of vane angle. with 100% being full open. Figure 3-14 is the same fan curve as Figure 3-13 with the system curve superimposed. with 90 degrees being the full open position. 3-26 .

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-14 Typical Centrifugal Fan with Variable Inlet Vanes and Showing System Curve Note that at the minimum flow (25% per NFPA). single-fan operation at low flow rates usually provides better controllability. Key Technical Point The inlet vanes are designed for flow control and not to isolate the fan. Most large boilers have two 50% capacity FD and ID fans. 3-27 . the inlet vanes would need to be less than 15 degrees. and—with the vanes fully closed—the performance will be approximately the same as with the vanes 15 degrees open. Thus. The inlet vanes are designed for flow control and not to isolate the fan. and—with the vanes fully closed—the performance will be approximately the same as with the vanes 15 degrees open. Thus. controllability at this low vane opening may be a problem. controllability at this low vane opening may be a problem.

EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-15 is a typical curve for a centrifugal fan with speed control (applicable to a fluid drive or a variable frequency drive). a minimum speed of 200 rpm should not be a problem. as load drops. the efficiency of a centrifugal fan also drops rapidly. For a typical centrifugal fan using inlet vane control. 3. Figure 3-15 Typical Centrifugal Fan with Speed Control A centrifugal fan’s most efficient area of operation is near the full-load condition in the test block area.1 Axial Fan Performance A typical performance field for a variable-pitch axial fan is shown in Figure 3-16. The system curve is also shown in this figure. The minimum flow (25%) is achieved at 200 rpm. A stable speed of 200 rpm could be a problem with a fluid drive that has a maximum speed of 900 rpm. Because the lines of constant efficiency run approximately perpendicular to the system resistance line. At 50% unit load. 3-28 . With variable frequency drives. efficiency at the test block condition may be as high as 88% but will be only 70–75% at the 100% unit load condition. For axial flow fans. A centrifugal fan with a variable-speed drive operates near its peak efficiency at all loads. maximum operating efficiencies occur below the stall line. A centrifugal fan sized for a test block condition will not operate in its most efficient region under normal conditions. which represents the maximum capability of the fan. fan efficiency may be as low as 25%. This makes it possible to select a fan that operates near its optimal efficiency at the expected full-load condition.7. The boiler resistance curve and test block condition are the same as those used in the previous example for a centrifugal fan.

Possible definitions are fan static pressure (FSP). As load decreases.2 Fan Pressure Definition The fan pressure should be defined on the fan curve. 3.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Figure 3-16 Performance Field for Variable-Pitch Axial Flow Fan Furthermore. These are defined as follows: • • • FSP = SP2 – TP1 SPR = SP2 – SP1 FTP = TP2 – TP1 3-29 . static pressure rise (SPR). efficiency does not drop off as drastically as it does with a centrifugal fan. or fan total pressure (FTP). Higher operating efficiencies and the resulting fuel savings are the most significant factors favoring axial fans. Thus. efficiency may remain as high as 65%—more than double the efficiency of a centrifugal fan with inlet vane control. for axial fans.7. the areas of constant efficiency run approximately parallel to the boiler resistance line. at 50% load.

and TP is total pressure. These definitions are illustrated in Figure 3-17. Figure 3-17 Fan Pressure Definitions 3-30 .EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the fan inlet and outlet. SP is static pressure. Note that fan static pressure is not the same as static pressure rise. Key Technical Point Note that fan static pressure is not the same as static pressure rise.

The measured volumetric flow can be applied directly to the fan curve (assuming that the units are the same). However.075 lb/ft3. Due to a temperature difference.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Fan curves are useful in evaluating actual fan performance. correcting the fan curve to the actual density at the operating point shows that the fan is actually performing better than design. It also shows an operating point based on measured data. It shows a typical fan curve based on an inlet density of 0. which is usually measured in terms of pressure rise across the fan and volumetric flow rate. the density at the measured point is 0. Figure 3-18 Fan Correction for Inlet Density 3-31 .0696 lb/ft3. Key Technical Point The pressure rise across the fan must be converted to the density on the fan curve. Comparing the operating point to the fan curve appears to show that the fan is not performing as designed. The pressure rise across the fan must be converted to the density on the fan curve. Figure 3-18 is an example of correcting the fan performance to the operating conditions.

"Wg H1 = fan pressure at density 1. This feature results in the maximum pressure capability of a centrifugal fan that is substantially higher than that required to satisfy the test block condition. regardless of density. A fan is a constant-volume machine. which tends to reduce the cost of the drive motor. Mass and WR2 (moment of inertia). but generally. have 3-32 . axial fans are best suited for air or clean gas applications. Evaluation. precipitators. bids should be taken for both centrifugal and axial fans. Protective nose pieces and coatings are available for axial fan blades.8 Selection of Fan Type The following are some of the considerations in selecting the type of fan to be used: • Volume/Pressure Characteristics. The characteristic curve for a centrifugal fan shows an increase in static pressure as flow decreases. lb/ft3 To convert the fan curve. In general. the output pressure decreases. Erosion/Corrosion. As the flow through an axial fan decreases.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description The procedure for correcting a fan curve to the operating density is to correct the fan head as follows: H 2 = H1 Where: ρ2 ρ1 Eq. lb/ft3 ρ2 = density 2. 3-1 H2 = fan pressure at density 2. The final decision can then be based on the results of a comprehensive economic evaluation. The lower weight results in a lower WR2. a centrifugal fan has much greater capability to withstand erosion than axial fans. Two-speed and variable-speed motors are considerably more expensive than constant-speed motors. which reduces foundation mass requirements. • • • The costs are lowest for fans with variable-speed motors because inlet vanes are not required. Axial fans have a higher initial cost. 3. Axial fans weigh less than centrifugal fans and have fewer massive rotating elements. Protective liners and nose and tip plates are easily applied. If a decision is made to consider axial fans. This higher maximum pressure capability can affect the design pressure of ductwork. "Wg ρ1 = density 1. Note that the volumetric flow rate (cfm) for point 1 and point 2 is the same. Axial fans allow a simpler duct arrangement. and other components in the draft system. use Equation 3-1 at several flow rates and plot the new curve.

3-33 . arrangement.10 Fan Testing A good fan test requires test instrumentation and controlled conditions. In either case. 3. Variable-speed centrifugal fans are the most efficient arrangement. The appropriate fans should be included based on an evaluation of the economic parameters. the lowest fuel cost. Key Technical Point Fan performance is based on conditions at the inlet. the difference between the total pressure at the system exit and the system entrance. density. so that the bidders can offer the proper fan for the service.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description more moving parts. Fans. pressure at inlet. and AMCA 803.9 Fan Requirements A fan specification should give the fan bidders all of the pertinent information regarding performance. the distribution of pressure between the inlet and outlet should also be specified. 3. the fan velocity pressure is unknown because the fan has not been selected. resulting in the lowest auxiliary power consumption and. The codes and standards that specify field performance testing of fans are ASME PTC-11. and require more maintenance than centrifugal fans. The usual method of specifying this energy requirement is to stipulate the static pressure of the fan in inches of water at a certain volumetric requirement. elevation. therefore. It should be noted that fan performance is based on conditions at the inlet. and the fan velocity pressure. Field Performance Tests. AMCA 203. service. The fan must provide the air or gas with sufficient energy to overcome the losses encountered through the system. Data collected from existing plant instrumentation can be used to identify possible problems but cannot be used to quantify the magnitude of a performance problem. The fan static pressure is expressed in terms of the sum of the total pressure losses of the system. If fan total pressure is specified. and basis of evaluation when required. Site Performance Test Standard. Many times. Note that the selection can be affected by the plant arrangement. and pressure at discharge. The fan’s capability must be specified and must include rate of mass flow. Fan capacity is usually rated as a volume rate of flow and is specified in cfm at inlet conditions. These codes provide guidance on the instruments and methods used to conduct high-quality field performance tests on fans. a clear statement of the fact should also be given to avoid giving the impression that total static pressure is being specified. Ignoring FVP builds a margin of safety into the stated pressure requirement. Fan velocity pressure (FVP) is defined as the velocity pressure corresponding to the average velocity through the fan outlet (see Figure 3-17). Plant instrumentation is not accurate enough to conduct a good fan test. temperature.

and DO NOT OPERATE tags have been properly cleared.1 Prestart Checks Prestart checks involve a detailed system walk through to verify that the fan will operate safely. all safety-related interlocks. In writing the startup procedures for a draft fan. CAUTION. To optimize draft fan system performance. The startup of any piece of major equipment requires following specific steps. The air or gas flow can be calculated from measurements of oxygen and boiler load. Before the actual operating point is compared to the fan design performance. the operating engineer should take into account the station’s practices and regulations. WARNING. alarms. operators must thoroughly understand the capabilities and limitations of their specific fan system. adjustments to actual operating conditions must be made. 3. check for adequate lube oil and cooling water.11.2 Startup Procedures Startup procedures should consist of a well-defined sequence of steps that ensure fan safety and that prevent boiler explosions and implosions. Fan performance is affected by inlet vane position (blade position for variable-pitch axial fans). and the manufacturer’s recommendations. The startup procedures. and proper damper position. For example.11 Operation A well-operated system improves efficiency and reduces auxiliary power consumption. fan speed.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description The actual operating point can be determined from measurements of static pressure at the fan inlet and outlet and the calculated air or gas flow. Prestart checks 2. in addition to the controls and interlocks. the number of personnel on the shift. Perform safety-related checks to verify that all DANGER. 3-34 . and similar operational interlocks have been cleared. Startup procedures 3. they are usually adequate for identifying fan performance problems. the operator should perform the following tasks: Verify that supportive auxiliary systems and monitoring equipment are operating correctly. proper temperature range of the lube oil and cooling water. During prestart checks. Although these calculations are only approximate. and fan inlet density. the level of automation. and all personnel have been cleared from the fan and ductwork. which can be divided into two phases: 1.11. 3. should follow the requirements of the current version of NFPA 85 [1].

in addition to the controls and interlocks. or a hot bearing. Through safety interlocks. A high differential pressure on the discharge filter of a circulating lube oil system is an example of an advisory alarm.11. 3. 3-35 .4 Operating Parameters to Monitor The operating parameters that affect the safety of the equipment and personnel should be monitored. Executive alarms give operating personnel audible and visual warnings of a dangerous condition. should follow the requirements of the current version of NFPA 85.2.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Key Human Performance Point The startup procedures.11.11.3 Alarm Conditions to Monitor Draft fan alarms are either executive or advisory. Advisory alarms are similar to executive alarms except that operating personnel must initiate the corrective action.2 Sequence of Steps for Startup The procedure for starting up a draft fan should include the following: • • • • • • • • • • Sequence of all operator actions required for startup Alarm conditions to monitor Operating parameters to monitor Emergency actions Fan control requirements Electric motor restrictions Requirement for the control of inlet vanes Fan outlet dampers requirements Individual responsibilities Procedures to prevent a stall 3. such as excessive vibration. The automatic boiler control system would then respond to maintain a safe condition in the furnace. 3. an executive alarm condition may initiate a shutdown of a fan. loss of lube oil.

5 Emergency Actions The startup procedures should contain cautions and warnings to remind operators of problems that could develop. These checks include the following: • • • • Verifying that the control damper/inlet guide vane is operating correctly and that local position indicators agree with the remote indicators located in the control room Test operating the fluid drive control (if applicable) Verifying that the pitch control (for axial fans only) is operating correctly Verifying that the dampers are synchronized (for double inlet fans) 3-36 .11.11. 3.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Recommended parameters to monitor for operation include the following: • • • • • • • Motor winding temperature Bearing oil temperature Bearing temperature Motor amperes Damper position Fan vibration levels Flue gas temperature (if applicable) Additional parameters and analysis are discussed in the section on condition based monitoring. In draft fan emergencies where personnel or equipment safety are in danger. Examples of such circumstances include the following: • • • • • • • High vibration levels or excursions Temperature excursions Electrical fires and oil leaks Hot bearings and loss of fan control Fan stall Loss of damper or vane control Major flow unbalance on double inlet fans 3. shutting down the fan should be a standard operating procedure. prestart checks verifying positive control of the fan should be complete.6 Fan Control Before placing control of the fan in the furnace automatic combustion control system.

The criteria used to establish the minimum number of starts for a large motor (that is. Such a condition could reduce the expected operating life of the motor or cause a premature failure of the motor’s insulation. Frequent starts that exceed the duty for which the motor was designed form local hot spots or raise the operating temperature above the allowable temperature rating for the motor insulation. One start with the motor initially at a temperature not exceeding its rated load operating temperature. section 20.1 Electric Motor Restrictions During startup. motors are to be designed to run at a maximum horsepower and full-load current without exceeding a specified temperature rise.6.43: • • Two starts in succession. especially for an ID fan being started up with cold air. it is important not to exceed the electric motor’s duty cycle. Ensuring that the design duty cycle of a motor is incorporated into a written procedure for starting a draft fan will help in preventing damage to the motor. coasting to rest between starts. 500 hp and greater) are provided in NEMA Standard MG-l. It is normal design practice for a utility power plant motor to have a design margin of 15% for horsepower for the following reasons: • • To allow margin for a demand increase from the driven equipment under unusual or infrequent operating conditions To prolong the operating life of the motor in the event of unusual or infrequent operating conditions 3-37 . A loss in fan efficiency could cause the motor to be operated above its rating.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description 3. Specific manufacturer’s requirements for starting operations after a motor has undergone a cycle of two cold starts and one hot start can be found in the manufacturer’s operating instruction manual or on the motor’s starting plate.11. Requirements that should be incorporated include the following: • • • • Minimum time the motor must run before it is shut down Length of time the motor must be at a standstill before additional starts are attempted Maximum operating temperature of the motor windings Number of total starts per day that should not be exceeded Another consideration involves operating the draft fan at or above the motor’s maximum rated current level. with the motor initially at ambient temperature. According to NEMA Standard MG-l.

Some plants have found that the required torque and startup time for a draft fan system configured with both inlet vanes and dampers and outlet dampers may not differ significantly if the outlet dampers are kept open and the inlet control devices are closed. If a change in damper operation is desired. The degree of automation will determine what the operator should do and how the control system performs. Some stations have found outlet dampers unnecessary. 3-38 . Key O&M Cost Point The best practice is to follow the fan manufacturer’s recommendation. A closed outlet damper reduces the starting time and load on the motor.8 Fan Outlet Dampers Most fan manufacturers recommend starting constant-speed fans with the outlet dampers closed. startup procedures should address the sequence of opening and closing the dampers and vanes. The best practice is to follow the fan manufacturer’s recommendation. the time limits between each step. 3. The torque required at any given speed can be three to four times higher with an open versus closed outlet damper. By operating the motor under normal conditions at less than rated horsepower (and therefore less than rated maximum current). data on startup times and motor current should be collected and discussed with the suppliers of the fan and motor. and the design and condition of the inlet vanes or inlet dampers.7 Control of Vanes and Dampers The startup procedures should specify the position of the inlet and outlet dampers and vanes during startup. For systems that require the operator to initiate all actions. the motor operating temperature is kept below its maximum operating temperature. the motor capabilities. Outlet dampers are typically high maintenance items—especially on ID fans—and may be required only for startup and fan isolation during maintenance.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description The life of a motor is originally determined by the effective life of its insulation.11. If a change in damper operation is desired. but this depends on the fan design.11. The numbers of starts and operating temperature of the motor directly influence a motor’s operational life. 3. the requirements for a visual verification of the damper position. data on startup times and motor current should be collected and discussed with the fan and motor suppliers. and indications that a vane or damper has failed to open.

operators must understand the fan curves of the fans they are operating. 3-39 . In addition. Operators must understand how they can prevent fan stalls by monitoring the operating values of static pressure. An abrupt change in flow and pressure will have an adverse effect on boiler operation and can cause a unit trip. The fan control system should monitor the head and flow and give the operator a stall warning so that the operator can take action before a stall occurs. Under certain pressure and flow combinations.10 Draft Fan Shutdown The draft fan shutdown procedure should be developed around the safety of personnel and equipment. The procedures should show the fan curves and identify points on the curve that.9 Stall Prevention for Axial Fans The aerodynamic term stall is often used to describe a phenomenon that can occur in an axial flow fan.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description 3. referred to here as a controlled and uncontrolled shutdown. Key Human Performance Point The fan control system should monitor the head and flow and give the operator a stall warning so that the operator can take action before a stall occurs. the gas flow cannot accommodate the guiding surface of the fan blade. airflow. abnormal noise levels The stall line is usually identified on the performance curve (head versus flow) for axial fans.11. stall can damage fan blades. To prevent a fan stall.11. will stall the fan. The procedures should also describe the following indications of a fan stall: • • • • Abnormal flow volume (pulsations) and power consumption (motor amps displaying abnormal fluctuations) High vibration levels Failure of the variable-pitch blades to move on command Loud. and blade position on axial fans. Pronounced separation results in circulator flow within the fan and a significant reduction in flow through the fan as well as pressure rise across the fan. 3. and flow separation occurs. if exceeded. The startup procedures should describe how to prevent fan stalls. There are two types of draft fan shutdown.

operators will perform the following: • • • Reduce firing rate demands Stop the associated fan(s) Perform fan post-shutdown-related checks Written procedures for a controlled shutdown consist of the following: • • Sequence of steps required to safely shut down the draft fan Post-shutdown checks 3. An operator error or a problem that went undetected by the monitoring system could result in an uncontrolled shutdown.10.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description 3.10. 3-40 .11. During shutdown.2 Uncontrolled Shutdown An uncontrolled shutdown is characterized by a loss of one or more draft fans.1 Controlled Shutdown A controlled shutdown of a fan occurs in a logical and orderly manner. The following conditions could cause an uncontrolled shutdown: • • • • • • • Control system upsets and/or failures High vibration level Uncontrolled hot bearing Loss of lube oil Electrical fire at the motor controller or fan motor Fires in ductwork and/or fan housing (GR or PA fan) Loss of electrical power Direct consequences of an unexpected loss of a draft fan include the following: • • • Reduced unit load capability Loss of a draft fan cascading into a boiler explosion or implosion (this occurs if boiler controls do not function properly) Loss of a unit in case its pair of ID or FD fans is shut down unexpectedly A written procedure for an uncontrolled shutdown of a draft fan should incorporate adequate measures to ensure boiler safety.11.

The following summarizes the required safety system interlock responses from NFPA 85 [1] in the event of an uncontrolled shutdown of draft fan(s): • Response to the loss of one draft fan (either one ID or one FD) – – Close dampers of the affected fan unless it is the last FD or ID fan in service. An improper fan paralleling operation can lead to serious consequences. No safety system is 100% reliable. resulting in the loss of the unit. If the unit’s automatic safety interlock system is designed to start. • Response to the loss of all FD or all ID fans: – – – Trip the corresponding ID or FD fans. such as the following: • • High vibration levels. 3-41 . Two critical factors must be recognized about the reliability of automatic safety systems: • • The effectiveness of the system depends on how well it is maintained. close dampers of these fans unless they are the last ones in service. the operator must ensure that the airflow from the fans is balanced. or damage to the electric motor. NFPA 85 [1] discusses conditions resulting from the loss of a draft fan that may lead to a boiler explosion or implosion. trip the corresponding paired fan. pressure excursions to the boiler. stalled fan(s). This is particularly serious if the unit loses all of its FD or ID fans because this may lead to furnace damage and will trip the master fuel valve. 3.11 Parallel Fan Operation When two or more fans are brought into parallel operation. Close dampers of all fans (to avoid any pressure excursion during fans coasting down). In the case of axial fans. As with any mechanical or electrical system. the operator should observe the following: • • Verify that the second fan to be brought on-line is mechanically ready. this often requires backing down the unit.11. bring the on-line fan to a pressure below the fan’s stall point. or trip ID and FD fans in pairs. Open all dampers after the required time delay (to provide appropriate natural ventilation of the boiler). Potential for losing both fans.EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description Boiler safety is addressed through a system of mandatory safety interlocks that protect against an unstable operating condition. this safety interlock system can provide only a limited level of assurance in preventing conditions that might lead to a boiler explosion or implosion. airflow pulsations in the ductwork. stop. When paralleling two fans. Written procedures and training on the system requirements and operator responsibilities in the event of a fan loss provide an additional margin of safety.

The following are the primary objectives of an on-line monitoring program: • • • • • 3. Reliably assesses the fan’s mechanical condition and displays the results in a format that is user-friendly to O&M personnel. Provide a method to warn operators when changes in the operating conditions and parameters have exceeded safe limits. Inc. An on-line monitoring program should be designed to do the following: • • Recognize a change in the equipment’s normal operating conditions or parameters. Assesses and displays the severity of a problem in a user-friendly format that requires no additional interpretation. (AMCA) has developed a standard for laboratory testing of fans: AMCA 210. Quickly and accurately recognizes any changes in the fan’s operating parameters and the significance of the changes. Confirm that the load of the on-line fan decreases accordingly as the second fan is brought on-line.12 National Standards The Air Moving and Conditioning Association. This standard provides rules for testing fans under laboratory conditions to provide rating information. Provides a means to initiate a shutdown of the fan in the event that the problem is determined to be severe. Place the second fan in automatic and confirm that the system balances both fans. 3-42 .EPRI Licensed Material Technical Description • • • • Bring the second fan up to speed. Maintains data files for long-term trending and machinery history. Adjust flow control devices of the second fan to match those of the on-line fan.

the bearing loads are less. The most common direct causes of these problems are erosion and vibration. Axial fans have less massive rotors and shorter bearing spans than centrifugal fans. Other problem areas include the hydraulic supply unit. motors. hubs. dampers. However. which account for over 50% of all problems. The major cause of foundation problems is improper design. regulating arm. shafts. The data presented here were obtained from NERC/GADS and other sources. Therefore. The most common problem areas for centrifugal ID fans are blades. and the impact is high fan vibration. The control mechanism for centrifugal fans—whether it is inlet vanes. and foundations. documents the results of the survey performed in 1981 on the causes of fan failures in fossil plants. As with centrifugal fans. However. or blade adjusting mechanism. inlet dampers. Other problem areas include inlet vanes. The major difference between axial and centrifugal fans that can affect availability is the control mechanism. which should increase availability. the biggest problem area with axial fans is related to the variable-pitch blades: 33% of the problems were due to either the hydraulic supply unit. and blade thrust bearings. or fluid drives—is much less complicated than the blade adjusting mechanism for axial fans. The failure mechanisms of the individual components are discussed next. There were nearly twice as many problems with blade positioning systems in axial fans. 4-1 . blade adjusting mechanism. axial fans have much higher loads on the thrust bearings. Over 50% of the problems with axial ID fans were with blades. axial fans have problems with erosion of blades and the main shaft bearings. Bearing problems can be caused by either a design problem or improper maintenance and operation. EPRI report CS-1693. The failure data presented here were supplemented with information obtained in a survey on FD/ID fans sent to select fossil plants and with information obtained in follow-up interviews from those surveys. The data in Tables 4-1 and 4-2 were taken from this report and show the failure causes and the failure rates of the FD and ID fans. bearings. and the shaft.EPRI Licensed Material 4 FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS A failure modes and failure causes review is discussed in this section. The failure data shown in Tables 4-3 and 4-4 for 1982 through 1995 were taken from NERC/GADS. shaft bearings. Failure Cause Analysis – Fans. and controls. blade thrust bearings.

3 0.4 1.9 0.0 2.3 1.4 1.6 3.6 0.6 11.7 0.6 1.4 2.6 0.8 4-2 .9 2.6 0.6 2.1 13.9 1.9 1.3 4.9 2.9 1.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Table 4-1 Summary of Centrifugal Fan Problem Areas Problem Area Foundation Pedestals Bearings Shaft Hub Center plate/side plate Blades Housing/boxes Inlet dampers Inlet vanes Dampers (isolation) Coupling Variable-speed drive Motor/turbine Turning gear Controls Ductwork No problems ID Fan % 9.7 9.1 0.4 0.3 0.4 2.1 0.6 9.3 0 0.0 4.4 16.6 1.6 FD Fan % 0.

4 FD Fan % 0 0 0 0 0 4.1 0 0 4.8 0 19 9.8 0 0 0 4.8 19 7.8 4-3 .8 4.8 4.5 2.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Table 4-2 Summary of Axial Fan Problem Areas Problem Area Foundation Internal bearing supports Shaft bearings Shaft Hub Hydraulic actuator Blade adjustment mechanism Regulating arm Blade shaft Blades Hydraulic supply unit No problems ID Fan % 0 4.8 4.

Hours Lost per Unit Year Deratings Occurrence Occurrence per Unit Year 0.037 8. of Forced Forced Outage – Outage per Forced Deratings.462 6.0133 0.85 20.000 119.25 3.80 16.0020 0.08 12.987 Equivalent Derated Hours Lost per Occurrence 9.043 9.921 25.54 20.67 14.095.18 14.20 12.60 9.1181 0.426 Actual Derated Hours Lost per Occurrence 18.613 9.199 No of Parallel Components Mean Time Between Failures (hrs) Mean Down Time (hrs) FD fans FD fan lubrication system FD fan motors FD fan motors – variable-speed FD fan drives (other than motor) FD fan controls 4798 674 1732 177 323 1622 355 57 139 43 34 357 222 1207 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 40.0173 0.0026 0.04 6.0370 0.000 287. Fossil Plants from 1982 Through 1995 (NERC/GADS Data) FD Fans Number of Units: 1343 Description Total Occurrences No.0214 0.50 6.852 13.000 112. of Forced Outages Forced Outages No.592 7.38 50.0725 4443 617 1593 134 289 1265 1967 10308 0.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Table 4-3 FD Fan Failure Data for U.30 4.09 19.000 89.97 10.000 17.0759 0.0213 0.0080 0.000 18.707 16.0083 0.000 1.84 50.000 600.776 18.2667 0.233 59.S.0956 0.39 6.1 Other FD fan problems 2189 Total 11515 4-4 .0034 0.6188 23.

99 10.000 54.268 7.6 ID fan motors and 2263 drives ID fan motors – variable-speed Induced draft fan controls Other ID fan problems Total 302 2269 4325 16730 4-5 .918 18.511 39.55 12.50 5.000 254.86 11.000 28.429 5.94 14.82 7.0341 0.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis ID Fans Number of Units: 872 Description Total Occurrences No.033 17.119 7.000 247.40 14.715 20.25 36.077 7.5934 0.1707 6241 434 471 2027 246 1593 3923 14935 0.0448 0.0053 0.54 7.09 16.6 7.3730 1.585 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 18.0643 0.000 402.0224 0.45 16.66 13.84 36.0020 0.61 21.000 7.0413 0.4199 19.0382 0.0043 0.04 8. of Forced Deratings Forced Forced Outage Deratings.27 3.83 6. Hours Lost per Occurence Occurence per Unit Year Equivalent Derated Hours Lost per Occurrence Actual Derated Hours Lost per Occurrence No of Parallel Components Mean Time Between Failures (hrs) Mean Down Time (hrs) ID fans ID fan lubrication systems ID fan fouling 6600 479 492 359 45 21 236 56 676 402 1795 0.1515 0.0234 0.68 14.24 10.88 16.000 15.1927 0. of Forced Outages Forced Outages – Outage per Unit Year No.000 54.

The fuel firing rate. erosion has also been reported on FD fans. Blade material. but erosion liners have a large impact. which may present a profile that is more susceptible to erosion effects. higher-speed rotor will erode faster than a larger. The actual efficiency of the ash-collection equipment ahead of the fan. including the following: • • • The fuel ash content and the ash constituents. Key Human Performance Point Erosion is a significant failure mechanism for both centrifugal and axial fans. erosion has also been reported on FD fans. blade tips that create a strong turning effect on the gas flow. The blade shape. Blade velocity relative to the ash/gas velocity. Common blade materials have a small impact on erosion. The following primary factors affect erosion from fly ash: • • • • • Fly ash concentration Ash particle size Fan tip speed Fan type Blade type The ID fan erosion rate is determined by a number of variables. for example. • • • • • 4-6 . which may further concentrate the ash. A low Btu fuel requires a higher firing rate with consequent higher ash flow to the fans.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis 4. type. The duct configuration leading up to the fan may tend to concentrate the ash on one side of the fan or at one side of the inlet boxes. The chemical composition of the ash and the size of the particles affect the rate. Assuming the same total flow. While erosion of ID fans is the major problem. Distribution of the ash in the gas stream as it enters the fan. and location of the erosion. a smaller.1 Blades Blade erosion is a significant failure mechanism for both centrifugal and axial fans. While erosion of ID fans is the major problem. lower-speed rotor. Deterioration of this equipment with age along with overloading due to the use of higher-ash coal has a significant effect on fan erosion. The action of the flow profile through the fan.

