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10.1 1
1.101
Abnormal Pressure
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 2
Abnormal Pressure
 Definition, Causes 
Normal Pore Pressures
Abnormal Pore Pressure Gradients
Fracture Gradients
Mud Weights
Casing Seat Depths
What Causes Abnormal Pressure?
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 3
Abnormal
Pressure
Gradients
Normal Pressure Gradients
West Texas: 0.433 psi/ft
Gulf Coast: 0.465 psi/ft
Normal and Abnormal Pore Pressure
Pore Pressure, psig
D
e
p
t
h
,
f
t
10,000’
? ?
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 4
Pore Pressure vs. Depth
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Pore Pressure Equivalent, lb/gal
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
{ Density of mud required to control this pore pressure }
Normal
Abormal
0.433 psi/ft 8.33 lb/gal
0.465 psi/ft 9.0 lb/gal
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 5
Pore Pressure
Gradient
Fracture Gradient
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 6
* Pore
Pressure
Gradients
* Fracture
Gradients
* Casing
Setting
Depths
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 7
Some Causes of Abnormal Pressure
1. Incomplete compaction of sediments
Fluids in sediments have not
escaped and are still helping to
support the overburden.
2. Tectonic movements
Uplift
Faulting
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 8
Some Causes of Abnormal Pressure
3. Aquifers in Mountainous Regions
Aquifer recharge is at higher
elevation than drilling rig location.
4. Charged shallow reservoirs due to
nearby underground blowout.
5. Large structures...
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 9
HIGH PRESSURE
NORMAL PRESSURE
Thick, impermeable layers of shale (or salt) restrict the movement
of water. Below such layers abnormal pressure may be found.
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 10
HIGH PRESSURE
NORMAL PRESSURE
Hydrostatic pressure gradient is lower in gas or oil than in water.
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 11
When crossing faults it is possible to go from normal
pressure to abnormally high pressure in a short interval.
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 12
Well “A” found only Normal Pressure ...
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 13
o
OB
= p + o
Z
o
ob
p o
z
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 14
?
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 15
Indications of Abnormal Pore Pressures
Methods:
1. Seismic data
2. Drilling rate
3. Sloughing shale
4. Gas units in mud
5. Shale density
6. Chloride content
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 16
Indications of Abnormal Pore Pressures
Methods, cont’d:
7. Change in Mud properties
8. Temperature of Mud Returns
9. Bentonite content in shale
10. Paleo information
11. Wireline logs
12. MWDLWD
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 17
Prediction and Detection of Abnormal
Pressure Zones
1. Before drilling
Shallow seismic surveys
Deep seismic surveys
Comparison with nearby wells
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 18
Prediction and Detection of Abnormal
Pressure Zones
2. While drilling
Drilling rate, gas in mud, etc. etc.
D
 Exponent
D
C
 Exponent
MWD  LWD
Density of shale (cuttings)
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 19
Prediction and Detection of Abnormal
Pressure Zones
3. After drilling
Resistivity log
Conductivity log
Sonic log
Density log
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 20
.
– .
S
D 000085 . 0
e 41 . 0
÷
= 
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 21
Decreasing ROP
What is d
exponent?
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 22
D  Exponent
The
drilling rate
equation:
Where
R = drilling rate, ft/hr
K = drillability constant
N = rotary speed, RPM
E = rotary speed expon.
W = bit weight, lbs
D
B
= bit diameter, in
D = bit wt. Exponent
or D  exponent
D
B
E
D
W
N K R


.

\

=
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 23
D  Exponent
If we assume that K = 1
and E = 1
Then
D
B
E
D
W
N K R


.

\

=


.

\


.

\

=
B
D
W
log
N
R
log
D
D
B
D
W
N
R


.

\

=
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 24
D  Exponent
A modified version of this equation
follows:


.

\



.

\

=
B
6
D 10
W 12
log
N 60
R
log
d
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 25
Example
d may be Corrected for mud density
as follows:


.

\

=
) ppg ( use in weight mud actual
) ppg ( gradient normal for weight mud
d d
c
37 . 1
12
9
* 82 . 1
12
9
d d ., g . e
c
=

.

\

=

.

\

=
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 26
Procedure for Determining Pore
Pressure From d
c
 Exponent
Calculate d
c
over 1030 ft intervals
Plot d
c
vs depth (use only date from
Clean shale sections)
Determine the normal line for the
d
c
vs. depth plot.
Establish where d
c
deviates from the
normal line to determine abnormal
pressure zone
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 27
Procedure for Determining Pore
Pressure From d
c
 Exponent
d
c
 Exponent
D
e
p
t
h
Normal
Abnormal
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 28
Procedure for Determining Pore
Pressure From d
c
 Exponent
If possible, quantify the magnitude of the
abnormal pore pressure using
overlays, or Ben Eaton’s Method
Pore
Pressure
Grad.
Overburden
Stress Grad.
Normal Pore
Pressure Grad.
2 . 1
c
c
n
normal d
calculated d
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P


.