The best method for preventing ID fan erosion is to collect the fly ash before it reaches the fan. thus. Properly protected hollow airfoil blades have a relatively high resistance to erosion. CS-1693 [2] and Electric Motor Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Guide. The primary erosion area for airfoil centrifugal fans and axial fans is the leading edge of the blades. fan tip speed relative to the gas speed is a significant factor. center plate erosion will increase as will erosion of the trailing edge of the blade. Failure Cause Analysis – Fans. the erosion rate of a variable-speed fan should be only 12% of that of a constant-speed fan. This can cause fan imbalance and vibration problems. erosion of hollow airflow blades can cause a hole in a blade and fill the interior of the blade with fly ash. This causes fan imbalance and vibration and may require the fan to be shut down for repair and cleaning. inspection (when indicated). However. Thus. bearing failures are a major contributing factor to fan outages. Erosion rates are directly proportional to fly ash concentrations. NP-7502 [3].2 Bearings According to two EPRI reports. Therefore. The leading edge of centrifugal fan blades is toward the inside diameter and has a lower velocity than the periphery of the wheel. The personnel accountable for a fan outage should be responsible for proper surveillance. Main shaft bearings are a leading cause of centrifugal fan problems and are prominent in the list of axial fan problems. If high particle loading is expected. localized concentration and localized erosion and should be considered in addition to average concentrations. The difference is even larger at lower loads. A direct comparison between the tip speeds of axial and centrifugal fans is not valid. therefore. a single-thickness-blade centrifugal fan is the best choice. 4-7 . Baghouses have higher collection efficiencies and are less likely to experience excursions than electrostatic precipitators. As the size of the ash particles increases. A related failure mechanism is the buildup of particle on fan blades. Reduced erosion rates are a significant benefit of variable-speed fans (because erosion rates will vary approximately with the cube of fan speed). the fan erosion rate of variable-speed fans should be only 73% as great as the erosion rate of constant-speed fans.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Continual surveillance of vibration. whereas the leading edge of an axial fan blade extends to the periphery. The gas flow in a centrifugal fan must make a 90° turn inside the fan. Stratification of ash due to gravity or duct configuration can create high. considering the design margins used. they reduce the erosion potential for ID fans. and repair. 4. At 50% load. inspection. while axial fans are typically supplied with ball/roller types. The erosion rate varies approximately with the cube (or higher) of the velocity of impact. Variable-speed fans are generally capable of meeting the full-load system requirements at 90% speed. this effect will increase. Because the inertia of the ash particles prevents them from turning as quickly as the gas. cleaning. the particles and erosion will be concentrated at the junction of the blades and the fan center plate. and good maintenance or repair have the best chance to succeed. Nearly all centrifugal fans use sleeve bearings. at full load.

Section 5 of this report addresses troubleshooting procedures. contaminated oil. The minimum frequency of any foundation part should be 25–50% higher than the fan speed. but also the dynamic load due to vibration. mostly due to manufacturing and maintenance deficiencies. trend analysis. To obtain a level shaft at the coupling end. correct alignment of rotating elements. The failure modes include the following: • • • • • • • Loss of oil Insufficient oil flow Loss of cooling Loose thrust collars Incorrect clearance Contaminated oil Oil leakage Bearing failure can lead to high vibration. Anti-friction ball bearings or roller bearings are used for the main shaft bearing on axial fans. When the fan is mounted on the foundation. rotors. high level vibration. This section addresses the latter two causes. The supports must be rigid enough to ensure permanent alignment and to prevent excessive vibrations. Successful bearing maintenance includes proper lubrication and lube oil quality. and shims should be used as support points before the bolts are tightened. or maintenance deficiencies. There are two types of foundation cracking. loss of cooling. it normally shrinks between 0.02% and 0. 4. it may be necessary to raise the outboard end of the shaft end due to the sag in the shaft. and poor operating conditions.3 Foundations Larger fans require more substantial foundations. This procedure will prevent any distortion or twisting of equipment and any possible rubbing of rotating parts [4]. These foundations should be level. poor construction practices. ductwork. When used. Most bearing failures are a result of loss of oil. sleeve bearings are similar to those for centrifugal fans except that they are built to have greater capability to sustain thrust. which can result in the damage of various subcomponents such as blades. rigid. and the first type occurs during the curing process. and adherence to regular inspection intervals. shafts.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis The main shaft bearings support not only the static load of the rotor. The interaction of the reinforcing steel with the concrete during shrinkage produces tension forces in the concrete and 4-8 . fan housings. the fan shaft should be level at the coupling end. The three principal causes of crack development in concrete machinery foundations are improper foundation design.03%. As concrete cures. and flexible couplings. Prolonged operation at high vibration levels puts a severe strain on the bearings. and of sufficient mass for the equipment.

This cracking is caused by dynamic forces such as those produced by excess fan vibration. 4-9 . gears. the segments may move. rods. second. and tabs. if left unchecked. shafts. Two possible conditions may appear with this form of cracking: first. and bearings Erosion Insufficient clearance to fan inlet cone to allow maintenance and lubrication Weak control arms and linkage In addition. 4. they can provide “avenues” for oil and water to penetrate into the concrete foundation. breakage of dampers results in the loss of fans when broken parts are drawn into the rotor. This movement may cause further crack progression. cause degradation of the concrete and introduce a degree of difficulty in the repair process. levers.4 Inlet Vanes The inlet vane assembly includes sleeves. potentially leading to structural failure of the foundation and the potential for serious damage to the fan. Although these cracks are not considered detrimental to the structural integrity of the foundation. operating levers and linkage. producing segments of various sizes. The failure modes for inlet vanes include the following: • • • • • • • • Binding Wear of control linkage Vane bearing failure Breakage of vanes Wear of control gears.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis compression forces in the steel. the cracking progresses throughout the concrete block. causing further crack damage. The second type of cracking affects the structural integrity of the fan foundation. Water can expand and contract during temperature changes. cracking (referred to as curing cracks) develop in the concrete. As a result of this reaction. Oil penetration may. center ring. over time.

EPRI report 1007910 [5]. 4. moisture. The primary damage includes the following: • • • • • • • • • • Overheating due to undersizing Damage to the insulation.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis 4.6 Hydraulic Actuating Mechanism The hydraulic actuating mechanism on axial flow fans is the system that is used to vary the blade angle and the control mechanism for the fan. The failure modes for couplings include the following: • • • Seizing Sheared stub shaft Broken flexible element or gear teeth More details are provided in Flexible Shaft Couplings Maintenance Guide. Coupling/shaft interaction produces tortional vibration problems. The following failure modes apply to this mechanism: • • • Oil leaks Contaminated oil Failure of the servomechanism 4. resulting in its inability to hold the voltage Moisture intrusion combined with dirt.5 Couplings Coupling problems usually result from insufficient or loss of lubrication and improper alignment. causing a sticky mass to form inside the motor Loose connections Wires or winding shorting Loose windings Insulation breakdown Bearing failure Breakage of hold-down pads Misalignment 4-10 . and friction. vibration.7 Electric Motors Ninety percent of motor failures and problems are the result of four basic causes: dirt.

or failure will usually be a major step toward solving it. cracking. Figure 4-1 illustrates centrifugal fan housing components. problem. which allows hub to loosen 4. modifications to the fan outlet and/or inlet connections. or adjustments to the fan.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis More details can be found in Electric Motor Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Guide. Excessive speed beyond manufacturer recommendations may cause catastrophic impeller failure.9 Housing Examples of problems that a housing subsystem may be subject to include the following: • • • • • • • • • • Cracking and breakage due to insufficient bracing and/or welding Bolt failures due to high vibration levels Inlet cones having erosion. corrosion. 4-11 .8 Hubs Examples of problems reported include the following: • • • • • • Loose fit on shaft Failure of rivets or bolts that connect the hub to center plate Cracks or inclusions on faulty castings Insufficient stiffness Erosion Differential thermal expansion of hub and shaft. Identification of a problem associated directly with the fan may require the assistance of the fan manufacturer. EPRI report NP-7502 [3]. 4. Corrective measures may include alteration to the system. or breaking Improper clearance between the fan wheel and housing Improperly maintained access doors and/or plates Damaged slide plates Seal rubs as a result of misalignment or improper setting Rubber liner that came loose Liner pieces that broke off and fell into the rotor Corrosion or erosion Recognition of the cause of the trouble.

11 Shaft The shaft problems include the following: • • • • • • • Cracks at change of section Incorrect machining. which causes stress-raisers and subsequent cracking Natural frequency too close to running frequency Improper welding or metal buildup. resulting in cracks or failure Out-of-round at bearing journals Diameter too small.10 Turning Gears Problems with turning gears may result from insufficient capacity to maintain proper speed to provide lubrication.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Figure 4-1 Centrifugal Fan Housing Components 4. causing bowing and tortional problems Shaft dropped and damaged during transit 4-12 . 4.

resulting in insufficient control Insufficient clearance to discharge duct to allow maintenance and lubrication Weak control arms and linkage Breakage of dampers.14 Isolating Dampers Isolating damper problems include the following: • • • • • • Binding Breaking Cracking Insufficient sealing Leaves loose on shaft Bearing failures 4-13 . resulting in loss of fan when parts were drawn into the rotor 4.13 Inlet Dampers Inlet damper problems include the following: • • • • • • • Cracking Breaking Binding Leaves loosened on shaft. resulting in flexing and cracking Erosion 4.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis 4. which result in loose rivets or bolts Weld flaws and cracks Insufficient weld penetration High stress levels Thin material.12 Center Plate Center plate problems include the following: • • • • • • • Cracks Oversize holes.

17 Ductwork Problems with ductwork include the following: • • • • • • • Insufficient bracing Uneven distribution of fly ash and/or gas to the fans Excessive system resistance Insufficient bracing of stationary vanes Ductwork misalignment with housing Corrosion Expansion joint failure 4-14 . which results in fan speed surging.EPRI Licensed Material Failure Modes and Effects Analysis 4. 4.15 Variable-Speed Drive Hydraulic couplings are subject to instability.16 Controls Problems with controls subsystems include the following: • • • • • • Frozen air lines Vanes that opened too quickly Lack of bearing-temperature sensors Vibration sensors mounted vertically rather than horizontally Proximity vibration sensors that are found unreliable Failure of damper torque operator 4.

Damaged thrust collars Fan wheel moving on shaft Foundation problems 5-1 .EPRI Licensed Material 5 TROUBLESHOOTING Troubleshooting and industry experience help identify probable causes and provide suitable corrective actions. Check alignment. Cut openings in blades. remove ash. and repair holes. Inspect thrust collars and alignment. Rebalance the fan. inspect grout. water. Repair the welds (see Appendix B). inspect bearings. and corrective actions. but virtually all of the potential problems apply to both FD and ID fans. check bearing alignment. possible causes. Check oil for contamination. Check the torque of bolts. Tables 5-1 through 5-7 provide potential problems. Check the torque of bolts. Inspect and repair the welds. Table 5-1 Fan Troubleshooting Problem High vibration Possible Cause Deposits on blades Cracked blade welds Missing balance weights Ash inside hollow blades Loose bearing or pedestal bolts Loose foundation bolts Cracked pedestal welds Coupling/shaft misalignment (typical symptom is a vibration that is 2x running speed) Damaged bearing(s) Corrective Action Clean the entire rotor. Problems that are unique to one type of fan have been identified. and particles. Inspect the foundation for cracks. and check bearing temperatures. Many of these problems apply to both centrifugal and axial flow fans. Inspect hub bolts and hub-to-shaft fit.

Check fan assembly and adjustment. Check motor vibration. improper installation Leakage Improper operation Repair leaks. inadequate lubrication of bearings Excessive clearance between the inlet ring of the fan wheel and the housing inlet cone Bent. inspect the wheel for distortion. verify that the motor is running within its magnetic center. Balance the fan. Verify and replace the shaft. Reinstall the seal according to the proper procedure. Check the fan type and design. expansion joint leaks (increase the hp required) Variable-speed drive concerns Sensors/instrumentation reading Electric motor alignment (increases the hp required) Fan wheel clearance (excessive clearance will cause recirculation to develop) Shaft Excessive wear. Check and realign the motor. Determine the actual fan operating point. Verify that the inlet vanes at both inlets are synchronized. including inlet vanes and inlet cones. check motor bearings. Recalibrate sensors.EPRI Licensed Material Troubleshooting Table 5-1 Fan Troubleshooting (continued) Problem High vibration (cont. fan housing. Incorrect readings Dirty filters.) Possible Cause Fan wheel distortion Corrective Action Verify whether the fan has experienced extreme temperature transient. Horsepower too high 5-2 . and check motor bearing temperatures. undersized Fan size or type not the best for the application Low density Point of operation on curve Check clearances between the fan and the housing. Verify air or gas temperature. Verify that the variable-speed drive has been tuned to deliver the ordered input. Imbalance in inlet vanes Seal wear (seals that have excessive wear permit air/gas stream leakage) Motor problem Unknown Air/gas distribution: ducts.

) Fan will not start Possible Cause Incorrect motor selection Blown fuses Impeller touching housing Wrong voltage Air volume too small Wrong fan rotation Inlet or outlet obstructions Corrective Action Verify motor selection/size per application. Erroneous data Verify that thermocouple/RTO is operating correctly. Check for excessive or insufficient clearance. Table 5-2 Bearing Troubleshooting Problem High bearing temperature Possible Cause Inadequate cooling Correction Action Verify water flow and temperature (self-contained bearing cooling). Wipe the bearing surfaces. a portable thermometer may often be used to check the bearing operating temperature against fixed sensor.EPRI Licensed Material Troubleshooting Table 5-1 Fan Troubleshooting (continued) Problem Horsepower too high (cont. Verify oil flow and temperature (circulating lube oil system). Check bearing alignment. 2. Verify that the oil ring is operating correctly. Verify that the lube oil is clean and of sufficient amount. Confirm that heat flingers (if applicable) are not damaged or dirty. Remove obstructions. Lube oil contaminated Oil ring damage Heat flingers damaged Bearing alignment Bearing damage 5-3 . Open and inspect the bearing: 1. Check blade angles in relation to fan rotation. Inspect and verify access. Verify voltage for application. Inspect fuses. verify that pumps are operating and that filters are not blocked.

Repair pumps. Verify proper valve positions. Check the pump alignment for damage. Verify that the cooling fan is operating properly. Review the valve lineup.) Possible Cause Fan shaft alignment Cooling fan problem (axial flow fan) External heat source Correction Action Verify that the fan shaft is not distorted or misaligned. Verify set points and operation. Check temperature and oil type. High vibration Table 5-3 Lubrication System Troubleshooting Problem No lube oil flow Possible Cause Low oil level Pumps not operating Dirty filter Incorrect system lineup Heat exchanger pluggage Low oil pressure Dirty filter Pump capacity Incorrect line Oil viscosity Pressure switches Relief valve Flow orifice Noise/vibration Pump operation Relief valve Cooling fan Oil viscosity Add oil. Clean or replace the filter. Verify position of the relief valve. Verify size of the flow orifice. Clean or replace the filter. Examine operation of the cooling fan. See guidance on high vibration previously in this table. such as high ambient temperature. Corrective Action 5-4 . Verify set points and position. Inspect the heat exchanger. Verify that no externally applied heat source is present. Examine pumps. Check oil temperature and type.EPRI Licensed Material Troubleshooting Table 5-2 Bearing Troubleshooting (continued) Problem High bearing temperature (cont.

Verify the integrity of filters.EPRI Licensed Material Troubleshooting Table 5-3 Lubrication System Troubleshooting (continued) Problem Oil contamination Possible Cause Cooling water leaks Filter Storage tank High oil temperature Heat exchanger Cooling fan (air cooled) Cooling water Heater High bearing temperature Corrective Action Examine and test heat exchangers. Inspect heat exchangers. Replace the cylinder. 5-5 . Verify that the oil source is clean. Replace the line. Clear the duct. Table 5-4 Hydraulic System Troubleshooting Problem Hydraulic oil leakage in the fan diffuser section (axial flow fan) Possible Cause Leakage in rotating union Leakage in oil line Leakage in hydraulic cylinder Hydraulic oil leakage in intermediate section (axial flow fan) Cooling air fan stopped Cooling air duct blocked Corrective Action Replace the union. Start the fan. Check temperature and flow rate of cooling water Check set point and operating of heaters. Inspect the bearing and bearing clearance to identify heat generation. Verify fan operation.

Inspect and repair the dampers or vanes. Replace the bearings. Replace the shaft. See Electric Motor Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Guide [3] Realign the impeller. Replace the coupling.EPRI Licensed Material Troubleshooting Table 5-5 Troubleshooting Noise Level Problem Noise Possible Cause Insufficient bearing clearance Damaged bearing surface Inadequate lubrication Worn or damage coupling Coupling alignment. Add oil or check the lube oil system. Review the fan operating point. Tighten the bolts. Realign the coupling. Replace the pulley. 5-6 . poor wheel balance Damper or inlet vanes failed close Stall Fan wheel rub Motor noise Impeller hitting inlet Loose motor bolts Wrong pulley size Defective bearings Bent or undersized shaft Corrective Action Adjust or replace the bearing. Inspect clearance between the wheel and housing. Replace the bearing or liner. balance the wheel.

Inspect the cooling water system for proper pressure. 5-7 . Vent system lines to remove any air pockets. 6. Verify that there are no restrictions in the water lines: check drain points to confirm water supply to various points. 9. 7. Conduct a visual inspection of the quality of hydraulic oil. Check system strainers/filters for dirt or debris buildup. check for water or dirt contamination. 4. Verify that cooling system is properly aligned. confirm that all valves are functioning properly. 2.EPRI Licensed Material Troubleshooting Table 5-6 Troubleshooting Fluid Drive Problem High fluid drive oil temperature Possible Cause Inadequate cooling Corrective Action 1. Vent the cooler of any air pockets that may have formed if the system was disassembled for maintenance. 5. Verify that the water side of the heat exchanger is clean and unobstructed. 8. 3. Verify that the ambient temperature of the cooling water is within design limits.

Incorrect oil viscosity or contamination Oil heaters operating Low oil level Bearing damage or wear Low fluid drive oil pressure High oil temperature Plugged strainers Damaged oil pumps Relief valves open Verify that the proper oil is used. and filter assemblies for leakage. 3. 4. Inspect bearings. Verify that relief valves are properly set and not opening prematurely. Inspect all piping. Verify that the hydraulic oil system is aligned for operation. 6. Check for dirty suction strainers.) Possible Cause Poor oil circulation Corrective Action 1. 7. 5-8 . Verify that all designated valves are opened correctly. 2. Check filters: shift or clean as required. Inspect pumps for proper operation. See corrective actions for high oil temperature in Table 5-3. Verify that relief valves are functioning properly. valves. Verify oil level. Restrictions at the pump suction point may indicate a buildup of sludge in the oil reservoir.EPRI Licensed Material Troubleshooting Table 5-6 Troubleshooting Fluid Drive (continued) Problem High fluid drive oil temperature (cont. Inspect the pump for damage or internal debris. Vent oil side to remove any air pockets that may have formed if the system was opened. and analyze oil quality. Shut off heaters. and inspect oil side of the heat exchanger for clogs or buildup of dirt. Clean strainers. 5. low discharge pressure may indicate a worn impeller.

verify that the flow is even on both inlets (within 5%). Fan speed control Uneven air flow System conditions Wheel to housing clearance Fan damage 5-9 . inspect for cracked bolt heads. Verify that the clearance between the wheel and housing is within recommended limits. Inspect fan blades for damage. Alignment Bearing damage Fluid drive oil leaks Labyrinth seal Piping and valves Input/output shafts Table 5-7 Fan Performance Troubleshooting Problem Poor fan performance Possible Cause Inlet vanes Corrective Action Verify that inlet vanes are responding to the controls. Inspect fluid drive bearings.EPRI Licensed Material Troubleshooting Table 5-6 Troubleshooting Fluid Drive (continued) Problem High fluid drive vibration Possible Cause Loose bolts Corrective Action Verify that all foundation and machinery hold-down bolts are properly tightened. Inspect seals for damage. Check for scoring on the shafts. Inspect all peripheral connections and equipment for damaged or loose fittings. Check for leaks. For double-inlet fans. Check the alignment between the motor and fluid drive and between the fluid drive and fan. Ensure that fasteners on the steel housing are properly tightened. Verify that speed control (if equipped) is responding properly. Evaluate that the actual fan performance correct for actual conditions. Verify that the inlet vanes on double-inlet fans are synchronized.

Check the balance of the coupling and clutch. the fan may be in an unstable range. If fan is operating with inlet vanes less than 30% open. Parallel operation Operating point Pressure pulsations (axial) Stall 5-10 . Multiple fans operating in parallel can be unstable. depending on the shape of the system curve and the fan curves.EPRI Licensed Material Troubleshooting Table 5-7 Fan Performance Troubleshooting (continued) Problem Turning gear high oil temperature Turning gear high vibration Possible Cause Oil contaminated Alignment Balance Loose bolts Pressure pulsations (centrifugal) Fan surge Corrective Action Analyze oil. Measure the fan flow and head. and check viscosity. Changes in the system or operation may be the easiest solution. Verify the actual operating point of the fan versus the stall line. Check alignment between fan and turning gear. Fans with inlet box dampers may become unstable when the dampers are less than 50% open. and plot the operating point to verify that the fan is not operating in the unstable region. Check torque of hold-down bolts.

It includes technologies such as the following: • • • • • Vibration measurement and analysis Oil analysis Nondestructive examination (NDE) Infrared thermography Motor current analysis The goal of condition monitoring is to identify changes in the condition of the fan. Key Technical Point The goal of condition monitoring is to identify changes in the condition of the fan. 6. motor. motor.1 Vibration Monitoring Vibration monitoring consists of acquiring and analyzing specific machine operating parameters. predict failure.1. 6. potentially. or auxiliary that could indicate some potential failure. Physical characteristics are measured.1 Parameters The following parameters can be used to form a database for draft fans: • • • • • Amplitude Frequency Phase angle Vibration form Vibration mode shape 6-1 . and analyzed so that trends can be identified. recorded. or auxiliary that could indicate some potential failure.EPRI Licensed Material 6 CONDITION MONITORING Condition monitoring is the use of advanced technologies to determine equipment condition and.

3 Phase Angle The phase angle provides a reference measure of movement of a specific point on the shaft or rotor. or acceleration and provides an indication of severity by measuring how smooth or rough the draft fan is operating. 6. Nonsynchronous vibrations occur at frequencies other than direct multiples of the machine’s speed. The measurement is taken relative to either another moving point or to a fixed point such as a transducer.43 x rpm: vibration frequency is 43% of the machine’s rpm Vibrations occurring at frequencies that are a direct multiple (for example.1. Vibrations occurring at frequencies that are an integer fraction (for example. 6. The wave pattern generated will represent shaft motion. Frequency should not be used as a measure of the problem’s severity. in certain cases. unbalance and misalignment).1. or as multiples of the rpm.1. Examples of these multiples include the following: • • • 1 x rpm: vibration frequency is the same as the machine’s rpm 1/2 x rpm: vibration frequency is one-half the machine’s rpm 0. unless roller and ball bearings are involved. amplitude.1. 6. typically less than 4 times (4X) the running speed. and pattern) on an oscilloscope. Machine problems will most often occur at low vibration frequencies. transient types of vibrations are best analyzed through observing their wave form characteristics (such as shape. Short-lived.1 Amplitude Amplitude can be expressed in terms of displacement.1. A change in this reading indicates a change in the condition of the machine.4 Vibration Form Vibration form is the actual vibration displayed as a wave pattern. 6-2 .1. velocity. 1/3X) of the machine’s rpm are termed subsynchronous. Although.EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring 6.2 Frequency The frequency of vibration is expressed in either cycles-per-second. This point can be a high spot located on a shaft or a concentration of uneven weight that may have collected on the fan rotor. 4x) of the machine’s rpm are termed synchronous or harmonic. This provides the ability to “see” what the fan is doing at any moment. this change indicates a need for further investigation. lx. this does not mean that there is a direct correlation between problems and vibration frequencies. The phase measurement or angle is expressed in degrees.1.1. l/2X. 2x. specific frequencies can be linked to specific problems (for example. Accurate phase angle measurement plays an important role in balancing fan rotors and in analyzing the mode shape of the vibration. Equipment that is operating within the manufacturer’s recommended limits will have a stable amplitude reading. cycles-per-minute.

As an example. driver. which eliminates the need for operators to manually 6-3 .EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring Vibration form can be displayed as a time-based presentation or as an orbital presentation (which is seldom used in draft fan applications).5 Vibration Mode Shape Vibration mode shape is obtained by recording vibration amplitude and phase values at many points on the structure of the entire machine. Over 85% of mechanical problems occurring on rotating equipment can be identified using this method. This technique has applications for both continuous monitoring/machinery protection and for equipment diagnostic checks. This latter method allows operating engineers to observe the centerline motion of the shaft. The vibration mode of a draft fan provides a means of confirming resonance conditions. including fan bearings. 6. the display would show the movement of the shaft centerline relative to the bearing. and identifying points of structural weakness. These techniques offer methods to obtain and display vibration data: • • • Amplitude versus frequency Real-time spectrum analysis Time waveform 6. Use of an X-Y recorder provides the added feature of automatically producing a plot of frequency-versus-vibration amplitude. An orbital presentation uses the input from two probes spaced 90° apart from each other in the X-Y mode of an oscilloscope. structural resonance. and foundation. Key Technical Point The vibration amplitude-versus-frequency analysis method is considered to be the most useful. Primary equipment needed to conduct this test includes a vibration-pickup (probe) and vibration analyzer. problems such as pipe resonance.2.1.1. points of minimum amplitude). By conducting casing measurements along a drive train. if the probes were mounted on a bearing housing.1. 6. Time-base presentation uses inputs from a displacement transducer displayed on an oscilloscope in the time-base mode. Over 85% of mechanical problems occurring on rotating equipment can be identified using this method. or loose/cracked foundations can be determined.1.2 Vibration Analysis Vibration analysis can be accomplished through a variety of available techniques.1 Amplitude Versus Frequency Analysis The vibration amplitude-versus-frequency analysis method is considered to be the most useful. locating nodal points (that is. An additional option available on some vibration analyzers is an automatic frequency tuner.

Either method allows operators to analyze vibration quickly and easily. if the operator chooses 50%.2 Real-Time Spectrum Analysis This method is most effective when the vibration is not steady state or transient. The oscilloscope can be set up to receive an input vibration signal either directly from the transducer or from a real-time spectrum analyzer. the circuit will trigger and automatically capture an incoming transient signal. Obtain an overall “filter out” reading (in each of the three positions) at each bearing. It reduces the element of human error by eliminating the chance of missing significant vibration frequencies. Using an oscilloscope can also provide an excellent means for observing and evaluating transient vibration signals that may be present because of fan pulsations or control problems.2. If this feature is used.1.3 Time Waveform Analysis Time waveform analysis uses an oscilloscope to provide a time display of vibration amplitude. thereby providing a true measure of maximum amplitude present. The transient signal occurs slowly enough for the operator to depress the “hold” button. 6. Once this 50% criterion is met. Select a single amplitude range setting sufficient for the entire analysis. This method will work if the following conditions are met: • • The operator is fully aware of when the transient signal will occur. For example.EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring tune through the frequency spectrum. Select an amplitude range setting on the vibration analyzer sufficient for the maximum vibration signature in order to obtain data that are plotted on the same range. 6.2. vertical. which specifies the percentage of the signal’s amplitude used to begin the process. Using an automatic frequency tuner also provides extended troubleshooting capability. and it reduces the actual analysis time by eliminating time spent on fine-tuning each significant frequency.” The “hold” control is operator-initiated when the transient frequency reaches its maximum amplitude. 6-4 . and axial directions at each bearing. The “hold” feature provides a means for manually capturing the transient signal. The following are additional recommendations to follow when using the amplitude-versusfrequency technique: • • • • Take vibration readings along the horizontal. Data obtained are not filtered. This action stores the transient signal into the analyzer’s memory for future analysis. Use of a realtime spectrum analyzer allows O&M personnel to “capture” and analyze vibration signatures. Two features available with real-time analyzers are the “hold” and “peak hold. The “peak hold” feature provides a method to capture and store a transient signal in situations that do not meet the above two conditions.1. the operator must set the trigger level. detection circuits will look for an amplitude level exceeding this value from incoming signals.

1. the shaft) for vibration or position is not required. The strength of the magnetic field is directly related to the level of equipment vibration. Physical contact with the object being measured (for example. a dc signal proportional to the average gap and an ac signal proportional to vibration amplitude are generated. the field strength is monitored by detection circuitry located in the driver. and driver. connecting cable. a magnetic field is established. Output from the driver is either in the form of a dc signal or a combination of a dc and ac signal. thereby setting up eddy currents on the conductive material’s surface. gap) between the shaft and probe is transmitted from the driver. brought in proximity to the coil due to vibration or axial motion will “cut” the lines of the magnetic flux. a dc voltage directly proportional to the distance (that is. When no vibration is present. As this current passes through the coil. Inside the probe is a coil that receives high-frequency current from the driver. and accelerometer probes. As vibration levels develop. Stronger eddy currents are established as the shaft gets closer to the probe and weakens the magnetic field around it. transducers) to be used. Conductive material. velocity. phase reference Rotating speed reference A proximity probe offers the following advantages: • • • • • • Measures the motion of the shaft (which is the primary source of machine vibrations) in terms of displacement Makes no contact with the shaft Has no moving parts and is small Has an excellent frequency response Is easily calibrated Provides accurate low-frequency amplitude and phase angle information 6-5 . In practice.3 Proximity Probes A proximity probe is a transducer used for vibration and position measurement. 6. such as a steel shaft. There are three applications for systems using proximity probes: • • • Radial vibration Axial position. Principal components include the probe. pickup.EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring Essential to any on-line monitoring system is the choice of sensors (that is. For vibration measurement. there are three types of transducers available: proximity (noncontact). Proximity probes are used to measure the relative movement between the shaft and bearing or bearing housing.

Unlike a displacement probe. velocity probes and their cables can be susceptible to magnetic interference.1. The probe should be held steady by its cable near the permanently installed velocity probe. the coil) through a magnetic field.EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring A proximity probe has the following disadvantages: • • • • • Requires an external power source Is sensitive to certain shaft materials Is sensitive to shaft mechanical and electrical run out May not detect looseness in support components Provides no useful information for fans with heavy rotors 6. 6-6 . To alleviate this problem. During draft fan operation. springs. Without proper shielding. The wire coil is wrapped around the mass that in turn is suspended between the permanent magnet by the springs and damper. damper. The permanent magnet is attached to the pickup case and provides a magnetic field around the suspended coil. If this condition is suspected. To perform this test. The pickup case provides a structure to house the remaining components. the magnetic field’s intensity and presence can be determined. A velocity pickup consists of six principal parts: pickup case. a reading on the analyzer indicates that a strong magnetic field is causing interference. consequently. a velocity probe requires no external power source to operate. and the suspended probe should not come in contact with the operating equipment. wire coil. and permanent magnet. The amount of voltage that is induced in the coil will be proportional to the relative velocity between it and the magnetic field.4 Velocity Probes Operation of a velocity probe is based on the movement of a conductor (in this case. mass. The magnetic interference may be caused by the alternating magnetic field that is generated around large ac motors. personnel will need a vibration analyzer connected to a portable velocity probe. In certain applications. a magnetic shield should be installed around the fixed velocity probe. these fields can induce a voltage in the pickup or cable. an erroneous vibration signal is generated.

Piezoelectric material can generate an electric charge when it undergoes mechanical stress. A principal advantage of this type of probe is its ability to operate over a wide frequency range. In the event of vibration.5 Accelerometer Probes The internals of an accelerometer probe are made up of four components: mounting stud. these disks undergo a series of compressive and tensile reactions. These in turn produce an electric signal proportional to the magnitude of the force imparted to the mass. the signal generated represents the acceleration of the mass. The frame assembly houses the mass and the piezoelectric disks. Accelerometers are unaffected by magnetic fields that may originate from nearby electric machinery. The probe has a narrow frequency response. The probe has mechanical moving parts that can be expected to wear out. which can be compressive or tensile. frame. 6. The signal can be electronically integrated to provide a displacement signal. and rugged. these last two components form the heart of an accelerometer probe. piezoelectric disks. Accelerometers are small. The probe may pick up outside magnetic interference. This capability makes an accelerometer well suited for monitoring high-frequency vibration that can develop in anti-friction bearings or gears. No external power supply is required.1. a fault in any of the components will require replacement of the entire unit. The probe is difficult to calibrate and requires a shaker table. lightweight. The probe is susceptible to cross-axis sensitivity at high vibration amplitudes. Disks of piezoelectric material are rigidly “sandwiched” between the frame and the mass. The mounting stud provides a means for attaching the probe assembly to the equipment being monitored. Because the amount of mass is known. it gives a strong signal in mid-frequency ranges. A velocity probe has the following disadvantages: • • • • • • • • The probe is relatively large and heavy.EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring A velocity probe offers the following advantages: • • • The probe is mounted on the external housing of the machine component. amplitude and phase errors can be generated at low frequencies. Because the probe is manufactured as a unit. and mass. They require no special shielding or other provisions. The probe measures only dynamic motion. 6-7 .

These locations should be identified both on the equipment or component and on the forms used to record the data.6 Data Acquisition Accurate data acquisition is the basis for a successful vibration-monitoring program. 6. coupling 6-8 . Difficult to calibrate. obtaining data means monitoring and recording vibration levels displayed on the gages or output devices provided. For draft fans equipped with installed vibration sensors.1. Use of color-coded marks (such as “red dots”) provides operators with an easily seen reference point from which to take vibration readings. no moving parts.6.1 Machine Diagram An important part of the data acquisition process is the machine diagram. and relatively lightweight Available for high-temperature applications Accelerometer probes have the following disadvantages: • • • Can be influenced by vibration transmitted to the fan housing by the surrounding environment.1. highly reliable. 6. double integration to displacement is susceptible to noise problems. driven unit (fan). Stenciling the equipment with identification marks such as “FD 1 EAST” to distinguish between the various fans at the site will also help prevent confusion—a prime consideration because introducing incorrect data into trending and equipment history files will produce erroneous results. Transducer fault will require replacement of the entire unit. Monitoring programs using portable equipment either to supplement existing installed vibration sensors or to check equipment not outfitted with an installed monitoring system will require personnel to identify specific locations on which to place the probe. To be effective. poor signal-to-noise ratio. This procedure will help ensure that consistent and reliable information is obtained. It is essential to adopt a systematic approach in obtaining and recording the data for use in the analysis process. and usually requires filtering in the monitor.EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring Accelerometer probes offer the following advantages: • • • Easy to install Useful for high-frequency measurements above 2 kHz. A diagram of this type forms a link between the actual physical location on the equipment or component and the record used to log the results. requires external power source. For a draft fan. the diagram should show all the essential elements. bearings. these elements should include the driver (motor).

This system package can be used as a guideline for determining the amount of protection needed.1. Fans operating in a clean gas stream are less likely to develop damage from erosion. A safety interlock system that can initiate a shutdown of a draft fan if a condition develops that is dangerous to equipment or personnel. A deviation from this condition may indicate loose equipment holddown bolts. vibration level. Additional information such as motor rpm. typically produces high vibration levels in all three directions. Primary features of this system include the following: • • • A remote monitoring capability that allows control room operators to monitor equipment operating parameters. and axial directions at each bearing housing. flue gas temperature. A configuration with safety interlocks that provides audible and visual indications to operators if an operating parameter has exceeded a defined safe limit. The decision of whether to elect a continuous demand display or an operator demand display setup should be based on the type of fan. 6-9 . The basic parameters that will be monitored are bearing temperature. vertical. name of persons performing the check. For horizontally mounted draft fans with a floating outboard bearing. vibration levels observed in the axial direction would be significantly less. This difference is considered normal for rigidly mounted fans where the vertical stiffness is greater than the horizontal stiffness. With the exception of overhung rotors. Additional parameters and/or features such as lube oil flow and gas stream temperatures (for inside a duct) may also be added if the system configuration requires it. 6.6. both of these problems are manifested as an increase in vibration. however. type of bearings (sleeve or antifriction). For example.EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring fluid drive (if applicable). and motor amperage. horizontal and vertical). The three-axis approach can assist the maintenance organization in distinguishing between various mechanical problems such as imbalance and misalignment. pickup points. therefore. wiped bearings. an out-of-balance fan will have high vibration levels in the radial directions (that is. For example. the vibration levels in the horizontal direction will be higher than those in the vertical direction. date.2 Tri-Axial Readings Recommended practice indicates that readings should be taken in the horizontal. Analyzing horizontal and vertical readings can also provide insight into the condition of the equipment. or excessive bearing clearance. fans subjected to blade erosion or buildup are suggested candidates for a system that can be continuously monitored. Misalignment. damaged grout layers and/or foundation. and space to enter vibration amplitudes and frequencies should also be incorporated into the form. The frequency of this vibration level is typically lx rpm for both misalignment and imbalance. they require less stringent monitoring. and installed vibration sensors.

Accurate equipment operating logs that can be used for data trending.2 Oil Analysis Oil samples taken for oil analysis purposes are also appropriate for out-of-service checks. the pre-startup checks should be accomplished during the out-of-service maintenance period before “closing up” the fan for operation. the oil analysis should be used to identify changes and trends. A basic spectro-chemical analysis can provide maintenance personnel with the following information: • • • • Particle count Viscosity Total acid/base measure Condition of oil additives This information can be used to determine whether it is necessary to open and inspect a bearing for wear and damage as well as provide a “snapshot” picture of the lube oil’s quality.EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring The following additional procedures could complement the monitoring system: • • Regularly scheduled operational checks of the equipment. 6. including monthly vibration checks using portable equipment that can provide a check on the installed transducers. If the physical design of the fan prevents ready access to the bearings. because there are not any recognized industry standards for what is acceptable in lubricating oil. Oil analysis tests are often offered free or for a nominal charge by the lubricant supplier as part of the overall service provided. 6-10 . Key O&M Cost Point Oil analysis tests are often offered free or for a nominal charge by the lubricant supplier as part of the overall service provided. However.

Details are provided in Appendix B.3 Nondestructive Examination Nondestructive examination of the rotating components of large fans is important to identify problem before catastrophic failures occur. 6.EPRI Licensed Material Condition Monitoring 6.5 Motor Current Analysis Condition monitoring of the electric motors is addressed in EPRI report NP-7502. Electric Motor Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Guide [3].4 Infrared Thermography Infrared thermography is typically used to identify problems with electric motor leads. 6. 6-11 . It is not used on the fans.

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and inlet vane or inlet damper linkages. The liners can often be repaired by welding instead of being replaced. The maintenance areas include blade bearings. 7-1 . Hydraulic blade positioners have been a source of problems for some axial fan installations. those that do not have had problems. the hydraulic blade positioning system. Stations that follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and rebuilt the axial fan rotors have high availability. Either case requires balancing the fan wheel. Key Technical Point The major maintenance areas for centrifugal fans are the blade liners. Because each application could be different. Repair or replacement of the blade liners requires the most specialized labor. and inlet vane or inlet damper linkages. The major maintenance areas for centrifugal fans are the blade liners. The blade bearings are subjected to high loads and require frequent maintenance. Key Technical Point Axial fans require considerably more maintenance than centrifugal fans. the experience at a given plant should be reviewed and these frequencies adjusted. main shaft bearings. Some utilities send the hydraulic actuators back to the manufacturer for rebuilding rather than repairing them. Maintenance of inlet vane or control damper linkage presents no special problems if the linkage is properly designed. It was found that the units that follow the recommended maintenance had axial fan availability similar to that for centrifugal fans.EPRI Licensed Material 7 MAINTENANCE Fans require periodic inspection and maintenance to ensure their mechanical and aerodynamic integrity for reliable operation. Previous surveys and studies indicated that some plants have had availability problems with axial flow fans—and the availability has a strong correlation with maintenance practices. Blades on axial fans are designed to be replaced. This section identifies the recommended maintenance tasks and their frequencies. main shaft bearings. main shaft bearings. Axial fans require considerably more maintenance than centrifugal fans. The main shaft bearing requires the same type of maintenance as that required for the bearings for most other large rotating equipment. and blade replacement.

such as excessive equipment failure after maintenance has been completed. Key O&M Cost Point A balance must be attained by performing PM but avoiding opening and inspecting equipment if no problems (such as high temperature or pressure) are present. Conversely. A balance must be attained by performing PM but avoiding opening and inspecting equipment if no problems (such as high temperature or pressure) are present. Key O&M Cost Point Recommendations from the manufacturer and operational experience can provide valuable insight in determining not only what checks should be done. 7-2 . inspection intervals should be increased for equipment for which maintenance checks show no signs of wear. actual operating conditions. Recommendations from the manufacturer and operational experience can provide valuable insight in determining not only what checks should be done. Opening and inspecting components such as bearings or actuators can lead to additional problems and equipment downtime. This balance is achieved by carefully determining an adequate time period (that is. This section provides checks for specific fan components. 7. but also how often they should be done. but also how often they should be done. Recommendations are provided for routine maintenance and for overhauls. The frequency of the activities varies with the application. Note that this does not in any way suggest that basic sound operating engineering practices—such as ensuring adequate lubrication. clean lubrication. frequency) between checks. This list of checks is based on manufacturer’s recommendations. The philosophy of “if it works. Knowing the capabilities of the maintenance department helps determine which maintenance checks can be accomplished by inhouse staff and which must be contracted out. and the power plant’s trained manpower assets. daily visual inspection of the equipment. don’t fix it” should be considered in any maintenance program. and suggested frequencies are provided for some activities. and clean equipment—should be ignored.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance Actual maintenance will depend on the design of the fans. Warning signs.1 Developing a Preventive Maintenance Program The evolution from a fix-when-fail philosophy to a preventive maintenance (PM) philosophy begins with developing a list of maintenance checks for each fan and its supportive auxiliary systems. Maintenance inspections at specified frequencies must be performed on draft fans and on their supportive auxiliaries in order to maintain a high standard of safe and reliable operation. and the owner’s philosophy on preventive maintenance. operational experience. could be indications of inadequately trained personnel and/or poor quality control standards.

related additional checks that could be accomplished simultaneously. Use the correct tool for the job specified. technical manuals and drawings required. In certain cases. Each PM task should provide an itemized listing of what is required to accomplish the specific maintenance action. sound basic maintenance rules should be practiced at all times: • • • • • • • Keep the area around the disassembled equipment clean. Keep the shop supervisor informed of the progress and any problems encountered. a “pictorial map” could also be attached to a task sheet to provide standard locations to take measurements. Table 7-1 Surveillance and Preventive Maintenance Frequencies Task Operator Rounds (each shift) X Six Month Annual (minor overhaul) Four Years (major overhaul) Check bearing oil temperature Check bearing oil levels Check bearing oil pressure Inspect bearing lube oil and cooling system X X X 7-3 . A database incorporated into a PM task can provide a ready reference for personnel to use during equipment maintenance periods. and data readings to be taken. Do not take shortcuts when safety is involved. person-hours required. special tools required to accomplish the job. Follow proper tag-out and valve-out procedures. 7. 7.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance Once this list of checks is finalized. For PM actions. Take inventory of the tools brought in and out of a job.3 Periodic Maintenance Recommendations Table 7-1 presents typical surveillance and PM frequencies. a well-thought-out PM task should include information such as the trades involved in the check. For example. the next step is to develop written formatted PM tasks.2 Basic Rules for Conducting Maintenance To avoid unnecessary injury to personnel or damage to the equipment. Actual procedures to conduct a specific maintenance action may also be incorporated on this PM task sheet. The actual tasks and frequencies for a specific plant should be reviewed based on the plant-specific experience. verify that the required parts are available before starting the job.

and cooling air fan Inspect lube oil and hydraulic lines for leakage Check fan bearing temperature Analyze vibration Inspect and overhaul main shaft bearings Inspect and overhaul coupling Lubricate impeller blade bearings to ensure that the same amount of grease is injected into all blade bearings to avoid unbalance Replace filters on hydraulic unit Check lube oil quality. and change oil if required (change at least every two years) Check all instrumentation on hydraulic unit Check all instruments for temperature and vibration monitoring Check pitch control system X Visual Lab analysis Axial with variablepitch blades X X Axial with variablepitch blades X X Centrifugal (see Appendix B) Check fan for wear and erosion Inspect and lubricate variable inlet vanes Perform visual inspections of wheel for cracks 7-4 .EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance Table 7-1 Surveillance and Preventive Maintenance Frequencies (continued) Task Operator Rounds (each shift) X X X X X X X Six Month Annual (minor overhaul) Four Years (major overhaul) Check hydraulic oil unit. flue gas fan. and change oil if required (change at least every two years) Check hydraulic oil quality.

Inspect and clean flue gas fan. 7. and anchor bolts Inspect expansion joints Inspect turning gear Inspect main drive motor Inspect fluid drive Replace blade bearings Replace control studs Replace slide bearings Replace rotating union Replace shaft bearings Rebuild variable inlet vanes For extended shutdowns (shutdowns greater than one month). and check for wear of impeller blades. and run it for 30 minutes.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance Table 7-1 Surveillance and Preventive Maintenance Frequencies (continued) Task Operator Rounds (each shift) Six Month Annual (minor overhaul) X X X X X X Axial with variablepitch blades Axial with variablepitch blades Axial with variablepitch blades Axial with variablepitch blades Roller bearings only X Four Years (major overhaul) Inspect housing and wheel-to-inletcone clearances Inspect foundation. pedestals. 7-5 . the following maintenance tasks should be performed: • • Start hydraulic unit once every two weeks.4 Component Maintenance The following subsections describe the maintenance tasks for the components and accessories of centrifugal and axial fans.

1 Bearings Ensuring that the lubricant is at the correct level. If this condition occurs. Visual inspections taken before fan startup can assure operators that the oil quality is satisfactory. High-temperature conditions can cause the oil to break down and the bearing to be damaged by excessive friction levels. Levels recommended by the manufacturer should be adhered to. and of good quality is essential to prolonging the operational life of a bearing. Chemical additives in different oils can cause a breakdown in the viscosity. Similarly.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. it is good practice to install a cup or plug to seal the discharge line from dirt and to act as a safeguard to prevent draining of the system if the valve is accidentally opened. Do not mix oils in the lubrication system or bearing housing. Key Technical Point If oil in a self-contained sump is below the normal level. Static lubricating oil systems offer a particular challenge to a maintenance department. Relatively colder oil that is added while the shaft is rotating can disrupt the oil film that has been formed. There are four general indicators for impending bearing failure: vibration. steady increase in bearing operating temperature over time.4. Key Technical Point Do not mix oils in the lubrication system or bearing housing. An inadequate amount of oil being supplied to a bearing will result in its operating at higher-than-normal temperatures. Taking an oil sample on a static system during fan operation is not recommended. personnel should proceed with caution when adding oil to the affected bearing while the fan is in operation. 7-6 . or bearing lubrication. The quality of the oil being used is best determined by taking an oil sample. excessive noise. with resulting damage to the bearing. clean. cooling. cooling. or bearing lubrication. If a drain valve is used. metal-to-metal contact can be expected. excessive amounts of oil or grease can cause the bearing to overheat as well. Periodic oil samples taken while the fan is in operation are recommended for bearings lubricated by a circulating oil system. Shut down the fan before adding oil. Use of a drain valve installed in place of a drain plug can provide some measure of control if personnel consider it necessary to sample oil during fan operation. Chemical additives in different oils can cause a breakdown in the viscosity. If a lowlevel condition is discovered during operation. Two primary concerns are that the oil film may be disrupted as the oil is being replenished with colder oil and that the sump may run dry while the fan is in operation. adding relatively cold oil may disrupt the oil film. and/or a lube oil sample contaminated with babbitt or water.

it should be wiped with a lint-free rag. and visually observe oil circulation. ensure that the sample bottle is clean and dry. if not.1. bleed any air pockets from the system by cracking open a system vent valve.4. the following tasks should be performed: • • For bearing fitted with inspection covers. For systems having sample lines. Verify that flow has been established. • • Ensure that the area around the sample petcock/sample plug is clean before opening. 7-7 . Water contamination Particulate contamination (for example. Bleed any air pockets from the system by “cracking open” a vent valve. Inspect for leaks. For bearings cooled by a circulating oil system. For a closed system. check for proper operation of oil rings. adequately flush the line to remove any dirt or condensation that may have collected inside the line. Inspecting the bearing cooling systems: – – – – Verify alignment and start the system.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7.2 Routine Maintenance Recommendations Routine maintenance should include the following: • • • • Verifying that oil is at the proper level Visually inspecting the seals for leakage Checking the bearing temperature and ensuring that heaters (if installed) are placed in operation Adjusting the cooling water flow to maintain correct temperature It should be noted that the recommended minimum temperature varies for each manufacturer. Wipe the inspection cover thoroughly before opening to prevent any dirt or debris from entering the bearing system. verify lube oil flow through the bearings. dirt or metallic) • • Drawing an oil sample and conduct a visual inspection for the following: – – Note: When drawing an oil sample.

the rust preservative used on the new sleeves must be verified as being compatible with the lubricating oil. 7-8 . If oil is observed to permeate out. A dye penetrant test could also be used. heat. The sleeve bore inner diameter should be checked. maintenance personnel can check tightness by applying hand pressure at the ends and horizontal joint of the babbitt. The replacement criteria are directly related to physical damage caused by cuts. If it is not. or other factors.1. then the babbitt is loose. then any rust preservative applied to the new sleeves must be thoroughly removed with a manufacturer-approved solvent. corrosion.2 Bearing Overhaul Worn components should be replaced as required. The following provides a list of components most susceptible to wear: • • • • • • • Gaskets Packing rings Seals (including any auxiliary seals) Seal springs Laminated shims Garter springs Wave springs An inspection should be made of the babbitt surface for surface scoring or wiping (axial scoring is unacceptable. If bearing sleeves must be replaced. circumferential scoring is not to exceed the manufacturer’s recommendations).EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. noting the following: • • • • • • • • Fatigue cracking Corrosion “Black scab” or “wire wool” damage Pitting due to electrical discharge Overheating Uneven wear Fretting Inadequate lubrication During normal open and inspect periods.4.

The shaft journal should have a finish range specified by the manufacturer. clean as required. Replenish oil to the bearing sump Enter accomplished maintenance actions on equipment PM records. Clearance checks should be made to verify the following: • • • • • Total indicated run out clearance between the sleeve thrust face and the thrust collar Distance from the shaft to the bearing housing seal groove/recess Clearance between outer diameter of the seal and inner diameter of the bearing housing Clearance between the inner face of the oil conveyor disk and the orifice partition Clearance between the scoop and guide assembly Some bearings require a specific housing-to-bearing clearance. and. A check should be made that the passes are perpendicular to the face. temperature switches. Inspect sensor cavities for dirt and corrosion. and motor controllers Piping and valves Heat exchanger Cooling fan Sump 7-9 . such as mineral spirits or kerosene. thrust collars. grooves. sleeves.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance An inspection should be made of the shaft journal for ridges. which must be set. and/or sharp edges. Inspect oil rings and oil conveyor for damage or looseness. Thrust collars should be inspected for axial and radial run out. they should be removed with an approved abrasive cloth. Inspect water cavities and oil cavities for dirt and corrosion. pressure relief valves. Inspect threads of various bolts and pipe nipples for burrs and corrosion. Specific components requiring various degrees of maintenance include the following: • • • • • • Pumps and motors Gauges. • • • • • • Maintenance will vary with the complexity of this system. pressure switches. the face-toface dimension is critical. The following alignment checks should be performed: • Inspect shaft journal. On a thrust bearing. if they are present. and interior of bearing housings for corrosion and dirt. Clean surfaces with an approved cleaning solvent.

In the event of a low-pressure alarm. it should be verified that the standby pump will start by checking for signs of leaks in the following: • • • • • Supply/return piping and flexible hoses Filter and strainer assemblies Pump suction and discharge liner Inlet/outlet of heat exchangers (if installed). External fasteners should be checked for the pumps.2. In addition. including both water and oil sides Valves and sight glasses Any unusual conditions of noise or vibration should be noted.2.2 Lubrication System 7. 7. it should be verified that the cooling fans are running (if installed). fan motor. The differential pressure across filter elements should be checked—and shifted.4. sensors.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. all electrical connections (such as cables for pumps. To control the temperature through the heaters or cooling system (which is either air or water). and cleaned as required. heat exchanger (air/water cooled type).4. 7-10 .2 Circulating Lube Oil System Overhaul The calibration and inspection of all system instrumentation and sensors should include the following: • • • • Pressure switches Thermostats Relief valves Liquid-level switches Pump operation and alarms at given system test pressures should be verified. and correct heater operation should be verified. The cooling water flow should be checked.1 Routine Maintenance Some routine maintenance tasks should be completed to verify that the lube oil is at the proper level in the sump and at the required temperature. inspected.4. and all control panel access doors should be checked to verify that they are closed and properly secured. Discharge filters and pump suction strainers should be cleaned and inspected. and so on) should be checked for cracks or looseness. and pressure switches.

The location of filters is very important. All system components and lines should be primed and vented. Filters installed only at the suction side of the oil pump do well in protecting the pump. An inspection and cleaning of cooling fan blades and air-cooled heat exchanger surfaces should also be performed. Inspect all cables for cracking or other damage. Open. However. Before re-closing the sump. These final filters should be installed as close to the bearings as possible. and clean all control and relay boxes. damaged tube joints). all door gaskets should be inspected and replaced as necessary. the sump should be drained and cleaned.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance The inspection of a water-cooled heat exchanger should include the following: • • Open and inspect heat exchanger interior. All exterior surfaces should be inspected and cleaned. the following tasks should be performed: • • • • Conduct continuity checks on electric motors and heater coils. In the maintenance of all electrical components. check for tube leakage (cracked tubes. All filters and strainers should be inspected and cleaned. pump wear or damage can pass to the bearings if oil is not final-filtered before it enters the bearing. as well as the foot valve. all corrosion should be removed. Verify that all electric motors have been connected properly by checking component rotation. The optimum system has both suction filters and final filters. 7-11 . the pump should be opened and the impeller surfaces and wear ring. and priming and painting should be performed. In the event of low-discharge pressure. When poor oil quality is suspected. should be inspected. inspect. remove sludge and scale deposits. If leakage is suspected. it is important to ensure that all rags have been removed. as required.

Flexible Shaft Couplings Maintenance Guide [5].3 Couplings Couplings provide a means of connecting the prime mover (that is. and disk) Gear and grid type couplings are designed with limited end float to prevent motor rotor axial movement that can cause damage to the motor.4. elastomeric sleeve and elements. Depending on the design and service requirements.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. These couplings can be divided into two broad categories: • • Sealed lubricated (grid and gear types) Non-lubricated (rubber sleeve. flexible couplings can provide the following benefits: • • Provide protection for slight misalignment caused by thermal expansion and contraction between the prime mover and its load Lessen vibrational torque to reduce noise and absorb any torsional oscillation that may be generated during a transient condition (startup. There are two types of couplings: flexible and rigid. gear.3. and speed changes associated with a variable-speed motor).4.1 Routine Maintenance Recommendations Some routine maintenance recommendations include the following: • • • Verifying that the coupling has the correct type and amount of grease (grease-lubricated couplings only) Ensuring that the fasteners and grease fittings are properly tightened Visually inspecting the area around the coupling for: – – Leaks Rags or other obstructions • Ensuring that the coupling guard is installed 7-12 . and disk. electric motor or steam turbine) to the designated load—the draft fan rotor. shutdown. Coupling maintenance is discussed in more detail in EPRI report 1007910. rubber elements. 7. Flexible couplings are used extensively in draft fan service. There are four types of flexible couplings used with draft fans: grid.

2 Coupling Overhaul For a gear-type coupling. an overhaul would include the following tasks: • • Disassembling and inspecting the coupling in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines Thoroughly removing and cleaning old grease from the coupling and inspecting the following areas for signs of wear or fatigue cracks: – – – – Teeth Grid Fasteners O-rings. gaskets. • • • Inspecting for cracked disks (disk-type coupling) Visually inspecting for unusual noise or vibration Visually checking for collection of rubber-like dust directly below the coupling (elastomeric sleeve/element type only) 7.3.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance These checks are performed on fans having couplings that are readily accessible for a pre-start inspection. • • Replenishing grease Performing alignment checks: – – Parallel alignment Angular alignment Note that the gap spacer is in place and correctly installed (for limited end float coupling designs). 7-13 . and grease seals • • Obtaining a sample of the grease for testing Reassembling the unit Key Technical Point Verify that components used to restrict motor shaft movement are installed.4.

EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance

For a disk-type coupling, an overhaul would include the following tasks:

• •

Conducting a visual inspection for cracks developing in the disk(s). Disassembling the coupling, checking the extent of the disk cracks; and replacing any damaged disk.

Note: The order or number of the shims in a disk pack coupling must not be changed.

Replacing the fasteners if the locking feature is in doubt.

Note: The locking feature of these fasteners becomes compromised when they are removed and reinstalled a certain number of times. As an example, Rexnord recommends replacing the fasteners after they have been removed and reinstalled between 7 and 10 times. Key Human Performance Point The locking feature of these fasteners becomes compromised when they are removed and reinstalled a certain number of times.

Performing alignment checks: – – Parallel alignment Angular alignment

7.4.3.3 Coupling Alignment Misalignment can result in high fan vibrations. For fan installations that have high vibration sensitivity, the coupling can be aligned to a tighter tolerance, which reduces vibration. A tighter tolerance on coupling alignment can be achieved by using a computerized alignment device. It is important to verify that the thrust load of the fan is not imposed on the motor thrust bearing. This requires knowledge of the magnetic center of the motor. For more detailed information on alignment, refer to EPRI report TR-112449, Shaft Alignment Guide [6]. Key Human Performance Point It is important to verify that the thrust load of the fan is not imposed on the motor thrust bearing. This requires knowledge of the magnetic center of the motor.

7-14

EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance

7.4.4 Variable Inlet Vanes and Control Dampers On centrifugal fans, the variable inlet vanes require the most maintenance. 7.4.4.1 Routine Maintenance Some routine maintenance recommendations include the following:

• • •

Inspection of the linkage/lever assembly. Inspection of the fittings and locking bolts for signs of wear. For double inlet configuration, verification that the dampers are synchronized. (This is accomplished by establishing a reference dimension, actuating the vanes, and comparing the two sides for balance.) Checking the hub linkage pins for wear. – – – Remove dirt-infested grease from the area around the grease fittings, and lubricate the grease fittings. Ensure that lubrication intervals are not longer than one year. Note that some vane designs have more than one grease fitting per vane, and some vane designs are lubricant-free with self-lubricant bushings.

7.4.4.2 Inlet Vane Overhaul To overhaul the inlet vane, the following tasks should be performed: 1. Remove old grease and dirt from the linkage assembly; replenish the grease. 2. Consult the manufacturer for an approved cleaning method before conducting this step. Steam clean, water wash, and sandblast the blades to remove any dirt buildup. 3. Conduct a visual inspection of the following items, checking for corrosion, erosion, and cracking: – – – – – Blades Damper seals Frame assembly Actuator Linkage assembly

7-15

EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance

4. Disassemble the damper bearings and inspect and clean the roller bearings, paying particular attention to the following items: – – – – – – – Broken or cracked rings Dented shields and seals Cracked or broken separators Broken or cracked balls or rollers Flaked or spalled areas on balls, rollers, or raceways Brownish-blue or blue-black discoloration caused by overheating Indented, brinelled, or etched raceways

If any of these conditions exist, the bearing should be replaced. 5. Inspect the blade shafts: – – – – Clean and inspect bearing mounting points; remove any dirt, burrs, or other extraneous items. Check for bowed shaft. Ensure that all fasteners are in good condition; check for damaged threads. Replace packing/seals.

6. Reassemble the components in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions:

7. Manually cycle the dampers; observe operation of the linkage and blades. Note any binding or noise. 8. Verify that dampers are synchronized. Establish a reference dimension, actuate the vanes, and compare the two sides for balance. 9. Set mechanical and electrical limits. 7.4.5 Centrifugal Fan Wheels The fan wheel is the most critical area of the fan in terms of structural reliability. Inspections should be conducted at regularly scheduled intervals and whenever the opportunities arise (termed inspections of opportunity). A more detailed description of fan wheel inspection and weld repair is provided in Appendix A. However, as an overview of recommended maintenance, particular attention is suggested for the structural welds that connect the blades, center plate, and side plates as a functional unit. The integrity of these welds is critical. Damage (manifested in the form of cracking or corrosive wear) can be partial or total. Unchecked damage may result in an increase in vibration levels with additional wheel damage, which, subsequently, may increase in severity to catastrophic failure with a serious potential for injury to personnel.

7-16

EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance

Key Human Performance Point Damage (manifested in the form of cracking or corrosive wear) can be partial or total. Unchecked damage may result in an increase in vibration levels with additional wheel damage, which subsequently may increase in severity to catastrophic failure with a serious potential for injury to personnel. A typical centrifugal fan rotor (wheel) is shown in Figure 7-1 and comprises the following components:

• • • • •

Blade Center plate Side plate Shaft Hub

The fan wheel consists of the blades, center plate, and side plates. The primary goal of the maintenance program is to maintain a high state of material upkeep and availability of these components.

Figure 7-1 Centrifugal Fan Wheel

7-17

Blasting with frozen CO2 pellets has been used for cleaning. with a yield strength of 100. A second consideration concerning all three techniques deals with “filling” the hollow sections of the airfoil blades with 7-18 . Many large centrifugal fans have had cracks. Many large centrifugal fans have had cracks. 7. Key Human Performance Point Large centrifugal fan wheels are highly stressed rotating equipment.1 Centrifugal Fan Wheel NDE Large centrifugal fan wheels are highly stressed rotating equipment. with a yield strength of 100. and there have been a few mechanical failures. It is important to periodically conduct NDE (such as wet fluorescent magnetic particle) of welds and to properly repair any cracks.000 psi. and the material may be a quenched and tempered high-strength material such as ASTM A514 or A517. The design stress may be as high as 80% of yield.5. with the benefit of eliminating the need to remove the blast medium from the fan.2 Blades Several problem areas associated with centrifugal fan blades include the following: • • • • • Erosion with subsequent imbalance Loss or deterioration of blade liners due to erosion Failed bolts or poor or failed welds Cracking Buildup of fly ash inside airfoil blades These problems can be readily detected and corrected in their early stages if proper cleaning and inspection (both visual and nondestructive methods) are conducted regularly.000 psi. and the material may be a quenched and tempered high-strength material such as ASTM A514 or A517. The design stress may be as high as 80% of yield. high-pressure water. and there have been a few mechanical failures. personnel should defer cleaning until the fan blades have adequately cooled.4. The techniques for examining and repairing welds are covered in Appendix A. Successful cleaning methods include steam cleaning. To prevent thermal shock to the blades.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7.5. or abrasive blast cleaning. The temperature difference between the blades and the cleaning medium should not exceed the manufacturer’s recommendations.4. Care should be exercised when cleaning the blades with either steam or high-pressure water. Regular cleaning of fan wheel blades subjected to erosive or corrosive environments is highly recommended to avoid fly ash or corrosion buildup.

Once the blade(s) has been identified. One method of protecting centrifugal ID fan blades from erosion is to use protective liners and solid nose pieces. diagnostic equipment allows maintenance personnel to determine the exact cause and location. Using highpressure air to remove remaining pockets of water should also be considered. 7-19 . Key O&M Cost Point Blasting with frozen CO2 pellets has been used for cleaning. Some utilities recommend using a high-pressure water jet to fully remove fly ash in difficult-to-reach places. The liner should cover the nose of the blade and the full length of the blade adjacent to the center plate. as shown in Figure 7-2. Correction of this situation (should it occur) involves two steps: 1. the next step is to remove the fly ash. The fan manufacturer should be consulted to evaluate the effect of liners on the stresses on the fan. High vibration can be detected through daily monitoring and trending of the vibration levels. The fan manufacturer should be consulted for recommendations for cutting holes and repairing holes. If this is required. This material should be “broken up” as best as possible and removed with a vacuum. Any holes due to erosion or made to remove ash from hollow blades should be repaired. Direct impingement of areas noted to have large cracks or surface separation should be avoided. This step will require a section of the blade skin to be removed to allow personnel to access the blade interior. Cleaning should be done using wire brushes or scrapers to minimize particles from entering the blade interior. Rotating the blade 180° will allow for the water to adequately drain out. To avoid this situation. thereby causing imbalance. maintenance personnel may be required to use a metal rod to mechanically dislodge fly ash that has hardened. After the section(s) has been removed. Once a high vibration condition is reached. with the benefit of eliminating the need to remove the blast medium from the fan. Buildup of fly ash inside airfoil blades is caused by erosive wear providing a path for the gas stream to enter the blade interior. Removing the fly ash from the blade interior The first step involves the detection of a high vibration level followed by pinpointing which blades are affected.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance either water or grit or sand. Confirming that the cause of the vibration is from fly ash buildup inside the blades 2. reviewing technical data—such as drawings that show how the blade is constructed and the applicable welding procedure used to determine blade material—is recommended before any work is begun. a visual inspection is recommended before any cleaning is undertaken. Liners should not be added without evaluating the impact of the additional weight on the stresses in the fan wheel and the additional starting load on the motor.

Key Technical Point Coatings can affect the physical properties of the base materials of the fan. Cracks in coatings can propagate into the fan members. Coatings can affect the physical properties of the base materials of the fan. Tests using proposed coatings and fan structural material should be performed and evaluated before the coatings are actually used. cracks in liners can propagate into the blade material. Cracks in coatings can propagate into the fan members. The capability to perform NDE should be considered when the material of the liners is selected. 7-20 . Coating fan blades to improve erosion resistance has met with varying degrees of success. Many plants have had success with flame spray coatings (usually with 45% chrome) on ID fans and gas recirculation fans. Using the same material as the fan blades may not provide the same erosion resistance as a hardened material but will avoid the NDE and crack propagation problems. Tests using proposed coatings and fan structural material should be performed and evaluated before the coatings are actually used. Also.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance Figure 7-2 Wear and Erosion Protective Accessories Liners can create a problem with NDE of the fan welds.

The practicality and economics involved in work of this scope together with low stress levels placed on a fan shaft and few. However. The coating in the area of the welds may need to be removed for NDE. follow-up NDE inspections are recommended to confirm or eliminate the possibility of cracks at the step. misalignment. 7. incidents of cracked shafts being reported make this maintenance action difficult to justify. this condition may also indicate a bowed shaft. This condition may develop typically with ID or GR fans in the event of leaks around the shaft/housing seal. For older fans where insufficient weld penetration is suspected. acceptability standards for the welds should be given a high priority before being written into the specifications. An additional consideration in shaft maintenance involves the presence of corrosion in areas outside the gas stream. If replacement wheels are being considered. A standard that requires no linear indications and welds that are contour ground will lessen problems associated with interpretation and subjectivity during future inspections.6 Shaft Results from previous EPRI reports [2. 7. 7-21 .5. Operationally induced problems range from bowing to scored journal surfaces. Technology exists to determine the presence of cracks elsewhere on the shaft. or looseness. Consideration should be given to increasing the frequency of the inspection and performing a detailed NDE inspection for fans that exhibit cracking problems that continue to increase in severity. Cracking may sometimes develop at the step change of a section as well. A cracked shaft may develop as a second-order vibration.4. along with removal of the corrosion. either from surface indications noted during a visual inspection or from an increase in vibration levels. is advised when practical. if any.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance Coatings create a problem with NDE of the fan welds.4. inspection of cracks on a fan shaft is recommended in the case of catastrophic wheel failure or serious misalignment or imbalance. 3] as well as surveys conducted in support of this project indicate that shafts continue to have limited problems. an ultrasonic test could be used to identify problem areas.3 Center Plate/Side Plate Principal problems associated with these components include the following: • • • • Erosion Weld flaws and cracks Insufficient weld penetration Loose rivets or bolts caused by oversized holes (found on older fans) An inspection program that encompasses both visual (VT) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspections will greatly assist maintenance personnel in detecting these problems. Unfortunately. Replacement of the seal. If cracking is suspected.

Prevention is a two-tiered process. pedestal. and erosive wear.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. Investigating and determining the cause of the casualty is the second part of a PM action. 7. checking a hub for cracks. If the foundation continues to crack.2 Repairing Concrete Foundations Assuming that the soil base has been properly stabilized. The correction or repair of a concrete foundation involves the choice between a permanent fix (which may require the erection of a new foundation) and a semi-permanent fix used as a “stop gap measure” to keep the fan on-line until a scheduled outage or until the needed logistics are brought together to effect more permanent repairs.8 Structural Support System The structural support system (SSS) is a five-component system comprising a concrete foundation. 7. 7-22 .7 Hubs Although feedback from the surveys for this project indicated no problems with this component.4. each of these maintenance actions should include both prevention and detection. Maintenance of these components is often nonexistent. 7. the SSS is no different from any other supportive auxiliary system and should therefore be incorporated into a PM program. cracked fasteners.1 Concrete Foundation An annual visual inspection of the foundation is recommended. inclusions. and sole plate/base plate.4. This inspection could easily be incorporated into the maintenance program for the entire wheel.8. and is recommended only once every 10 years unless a problem is suspected or the VT identifies potential problems. a grout layer. However. the repair of concrete foundations encompasses two areas: • • Surface cleaning Crack repair To gain maximum effectiveness. A UT examination of the hub should be a low priority. a regular visual inspection of hubs is recommended to examine for erosion or damaged fasteners. Early detection through regular inspections will provide a decisive step toward prevention of major problems and the major repairs that follow.8. Maintenance personnel should avoid hasty repairs without first addressing the question: “What caused this problem?” This is especially true in the case of concrete foundation repair. however.4. hidden problems such as voids in a concrete foundation or an unstable soil base should be considered for investigation. An ultrasonic test (UT) can effectively be used to supplement a VT inspection. anchor bolts.4.

8.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. operators and maintenance personnel can expect equipment misalignment. structural cracks. however. This breakdown process is not immediate and may take years to develop into a serious problem. primarily the following. it is one problem that can certainly be prevented and corrected. however.3 Surface Cleaning Over time. 7. Variables such as pot life (curing time). Before actual repairs can begin. should be considered: • • • • Choice of the correct grout Severity of the damage Urgency to bring the fan back on line Access to the damaged area The effectiveness of a grout is based on its ability to act as an adhesive and to bond the damaged area into a structurally sound joint. several factors. and wetability all factor into the effectiveness of the grout to penetrate the crack and bond the two cracked segments into a cohesive unit. non-shrink capability. If structural cracks are not addressed. Determining which grout resin system to use is an important factor in the repair process. the need for the draft fan provides an important input into the decision to conduct temporary repairs or defer the maintenance action until a scheduled outage.4 Crack Repair Curing cracks do not have any appreciable depth or pattern. and an increase in vibration amplitude. structural cracks will appear most often in the immediate vicinity of these bolts. 7-23 . Proper installation of these anchor bolts and correction of equipment vibration offer the best courses of action to take in avoiding this problem.4. bearing problems. ability to bond through oil films. they may continue to develop in severity. The extent of damage is the final determining factor in deciding whether a foundation can be repaired. Steam cleaning provides one possible solution for concrete surfaces that have been subjected to oil spillage over a period of years. viscosity.8. Because anchor bolts are stress risers. oil may degrade the structural integrity of concrete by causing a physical breakdown in the matrix structure of the concrete.4. are large and deep. Once it has been determined that the foundation can be repaired. Experienced personnel in the field of concrete foundation repair should be consulted to assist in the decision process. As the foundation continues to degrade. Early detection is critical to limiting damage to both the foundation and the draft fan.

8.2 Proper Installation Critical to achieving a good installation is the need to properly isolate the anchor bolt. Residual preload: The load remaining after all anchor bolts have been properly tightened. Working load: The load to which the anchor bolt is subjected while the draft fan is in operation.5. cracking can occur in the foundation in the area around the affected anchor bolt(s). 7.5. First.4. As the bolt nuts are tightened. extremely high stresses can develop in the foundation by preventing the anchor bolts from developing the spring action. If the sleeve is filled with grout or other rigid material.1 Forces Affecting Anchor Bolts During the operational life of the draft fan. and there are two areas that require special attention to ensure anchor bolt isolation. anchor bolts will be subjected to three loading conditions: • • • Initial preload: Load developed when the anchor bolt is first tightened. AMCA 202. the bolt itself begins to stretch. The net effect achieved is a secure base on which the draft fan can operate.4. foam insulation in the area around the grout where the bolt penetrates can provide adequate isolation. Inability of the anchor bolt to flex in case the base plate moves laterally. There are three principal checks associated with these components. Second.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. If properly installed and tightened. the area between the sleeve and the anchor bolt requires isolation. As each anchor bolt is tightened. 7-24 .4. Maintenance is based on “good housekeeping” practices and consists of surface cleaning. As a direct consequence. corrosion prevention. the bolts become a system of springs that will collectively apply a clamping or compressive effect around the entire base plate. “Fan Application Manual” [7]. This clamping effect is accomplished through a spring-type action between the anchor bolts and the concrete foundation/grout layer system. the bolt would be limited to stretch in a short section. Two consequences of this condition are the following: • • Loose bolts after fan startup with subsequent cracking of the grout around the bolt. and inspecting hold-down bolts for proper tightness. suggests filling the sleeve with a pliable material such as silicone rubber.5 Anchor Bolts An anchor bolt functions as a clamp to provide a secure means for holding the base plate to the concrete foundation. 7. This stretching phenomenon plays an important part in the successful application and performance of the anchor bolt. Should this occur. the residual pre-load on the bolts should be less than any load caused by operation.8.8. Failure to accomplish this allows the grout to bond to the bolt.

prevents oil from reaching the grout and concrete. The pressure caused by the corrosive forces can be of such magnitude as to cause misalignment of the machinery and cracking of the concrete foundation.4. Conversely. If the fan housing cracks either at the welds or at various points. station personnel can expect minor problems to escalate into major problems. 7-25 .1 Housing Housing may undergo erosion due to ash in the flue gas. Inadequate corrosion prevention and unchecked corrosion can have serious consequences to machinery using cementatious grout with metallic filings. 7. and presents a potential fire hazard. it will continue and spread to the metallic filings. requiring additional capital and person-hours to correct. the need for proper maintenance of the fan housing is either deferred or not fully understood by station personnel. which will lead to the grout cracking over time.4. Frequently. Check the quality of the weld repair procedure that was used. and oil. Corrosion prevention begins with the initial installation. If these components do not receive adequate care. Surfaces that will be in contact with the grout layer should be coated with a primer that is compatible with the grout being used. rusted surfaces. the following actions are recommended: • • Check the quality of the original welds through a visual and NDE inspection. 7. It also provides a mechanism for oil to migrate down to the grout and the concrete foundation.9. blisters. encourages an attitude that accepts leaks or standing oil as normal station procedure. Base metal. and allows inspections of bearing housings or hold-down bolts to be accomplished without danger of injury to personnel due to a slip hazard or a hand injury resulting from a wrench slipping off the bolt head.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance An oil-soaked surface can easily mask small leaks and provides a slip hazard to personnel required to work in the affected area. Failure to heed this precaution will prevent adequate bonding between the base plate/sole plate and the layer of grout. A visual inspection will be the primary element of a maintenance program supporting this subsystem.or grease-soaked surfaces are all unacceptable. The erosion can be controlled by liner plates welded to the housing.9 Housing Housing problems can be detected in their early development stages through a regular visual inspection program. If corrosion develops at the metalgrout interface. a clean surface provides a visual baseline for personnel to quickly detect leaks. Additional recommended maintenance actions include cleaning and repair.

but these are susceptible to wear as well. corrosion of the housing from the outside can be a problem if the insulation and lagging allow rain to penetrate and collect next to the housing. 7. Improper fan wheel clearance. 7.9.3 Fan Wheel Clearance Although this particular topic is covered in more detail in the fan wheel maintenance section.4. can have a negative impact on overall fan performance (see Figures 7-3 and 7-4). A simple adjustment of the fan-wheel-to-inlet-cone clearance can affect fan performance by 5% or more.2 Inlet Cones Inlet cones that operate in an erosive environment can erode or crack. it is important to understand the effects of each part on the whole system. for example.9. Use of protective coatings or hard-surfacing techniques offers protection.4.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance Corrosion can result from air leakage around shaft seals. Figure 7-3 Cross-Section View of a Fan Illustrating Clearance Requirements Between the Wheel Inlet and the Inlet Bell 7-26 .

EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance Figure 7-4 Enlarged View of Figure 7-3 Key O&M Cost Point A simple adjustment of the fan-wheel-to-inlet-cone clearance can affect fan performance by 5% or more. 7-27 .

Conduct cold checks to verify proper alignment between the fan housing and joints.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7.4 Access Plates/Doors Specific maintenance actions are required to ensure that the access plate can be used when needed and to prevent the door from acting as a large crack or leak. Visually check expansion joints for uneven expansion or contraction. they are a relatively high-maintenance component related to fans.9. Reinstallation of insulation covers over the access plates at the completion of the work. Check for fly ash buildup in the folds of the expansion joints. Replacement of missing or damaged hold-down bolts. Escape of corrosive gases that “attack” the surrounding lagging. causing reduced capacity and corrosion. To prevent these conditions from occurring. This condition can cause the following: • • • • Escape of corrosive or erosive gases into the environment. Verify that the dust shields are in place and that the space behind the shields is not filled with ash. Inspection and replacement of door gaskets. Note: If painting is in progress. The overhaul of expansion joints consists of replacement. the following maintenance actions are recommended: • • • • Proper securing of the hold-down bolts. ensure that painters do not paint fabric expansion joints.4. 7-28 . Expansion joints typically last 15–20 years. The routine maintenance recommendations for expansion joints consist of the following: • • • • • Inspect joints for cracks and holes. (Failure to reinstall an insulation cover will cause cold air to condense and initiate a corrosive attack in the immediate area. Negative effect on fan performance by not providing a gas-tight surface.4.) 7. Leakage of air on the ID and GR fan inlet.10 Expansion Joints Although expansion joints are not a direct fan component.

Electric motor ventilating spaces will be restricted over time if dirt is allowed to build up. together with properly installing the access panels.4. Verifying that gasket material and dust seals are in good condition.4. 7. dry. will pay valuable “maintenance dividends” in the battle to keep dirt out. These three elements will form the necessary foundation for an effective electric motor maintenance program that will lead to dependable and economical operation. lubrication. Additional options for removing dirt include the use of clean lint-free rags and vacuum cleaners. Cleaning should be performed during every scheduled boiler shutdown. Lint will adhere to the insulation. This problem will directly impact the ability of the motor to cool itself. loose dust and particles. Use of clean.1 Dirt Dirt is a common element in any generating station. Lint is also particularly damaging on high-voltage insulation because it causes corona discharge to concentrate in one area. and hearing protection are highly recommended. pressure exceeding the recommended value can drive abrasive particles into the insulation and puncture it. and routine inspections.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. safety goggles.11. Considerations when using compressed air include the following: • • • • Blow out any accumulation of water in the air line and hose before using it. Air pressure at 30 psig can be effective in blowing out a motor. respirators.11 Electric Motors Problems with motors can be identified early and corrected through a maintenance program that is structured around motor cleanliness. and consequences of this problem (if it is allowed to go unchecked) include the following: • • • Breakdown of motor insulation Increase in auxiliary power consumption Potential for abrasion and wear of motor internal components An effective cleaning program requires regularly cleaning the exterior of the electric motor. and cleaning the motor internals. Consult the manufacturer on recommended air pressure. resulting in an increase in dirt collection. compressed air is effective in removing dry. Components such as access panels and covers also play an important role in keeping dirt outside. Use recommended safety equipment when blowing out the motor. Use of a pre-filter assembly has an added advantage of allowing personnel to clean the filters without requiring the motor to be shut down. Controlling this problem is a 24-hour a day job. Install a suction blower or similar device at the opposite end to remove dirt-laden air. regularly cleaning the motor’s filter assemblies. 7-29 .

7. Verifying the proper quantity of lubricant is vital. Verifying that machinery hold-down bolts are installed and properly torqued. coverings. and the proper type of lubricant in the proper quantities and intervals suggested should be used.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7.3 Friction To avoid damage caused by friction.11. and cause portions of the metallic structure to develop cracks. This.4 Vibration Excessive vibration can damage electrical connections. reinstalling access panels. resulting in eventual grounds and shorts. in turn. ensure that these coverings do not restrict air movement. promote frictional wear. Correct all leaks. when feasible.4. Too much grease can promote friction and heat and can leak onto stationary windings and rotating elements. can cause overheating and deterioration of the insulation. and. the motor manufacturer’s lubricating instructions should be followed. Checks to avoid vibration damage include the following: • • • • • Verifying correct alignment between the motor and fan. Install protective coverings over motors when required. 7. Inspecting the foundation for cracks.11.4. simple anti-moisture precautions such as the following can be taken to avoid motor damage: • • Protecting motors opened for maintenance against moisture by using space heaters. Identifying and removing sources of moisture in and around the motor: – – – Verify that all piping is properly insulated. loosen fasteners. 7-30 . personnel should check for signs of rapid heating and unusual noise.11.2 Moisture In all of these cases. Inspecting the motor bearings at regular intervals during operation.4. Excess amounts of lubricant can be just as damaging as insufficient lubricant. Opening and inspecting bearings when heavy wear or damage is suspected.

Because induction motors with sleeve bearings do not have any locking arrangement. bearing design requirements to prevent binding.5 Rotor Shaft End Play The rotor shaft assembly of induction motors will have a certain amount of end play designed into it. If a bearing locking arrangement is used. Typical values given for large motors with sleeve bearings are 1/4 to 1/2 inch. Note that the boiler combustion control system and rotor assembly are added to provide an overview of the system.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. and allowances for any thermal growth of the rotor shaft assembly during motor operation. If a coupling is worn or poorly lubricated. This freedom of movement occurs because of tolerances that inevitably occur in the design and manufacturing process. Under these conditions. the rotor shaft assembly will align itself to the magnetic center of the applied field. The forces of these bearings are designed to withstand momentary thrust that may develop during the starting or stopping of the motor. Figure 7-5 provides a basic block diagram of a hydraulic regulating system used with variablepitch axial draft fans. This separation is limited by the thrust bearings on the load and motor. This imbalance may cause the load and motor coupling halves to move apart. External forces can result from coupling misalignment or locking. Continuous thrust resulting in damage to the motor bearing thrust faces is likely to occur. End play refers to the axial distance through which the motor’s shaft is free to move when it is uncoupled from the load. External forces may also develop from a coupling locking. These tolerances include machining variations. This auxiliary system provides a means to adjust the blade pitch upon demand for an increase or decrease in airflow from the boiler’s combustion control system. This condition could prevent the motor shaft from seeking its magnetic center and could subject the thrust faces of the motor bearings to continuous thrust. When a coupling is misaligned. the rotor shaft assembly is free to “float. Limited end float couplings will prevent motor damage to the motor journal bearings by excessive axial movement of the motor rotor. Induction motors designed with sleeve bearings have a larger end play than those that use roller bearings. torque transmission through the coupling gear teeth sets up high friction. which resists endwise movement (in and out or side-to-side movement of the coupling gear teeth or grids). Endwise restraint that limits the movement of the rotor shaft is achieved through one of the thrust bearings. asymmetrical forces between the hubs develop.4.11.” This does not become a problem while the motor is in operation and is not subjected to any external forces. Motors outfitted with roller bearings may have an end play range from 1/32 to 1/8 inch. this range will be even smaller. Damage from continuous thrust occurs when external forces are applied that prevent the rotor shaft from seeking its magnetic center. The following three major subsystems make up a hydraulic regulating system: • • • Hydraulic supply system Impeller blade adjustment system Regulating lever assembly 7-31 .

EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance

Figure 7-5 Basic Block Diagram of a Hydraulic Regulating System

7.4.12 Fluid Drives The maintenance recommendations for fluid drives are similar to those for the circulating lube oil system. In addition to controlling the fan by varying the speed, the fluid drive may also provide cooling for the oil for the fan bearings. 7.4.12.1 Routine Maintenance Routine maintenance for fluid drives consists of the following tasks: 1. Inspect filters and strainers for cleanliness. 2. Draw an oil sample and conduct a visual inspection, following the same procedure as that used for fan bearings. 3. Annually, conduct a lab analysis of the oil. 4. Verify that the system has the proper oil level. 7-32

EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance

5. Inspect for leaks, and wipe up standing oil. 6. Verify that the hydraulic oil is at the specified operating temperature. 7. Inspect the foundation fasteners for proper torque setting. 8. For fluid drives equipped with electric pumps, check for proper operation. 9. Inspect for unusual noise and vibration. 10. Conduct vibration monitoring. 7.4.12.2 Overhaul Fluid Drive Fluid drives are specialized rotating equipment. The manufacturer or other specialists should be used for an overhaul that includes disassembly of the fluid drive. The scope of a typical overhaul includes the following: 1. Disassemble the fluid drive unit and check for wear or damage on the following components: – – – – – – – Impeller and runner Pillow blocks Journal bearings Thrust bearings Scoop tube and scoop slide to guide Control rod mechanism Labyrinth seals

2. Replace gaskets. 3. Clean out hydraulic oil sump. 4. Conduct a dye penetrant test on the impeller and runner. 5. Inspect valves, fittings, flexible hoses, and piping (including supports) for wear or damage. 6. Inspect the relief valve for proper operation. 7. Inspect internal fasteners for damage or wear and proper torque value. 8. Overhaul the oil supply pump: – – – – Disassemble the pump; inspect gears and bearings for signs of wear or damage. Check alignment of the drive shaft and pump shaft. Check the condition of all fasteners. Open and inspect the filters and strainers, and clean or replace as required.

9. Check the condition of the foundation; inspect for signs of corrosion, excessive cracking, and deterioration.

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EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance

10. Check alignment of fluid drive shafts with fan rotor and motor shafts. 11. Inspect and clean flexible couplings (see Section 7.4.3, “Couplings”). 12. Calibrate vibration and temperature sensors if installed. 13. Flush oil lines with clean hydraulic oil. 7.4.13 Turning Gear The maintenance recommendation for a turning gear consists of the following: 1. Observe for any unusual noise, vibration, odor, or arcing. 2. Inspect electric conduit connections for wear, damage, or looseness. 3. Inspect the following components for signs of leaking lubricant: – – – Worm gear reducer Clutch Flexible coupling

4. Draw an oil sample from the worm gear reducer and conduct a visual inspection, similar to the one for fan bearings. 5. If the worm gear is to be idle for an extended time, do the following: – – – Flush the housing with oil containing a vapor phase corrosion inhibitor. Replace the breather cap with a pipe plug. Ensure that the breather cap is attached to the unit by means of a chain for reinstallation when required.

The scope of an overhaul typically includes the following: 1. Worm gear: – – – – – – – Clean and inspect the shaft bearings Clean and inspect the motor couplings Measure the axial play of the worm shaft Replace the oil seal Check contact of the gear teeth Clean all disassembled parts, and protect them from dirt and moisture Replace all seals, shims, and gaskets

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EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance

2. Overrunning clutch: – – – – Thoroughly drain and clean internal parts nspect the primary pawls and primary pawl springs for signs of wear Inspect ball and roller bearing surfaces and sliding surfaces for signs of wear Inspect oil seals for signs of wear

Note: When required, ensure correct angular position of internal components. – – Inspect profile and bore of bearing surfaces Inspect stop pins

3. Coupling: The maintenance for the coupling between the fan shaft and the turning gear is similar to that for the coupling between the fan and main motor drive. 7.4.14 Hydraulic Supply System Specific maintenance for this system has the same requirements as a circulating lube oil system. The hydraulic oil system should be inspected similar to the lube oil system (that is, for oil level, temperature, and pressure). As with the lube oil, the hydraulic oil should be analyzed by a laboratory. 7.4.15 Axial Fan Blade Adjustment System The blade adjustment system on an axial fan consists of a hydraulic servo and linkage within the fan rotor. These parts should be inspected and overhauled during every minor outage. The servo is one of the highest maintenance items on an axial fan. 7.4.16 Axial Fan Blade Bearings The blades on an axial fan with variable-pitch blades have bearings that allow the blades to rotate along the blade axis and take the thrust due to the centrifugal load of the blade. These are typically grease-lubricated ball bearings. These bearings should be lubricated using the manufacturer’s recommended grease, and manufacturers typically recommend lubrication at least once a year. Note: The same amount of lubricant should be added to each blade bearing to prevent impeller imbalance. A special injector may be required to add a measured amount of lubricant to each blade bearing.

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Prematurely deciding that wheel imbalance is the source of a fan’s high vibration may temporarily eliminate the vibration. If the imbalance condition persists. Adding weights can be necessary in cases where erosive wear of the wheel surfaces has taken place. the axial fan blades are easier to replace. If the overhaul is performed on site. the wheel should be balanced by adding weights at the appropriate spots. this should not deter station personnel from conducting additional checks.4. which is typically every four to five years.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance 7. The scope of the overhaul usually includes the following: • • • • • • Replace the blade bearings Replace the blade positioning arms Replace the main shaft bearings Replace the rotating union Inspect and test the blade positioning control system Inspect all parts for wear. Axial fan blades should be designed to be relatively insensitive to erosion with respect to performance deterioration and structural integrity. other plants overhaul spare rotors on site.5 Fan Wheel Balancing Fan wheel imbalance is cited as the most common cause of vibration. However. the manufacturer’s service technician should be consulted. Previous studies have shown that there is a significant difference in reliability if the overhauls are not performed. however. Once it has been determined that the wheel is out-of-balance. Troubleshooting a high-vibration condition can be a complicated process that involves eliminating one possibility at a time. the vibration will resurface (after a period of time depending on its severity) with damage to the affected component (such as bearing or coupling) having subsequently increased. 7. The overhaul should be performed according to the manufacturer’s recommendation. corrosion. Some plants ship a spare rotor to the manufacturer’s shop for overhaul. However. 7-36 . Some studies indicate that hollow-blade airfoil centrifugal fans can tolerate three times the particle loading that an axial fan can tolerate. the next step is to undertake corrective action.17 Axial Flow Fan Rotor Overhaul Axial fan rotor overhaul is important to maintain high reliability of the fans. and erosion Axial fan blades are more prone to erosion than centrifugal fan blades. The first step is to clean the entire wheel in an effort to determine whether that will eliminate the imbalance condition.

It is not simply a matter of stopping the fan and attaching a weight. use of a vibration analyzer together with either an oscilloscope or phase meter is suggested. A variety of instrumentation exists to obtain these two parameters. 3. In fact. it is important to perform vibration trending. Conduct a visual inspection of the fan wheel for indications of cracks developing. Vibration levels taken once every eight hours and trended over time will assist personnel in identifying an imbalance condition in its early stages. This added weight may induce stresses for which the wheel was not originally designed. 2. balances. If an automatic balance is not available. Ensure that all hold-down bolts are securely tightened. 7-37 .EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance Cleaning the entire wheel is recommended to eliminate an out-of-balance condition. Arbitrarily adding weights without first completely cleaning the wheel can result in a fan wheel that is “covered” with balance weights. stringent welding procedures and welding-induced cracking and errors can be avoided altogether. Both amplitude and phase measurements are required to balance a draft fan in the field. Remove any accumulated buildup that is present on the fan wheel. Balancing a fan wheel in the field should be approached in a methodical manner. vibration analyzers. thus eliminating the need for manual vector diagrams. The following steps are presented for use as a check list before actually balancing a fan wheel: 1. Verify that all instrumentation (for example. ID or GR fans are considered more susceptible to wheel imbalance than “clean air” fans. Automatic balancers are available that provide step-by-step visual instructions to guide the maintenance team through the balancing procedure. This equipment can indicate the amount and location of the correction weight to be added. Verify that the fan and motor alignments are within recommended tolerances. 4. The major advantage of this procedure over spot cleaning is that welding a balance weight on the wheel may not be required. and probes) is calibrated and functioning correctly. An imbalance condition on an ID fan could be caused by any of the following conditions: • • • • • • Fly ash buildup on the blade surface and/or blade interior Cracked blades Loss of balance weight(s) Loose rivets on blades Erosion/corrosion of wheel surfaces Partial loss of the erosion liner To avoid vibration problems. 5. Based on the operating environment.

5.EPRI Licensed Material Maintenance A balancing procedure consists of four steps: 1. 3. 4. including heat treating.2 Location of the Balance Weight The optimum position for balance weights is centered between the blades. and the balance weight should be rectangular. 7. Welding a balance weight in an area over the top edge of the blade is not recommended because doing so may result in serious damage to the structural welds that join a side plate and blade. In all four steps. 2. Improper welding of balance weights can cause cracks in the attachment weld that can propagate into the base metal of the fan. Establish the location of the balance weight. which is the balance weight in ounces. Conduct a nondestructive examination of the welds. The range of typical sensitivity is 8–12 oz/mil.1 Size of the Balance Weight The dimensions of a balance weight may have specific limitations and restrictions. 7. Consult the manufacturer about any specific length-towidth ratios that may apply.5. Consult the manufacturer for any restrictions on the minimum separation distance between balance weights. for attaching balance weights to the wheel. A value less than 8 oz/mil indicates the fan has a high vibration sensitivity and will probably require frequent balancing. the change in vibration and the balance weights added should be recorded. The vibration sensitivity of the fan should also be calculated and recorded. Vibration sensitivity is usually defined in ounces/mil.5. 7-38 . The thickness of the balance weight should be equal to or less than the thickness of the side plate. Manufacturers may specify minimum distance from blades and the outside diameter of the impeller. 7. added at the wheel outer diameter to change the vibration by one mil.3 Vibration Sensitivity When fans are balanced. Establish a correct welding procedure. Determine the size of the balance weight. it is recommended that the fan manufacturer’s requirements and recommendations be thoroughly reviewed and understood. It is important to follow the proper weld procedure. Key Technical Point Improper welding of balance weights can cause cracks in the attachment weld that can propagate into the base metal of the fan.

For axial fans. If the fan is shut down for a short time (that is. the lube oil and hydraulic oil systems should be started at least once every two weeks to maintain an oil film on all surfaces. it is better to keep the lube oil and hydraulic oil systems in operation.2 Weld Nondestructive Examination Failures of centrifugal fans.EPRI Licensed Material 8 SPECIAL MAINTENANCE TASKS 8. less than a few weeks). including catastrophic failures as well as cracking problems that have required replacement. This subject is covered in detail in Appendix B. The problem is now under control but still requires a significant effort on the part of owners to maintain their fans. and the proper inspection including documentation is important. 8. have been a chronic industry problem over the past 20 years.1 Extended Shutdown During extended shutdown of the fan. 8-1 . NDE of the fans’ welds is a time consuming and expensive process. the impeller should be rotated a few turns to ensure proper lubrication of the bearings.

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tipping will increase the fan head by 10%. “Troubleshooting. fan capacity may need to be increased due to plant modification such as the addition of new pollution control equipment. and the horsepower requirement by 15%. In some cases. or higher-than-design flue gas temperatures. upgrading the fans may be the most practical solution. Tipping refers to extending the trailing edge of the fan blades. either with a straight extension or an angle. The performance improvement is a “rule of thumb”. If additional fan capacity is needed. there are fan upgrades that can be implemented that require only a fraction of the cost and outage time of complete new fans. the root cause may be due to poor performance of other equipment such as air heater leakage or pluggage. the flow by 5%.) As a general rule.1 Reasons for Fan Upgrade ID and FD fans are often cited as the load-limiting factor on fossil-fired units. Note that the existing motors may not have the capability to support the required increase in power or inertia. the fan performance may be poorer than design because of wear. actual performance will depend on the fan and is best determined by the fan manufacturer. Although the fan may not be the root cause of the problem. 9-1 .2 Tipping The capacity of centrifugal fans with airfoil blades can be increased by tipping the blades. (Figure 9-1 is a sketch of tipping a fan blade. or other problems as described in Section 5. 9. housing clearances. higher-than-design excess air.000 per fan. there are fan upgrades that can be implemented that require only a fraction of the cost and outage time of complete new fans. The cost of tipping is approximately $10.” However.EPRI Licensed Material 9 FAN UPGRADE OPTIONS 9. Key O&M Cost Point If additional fan capacity is needed. In addition to performance problems.

this will require a new motor. 9.3 Wheel Replacement The replacement of the wheel in an existing centrifugal fan housing with either a larger diameter wheel or a wheel operating at a higher speed can be a cost-effective alternative to replacing the entire fan or adding booster fans. In most cases. The manufacturer would need to review the rotor design to determine whether this alteration is practical. A similar type of modification can be made to an axial flow fan by replacing the blades.EPRI Licensed Material Fan Upgrade Options Figure 9-1 Airfoil Blade with the Blade Tipped Replacing the blades with blades with a longer cord can sometimes increase the performance of axial flow fans. 9-2 . Blade tipping of centrifugal fans or blade replacement of axial flow fans should be investigated if a small increase in fan performance is needed.

EPRI Licensed Material Fan Upgrade Options

9.4 Housing Modifications
In some cases, the housing of a centrifugal fan with airfoil blades can be modified to accommodate a larger wheel or improve performance. One of the critical dimensions is the distance between the wheel and the cutoff. This dimension should be approximately 10% of the wheel diameter. In some cases, the housing has been modified to increase the dimension (when it was less than 10%), resulting in a slight increase in fan performance and a decrease in fan noise. Any housing modifications should be verified with the manufacturer and may require a model study to quantify the impact.

9.5 Coatings
Erosion of ID fan blades is a major issue that causes unscheduled downtime as the fly ash constantly bombards the hollow airfoil of the ID fan blades, eventually blowing holes in the blades. The erosion may be caused by burning lower grade coal and/or burning at a reduced temperature. The blades may be coated with a hard surface coating, one of which available in the market is tungsten carbide. There is a conflict between erosion protection and weld inspection. Coatings can be effective in erosion protection but inhibit NDE of fan welds. The coating has to be removed in order to conduct effective magnetic particle examination of the welds.

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EPRI Licensed Material

10
SAFETY
Operating, inspecting, and maintaining fans and accessories exposes personnel to various safety hazards. Many of the safety hazards associated with fans are present elsewhere in the plant and are therefore not addressed in this guide. All personnel that operate, inspect, or maintain fans should be trained in the plant safety procedures.

10.1 Rotating Equipment
Fans are rotating equipment, and appropriate tag-out procedures should be followed before any inspection or maintenance is started. Key Human Performance Point All personnel that operate, inspect, or maintain fans should be trained in the plant safety procedures.

10.2 Confined Space
Fan housings are confined spaces that may be filled with harmful gases. Confined space entry procedures, including air checks, should be followed before entry.

10.3 Burn Hazards
The lubrication oil of all fans and motors provides lubrication and cooling of the bearings, and the temperature of the oil may be high enough to present a burn hazard. ID fans and GR fans operate at elevated temperatures and may retain heat for a long period after being shut down.

10.4 Electrical
The fan motor and fan auxiliaries are electrical and therefore present the risk of electrical shock. Before work on any electrical equipment is performed, the equipment should be de-energized and properly tagged out.

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EPRI Licensed Material Safety

10.5 Operation Testing
Some testing and inspection, such as vibration and performance testing, require the fans to be running during the tests. Special precautions must be observed while performing these tests.

10.6 Cleaning Operations
Respiratory health is the primary concern when personnel are involved in abrasive blast cleaning operations. Use of sand abrasives carries with it a specific health hazard termed silicosis. Silicosis is a disease of the lungs resulting from prolonged breathing of very fine particles of silica. The effects of this disease can be permanently disabling or fatal. While the use of grit abrasives does not carry a risk for a specific disease, it nonetheless exposes an individual to some risk. A correct and fully functioning air supply and hood are essential and must be used at all times by personnel engaged in this operation; heavy duty gloves, a helmet or hood, and upper body covering should be standard items as well. A nozzle equipped with a “dead-man” feature should also be included in any type of blast cleaning operations. An air nozzle operating at 100 psi that gets away from an operator could cause serious injury to personnel as well as damage to fan internals. Additional safety-related equipment includes a replacement hood lens (because they tend to become frosted after a period of time) and an ample supply of filters for air supply systems that are outfitted with them. Fans can suck in loose material and discharge it as dangerous projectiles. Large fans can also be dangerous to personnel. Access doors should never be opened with the fan running. On the downstream side, releasing the door may result in explosive opening. On the upstream side, the inflow may be sufficient to suck in materials such as tools and clothing. Key Human Performance Point Fans can suck in loose material and discharge it as dangerous projectiles. Large fans can also be dangerous to personnel.

10.7 Fan Movement
Even when a fan is locked out electrically, it may be subject to “windmilling.” Therefore, the impeller should be secured to physically restrict rotational movement. When personnel need to climb on the wheel to perform work or an inspection, the wheel should be mechanically secured. Key Human Performance Point Even when a fan is locked out electrically, it may be subject to “windmilling.”

10-2

In addition. Excessive speed may result in catastrophic impeller failure. Impeller rotation should be verified to be correct and not installed backwards. Fans should not be operated above their recommended speeds. it should be ensured that all personnel have exited the fan housing. Therefore. inlet boxes. all material and tools should be removed from the housing. 10-3 .EPRI Licensed Material Safety Fans contain various rotating components such as fan wheels. guards should be provided at exposed fan inlets and outlets as well as over the couplings and other equipment. and shaft coupling wheels—all of which are potential hazards. couplings. inlets. and discharge ductwork. shafts. Before a fan is started.

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More detailed information on fans and their applications can be found in other references. and Use (first edition published in 1879. 11-1 . This document provides basic information on the design and operation of fans. The first edition was published by the Buffalo Forge Company in 1914. including HVAC fans. Its Generation. Steam. The best source of training is documents on fans.EPRI Licensed Material 11 TRAINING Formal training programs on boiler draft fans are not readily available. 40th edition available from Babcock and Wilcox) includes a section on fans related to boilers. The most comprehensive book on fans is Fan Engineering. The ninth edition is available in hard copy or on CD from Howden Buffalo. as well as boiler draft fans. Fan Engineering covers all types and sizes of fans.

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Fan Application Manual. CA: 2003. 1007910. Palo Alto. CA: 1981. CA: 1992. Flexible Shaft Couplings Maintenance Guide. General Reference Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Draft Fans. Site Performance Test Standard.EPRI Licensed Material 12 REFERENCES 1. EPRI. 6. NFPA 85. Field Performance Measurements. Palo Alto. 4. 2004. AMCA 202. 12-1 . Terra Haute. Shaft Alignment Guide. 3. EPRI. AMCA 803. Palo Alto. 7. TR-101698. 2. EPRI. EPRI. and Design. TR-112449. Electric Motor Predictive and Preventive Maintenance Guide. Boiler and Combustion System Hazard Code. Palo Alto. Bleier. EPRI. NP-7502. Application. CS-1693. Frank P. IN 1997. Palo Alto. 9. Fan Handbook: Selection. Failure Cause Analysis – Fans. 5. CA: 1999. AMCA 203. TWI Press. 8. CA: 1993.

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it is important to know the exact chemical makeup of the material used in constructing the particular fan wheel component. A database is a good starting point for maintenance personnel before they begin inspecting or conducting repairs. A central listing of information such as chemical composition. to clean. First. A consistent and reliable way to track surface irregularities that have not been designated as cracks but should be monitored for indications of growth. it offers personnel a way to identify cracking or erosion problems for early corrective action. An inspection program for fan wheels is a logical extension of any preventive maintenance strategy for a draft fan. modifications made to the fan during its operational life. and contractors used at various times (for example. repair. electrodes and rods used in the original fabrication and/or repair. A trend analysis program can serve the following functions: – – – A form of input into the procurement of new fan wheels and blades A way to identify unique problem areas associated with the fan wheel A way to assist in establishing an accurate cycle for fan wheel inspections • There are specific maintenance actions that should encompass a fan wheel inspection. it can help in establishing a database for either a newly installed wheel or one that has been in operation. before repairs can begin. Welldocumented records along with blade maps and photographs can help a station’s maintenance department begin a material history file on the fan wheel. For example. A maintenance department can realize two benefits from a well-designed and properly implemented fan inspection program. Second. and heat treatment of the metals used to construct the fan wheel. hardness. A-1 .EPRI Licensed Material A CENTRIFUGAL FAN WHEEL INSPECTION AND REPAIR Introduction This section provides guidelines for conducting field inspections of centrifugal fan wheels. A record of cracking and erosion problems that can easily be adapted to a trend analysis program. A material history file provides the following: • • • A training tool for new personnel to use as a guideline. and inspect). engineering drawing numbers and their locations. before the damage escalates into major problems with a potential for catastrophic failure. This particular check need only be done once during the operational life of the fan.

however. Welds attaching stiffeners to center plates. Cracks in erosion liners made of some hardened material are common but are normally not considered to be detrimental to the fan operation. Welds in fabricated hubs. These welds are not structural. Seal welds of bolted-on erosion liners. Recommended areas to be inspected during visual and magnetic particle examinations include the following: • • • • • • • The entire length of every weld joining the fan blades to the center plate and side plate. Review of previous blade maps in particular will provide invaluable information on alerting personnel to potential problem areas identified by crack patterns reappearing. These cracks may also form an area on which erosive gas streams may concentrate. Table A-1 provides a summary of the survey results and key points noted.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Inspection Areas Before beginning an inspection. records of how the fan was constructed. cracks beginning in these seal welds may propagate into the structural weld or component. • Survey Results Survey results involving 256 fans from participating utilities provided information on inspection practices currently being used. hubs. and records of previous fan wheel inspections. maintenance personnel should consult and review the fan manufacturer’s recommendations on areas to inspect. and/or shafts. Splice welds on the side and center plates. A-2 . Welds attaching balance weights to the side plates or center plate. Pad welds used in place of balance weights.

EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Table A-1 Summary of Inspection Practices for Centrifugal Fan Wheels Visual inspections (VT) • • 75% of the fans undergo a visual inspection. 32. A-3 .0% undergo a wet-magnetic particle inspection. 37% of the total 256 fans have annually scheduled visual inspections.6% of the fans undergo an NDE inspection. Nondestructive examinations (NDE) • • • 65. 41.8% have scheduled annual NDE inspections.

Inspection Techniques VT and wet-magnetic particle are the two most common types of inspection techniques utilized. and side plates.000 fpm. Inspection Cycle A 12-month period is the most common cycle employed in fan wheel inspections. It is suggested that each utility. Identification will allow personnel to document and track crack propagation and to establish a permanent means for component identification.8% of the fans were reported having start/stop cycles greater than 100 per year.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Blade tip speed (BTS) greater than 25. if one exists. Implementing this type of standard will allow for consistency in documentation.000 fpm • • • • • 18. Number of start/stop cycles greater than 100 • • • 5.5% of the total 48 fans in this category undergo visual inspections. 39. Other Inspections An average of 50% of the fans that undergo a wheel inspection receives both an annual VT and magnetic particle inspection. Component Marking Procedures Procedures must be established to identify specific blades and/or specific areas of a hub. 26% of the fans having start/stop cycles greater than 100 also have a BTS greater than 25.000 fpm. Only four fans (two FD and two ID) were reported having both a start/stop cycle greater than 100 per year and a BTS greater than 25. 89.000 fpm.2% of the NDE inspections are conducted annually. 79. develop a single-unified identification standard for all of their fans.7% of the fans were reported having a BTS greater than 25.5% of the visual inspections are conducted annually. The ID fans undergo a 6-month inspection frequency (visual and wet-magnetic particle) while the two FD fans fall under a 24-month inspection cycle. 29. center plate. A-4 . Scheduled Inspection An average of 70% of the 256 fans receives a regularly scheduled fan wheel inspection of some type. rather than each station.2% have scheduled NDE inspections. The standard should be consistent with the fan manufacturer’s numbering system.

Letter identifiers such as “T” for top could be included with the number to further clarify blade identification. such as using a low impact punch to stamp a number on the blade (or other designated location) or using the hub-to-shaft keyway as a standard reference mark. Diagrams for a blade and center plate are shown in Figures A-1 through A-3. The numbering direction could coincide with the fan’s rotation. allowing marks to be easily identified for future inspections. Blade numbers could increase against fan rotation. Paint or other such markers will eventually wear off during operation or during abrasive blast cleaning operations. A pattern of cracks that continues to repeat itself in a specific area would be cause for concern. With this technique. Mapping Procedures Mapping all inspection areas is recommended. The surface seen first should be the top/front of the blade. Care should be exercised to avoid creating a stress concentration when marking the blades. Top/front and bottom/back of a blade should be identified as an individual observes a fan blade moving toward him. This area is readily accessible. Various methods may be used to individually mark blades.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair It is recommended that the permanent identification marks be centered on the trailing edge of each blade. Note that Figure A-3 has a grid superimposed that could easily be adapted for pinpoint cracks. the nose of the blade that is closest to the key is always blade Number 1. Note that the diagrams do not have to be complex in order to be effective. Accuracy in indicating crack location is essential. A-5 .

EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Figure A-1 Blade Map Example A-6 .

EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Figure A-2 Blade Map Example A-7 .

000-psi water stream. The casing must have adequate dust-tight lighting and ventilation to control the level of dust generation. Dry blasting appears to be the most prevalent method used for surface cleaning. A-8 . Two methods used in surface cleaning are water blasting and dry blasting. One California utility reports successful results using water blasting.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Figure A-3 Blade Map Example Health Hazards and Safety The fan casing is normally the barrier between the work area and the outside environment. and rust. Ventilation hoses can be placed above or directly across from the area being worked on in order to move the dust away from maintenance personnel. Fans are cleaned using glass beads entrained in a 30. Cleaning provides a surface that is free of dirt. Surface Cleaning Surface cleaning is one of the prerequisites for an accurate magnetic particle test. thereby preventing any cracks from being masked. fly ash deposits. Reduction in potential respiratory hazards and easy disposal of the residual are two reported benefits of this method. Refer to Section 10 for additional information.

before any A-9 . Brush blasting can be used for rapidly cleaning areas not having a build up of deposits and on surfaces having a protective coating. As a result. Reuse of an abrasive that has broken down can result in the material becoming lodged or embedded into crevices that may already exist in the weld. As would be expected.5 times its original size. and garnet) and manmade (aluminum oxide and silicon carbide) nonmetallic abrasives exist. In the latter case. which are less costly than metallic abrasives. followed by man-made abrasives. they can be “recycled” for reuse 200 times more than conventional sand abrasives) The disadvantage of using this type of material is that it can remove a layer of material from the fan component. Grit abrasive material consists of angular metallic particles. natural abrasives have the lowest initial cost. of which grit and sand are the two most common. Sand abrasive is a term used to cover a wide spectrum of nonmetallic abrasives as well as ordinary silica sand. increasing the potential for masking any problem areas. it is recommended that they be used only once.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Dry blast cleaning is one method used to prepare fan internals for both magnetic and visual inspections. This type of material offers several advantages over traditional sand abrasives: • • • • Less time to clean a fan wheel Less breakdown of the abrasive Less dust abrasives Recycling of grit abrasives (in most cases. Both natural (for example. Brush blasting refers to a relatively quick cleaning operation in which the nozzle tip is held between 3 and 4 feet away from the work surface. There are two abrasive blast techniques that can be used by a cleaning crew. The operational life of a boron carbide nozzle is much longer because of its ability to retain its internal contour. The key to good results is the type of blast nozzle used. A nozzle should be replaced when its outlet has worn to 1. such as cast steel. the principle behind dry blast cleaning remains the same: propel abrasive material in a well-defined stream with sufficient force to dislodge any buildup on the fan surfaces. slag. boron carbide. that have been crushed and hardened. Because sand abrasives are susceptible to breakdown. This type of nozzle provides the longest wear per dollar of initial cost. and tungsten carbide. flint quartz. silica. According to the American Society for Metals (ASM). This technique employs several different types of abrasive materials. ASM recommends purchasing a nozzle with a boron carbide liner encased in a steel jacket. the principal materials used in manufacturing a blast nozzle are hard iron. aluminum oxide. less air is consumed and a more uniform abrasive velocity and stream contour are maintained. No matter what type of abrasive material is used.

weld joints. and hubs. and lack of fusion) that may mask or give false indications. It is recommended that any surface discontinuities be removed before conducting a magnetic particle test because these areas can produce false A-10 . A shorter distance tends to produce more dust when nonmetallic abrasives are used and tends to cause impact damage and layer removal to the work surface when metallic abrasives are used. crews should avoid directing the abrasive stream on suspected crack areas. Operators should exercise caution when working around these components. these suspect areas should be cleaned by hand with a wire brush. causing an imbalance condition. blade surfaces. Coordination between the abrasive cleaning team and the station’s NDE inspectors is a must in a geographical area or seasonal period where there is a high level of moisture in the air. special care must be given to fan internals that could easily be damaged from high-velocity particles impacting them. This technique is used to clean down to a white metal finish in preparation for conducting NDE tests on welds. A visual inspection should check for visible cracks and surface discontinuities. To avoid this problem. With this method. This condition will cause corrosion to develop on freshly cleaned fan internals. personnel should maintain a distance of 9 to 10 inches from the nozzle tip to the work surface. The time lag between cleaning and inspecting should be kept to a minimum. Heat fingers and shaft seals can be protected by securely wrapping them in a rubber or urethane cover. There is a potential for “filling” the blade with abrasive material. Increasing this distance will reduce the abrasive effect of the material. As a second recommendation.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair abrasive surface cleaning can take place. overlap. When cleaning fans with hollow airfoil blades. blade maps should have these coated areas clearly marked to avoid any confusion. The second cleaning technique is often referred to as strip blasting. Closing access doors and dampers will also aid in reducing the flow of moisture-laden air into the fan. Visual Inspection Qualified personnel classified as Level II or higher (or Level I personnel under the direct supervision of Level II or III personnel) should conduct the visual inspection of the rotating elements. the personnel actually doing the work should clearly understand where the coating has been applied and what type of surface finish they will see on the coating after applying the abrasives. Better coordination between the abrasive cleaning team and NDE inspectors and the use of electric space heaters inside the fan casing will help reduce moisture and dampness levels. Extreme care should be exercised by the crews to avoid “blasting away” the protective coating. Surface preparation consists of two parts: maintaining a clean surface once it has been sandblasted and eliminating any surface discontinuities (such as undercutting. When carrying out abrasive cleaning operations.

Carbide blades will change to a red-hot color if excessive pressure is applied. and creating sharp notches in the weld. Heat cracks can be avoided by not using excessive pressure (that is. Often. experienced personnel can successfully excavate the area in question without disturbing the surface to the point where a weld repair would be required. Implementing contour grinding into a fan maintenance program can be accomplished in one of four ways: • • • • Establish a general policy that all welds on existing fans shall be contour ground. scratches can be removed using a belt sander. Both blend and contour grinding require the use of a rotary file with a grinding surface attachment. One utility takes this process a step further by requiring fan welds to be contour ground. attempting to remove too much material too quickly). Contour grind welds that have been repaired during an outage period. Blend grinding involves the use of a rotary file to remove surface irregularities. After blend grinding. Specific surface discontinuities that should be removed include undercut and overlap (see Figure A-4) and erosion cutting.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair indications. One utility reported that an overlap condition obscured serious underbead cracking. which will lead to cracking and induce heat cracks in the weld joint. Figure A-4 Example of Undercut and Overlap If both manpower and funding are available. This technique requires the weld to be ground down to a concave shape. Require future fan wheel specifications to include contour grinding all welds. while time consuming and costly. A-11 . Contour grinding. Improper use of this tool can result in undersizing the welds. can improve the fatigue strength of the weld by providing a surface that is free from discontinuities. Phase-in contour grinding requirements over a period of years by reworking a fixed amount of fan wheels per year. cutting into the base metal. consideration should be given to blend or contour grinding the weld joints.

and heat treatment concur with those specified in the original design. A second option is to use a flapper wheel of emery paper. there is an element of subjectivity that becomes difficult to control unless an acceptance standard is developed and adhered to. the indication is downgraded to a surface discontinuity. Verification that current weld repair procedures are correct. This generates less heat. Some catastrophic failures have been attributed at least in part to materials outside the specified limits. hardness. Inspection for any missed problem areas also takes place at this time. experience has shown it to be important on older fans. Chemical Analysis Test The first step in implementing a fan inspection program is verifying the chemistries and heat treatment process applied to the materials used in the construction of the fan wheel components. and no further action is taken unless the test group recommends that the discontinuity be removed. however. Although this may appear to be an unnecessary recommendation. Using this tool. Identification of potential problems that may develop with respect to the conditions (such as temperature or weather) under which the fan operates. Several utilities that have analyzed their fans have found the materials to fall outside the ASTM limits. it will eliminate false indications of cracks and will result in a higher confidence in the examination. the area to be inspected is wiped down with a lint-free rag. A-12 . Even with experienced personnel. If subsequent inspections indicate no growth. Residual dust and particles from abrasives and grinding operations should be removed before conducting a magnetic particle test. If it is determined to be a potential crack. Certain surface discontinuities can lead to cracks. An accurate record of the fan wheel’s metallurgical properties can provide the following: • • • Verification that the actual material.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Although this process is time consuming. making it less likely to produce cracking. it is then documented on a map. A different approach involves the use of experienced NDE personnel to determine whether the indication is a crack or a surface discontinuity based on NDE results. is extremely time consuming when compared to using a grinder. The following points should be noted: • • • Consistent and accurate mapping techniques should be used to make this procedure effective. Once the grinding procedure has been completed.

a quality assurance program was organized to monitor and verify the materials specified. Portable equipment is now available that allows the chemical analysis of fan components without the removal of material samples.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Developing this database for each installed fan at any given power station can be a difficult and costly task. the utility initiated its own independent chemical analysis testing program. The wet-magnetic method is more sensitive to fine surface defects than the dry method. This was a one-time test requirement to obtain a database for each fan. One utility has taken two paths to chemical verification: • For existing fans without reliable documentation on file. Input received from the surveys provides the following breakdown (see Table A-2): Table A-2 Percent of Fans Undergoing NDE Method Wet Magnetic particle Dry magnetic particle Dye penetrant % Stations Using the Method 32% 13. The WMP medium is available in either a prepared or mixed bath. Equipment cost is expensive. Magnetic Particle Testing Magnetic particle testing is an effective method for conducting a nondestructive examination to detect cracks on the surface of ferromagnetic materials. Of the 256 draft fans involved in the survey. Prepared baths are A-13 . The two types of magnetic particle testing are wet particle and dry particle. making it the preferred method when inspecting for surface cracks. however. The dry magnetic particle method. is considered more sensitive for the detection of subsurface discontinuities. A certified material test report was required from the fan wheel manufacturer for records purposes. and material samples were taken during normal scheduled outage periods. fan repair is minimized because no samples need to be removed. care should be exercised as to where the samples are taken. Use of a yoke probe with ac/pulsating dc capability in conjunction with a wet fluorescent magnetic particle (WMP) test offers the best capability to utilities for examining fan wheels for cracks. however.7% of them received a magnetic particle examination. Consulting the fan wheel manufacturer before taking any samples is highly recommended to avoid inadvertently damaging the wheel. • If the utility elects to conduct a chemical analysis test.7% 19.9% Note that the figures above are straight percentages and do not reflect draft fans that are inspected using two or more of the above methods. 45. For new fan wheels being constructed.

A magnetic field set up with dc power can detect cracks below the surface. Each dc electromagnetic yoke must have lifting power of at least 40 lb at the maximum pole spacing that will be used. a black light. Designated personnel responsible for carrying out the test must have their eyes adjusted to the dark. • • • • • • • • A-14 . A grid must be laid out on the areas to be inspected. Chalk or paint markers are typically used to mark the grid spacing on the work. The size of the grid should be less than the maximum spacing of the articulated arm to ensure that the entire area is inspected. the examination must be performed in a darkened area. The black light intensity should be measured at least once every eight hours and whenever shifting to a different fan. Before using a weight for the first time. Pre-Examination Requirements There are several requirements that must be satisfied before conducting a magnetic particle examination: • • • The surface to be examined must be adequately cleaned. This can normally be accomplished by being inside the darkened area for at least five minutes before conducting the test. The yoke must be calibrated annually. Mixed baths must be prepared by station personnel before use and are considerably less expensive than prepared baths. A minimum of 800 microwatts/cm2 on the surface being checked is recommended for best results. When using wet fluorescent particles. yoke probes will not produce arc burns on the working surface. Additional equipment requirements include a Pie gage to check the magnetic field strength.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair available in aerosol cans. Each ac electromagnetic yoke must have a lifting power of 10 lb at the maximum pole spacing that will be used. The black light should be warmed for a minimum of five minutes before use. this becomes especially useful when inspecting fan hubs for cracks or cracks starting at the roots of the welds. and a black light meter. While prods can develop a stronger field. Specific reasons for choosing a wet fluorescent magnetic particle system and yoke probes are listed below: • • • A WMP test is more sensitive and produces more rapid results than a dry particle test. The intensity of the black light should be measured using a black light meter. A yoke probe having both ac and pulsed dc options gives the station more capability. it must be verified that it has been checked with an accurate scale.

Once this has been accomplished. the strength and direction of the magnetic field should be verified. The magnetic particle indicator will provide the inspector with a simple indication of direction and sufficient or insufficient field strength. the lines of flux in each check should be perpendicular to one another. Suitable field strength is indicated by a clearly defined line of magnetic particles forming across the copper face of the indicator while the magnetizing force is applied. Figure A-5 Hand-Held Yoke Probe with Articulated Legs After the area to be inspected has been cleaned and prepared. As a rule of thumb. In addition to being articulated. Exceeding this limit will result in a weakened magnetic field. Field direction plays an important role in detecting the presence of cracks. the legs are also adjustable. The weld line can easily be used as a reference to achieve this A-15 . This type of yoke provides the inspector with the flexibility needed to accommodate surfaces offset from one another because of curvature or orientation. The direction of the field coincides with the orientation of the formed line. Because of this. An indicator should be used once per fan to check for proper field strength. The maximum spacing between the legs is 8 inches. A yoke within its calibration period is not a guarantee that sufficient field strength is being generated. it is necessary to examine each area at least twice.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Examination Procedure This procedure describes the necessary steps to conduct a magnetic particle examination using a yoke with articulated legs (see Figure A-5). a final check for any residual dust should be conducted before applying the wet fluorescent particle medium to the surface.

Figure A-6 Orientation of an Articulated Yoke Probe to Produce Flux Lines at Right Angles A-16 .EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair condition. surface cracks that develop parallel or perpendicular (longitudinal or cross cracks) to the weld can be detected by experienced personnel. In this case. For example. with the weld line shown in Figure A-6. orienting the yoke to first straddle the line and then placing both yoke legs on the weld will produce flux lines at right angles.

Moving the yoke 3 inches to either side of the original position will provide adequate coverage. The procedure described above uses what is known as the “continuous” method. It consists of wrapping the fan wheel with coils of wire that are energized with dc current. Each check should have sufficient overlap from the previous check to ensure 100% coverage of the area. A-17 .EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Additional recommendations concerning this technique include the following: • • • The base of the legs should be flush to the surface of the material. This method requires inspectors to apply the wet fluorescent medium while the magnetic field is being applied. Failure to follow the required waiting period can lead to false results. DC Coil Wraps This technique was reported in use by one California utility. When “straddling” the weld line. Care should be taken by the individuals conducting this examination to ensure that the proper waiting period between completion of the repair and actual inspection is adhered to. A standardized marking procedure is particularly important when plant maintenance engineers and NDE personnel are assigned to different shifts. for example. ensure that the centerline of the yoke coincides with the weld. ASTM A514 steels. Wrapping the fan shaft will produce a field in only one direction. The second time a follow-up exam should be done is after completion of the field weld repairs. A comprehensive examination using this technique would require placing a coil in several positions on the wheel. Follow-Up Examinations A follow-up examination is recommended to include two additional wet-magnetic particle inspections. Marking Indications A standardized marking procedure for fan wheel inspections provides an efficient way for station personnel and contractors involved in the work to communicate. require a 48-hour waiting period before conducting a final wet magnetic particle examination (and visual examination). a follow-up exam is suggested after the removal of a crack or surface discontinuity to verify that the entire damaged area has in fact been removed before beginning weld repairs. The purpose of each of these exams is to act as a quality check on accomplished maintenance action. The utility reports that this method provides a significant time savings when compared to using a yoke and results in no loss in sensitivity when used in conjunction with a wet florescent magnetic particle inspection. Specifically.

EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Simplicity and consistency are the key features of a well-thought-out marking system. place this annotation underneath the corresponding number. it should be followed. The following recommended practices were observed to work effectively in the field (see Figures A-7 and A-8). and circle each number. Number indications consecutively. Write a red letter “R” to indicate that the completed weld repair has failed the NDE inspection and must be ground out for re-inspection. Use of unauthorized modifications will only cause unnecessary confusion and lost time. A-18 . Consistency implies standardization. Use the red letters “OK” to show that the indication cleared with minor grinding and that welding is not required. Place a yellow check (“√”) at an indication where the cracks have been ground out to indicate that the area is ready for inspection. Write a red letter “W” to indicate that the indication has been ground and cleared and is ready to be welded. once a system is developed. • • • • • • • • Use a yellow crayon or grease pencil to mark indications. Simplicity is vital to ensure that personnel spend minimal time and effort when working with the system. Annotate multiple indications within a 6-in2 area with a single number and the letters MULT (for multiple indications). Write a red letter “P” to indicate that the completed weld repair has passed the NDE inspection.

EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Figure A-7 Indications Are Consecutively Numbered and Circled Figure A-8 Marking Multiple Indications A-19 .

This second application was a onetime test. and Design [9] provides current standards and practices for UT inspections. A second application involved the use of UT to inspect for voids in fan hubs manufactured from cast iron or cast steel. Application. Site Performance Test Standard [4] lists the personnel qualifications needed to conduct and interpret test results. • • Note: The acceptance criteria listed above are recommended for fans currently in service. Fan Handbook: Selection.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Interpreting the Indications Wet fluorescent magnetic particle inspection offers the maintenance department a highly effective method of detecting potential problems on a fan wheel. these guidelines can provide consistency by defining the acceptance standards to be used during the inspection. The following points should be noted: • The training and experience level of the individuals conducting the test are absolutely critical.” for magnetic particle inspection of welds. If current. Indications in excess of 0. A-20 . Visual or magnetic particle tests offer no real capability in this area. AMCA 803. undetected cracking or erosion could increase in severity. and fissures are not acceptable.25 inches (regardless of direction) are unacceptable. As a minimum. ultrasonic testing (UT) is not widely used. several utilities have specified that they are to be constructed with a more stringent requirement of zero linear indications.015635 (1/64) inches in length are considered non-relevant. laps. Detection of cracks or voids below the surface is one advantage of UT inspections. Utilities that employed this technique used it primarily for thickness measurements of fan surfaces (including housings) that operate in an erosive environment. Indications less than 0.6-81. Inspection Frequency The final step in implementing an inspection program is to determine the interval for conducting visual and nondestructive examinations. For new fans. If the time period between inspections is excessive. which states the following: – – – Cracks. Careful analysis in deciding this inspection interval is essential. A written and approved fan inspection guideline must be developed for use by the individuals conducting the WMP inspection. utilities are recommended to adapt acceptance standards from American Welding Society (AWS) standard D 14. Ultrasonic Testing From the surveys received. “Specification for Welding of Rotating Elements of Equipment.

Developing an accurate assessment of the inspection frequency needed requires the maintenance department to collect and analyze the key factors that have an effect on the operational health of the fan wheel. An exchange of information can be beneficial to both groups. Cracks that are increasing in size and/or number. vibration due to cracking on the wheel is possible and should not be overlooked. in cases where high vibration levels persist after repeated attempts and after the alignment and wheel balance have been checked. the potential for serious and costly damage to the fan wheel is clear. it is advisable to conduct an NDE inspection of the fan wheel. While high vibration levels can have other causes (such as misalignment or an imbalance condition).EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair If cracks are allowed to go undetected. suggesting a high-fatigue area or a poor weld repair. Therefore. A-21 . Early detection is achieved by conducting regular inspections and by carefully noting any upward swings or trends in vibration levels while the draft fan is in operation. The following factors need to be considered: • • • • • • • • What does the manufacturer of the fan wheel recommend? What were the results from the previous inspections? What is the operating environment of the fan? Are there sufficient funds in the maintenance budget to support an inspection program? How often has the fan wheel been repaired? Has the fan wheel ever undergone an NDE or VT inspection? What is the inspection cycle currently in use? Is it effective? Who will conduct the inspection? Does the power station have its own manpower assets sufficient to conduct an inspection of the fan wheel? Manufacturer’s Input Both the manufacturer’s own suggested inspection frequency as well as the feedback it can provide to the utility on current inspection practices are extremely valuable. Uncorrected damage can escalate into a catastrophic failure of the fan with the overall operational availability of the unit being jeopardized as well. Previous Inspection Results Reviewing blade maps and other related maintenance records from previous inspections provides a mechanism to check for trends. Specific trends that should be cause for concern include the following: • • Cracks that redeveloped in the same location. Only through a process of elimination can the cause of vibration be identified and corrected. The key is early detection. Vibration monitoring plays an important role in the process of determining an adequate inspection interval.

Blade tip speed greater than 25. Available Manpower Assets It is easier to schedule inspections when an inspection team is always available. Temporary excursions by the fan.000 fpm. Coordination becomes slightly more difficult when a private contractor or a team that is rotated between stations within the utility’s network is used. Operating Equipment The operating environment of a draft fan is probably the most important factor to consider. The condition of the fan wheel will determine the schedule of the next inspection. The following are specific operating conditions that could lead to fatigue cracks: • • • Start/stop cycles greater than 100 per year. Initial Inspection If the fan wheel has never undergone an NDE or VT inspection. it is important to take into account the amount of repair work that should be done.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair In either of the above cases. Responses to the following questions may also indicate conditions that could lead to fatigue cracks: • • • • • • • How well do the isolation dampers and sealing air systems work to protect the fan? Are thermocouples installed to warn operators of a temperature excursion (and are they accurate)? Is there erosion wear caused by fly ash? How well do the precipitators operate? How well are they maintained? Is the surface hardening system in good condition? Are the wear plates in good condition? Is there vibration? Has the fan been operated for long periods with inlet vanes or dampers closed? Repairs As the number of weld repairs to a fan wheel increases. and to reduce the inspection interval to allow for more inspections with subsequent repair work. A-22 . one should be scheduled as soon as possible. the fatigue life remaining on the wheel decreases. Because of the lead time involved in manufacturing a new wheel (unless a spare wheel is kept on hand). to consider reducing the number of start/stop cycles that the wheel currently undergoes. it is strongly recommended that the time between inspections be reduced and that the fan wheel be replaced.

The following were common features of fans having NDE inspection intervals greater than 12 months: • • • Low number of annual start/stop cycles (typically less than 20 per year). This interval is chosen based on the following: • • Feedback from the utilities suggests that annual visual inspection cycles are beneficial. Most fans were monitored for high-vibration levels (vibration monitoring ranged from continuous to every six months). a 48-month interval is recommended for an NDE inspection cycle. and blade damage. Annual visual inspections are highly recommended.000 fpm. can still provide valuable information on the condition of the fan wheel. and participating utilities. For fans meeting the conditions listed above. for given situations. low incidence of cracks). The fan manufacturers and NDE specialists contacted favored annual NDE inspections. and proper heat treatment. Constant vigilance provides an additional margin of safety to both the operators and the equipment. This fact becomes especially evident when NDE inspections extend beyond a year. Persistent high vibration/temperature excursions. In addition to an annual VT. A well-trained individual can quickly identify and check for erosion.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Determining a Cycle for NDE Inspections Input was received from private contractors specializing in NDE inspections. An NDE inspection conducted every 12 months or less is recommended for the following conditions: • • • High number of annual start/stop cycles (100 or greater). This indicates that. low hydrogen weld rod. Feedback from utilities indicated a wide variety of inspection cycles currently in use. Generating stations using these extended intervals reported successful results (that is. These “inspections of opportunity” can pay large maintenance dividends to a fan wheel’s operational life span. Fan wheels identified by the manufacturer as having a high risk of cracking because of their design. Visual Inspection Cycle A visual inspection is its own unique program and should not be viewed as an initial preparation for a magnetic particle examination. Visual inspections. Of particular interest is the group of utilities employing inspection cycles that ranged from 18 to 60 months. it is recommended that maintenance engineers conduct VT inspections whenever opportunities arise due to an unscheduled outage. while not as sensitive as magnetic particle examinations. fan manufacturers. This time period was chosen based on successful results reported by several utilities. New fan wheels with proper design. gross cracking. NDE inspection cycles may be extended beyond a one-year period. These included inspection of fans with blade tip speeds both above and below 25. A-23 .

the high phosphorus alloy material is very susceptible to temper brittleness. utilities have discovered material that did not meet the ASTM specifications called for in the design specifications. If cracks are present. a sample from the material should be chemically analyzed. Thus. Second. there are a variety of materials that can be used in the construction of a wheel. A-24 . For example. or quenching and tempering processes. and C. side plates. Different operating environments as well as different design philosophies can result in a unique construction for each fan. The fourth consideration is that individuals performing the actual weld repair must be fully qualified as required in either ASME Section IX or AWS D1. In some cases. Charpy V-notch impact values. This does not affect the tensile properties but causes a shift in the ductile-to-brittle transition curve at higher temperatures. Table A-3 provides a sample list of various materials used in the manufacture of blades. center plates. while the blades could be made from A514. The ASTM A242 material shown in Table A-3 has been used on gas recirculation fans.1 Section 5 parts A. the room temperature impact strength can decrease to values less than 10 ft-lb. This is a low alloy steel specification that does not specify the type or amount of alloy added. maintenance personnel should be aware of four important considerations. or boiler plate should not be accepted as accurate information. In other instances. If this is suspected. As a rule. because fan wheels can be made of several materials. the high-strength/low-alloy steels have relatively poor low-temperature impact strength. Generic terms such as carbon steel. The first requirement in any weld repair is to determine the material type and grade used in the wheel’s construction. fan construction varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. materials different from those shown on the design drawings were found to have been used. and hubs. After a few years of service at temperatures above 650ºF. repair should be approached cautiously. A third consideration is defective or incorrect material (see Section 5). B. The potential trouble area pertains to the high phosphorus allowed by Type 1 in this material specification. When drawings show this material. These discrepancies can include chemical specifications. which is a high yield strength material. the center plate could be constructed of a low-alloy carbon steel such as A441. First.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Repairs Before beginning repairs. catastrophic failure can occur. forged steel.

EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Table A-3 Typical Materials in Power Plant Fans A-25 .

For the A514/A517 materials. try to maneuver the fan wheel in such a way that the fillet weld can be made in the horizontal position. Rust is hygroscopic. Use the specified electrodes. no weaving of the electrode) to minimize the heat input. If there is insufficient slope or a sharp corner at the base of the cavity. its removal is an absolute necessity—especially when welding the A514/A517 materials. A-26 . and post-heat. incomplete fusion may occur. the repairs should be made in the flat position.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Field Weld Repairs and Procedures Weld repair demands attention to detail. Surface Preparation Before welding. interpass temperatures. There are seven fundamental rules for weld repair: • • • • • • • Make sure that the electrode strength is consistent with design requirements. Follow all instructions concerning preheat. welds should be made using stringer beads (that is. this will likely be impossible. Make sure that the weld is not a source of any undue hardening or softening of the parent metal. surfaces must be clean and dry. The welding procedure should show a sketch of the minimum slope angles of the cavity walls (when a deep cavity results from defect removal). the welder should be familiar with the welding guidelines described in the following paragraphs. Welding Technique If possible. Know the handling procedures of the electrodes specified for the job. Know the material type and grade of the parent metal. This is especially true for high strength steels subject to high fatigue stresses. Grease and oil are also sources of hydrogen that must be removed. Follow the prescribed weld procedure for the job. therefore. For fillet welds. Before any welding is attempted to repair a fan. it is important that all cracks are removed before repairing. One fan manufacturer recommends 60 kilojoules-inch maximum heat input. Review of several repair procedures written by utilities and fan manufacturers indicates a common ground shared by all. When repair is necessary because of cracks.

such as the E9018-M. The welder must be qualified for the position(s) he will be welding and for an F-4 electrode. The E7018-A1 electrodes should be baked for 1 hour at 700–800ºF to reduce their moisture content. if the contour is improved. After this time. For the other highstrength grades. a welder who has never welded high strength materials before could have A-27 . One method of eliminating the hard heat-affected zone (HAZ) in all of the A514/A517 materials is to use the temper bead method. the electrode size should not exceed 5/32 inches in diameter. One Midwest utility avoids PWHT but performs contour grinding at the toes of the T-joint welds and then has the entire weld shot peened. Under certain conditions. To keep welding current (and thus heat input low). a local PWHT may not be practical. This can be accomplished by resuming welding the next day and reapplying the preheat. such as deep and/or long repair welds that cannot be completed without interruption. However. For example. The SMAW electrode that matches A514/A517 materials in strength is E-l 1018-M. the weld should be allowed to cool slowly. However. the fan manufacturer performs PWHT on the entire wheel. any weld bead deposited on base metal is tempered by the deposit of another bead on top of it that does not contact the base metal. Another Midwest utility improves the fatigue life by hollow grinding the T-joint fillet welds (that is. the fillet welds are ground concave). Portable rod ovens should be used for all electrodes on the A514/A517 materials. high thermal stresses may result from the temperature gradients during PWHT. The reason for the higher preheat is to drive off moisture that is likely to be present in the fan installation area. PWHT is not performed. Use of the E-7018-Al electrode is possible when the higher strength electrode weld repairs result in cracking. are subject to stress relief cracking and should not be subjected to a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). which is generally used for tee or corner joints. With this method. For fans built using structural steel materials. it is recommended that either the preheat temperature or a 300ºF post-heat temperature be maintained for about 8 hours. such as Grade F. Welder Qualification A welder should be qualified in accordance with either ASME Section IX or AWS Dl. This means that a welder qualified for welding carbon steels such as a A36 with an E-7018 electrode is also qualified to weld the quenched and tempered fan materials with the E-1 1018-M. These could cause cracking problems. This is done primarily to improve the fatigue life. The fan manufacturer should be consulted regarding the use of electrodes lower in strength. Post-Weld Heat Treatment The vanadium containing grades of A514/A517. E-9018M. 1. etc. The temper beads may even be removed by grinding. The alloy pickup from the base metal can produce welds of about 100 ksi in strength from the E7018-A1. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is the common welding process used for fan repairs.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Preheat Preheat should be at least 200ºF minimum with a maximum interpass temperature of 400ºF for the quenched and tempered materials.

l-1990. cracking can start during the repair welding process. Specific information and pass/fail criteria can be found in the AWS standard Dl. a visual examination should be performed before welding is resumed. The chances of hydrogen cracking can be greatly reduced by adhering to correct electrode handling procedures. However.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair problems. First. Establishing and maintaining a suitable environment is essential to the success of repairs performed on quenched and tempered steels. Hydrogen-delayed cracking is the second type of cracking that can develop and surface after weld repairs. Erecting a temporary plywood vestibule around the opened manway will further help control the ambient temperature inside the fan housing. and by slowly cooling the welded area to allow hydrogen to escape into the atmosphere. Field Welding Requirements Feedback from several utilities indicates that major weld repairs can be accomplished in the field. To maintain a minimum ambient temperature of 50ºF during cold weather. in view of the potential for catastrophic failure if any cracking goes undetected. Repairing fatigue cracks in such fans will be ongoing until the wheels are replaced. the required preheat must be used. Use of two doors will help seal the fan housing from a rush of cold air as personnel enter and leave the fan housing. For example. use of portable electric heaters in conjunction with an airlock system is recommended. by using electrodes that have a low-hydrogen coating. For ASTM A514 and A517 steels. a 48-hour waiting period is required before conducting a final VT or wet magnetic particle examination. Generic Problems Certain fans have excessive stresses because of their design. the welder should know that even for tack welds or temporary welds. A-28 . Post-Weld Repair Inspection Criteria There are two types of cracking that can occur when making weld repairs. The wet magnetic particle test is recommended because it is more sensitive to finding very fine cracks. a visual and magnetic particle test should be conducted. and it would be advisable that the individual be given some training about the necessity of not deviating from the welding procedure or the electrode storage and handling requirements. If the welding is interrupted for a significant time. Use of plastic bulkheads to seal both the inlet and discharge ducts is suggested to reduce drafts. Such cracks are discovered visually and frequently occur in the HAZ immediately adjacent to the weld.

1.EPRI Licensed Material Centrifugal Fan Wheel Inspection and Repair Visual Pass/Fail Criteria The passing criteria for a visual test are provided below: • • • • • The weld shall have no cracks. A-29 .6 or Dl. Thorough fusion shall exist between adjacent layers of weld metal and between weld metal and base metal.031 inch (0. Weld profiles shall be in accordance with AWS 14. Undercut shall be no more than 0.1 mm) deep. All craters shall be filled to the cross-section of the weld.

.

If additional fan capacity is needed. Section 3. A simple adjustment of the fan-wheel-to-inlet-cone clearance can affect fan performance by 5% or more. but also how often they should be done. 6.4. A balance must be attained by performing PM but avoiding opening and inspecting equipment if no problems (such as high temperature or pressure) are present. with the benefit of eliminating the need to remove the blast medium from the fan.1 7.4. If a change in damper operation is desired.2 7. Recommendations from the manufacturer and operational experience can provide valuable insight in determining not only what checks should be done.11. there are fan upgrades that can be implemented that require only a fraction of the cost and outage time of complete new fans.1 6-10 7-2 7.8 Page 3-6 3-38 Key O&M Cost Point The fewest number of fans usually results in the lowest initial cost. Oil analysis tests are often offered free or for a nominal charge by the lubricant supplier as part of the overall service provided. operating. or maintenance costs.3 9.2 7.1 7-2 7-19 7-27 9-1 B-1 . Blasting with frozen CO2 pellets has been used for cleaning.2.5.7 3. data on startup times and motor current should be collected and discussed with the suppliers of the fan and motor.EPRI Licensed Material B KEY POINT SUMMARY Key O&M Cost Point Emphasizes information that will result in reduced purchase.9. The best practice is to follow the fan manufacturer’s recommendation.

In many coal-fired plants.1. Axial fans require considerably more maintenance than centrifugal fans. and inlet vane or inlet damper linkages. in many cases the root cause is high air heater leakage. Shut down the fan before adding oil.8 6 6. the oil film between the journal and the sleeve is not adequate to prevent metal-to-metal contact. Note that most curves are labeled as cfm. or auxiliary that could indicate some potential failure. When specifying FD fans. Note that fan static pressure is not the same as static pressure rise.2. The vibration amplitude-versus-frequency analysis method is considered to be the most useful. adding relatively cold oil may disrupt the oil film. Fan manufacturers usually present their curves in terms of vane angle.1 3-30 3-31 3-33 6-1 6-3 7 7 7.7 3-25 3. air heater pluggage.2. with 90 degrees being the full open position.EPRI Licensed Material Key Point Summary Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability.2 3. high gas temperatures. If oil in a self-contained sump is below the normal level.2 3.7 3-26 3.3 Page 3-3 3-4 3-24 Key Technical Point Temperature affects fan performance. and the bearing will be damaged.7 3-25 3.2 3.1 3.4. The goal of condition monitoring is to identify changes in the condition of the fan. precipitator infiltration.7.7 3-27 3.1 7-1 7-1 7-6 B-2 . The pressure rise across the fan must be converted to the density on the fan curve. Over 85% of mechanical problems occurring on rotating equipment can be identified using this method. the ID fans are the limiting factor on plant electrical output. The design speed of the turning gear is critical.7.6. main shaft bearings. Fan performance is based on conditions at the inlet. Thus. or something similar. where it is understood that cfm is acfm. a margin on temperature is included to allow for variations in operation. 3. and thus. controllability at this low vane opening may be a problem. the fan curve should specify the density. motor. with 100% being full open. Many boiler controls identify inlet vane position in terms of percent open.2. Section 3. and—with the vanes fully closed—the performance will be approximately the same as with the vanes 15 degrees open. Most centrifugal fans have sleeve bearings that have a minimum speed. The inlet vanes are designed for flow control and not to isolate the fan. Because fan performance depends on inlet density. Below the minimum speed. Although the ID fans may be the apparent cause of a load limit. pressure loss through the silencers (if they are provided) must be taken into consideration. The major maintenance areas for centrifugal fans are the blade liners.

1 Page 7-6 Key Technical Point Do not mix oils in the lubrication system or bearing housing.3.5.2 7-13 7-20 7. Large centrifugal fan wheels are highly stressed rotating equipment.EPRI Licensed Material Key Point Summary Section 7.2 7.2 7-38 Key Human Performance Point Denotes information that requires personnel action or consideration in order to prevent injury or damage or ease completion of the task. cooling. or bearing lubrication.5. with a yield strength of 100. and the material may be a quenched and tempered high-strength material such as ASTM A514 or A517.4.5 7-14 7-14 7-17 7. 7.11. The fan control system should monitor the head and flow and give the operator a stall warning so that the operator can take action before a stall occurs. Coatings can affect the physical properties of the base materials of the fan.3.1 7-18 10. Unchecked damage may result in an increase in vibration levels with additional wheel damage. It is important to verify that the thrust load of the fan is not imposed on the motor thrust bearing. and there have been a few mechanical failures. which subsequently may increase in severity to catastrophic failure with a serious potential for injury to personnel. Erosion is a significant failure mechanism for both centrifugal and axial fans. While erosion of ID fans is the major problem.4. Tests using proposed coatings and fan structural material should be performed and evaluated before the coatings are actually used.000 psi. Chemical additives in different oils can cause a breakdown in the viscosity. should follow the requirements of the current version of NFPA 85. Damage (manifested in the form of cracking or corrosive wear) can be partial or total.3. Improper welding of balance weights can cause cracks in the attachment weld that can propagate into the base metal of the fan.3 7. Section 3. Many large centrifugal fans have had cracks.4. inspect.9 4. The locking feature of these fasteners becomes compromised when they are removed and reinstalled a certain number of times.1 Page 3-35 3-39 4-6 Key Human Performance Point The startup procedures. Cracks in coatings can propagate into the fan members.11. erosion has also been reported on FD fans.4.2 7.4.2 3. 7. in addition to the controls and interlocks. All personnel that operate. Verify that components used to restrict motor shaft movement are installed.1 10-1 B-3 . The design stress may be as high as 80% of yield.5.4. This requires knowledge of the magnetic center of the motor.4. or maintain fans should be trained in the plant safety procedures.

7 Page 10-2 10-2 Key Human Performance Point Fans can suck in loose material and discharge it as dangerous projectiles. it may be subject to “windmilling.6 10.EPRI Licensed Material Key Point Summary Section 10.” B-4 . Even when a fan is locked out electrically. Large fans can also be dangerous to personnel.

EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. PROCESS. APPARATUS. OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS REPORT EPRI C-1 .EPRI Licensed Material C TRANSLATED TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE. INC. ANY MEMBER OF EPRI. (EPRI). OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. THE TRANSLATION OF THIS DOCUMENT FROM THE ENGLISH-LANGUAGE ORIGINAL HAS BEEN PREPARED WITH LIMITED BUDGETARY RESOURCES BY OR ON BEHALF OF EPRI. IT IS PROVIDED FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES ONLY AND EPRI DISCLAIMS ALL RESPONSIBILITY FOR ITS ACCURACY. METHOD. THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW. OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS. EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION. APPARATUS. INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. NEITHER EPRI. INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. PROCESS. ANY COSPONSOR. OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. THE ENGLISH-LANGUAGE ORIGINAL SHOULD BE CONSULTED TO CROSS-CHECK TERMS AND STATEMENTS IN THE TRANSLATION. OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION. NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER. METHOD. (IV) THAT ANY TRANSLATION FROM THE ENGLISH-LANGUAGE ORIGINAL OF THIS DOCUMENT IS WITHOUT ERROR.

EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents RESUME Objectifs • Fournir des informations sur les ventilateurs axiaux et centrifuges utilisés pour les chaudières • • Aider le personnel de maintenance des centrales thermiques dans la détection des pannes des ventilateurs Fournir des conseils de maintenance courante et préventive pour améliorer la fiabilité des ventilateurs C-2 .

.....................................1 Ventilateurs centrifuges ............................................ 3-5 3...........2 Ventilateur à circulation forcée .............. 3-16 3....................................................................................... 3-1 3............2.........................................5 Commande des Ventilateurs .............2........................................................................................................................ 1-2 2 GLOSSAIRE................... 3-18 C-3 ...............................................................................1 Ventilateur à circulation induite................................................................................ 3-1 3.................................................................................2 Applications des Ventilateurs ..................7 Quantité deventilateurs ............................ 3-7 3............................................. 3-7 3.......................... 2-1 2............................................................... 3-6 3.. 3-16 3............2...................................1 Objectifs ................ 3-4 3...... 3-17 3.....................3 Points clés .2 Amortisseurs d’admission ........ 3-3 3........1..........................4 Entraînements des Ventilateurs ....................................3 Moteurs à deux vitesses ................................................................. 3-13 3................2..................................... 2 ou 3 3 DESCRIPTION TECHNIQUE .................................. 1-1 1..........................................................................................1...........................................................................................................................................2 Conversions des unités utilisées .................................. 3-3 3...........................5................................................................ 3-15 3...............5....1......................................................................................3........................................................................ 1-1 1........2............6 Ventilateurs de recyclage de gaz ......................................3 Types ..................... 3-16 3..................... 3-3 3.......................................5.................2........................................................................................ 2-1 2..1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................1 Commandes centrifuge de ventilateur ...................2.................2 Ventilateurs axiaux ..........................................................................................5 Air primaire chaud ventilateur ................................................................3....................... 3-6 3................................... 3-5 3.................. 1-1 1.................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents TABLE DES MATIERES 1 INTRODUCTION ...3 Equilibre .....................................2 Organismes .................................1 Termes et acronymes ............4 Air primaire froid ventilateur ..........................................1 Vanne d’admission ...........................5...

..........11.... 3-39 3...6 Commande ................................. 3-22 3......... 3-24 3......11...2....................7.....1..................................................7 Ventilateurs................ 3-20 3..11..............10 Arrêt de ventilateur ...................................1............................................11..............................11.1 Restrictions de moteur électrique .....................10.......................................1 Arrêt contrôlé .................................................................................................. 3-22 3...... 3-37 3......... 3-28 3.................... 3-36 3.....11.................................................... 3-38 3............................11...................................................11.......1........... 3-35 3.....................2 Définition de pression ...............................4 À couplage fluide ................11...................9 Besoins ................5.............3 Trains de rotation .1 Hélice à pas variable .........2...........................2... 3-34 3................ 3-22 3................1 Roulements ......11 Fonctionnement en parallèle de ventilateur ...10.................................................. 3-41 3.......................................................................................................................................... 3-24 3...............................................................................8 Sélection du type de ventilateur ... 3-34 3.11.......................2 Arrêt incontrôlé ..........6 Autres composants .......6 Ventilateurs à Turbine............................................................... 3-19 3........................5 moteurs à Vitesse Variable ..........2 Commande axiale de ventilateur ..................5........ 3-40 3...........................................................................................5.....11...... 3-39 3...............6.................................. 3-29 3.5........................................................................................................................2 Séquence des phases pour la mise en route ............................................................................1 Performance de ventilateur axial ...............................11...... 3-38 3..4 Ventilateurs de refroidissemnt ..............................5................................................11 Fonctionnement .......................... 3-20 3............6................5............. 3-33 3...................................................... 3-32 3.............................................6............ 3-34 3......................... 3-35 3.............................................................. 3-33 3...... 3-19 3...........7 Commande d’aubes et d'amortisseurs .............. 3-21 3..............2...................................................................... performance ................5 Mesures d'urgence ....................................................... 3-22 3..................2.......................................3 Admission variable .........................4 Paramètres d'emploi ............................................................8 Amortisseurs de sortie ............................... 3-23 3......................3 Conditions d'alarme ............................. 3-35 3. 3-36 3......2 Procédures de démarrage .....................5......EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 3...6..............................................................................................................................................................1 Tests de prédémarrage ....................................7................................... 3-42 C-4 ...............2 Systèmes de lubrification ....11.11..... 3-18 3.....................................................................................................10 Tests ............................................................................5........12 Normes nationales ...............11.....................2 entraînements à Vitesse Variable ................................................................9 Mesure de prévention pour les ventilateurs axiaux ..................... 3-40 3.......................................

......................................... 4-13 4.............1...................1............................ 4-1 4....2......................4-7 4.............16 Commandes .............. 4-8 4....... 6-3 6..................2 Fréquence ....................4-11 4.......................................3 Angle de phase ............................1...1.......................................................................2 Analyse de vibration ........................................................................ 4-12 4......1.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-5 6........... 6-3 6......... 6-2 6........................9 Capots ...............................................1..............................................1.............................12 Plaque centrale ................................................ 6-6 C-5 ............................................................2................................. 4-11 4....................................7 Moteurs électriques . 6-2 6......................................1 Contrôle de vibration ........................................................... 4-10 4...........................................................11 Arbre ................................................................................... 4-14 4.........................................................14 Amortisseurs d’isolement ............................................................................................... 4-13 4............ 6-4 6................................................................................. 6-2 6............................................................4-12 4....................................1..1..............................................2............................................................................................. 6-1 6..............................4 Forme de vibration ................. 4-6 4......EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 4 MODES DE DEFAILLANCE ET ANALYSES D'EFFETS ...................................1 amplitudes .................................1....................................................4 Sondes de vitesse ....... 4-13 4.............................................................1...... 5-1 6 CONTROLE DE CONDITION............................................................17 Canalisation ................................................................................................................................ 6-3 6...2 Analyse du spectre du temps réel............................................................................................... 4-14 4............................................................... 6-1 6..................................................................................................... 4-10 4...........................................15 Entraînement à Variable-Vitesse.............................1 Paramètres ......... 4-14 5 DETECTIONS DES PANNES .....................................1.......................1....2 Roulements .............................13 Amortisseurs d’entrée . 6-2 6........................................1.......... 4-10 4........................................................................10 Axes en mouvement .................................................................... 6-1 6.................1 Pales .................................................1....................................................................................................4 Aubes d’admission ........................................... 6-4 6....3 Analyse de la forme d'onde ...1...................... 4-9 4.......................................8 Pivots ...5 Accouplements ...........................................................................................................5 Forme du mode de vibration .1 Amplitudes en fonction de l'analyse de fréquence ......1.......................3 Sonde de proximité...............................................3 Fondations ..........................6 Méchanisme de commande hydraulique ...

................4...............6 Arbre .................4....4................................3 Alignement d'accouplements .................................4....................................................1.....................7 Pivots .................. 7-5 7...................................2 Changement de roulements. 7-10 7....................................................................5......................................................................................1............... 7-7 7.5 Analyse du courant moteur .....3 Plaquecentrale/plaque latérale ....6........................................................................................................8 Système structural de support ......2 Les relevés à trois axes ........4............................ 7-6 7...........................1..................................3.... 7-18 7...................... 7-1 7................................. 7-22 7....................................................................................................3............................... 7-15 7..1 Roulements ................... 7-18 7..................................................................................................1.................1 Maintenance courante ..........4..............................................4 Maintenance de composants ................. 7-16 7.... 7-22 C-6 .............................1 Tableau de machine ..4.........................................................3 Recommandations de maintenance périodique .. 7-3 7..................5 Galets de ventilateur centrifuges ..................... 7-2 7......................................... 7-13 7..........1 Recommandations courantes de maintenance .............4.....1 Galet de ventilateur centrifuge NDE ......5....1............................. 6-10 6........................................4...................................................... 6-11 7 MAINTENANCE ...2 Analyse d’huile ......4........... 6-7 6...................2 Changement .................... 7-15 7..........................................................................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 6............................................4 Thermographie infrarouge ...........4........................4...............1 Maintenance courante ...........................................................................4...............................1 Développement d’un programme de maintenance préventive........................... 6-11 6......4......................................................................4..........................................................2 aube ....................5..................................... 7-21 7... 7-21 7. 7-15 7..........................4.......3.................................................................3 Inspection non destructive ...2............... 6-11 6................. 6-8 6.....4..................8....................4.........5 Accéléromètrs ..................................................3 Accouplements .....................4............... 6-8 6.............................................4 Aubes d’admission et amortisseurs ...........4...........2.....2 Recommandations courantes de maintenance . 7-10 7............ 7-12 7..................................................6................... 7-12 7..................................... 7-14 7...................1 Fondation en béton .....................................................2 Règles fondamentales pour la conduite de maintenance ........................1......4....4......................................................... 7-22 7............................... 7-8 7................................ 7-10 7.......................................6 Acquisition de données ........2 Révision des aubes ..... 6-9 6............2 Système de lubrification ...............4..........2 Révision du système de circulation d'huile ........................................................................................................................... 7-3 7...........................

.........................................................................................................12................................................... 7-23 7...4..4.................. 7-24 7...................................................................... 7-24 7..............................4............4................1 Maintenance courante ...4...........................................4...............4 Vibration ..... 8-1 8...................1 taille du contrepoids ................. 7-28 7...........................5........... 8-1 C-7 ..............4...................................................17 Révision du rotor de ventilateur à écoulement axial ............................11 Moteurs électriques ................................5 Boulons d'anchrage .. 7-25 7............EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 7................................. 7-29 7..... 7-29 7.....2 Révision du couplage fluide ..................2 Emplacement du contrepoids ....... 7-31 7.........................................5 Équilibrage des galets de ventilateur ..................4................. 7-38 7.................................... 7-26 7.2 Inspection non destructive de soudure .....................1 Capot ...9............................4.....11....................................................................................12...................8..................................................................................... 7-25 7...................................................................5....................................8.....................8................... 7-32 7......11..................................................................3 Friction ........ 7-30 7................................4.............. 7-26 7.................. 7-35 7.....................5.5 Jeu d'extrémité d'arbre de rotor ......................................................................4... 7-23 7.....................................4............. 7-36 7....... 7-33 7................1 Forces affectant des boulons d'anchrage .........8.........................................1 Saletés .4.4......................4..............................3 Jeu de galet de ventilateur ..........................11...........................................1 Arrêt prolongé ................................... 7-24 7......................5............ 7-35 7. 7-38 8 TACHES SPECIALES DE MAINTENANCE ............................................................. 7-32 7........................................4........14 Circuit d'alimentation hydraulique ............................................................ 7-36 7.................4........................................5......................................... 7-34 7......8............2 Installation appropriée .............4......13 Trains de rotation .....4 Réparation de fissures ................................................10 Joints de dilatation ..............4 Plaques/trappes d'Access .........................................................4......................2 Humidité .....4........4.....12 Fluide d’entraînement...................3 Nettoyage extérieur ........ 7-22 7...............4.....................9.....................................................8.....3 Sensibilité de vibration ..... 7-38 7......................11............. 7-30 7...................2 Réparantion des fondations en béton ...................................4....................................................9 Capot ...........................9...................4.........4........................16 Roulements axiaux de la pale de ventilateur .................................................4............... 7-35 7..............................................15 Système axial de réglage de la pale de ventilateur .................. 7-30 7......................................9................11...2 Cônes ........ 8-1 8...................................................... 7-28 7.........

..................3 Risques de brûlure .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Modifications du logement.....2 L'espace confiné ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10-1 10...........................4 Risques électriques ....................................... 9-1 9..............EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 9 OPTIONS DE MISE A NIVEAU DU VENTILATEUR ................ 12-1 A INSPECTION ET DEPANNAGE DES VENTILATEUR ................................... 10-2 11 FORMATION ........ 9-1 9..................1 Matériel tournant .........5 Contrôle de fonctionnement .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10-1 10................................10-1 10..................................................................................................6 Nettoyage ...................................5 Revêtements ........................................................................................................................ 11-1 12 REFERENCES ........................ 10-2 10...........................7 Ventilateurs en mouvement .................................................................................. 9-3 10 SECURITE ..... 10-1 10..... 9-3 9.................................................................................. 10-1 10..... 9-2 9....................................................... B-1 C-8 ................................... A-1 B RESUME DES POINTS CLES....................................2 Conseils ................................................................................................ 10-2 10....3 Remontage de galet ..........................................................................9-1 9..................................................................................1 Raisons de mise à niveau du ventilateur ........

............................................................................................. 7-27 Figure 7-5 schéma fonctionnel fondamental d'un système de régulation hydraulique ..........................................................................................................… A-16 C-9 ... 7-26 Figure 7-4 vue agrandie du schéma précedent ............................................................................... 3-11 Figure 3-6 types de pales (vues de l'extrémité d'entraînement) ..... 3-17 Figure 3-11 Pas variable.. A-6 Figure A-2 exemple d’aube........................................................ 3-2 Figure 3-2 d'un ventilateur centrifuge ..... 3-14 Figure 3-9 turbine axiale à deux étages....................... 3-14 Figure 3-10 commande de pales ........................................... A-8 Figure A-4 exemple de dégagement et de superposition ................... 3-9 Figure 3-4 composants et accessoires centrifuges de ventilateur .............................. 7-20 Figure 7-3 vue en coupe d'un ventilateur illustrant les conditions de jeu....... 3-27 Figure 3-15 ventilateur centrifuge avec de commande de vitesse ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-17 Figure 7-2 accessoires protecteurs d'usure et d'érosion..... 4-12 Figure 7-1 galet de ventilateur centrifuge .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-29 Figure 3-17 définitions de pression de ventilateur .......................................................... 3-13 Figure 3-8 ventilateur axial à deux étages ...........EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents LISTE DE FIGURES Figure 3-1 schéma de circulation d'air de chaudière ................................................... 3-28 Figure 3-16 Domaine de performance pour ventilateur à écoulement axial ................. 3-10 Figure 3-5 rotor avec pales incurvées............................................................................................................. 3-30 Figure 3-18 Réglage d’aubage en fonction de la densité d’admission ...................................................................... 3-12 Figure3-7 composants centrifuges de rotor de ventilateur.... A-15 Figure A-6 orientation d'une sonde de chape articulée pour produire des lignes de flux perpendiculaires............................... A-7 Figure A-3 exemple d’aube........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9-2 Figure A-1 exemple d’aube................................ 3-23 Figure 3-13 ventilateur centrifuge avec les pales variables ...................................................................................................................................................... 3-20 Figure 3-12 palier à manchon ........................................................ 7-32 Figure 9-1 Aube à spoiler .................................................. 3-31 Figure 4-1 Composants de capot de ventilateur centrifuge ........................................................................................................................................ 3-26 Figure 3-14 ventilateur centrifuge avec les pales variables et indicateur............................................................................................................................................................................... 3-8 Figure 3-3 vue en coupe d'un ventilateur centrifuge .............................................................. A-11 Figure A-5 sonde manuelle avec jambe articulée ..........

................................................................................ A-19 Figure A-8 marquage des signes multiples ......EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents Figure A-7 Les indications sont à la suite numérotées et entourées ...... A-19 C-10 ....................

............................................................................. 4-3 Tableaux 4-3 Caractéristiques de défaut de ventilateur pour les centrales des États-Unis de 1982 à 1995 (NERC/VAGABONDE) ........................................................................................................................... A-3 Tableaux A-2 Pourcentage des ventilateurs subissant des NDE ............................................ A-13 Tableaux A-3 Matériaux types des ventilateurs d'usine électriques ................................................................................................................ 5-9 Tableaux 7-1 Surveillance et les fréquences préventives de maintenance ......... 5-5 Tableaux 5-5 Niveau de bruit de la détection des pannes............4-4 Tableaux 51 Détection des pannes du ventilateur.............................. 4-2 Tableaux 4-2 Résumé des domaines problématiques de ventilateurs axiaux .......................................................................................... 5-4 Tableaux 5-4Détection des pannes du circuit hydraulique .......... 5-1 Tableaux 5-2 Détection des pannes de roulement .........EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents LISTE DE TABLEAUX Tableaux 4-1 Résumé des domaines problématiques de ventilateurs centrifuges... 5-3 Tableaux 5-3 Détection des pannes de système de lubrification....................................................................... 7-3 Tableaux A-1 Résumé des pratiques en matière d'inspection pour les galets de ventilateur centrifuges ............................................................................... A-25 C-11 ......................... 5-7 Tableaux 5-7 Détection des pannes de performance du ventilateur .................. 5-6 Tableaux 5-6 Détection des pannes du couplage fluide ......

EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents レポートの概要 目的 • ボイラー・ドラフト・サービス(供給空気、排気空気)に使用する軸流および遠心フ ァンに関する情報を提供すること。 • • 問題解決およびファンの保全にあたる火力発電所の所員を助けること。 日常および予防保全のガイドをファンの信頼性の向上のため提供すること C-12 .

...................................................... 3-1 3............................. 3-7 C-13 ............................................................2......................3 平衡通風 ..............................................................3 ファンのタイプ .....................................................2...........3.. 3-3 3................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1-2 2 用語集 ................................................................................................. 2-3 3 技術的な記述 ..........5 高温一次空気ファン .......7 ファンの番号 .................. 1-1 1..2 ファンのアプリケーション ........... 3-1 3... 3-6 3......2..................................... 1-1 1...............................................................................................2....................................................2 押込送風機.................... 3-3 3... 3-3 3.............................................2 このレポートで使用される単位系の換算............2 構成 ........................................................................................................... 3-6 3.........................4 冷温一次空気ファン ..........................................1 はじめに .......................................................2..................................................3 キーポイント...........................................................2..................................................................................................................................................1 遠心ファン........................................................................................................................................................... 3-5 3............................................................2............................................ 3-7 3...................... 2-1 2..................................... 3-5 3.............................................................................................................. 3-4 3....1 用語および頭辞語..........................................................................................1 目的 ....................................................................... 2-1 2.........1 吸出し送風機 ..............................................6 ガスの再循環ファン .......................................................... 1-1 1..........EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 目次 1 はじめに.....

............................5 ファン制御 ...5............................................................2..........1 遠心ファン制御 ............................................................................................................................. 3-13 3............. 3-23 3.......1..........................................................................................................................................................................................1 ベアリング............2 ファン圧力の定義............................................4 流体駆動 .........................4 ファン駆動 .................. 3-19 3.......................................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 3...1....................................5............. 3-24 3.................1 入口のベーン .........................................................5.......................... 3-22 3............... 3-18 3............................................................3 可変入口ベーン........................1.... 3-20 3.....................7.....................3.................................................... 3-22 3...9 ファンの要求事項.........10 ファンテスト..............................................................................1 軸流ファンパフォーマンス .. 3-32 3.... 3-22 3..... 3-33 3...........................5...3 回転ギヤ .......3 二段変速式モーター ............ 3-21 3............................................................................................. 3-17 3............6 他の部品 ............... 3-15 3...................5.................. 3-16 3..........................................................................5............................5...... 3-16 3.......................................................................................................2.............................2 軸流ファン...........................................................................................................2 軸流ファン制御 ......7............................2 可変速度駆動機構 ..2 入口のダンパー . 3-28 3...4 冷却ファン .... 3-22 3...5...................................8 ファンタイプの選択 ......................................1............2........... 3-29 3................................................ 3-18 3..........6..........1 可変ピッチブレード........................7 ファンパフォーマンス ...........................................................................5 可変速度モーター ..................... 3-16 3.... 3-24 3............................5............................. 3-33 C-14 ..............1....2..............................................................5..................................................................................6 タービン駆動ファン.....................................................5..... 3-20 3.............5.................................................................................................................6.............................................................................1..............6......................................................... 3-19 3...............................2 潤滑油システム ..................................

............11................6 ファン制御............................................................................11............1 ブレード ....................................................................................... 3-36 3.........10 ドラフトファン停止 ......................11...................................................................................................................11..........................2 開始のためのステップのシーケンス ......2 それ以外の停止......................................................................1 必要とされる停止 .......11.............................................................7 ベーンおよびダンパーの制御.............................................................................................................................11.....................................4 入口ベーン ..................................................................................................................................... 3-38 3................2 起動手順 .....................................................7 電動機 ................................................................................................11..............................................................8 ファン出口のダンパー .......................4 モニタへのオペレーティングパラメータ......................11 並行ファン運転 .........12 国の基準 ......... 3-40 3............ 3-38 3....................................5 緊急アクション ................. 3-35 3............................... 4-8 4......................................................................................11.................................................................................... 4-1 4........11 運転 ..........2.............................................. 4-7 4............................................... 3-39 3.............. 4-10 C-15 ........ 3-36 3........................................................10.....5 カップリング.......................... 4-9 4.................11...9 軸流ファンのためのストールの防止 ................. 4-6 4.............................................................................11.....................................................3 基礎 ....................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 3....................................11..11......................11..................1 電動機の制限 ...........................................11........................................................ 3-34 3..................3 モニタへのアラーム条件 .................................................... 3-37 3......................................................................................................1 運転前チェック .......................................... 3-39 3.....6........................6 油圧作動メカニズム ...2 ベアリング ............................... 3-34 3..... 3-35 3.........11.......... 3-40 3.............................. 3-35 3...........10................................ 4-10 4....... 4-10 4...................... 3-42 4 故障モードおよび効果の分析 .................................... 3-34 3............................................................................... 3-41 3......

.5 振動モードの形....................................................................................1...............................1............................... 6-6 C-16 .............1.......................................................................... 4-12 4.. 6-5 6... 6-3 6................................ 4-11 4....................................................................................................................11 シャフト ......................................3 時間波形解析 ............................1.....................................................................................2 リアルタイムのスペクトル解析............................4 振動形式 ........4 速度のプローブ ........................................................................1....................................................................................... 6-1 6.. 4-13 4.......................................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 4................................................................. 4-13 4.......................... 4-14 4...............13 入口のダンパー ............................3 位相角 .....................................................................1.................. 6-2 6.......................1............ 6-4 6............................ 4-12 4................................... 4-13 4........... 6-1 6...2.............................................................. 6-2 6.....................................3 近接度のプローブ.................. 6-2 6...........................................................................................10 回転ギヤ .................................1..................................................................................................................................................1..................1 振幅(アンプ)...............................................................1................. 4-14 4........................................ 6-4 6.........................12 センタープレート...........................14 ダンパーの隔離 .................17 ダクト作業 .........................2 振動解析 .........16 制御 ........................................................................................................... 6-3 6...............2....................................................2 振動数 ...........................................1..................15 可変速度駆動機構.........................................1............................................................. 4-14 5 問題解決......................8 ハブ ......................... 6-2 6...............................................1........... 5-1 6 コンディションモニター .........................9 ハウジング ............................................................................................................................1 パラメータ..................... 6-1 6...1.......................1 振動モニタリング.......................1...................................................................................................................................1 振幅対周波数解析 ............................................. 4-11 4..................................................1................. 6-3 6..........................................2....1...........

.............1 ベアリング........................................................................................1........................3..... 7-3 7..........1 日常的保全 ..............................................................................................................3...............................1.......... 7-15 7..............................................4............................................................. 6-11 7 保全..............1...............4............ 7-10 7....5 モーター電流の分析 ...... 7-12 7....................... 7-3 7.......................... 7-6 7............................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 6...........................................................................4........................................................................................4..................... 7-1 7... 6-10 6...................1 日常的保全 .................................................................2 循環潤滑油システム分解 ................................4........................................................................................................5 加速度のプローブ................ 7-7 7............................. 7-2 7.................................... 7-12 7.................................1........... 7-15 C-17 ..........................4................ 7-10 7.......1 機械図表 .............................................................. 6-8 6....................... 7-13 7...........3 定期的な保全の提言 ..........................4....................................................................................................................... 6-11 6............................3 カップリングのアラインメント...................................................................4............................................1 予防保全プログラムの構築 ...........................4........................................4............... 7-5 7...........................................2 カップリングの分解....................3 カップリング .......................................................................................2 ベアリングの分解 .............2 三軸の 読み ..................2 潤滑油システム ..............................................................................................1.....................6........................ 7-10 7......................... 6-9 6................4 赤外線サーモグラフィー ...................1 日常的保全の提言 .....................................................4...............................................................................................2...2 日常的保全の提言 ..............................................................................6........ 6-8 6............... 6-7 6.........2 保全を行なうための基本ルール ......4 可変的な入口ベーンおよび制御ダンパー .................................... 7-8 7...........1.......4........................................... 6-11 6......................................3..............6 データ収集........................4 機器の保全 .......................... 7-14 7....3 非破壊的な検査 ...........4..2 油の分析 ......2........................................

..............4......................8................2 適切な据付け......... 7-30 7..........4......... 7-29 7........................................................3 センタープレート/サイドプレート ............................................2 入口のコーン ............4.4..........................................2 コンクリートの基礎の修理...1 コンクリートの基礎................9........................................................7 ハブ .....4..........................................4........2 湿気. 7-25 7. 7-29 7..9....................................................8.........................................8..5................................. 7-23 7.....10 伸縮継手 .....................3 ファンウィールのクリアランス.......................8...............8 構造サポートシステム............................................... 7-24 7..................................................................................................4......................3 摩擦......1 ほこり .............................................9.1 アンカー・ボルトに加わる力 ...............4.................... 7-26 7. 7-24 7.............. 7-22 7.............................4.........4....................2 ブレード ........................5 遠心ファンウィール .4......................................................................4...........4.............................................4................... 7-22 7....... 7-22 7..................................................................................................5................................................1 ハウジング ............. 7-15 7...........................4........ 7-21 7......8.......................................5...........................................................8...................................................................4........................................................................................... 7-21 7....................4....11 電動機.........2 入口ベーンの分解 ...........4 アクセスプレート/ドア .......................3 表面のクリーニング...........5.....................9.....4...................................................................................6 シャフト ...4.......................1 遠心ファンウィールのNDE ............................11................................................. 7-24 7.....................4.............................................................4...4 ひび修理 ................................ 7-28 7.... 7-22 7........... 7-26 7................................... 7-25 7.......................9 ハウジング..... 7-23 7..................11.................................4....5 アンカー・ボルト .................8..4.........11......................................5............ 7-18 7...................................... 7-30 C-18 ..........................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 7...................................................................4........................................................4................................................. 7-28 7. 7-16 7. 7-18 7....................4...

.................................................. 7-30 7....17 軸流ファン回転子の分解 ........14 油圧供給方式 .................................................................. 7-36 7..................... 9-2 9....................................................................................................................................4................... 10-1年 C-19 ...................4...........1 ファンアップグレードの理由............................11..................................................................16 軸流ファン・ブレードベアリング..........................4 ハウジングの改造........................13 ターニングギヤ .................................................................... 7-32 7...... 7-32 7................5 ファンウィールのバランス ...........................................................................1 バランス重量のサイズ...................................4........................................... 7-31 7................................5 コーティング..........12 流体継手 .....................2 溶接非破壊的試験......................................................................4 振動......1 日常的保全 ......5... 8-1 8..................................................................................................................................................2 ティッピング.............. 7-38 8 特別な保全タスク . 7-35 7................................................................2 バランス重量の位置 ................................................4...1 延長された停止期間 ........................................4..........12.....................................................................................................5 ローターシャフトのエンドプレー ............................................................................................................................................................. 7-34 7....................................................................3 ウィールの取替 ................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 7.................. 7-36 7............4........................................ 7-33 7........... 8-1 8.................................5..........................................3 振動感度 ........ 8-1 9 ファンアップグレードオプション ............ 9-1 9........................................................................................ 9-1 9..........................................4.....................................................................................................................5........................................................................................................................4..2 流体継手の分解..... 7-35 7........................................................... 9-3 10 安全............................................ 7-38 7. 7-35 7.11..........................15 軸流ファン・ブレードの調節システム .............. 9-3 9................. 9-1 9......................4................12........... 7-38 7................4.......................................................................

.................................................................................................................. 12-1年 A 遠心ファンウィール点検および修理.........................................................3 火災の危険 .............................................. 10-1年 10............... B-1 C-20 ... A-1 Bキーポイントの概要 ........................... 10-2年 10...................................................................................1 回転装置 .......................................................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 10..................................................................................................................................................2 閉所 ................................................... 10-2年 10.....................4 電気 ................................... 11-1年 12 参照................................................................................................ 10-2年 11トレーニング ..................................................................... 10-1年 10.................................................6 清浄作業 .................................................................................................. 10-1年 10..........................5 運転のテスト.............................................................................................................................................................. 10-1年 10........................7 ファンの動き..........................................

.............. 7-17 図7-2 摩耗およびエロージョンの保護のアクセサリ ............................................................................................................................... 3-2 図3-2 遠心ファンの断面図........................................ 3-14 図3-10 入口ベーンの制御装置 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-27 図3-15 速度制御を持つ典型的な遠心ファン..... 3-11 図3-6 ウィールのブレードのタイプおよび回転(駆動端からの予想図) .............................................................. 3-14 図3-9 二段式軸流ファンインペラー .......................................... 3-9 図3-4 遠心ファン機器およびアクセサリ ............. 4-12 図7-1 遠心ファンウィール................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 図のリスト 図3-1 ボイラー空気流の図............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-8 図3-3 遠心ファンの断面図..... 7-26 C-21 ........................................................................................................................................ 3-23 図3-13 可変の入口ベーンを持つ典型的な遠心ファン ...... 3-29 図3-17 ファンの圧力定義 ................................ 3-17 図3-11 可変ピッチの軸流ファン構成部品 .......... 3-26 図3-14 可変の入口ベーンおよび典型的な遠心ファンとシステムカーブ.............. 7-20 図7-3 ウィールの入口とインレットベルの間のクリアランスを示すファンの断面図 ................. 3-20 図3-12 スリーブ軸受けの構成部品 ................................................................................................................................................... 3-10 図3-5 遠心ファンの前方に曲げられたブレードが付いた典型的な回転子 .............................................................................. 3-13 図3-8 二段式軸流ファンアセンブリ ........... 3-30 図3-18 入口流の密度に応じたファン性能の訂正 ............. 3-31 図4-1 遠心ファンハウジングの構成部品 ..................................................................................................... 3-28 図3-16 可変ピッチの軸流ファンのためのヘッド-流量の図 ......................................................... 3-12 図3-7 遠心ファン回転子の部品..........................

...................................................................................................................................................................................... A-6 図A-2 ブレードのマップの例.......... 9-2 図A-1 ブレードのマップの例.................................... A-11 図A-5 連結された足を持つ手持ち型のヨークのプローブ.................................................................................… A-16 図A-7 指示は連続的に番号が付けられ、丸で囲まれている。 ......................................... A-19 C-22 ...................................................................................................................................................... 7-32 図9-1 ティッピングされたブレードが付いている翼ブレード ................. A-7 図A-3 ブレードのマップの例.... A-8 図A-4 アンダーカットとオーバーラッブの例.. A-15 図A-6 フラックスラインを直角にするためのカップリングされたヨークのプローブの方向 ............EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 図7-4 図7-3の拡大図 ............................................................................................................. A-19 図A-8 複数の指示....................7-27 図7-5 油圧調整システムのの基本的なブロックダイヤグラム ............................................................................................................................

..................... 4-3 表4-3 1982年から1995年までの米国の化石プラントのFDファン不良データを集めたもの。 (NERC/GADSデータ )........................................................4-4 表5-1 問題解決 ファン ................................. A-25 C-23 ............................................................ 5-5 表5-5 問題解決 騒音レベル .................. A-13 表A-3 発電所の典型的なファンの材料 .................................................................................................................... 5-6 表5-6 問題解決 流体駆動.................................................................... 5-4 表5-4 問題解決 油圧装置................................................. 5-9 表7-1 監視および予防保全の頻度 .............................................................................. 4-2 表4-2 軸流ファン問題の概要 ........................................................................................................................................ 5-1 表5-2 問題解決 ベアリング .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5-7 表5-7 問題解決 ファンパフォーマンス ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 表のリスト 表4-1 遠心ファン問題の概要 .............................. 5-3 表5-3 問題解決 潤滑油システム ................................... 7-3 表A-1 遠心ファンウィールの点検方法の概要........................................................... A-3 表A-2 NDEを受けるファンのパーセント .............

EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents RESUMEN DEL REPORTE Objetivos • Para ofrecer información en los ventiladores axial y centrífugos usados para servicio de corriente de aire de caldera • • Para asistir a el personal de mantenimiento de la central eléctrica fósil en localización de averías y mantenimiento de ventiladores Para ofrecer guía en mantenimiento rutinario y preventivo para asistir en mejorar la confiabilidad de ventiladores C-24 .

.....3-7 3......................................1-1 1...3...................................................................................3-6 3....................................................................3 Tipos de Ventiladores................2 Ventiladores de Corriente de Aire Forzado .....7 Números de Ventiladores ..........................................3-3 3.................................1 Introducción....2 Amortiguadores de Entrada ..................................................................................................................3-5 3...........1-1 1................4 Ventiladores de Aire Primario Frió .....2...............2...........................................................................................2-1 2..........2-1 2......2....2.......................1 Ventiladores de Corriente de Aire Inducido...................................4 Impulsores de Ventiladores .....................................................................3-6 3...................1..............................................................................................................................................3-13 3..........................................................3 Corriente de Aire Balanceada ..................5 Controles de Ventilador...............2........2 Ventiladores Axiales ........................2.5.........................................................3.3-15 3............................................................................................5 Ventiladores de Aire Primario Caliente....................3-3 3...........................3-16 3.........................1-2 2 GLOSARIO DE TÉRMINOS ....................................................3-17 3.........5................................3-18 C-25 ......................................2-3 3 DESCRIPCIÓN TÉCNICA ..............2 Conversiones para Unidades Usadas en Este Reporte.............................1 Propósito ...........1.......................................................................................................................................................................2 Aplicaciones de Ventilación...................2 Organización .....EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents CONTENIDO 1 INTRODUCCIÓN ..................................................................................................................................5..............................................5.....................3-4 3..................1 Ventiladores Centrifugo ............................1 Controles de Ventilador Centrifugo ..........3-1 3....3-1 3.....................1 Términos y Siglas......................1-1 1.............................................................3-3 3..................1...................................................................................3-16 3.............................................................................................1 Aletas de Entrada ..........3-5 3.....................................2........3-16 3....................3-7 3........................................................................3 Motores de Dos-Velocidades................................6 Ventiladores de Recirculación de Gas ............................................3 Puntos Claves .

...............................3-19 3.....2 Sistemas de Lubricación .....2................................................................................................................3-40 3.......................11................6 Control del Ventilador .........................................6 Otros Componentes .............3-20 3.....8 Selección de Tipo de Ventilador..............................................................................................................8 Amortiguadores de Salida de Ventilador ......6 Ventiladores Impulsados con Turbina....................................3-29 3.............3-24 3.2 Conductores de Velocidad-Variables................1 Parada Controlada............9 Requisitos del Ventilador......11.............2 Secuencias de Pasos para Arranque .......3-38 3............3-23 3................3-35 3................................3-35 3.............10 Pruebas del Ventilador ................................1 Funcionamiento del Ventilador Axial ..............EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 3.10.................11...................................3-22 3...........11......2..5.........................3-38 3...........6.........................................................2.......5...........................12 Normas Nacionales ..............................................3-21 3...3-36 3.........................................3-20 3............................................6..........................3-40 3....................................2 Definición de la Presión del Ventilador..3-22 3............................4 Ventiladores de Enfriamiento.............3 Condiciones de Alarma para Monitor ..........................5.....................5..........................1 Cojinetes..........................11 Operación de Ventilador Paralelo............................11..........................................................................1..............3 Motor de Girar .5.................5.............................................10....11..............................5...............................................3 Aletas de Entrada Variables .................................................7....................11............................................3-33 3..................5 Acciones de Emergencia................3-39 3.....3-34 3....................................3-19 3.1.................................1 Restricciones del Motor Eléctrico...5............1......2 Procedimientos de Arranque ......................3-32 3...............11...3-28 3................................................3-39 3..................11............................................................................6...........3-18 3............................................................7...............................................................3-41 3........................................................................................1 Alabes de Pendiente-Variable ..................................................3-24 3.......7 Control de Aletas y Amortiguadores..........7 Funcionamiento del Ventilador.......11.............................3-35 3................................11...................6...11 Operación.....3-22 3...................................................4 Parámetros de Operación Para Monitor.........................2............................................................2.............................5 Motores de Velocidad-Variable.................11....................3-34 3...............................................................................3-33 3.......3-42 C-26 ............3-36 3..................................11...............3-37 3..........1 Verificaciones de Prearranque ........3-34 3......................................2 Parada Incontrolable ...........10 Apague de Ventilador de Corriente de Aire.........................................................................................................3-22 3................2 Control de Ventilador Axial ....................11....................4 Conductor de Fluido ..................11............................9 Prevención de Ahogue para Ventilador Axial .....

.1.............2 Cojinetes ..........................................................................................16 Controles ...........................4 Aleta de Entrada...............................3 Probetas de Proximidad ........................................13 Amortiguadores de Entrada ............................1.................................1.......1 Amplitud...................1.............................6-2 6..............................1 Alabes .................................................................4-1 4..................................................................................1......1...................4-14 4......................................1...2 Análisis de Vibración ..............................................4-12 4.......1......................6-4 6...........................................................................................................1 Vigilancia de Vibración ...............................6-2 6.........4-8 4....................................1 Amplitudes Contra Análisis de Frecuencia ...................................................................................................................................................6-1 6...4-6 4........................4-13 4...............................1....6-3 6.............................................................6-3 6................................................................4 Forma de Vibración............................................4-12 4........2........1...................................14 Amortiguadores Aislados .............................................................................................................................................6-2 6................................................................4-10 4.......................................................................4 Probetas de Velocidad ...............................1............................................................1.....................................3 Fundaciones.........................................................................................................4-11 4............................................4-14 4.4-13 4..........2 Análisis del Espectro del Tiempo Real .........................................................................................6 Mecanismo que se Actúa Hidráulico ........................................5-1 6 VIGILANCIA DE CONDICION.........................................................................1.......................................................1 Parámetros ..............6-6 C-27 .6-5 6.....1..10 Engranajes de Giro .......2...................................................................................9 Alojamiento ...........11 Eje ...................4-10 4...8 Bujes .........................................................................................................................................6-2 6.....................6-1 6...........................4-9 4.....4-14 5 LOCALIZANDO AVERÍAS......................................2 Frecuencia ........EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 4 MODOS DE FALLO Y ANÁLISIS DE EFECTOS .....................................1...............................4-10 4..........................................5 Acoplamientos.................................................................................................................1.............................................3 Angulo de Fase..................................................5 Forma de Modo de Vibración...........................7 Motores Eléctricos.........................4-7 4...................................................................6-3 6.6-1 6........3 Análisis de Forma de Onda de Tiempo ....................................................................................................1......2..............12 Placa Central.............................................6-4 6..................................................................................17 Canalización.......15 Impulso de Velocidad-Variable..............4-11 4.................................................................................................................4-13 4...

..........................3 Acoplamientos ....................................................1 Mantenimiento de Rutina .........7-15 7............................................5........7-3 7........................................................................................4 Termografía Infrarrojo .................7-22 C-28 ..................1 Recomendaciones de Mantenimiento Rutinario ....................4...........................3 Placa Central/Placa de Lado ..7-12 7......2 Revisión de Acoplamiento ...............2 Lecturas de Tres-Axial ............................................8..6-11 7 MANTENIMIENTO................................................1..............6-8 6...............7-10 7.................................................................1 Mantenimiento de Rutina ...........................................4....7-8 7..4...........4..............................................................1 Desarrollando un Programa de Mantenimiento Preventivo.........................4 Mantenimiento de Componente ........4.3......6-7 6....................................4.............1...............1 Cojinetes.................6 Eje ................5 Ruedas de Ventilador Centrifugo ...........................3....6...............................................1 Diagrama de Maquina .....................2 Revisión de Cojinete ....................6-11 6....4......4................................................................................................................................2 Análisis de Aceite .....................................................................................................................................7-3 7................................2 Revisión de Sistema de Aceite de Lubricación Circulando...............................................1................5 Análisis de Corriente de Motor ..............................2 Alabes ..................................................................................7 Buje ............7-21 7.....4.............7-22 7.............4....7-18 7...............................7-12 7........................7-1 7.......4......4.......7-6 7...........................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 6....................6.................................2 Reglas Básicas para Mantenimiento Conductivo............7-21 7.............2 Recomendaciones de Mantenimiento Rutinario .......3 Recomendaciones de Mantenimiento Periódica ........4.................5 Probetas del Acelerómetro ........................................................................................7-18 7....................7-7 7.....................................1 Rueda de Ventilador Centrifugo NDE ..............................4..4.....................1..................1..........................................................7-5 7.......................................7-15 7.4....7-10 7......6-10 6........................................1 Fundación de Concreto..................................6 Adquisición de Data..................................................................1.....................4....................................................7-16 7............7-2 7..................................................................................................................................4.7-10 7....................................................6-8 6.................................7-14 7....2..............................3 Alineamiento de Acoplamiento ..7-22 7...4...........7-13 7....3.............4........................4...........5...2 Sistema de Lubricación ..................4...................................................................6-9 6.......................................................8 Sistema de Soporte Estructural..............2 Revisión de Aletas de Entrada.....................4 Aletas de Entrada Variable y Amortiguadores de Control .........4....6-11 6..3 Examinación Indestructiva .....................7-15 7.......2..........................5................................................

............9..3 Sensitividad de Vibración ........................................................7-38 7.........7-25 7.......................................4 Vibración ..............1 Alojamiento ...........7-29 7.........................................................................7-23 7.........................8.............3 Huelgo de Rueda de Ventilador......4...................12 Conductores de Fluidos....................4...............................7-32 7......8............................................5... 7-30 7.....13 Engranajes de Giro........................2 Localización de el Peso Balanceado..........................9.......4...................4..................................4.4...................................7-34 7....................9...........................................................................................10 Juntas de Expansión .........4...........4............7-25 7.......4...................4....11............16 Cojinete de Alabe de Ventilador Axial ............................4...........................7-24 7...........................7-24 7.14 Sistema de Suministro Hidráulico...................................4........ 7-29 7................................................................................................................................................................................8-1 8...........7-36 7....8-1 C-29 .....7-38 7....................1 Pare Extendido.....................................................3 Limpieza de Superficie.8........2 Humedad ........................................7-28 7..11..........7-28 7....5...........4............................................11.............................4.........................................................................................15 Sistema de Ajuste de Alabe de Ventilador Axial ..................4............7-33 7...........................................................4............................7-36 7..................8........................................4.............. 7-30 7.........4.............................................................4................11...............9......... 7-30 7...4.................................................7-24 7.4 Reparación de Grieta............EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 7................7-32 7...11 Motores Eléctricos ...........................4...................................4.........................7-26 7...................17 Revisión del Rotor de Ventilador de Flujo Axial ...............3 Fricción ..............................4 Placas de Acceso/Puertas ..............8-1 8.............1 Fuerzas Afectando los Tornillos de Anclaje ..................................................5.............................................12......................................................................1 Suciedad ......1 Tamaño de el Peso Balanceado .......2 Conos de Entrada .......7-35 7............2 Conductores de Fluidos Revisados ......................................................................1 Mantenimiento de Rutina .................................7-23 7.....................4..............4....7-35 7...................8.....................................................................................................................11...............2 Reparando Fundaciones de Concreto .......7-26 7.......5 Tornillos de Anclaje ....2 Examinación Indestructivas de Soldadura .........4..............................................5 Juego de Extremo de la Varilla del Rotor .................................12.7-22 7.4............. 7-31 7............7-38 8 TAREAS DE MANTENIMIENTO ESPECIALES ..5 Balanceo de Rueda de Ventilador................................9 Alojamiento.............7-35 7....................................5.5..............................................2 Instalación Apropiada.......8......................................

...........10-2 11 ENTRENAMIENTO................................. B-1 C-30 ..........10-2 10................................................9-3 10 SEGURIDAD ...................................10-2 10........................................................9-1 9.......................................................10-1 10..........................................................6 Operaciones de Limpieza...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Cambio de Ruedas...................1 Rotación de Equipos .........................................11-1 12 REFERENCIAS ...............................................................................................3 Peligro de Quemaduras ..........4 Eléctrica .. A-1 B RESUMEN DE PUNTO CLAVE..........9-1 9.........................................................................................................................................................9-3 9.................................................9-1 9...........5 Revestimientos............................................................................................................................................................................................................10-1 10...................................................................9-2 9..................................10-1 10..............2 Espacio Limitado .10-1 10..................................................................1 Razones de Mejora de Ventilador ........................7 Movimientos de Ventilador ......................2 Inclinación ....................5 Prueba de Operación ..............................................................................................................12-1 A INSPECCION Y REPARCIÓN DE RUEDA DE VENTILADOR CENTRIFUGO .............................4 Modificaciones de Alojamiento................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents 9 OPCIONES DE MEJORA DEL VENTILADOR ...................................................................................................10-1 10....

...................................................................3-11 Figura 3-6 Tipos de Aletas de Rueda y Rotación (Vista del Extremo de la Impulsión)..............3-26 Figura 3-14 Ventiladores Centrífugo Típico con Aletas de Entrada Variable y Enseñando Curvas de Sistema ................................................................................................................................................7-27 Figura 7-5 Diagrama de Bloque Básico de un Sistema de Regulación Hidráulica ..........................................................................3-9 Figura 3-4 Componentes de Ventilador Centrífugo y Accesorios .............................................................................................. A-8 C-31 .....................................................3-29 Figura 3-17 Definiciones de Presión de Ventilador.............................3-12 Figura 3-7 Componentes de Rotor de Ventilador Centrifugo...............................3-23 Figura 3-13 Ventiladores Centrífugo Típico con Aletas de Entrada Variable ................3-28 Figura 3-16 Campo de Funcionamiento para Ventilador de Flujo Axial de PendienteVariable ..............................9-2 Figura A-1 Ejemplo de Mapa de Paleta ........3-13 Figura 3-8 Asamblea de Ventilador Axial de Dos-Etapas............................................................7-17 Figura 7-2 Accesorios de Protección de Desgaste y Erosión ........................................................3-8 Figura 3-3 Vista de la Sección Transversal de un Ventilador Centrífugo .......................................................................3-14 Figura 3-10 Asamblea de Control de Aleta de Entrada ................................................................................................................3-30 Figura 3-18 Corrección de Ventilador para Densidad de Entrada ................................................4-12 Figura 7-1 Rueda de Ventilador Centrífugo .... A-7 Figura A-3 Ejemplo de Mapa de Paleta .........................7-32 Figura 9-1 Paleta de Plano Aerodinámico con Paleta Inclinada................3-31 Figura 4-1 Componentes de Alojamiento de Ventilador Centrifugo....3-14 Figura 3-9 Impulsor de Ventilador Axial de Dos-Etapas ......................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents LISTA DE FIGURAS Figura 3-1 Esquemática de Flujo de Aire de Caldera ....7-26 Figura 7-4 Visión Aumentada de la Figura 7-3 .........................................................................7-20 Figure 7-3 Vista de la Sección Transversal de un Ventilador que Demuestra Requerimientos de Espacio Libre En Medio de la Entrada de Rueda y Entrada de Campana..............................................................................................3-27 Figura 3-15 Ventiladores Centrífugo Típico con Control de Velocidad..............................................................................................................................................................................................3-20 Figura 3-12 Componentes de Cojinete de Manguito .........................................................................................................................3-17 Figura 3-11 Componentes de Ventilador Axial de Pendiente-Variable.........3-10 Figura 3-5 Rotor Típico con Aletas Curveadas Hacia Delante para un Ventilador Centrifugo.......................................................................................................................................................................................................3-2 Figura 3-2 Sección de el Ventilador Centrifugo ........................... A-6 Figura A-2 Ejemplo de Mapa de Paleta .........................................................

....................... A-19 Figura A-8 Marcando Indicaciones Múltiples ....................... A-19 C-32 ..............................................................................................EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents Figura A-4 Ejemplo de Undercut y Solapar ....................... A-11 Figura A-5 Probeta de Horquilla Agarrada a Mano para Piernas Articuladas ........... A-16 Figura A-7 Indicaciones Están Consecutivamente Numeradas y En circuladas ..................................................................................................... A-15 Figura A-6 Orientación de un Probeta de Horquilla Articulado para Producir Flujo de Líneas en Ángulos Derechos ..........

......EPRI Licensed Material Translated Table of Contents LISTA DE TABLAS Tabla 4-1 Resumen de Áreas de Problema de Ventiladores Centrífugos ...........4-3 Tabla 4-3 FD Data de Falla de Ventiladores para Plantas Fósiles en los EE..........................................................................................................................................................................................5-9 Tabla 7-1 Frecuencias de Vigilancia y Mantenimiento Preventivo ...............................................................................................................................5-7 Tabla 5-7 Localización de Averías Funcionamiento de Ventilador .............................................................. A-25 C-33 ...............................................................4-2 Tabla 4-2 Resumen de Áreas de Problemas de Ventiladores Axial ............ A-3 Tabla A-2 Porcentaje de Ventiladores que Experimentan NDE .........................................5-3 Tabla 5-3 Localización de Averias de Sistemas de Lubricación.....................UU.5-5 Tabla 5-5 Localización de Averías de Nivel de Sonido ..........................................................................................5-6 Tabla 5-6 Localización de Averías de Conducto de Fluido.........5-4 Tabla 5-4 Localización de Averías de Sistemas Hidráulicos ........................................................4-4 Tabla 5-1 Localización de Averías de Ventiladores ............................7-3 Tabla A-1 Resumen de Practicas de Inspección para Ruedas de Ventiladores Centrífugos.......................................................... A-13 Tabla A-3 Materiales Típicos en Ventiladores de Planta de Energía ..... desde 1982 Hasta 1995 (NERC/GADS Data) .....................5-1 Tabla 5-2 Localización de Averías de Cojinetes.....

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