\



.

\


.

\

÷ ÷ =
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 29
In normally pressured
shales, shale
compaction increases
with depth
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 30
Pore Pressure from
Resistivity
Shale resistivity plots
may be developed
from (i) logs or
(ii) cuttings
What is the pore
pressure at the point
indicated on the plot?
[Assume Gulf Coast].
Depth=10,000 ft
0.2 0.5 1 2 3
10,000’
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 31
From plot, R
n
= 1.55 ohms
R
obs
= 0.80 ohms
From Eaton:
EATON
2 . 1
n
obs
n
R
R
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P


.

\



.

\


.

\

÷ ÷ =
( )
2 . 1
55 . 1
80 . 0
465 . 0 95 . 0 95 . 0
D
P

.

\

÷ ÷ =
= 0.7307 psi/ft = 14.05 lb/gal
P = 0.7307 * 10,000 = 7,307 psi
0.2 0.5 1 2 3
10,000’
D
e
p
t
h
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 32
Prediction of
Abnormal Pore Pressure
Resistivity of Shale
Temperature in the Return Mud
Drilling Rate Increase
d
c
 Exponent
Sonic Travel Time
Conductivity of Shale
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 33
EXAMPLE
Shale Resistivity
vs. Depth
1. Establish normal
trend line
2. Look for
deviations
(semilog)
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 34
Shale Resistivity
vs. Depth
1. Establish normal
trend line
2. Look for
deviations
3. Use OVERLAY
to quantify
pore pressure
(use with caution)
Pore Pressure
(lb/gal equivalent)
16 14 12 10
9 ppg
(normal)
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 35
Example
8.2 X
Why?
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 36
Determination of Abnormal Pore
Pressure Using the d
c
 exponent
From Ben Eaton:
2 . 1
cn
c
n
d
d
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P


.

\

(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ ÷ =
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 37
Where
trend normal the from onent exp d d
plot from ent expon d actual d
psi/ft gradient, stress overburden
D
S
psi/ft 0.465, or 0.433 e.g.,
area in gradient water normal
D
P
psi/ft gradient, pressure formation
D
P
c cn
c c
n
÷ =
÷ =
=
=

.

\

=
2 . 1
cn
c
n
d
d
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P


.

\

(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ ÷ =
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 38
Example
Calculate the pore
pressure at depth X using
the data in this graph.
Assume:
West Texas location with
normal overburden of
1.0 psi/ft.
X = 12,000 ft.
X
1.2 1.5
d
c
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 39
Example
From Ben Eaton:
psi/ft 5662 . 0
D
P
5 . 1
2 . 1
] 433 . 0 0 . 1 [ 0 . 1
d
d
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P
2 . 1
2 . 1
cn
c
n
=

.

\

÷ ÷ =


.

\

(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ ÷ =
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 40
Example
lbm/gal 9 . 10
12,000 x 0.052
6794
EMW
psi 6794 000 , 12 x 5662 . 0 P
= =
= =
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 41
E.S. Pennebaker
Used seismic field data for the
detection of abnormal pressures.
Under normally pressured conditions the
sonic velocity increases with depth.
(i.e. Travel time decreases with depth)
(why?)
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 42
E.S. Pennebaker
Any departure from this trend is an
indication of possible abnormal
pressures.
Pennebaker used overlays to estimate
abnormal pore pressures from the
difference between normal and actual
travel times.
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 43
Interval Travel Time, µsec per ft
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 44
Ben Eaton
also found a way to determine pore pressure
from interval travel times.
Example:
In a Gulf Coast well, the speed of sound is 10,000
ft/sec at a depth of 13,500 ft. The normal speed
of sound at this depth, based on extrapolated
trends, would be 12,000 ft/sec. What is the pore
pressure at this depth?
Assume: S/D = 1.0 psi/ft
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 45
Ben Eaton
From Ben Eaton,
psi/ft 0.6904
12,000
10,000
0.465]  [1.0  1.0
t
t
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P
3
0 . 3
n
n
=

.

\

=

.

\

A
A
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ ÷ =
( At o 1/v )
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 46
Ben Eaton
From Ben Eaton
Note: Exponent is 3.0 this time,
NOT 1.2!
µ = (0.6904 / 0.052) = 13.28 lb/gal
p = 0.6904 * 13,500 = 9,320 psig
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 47
Equations for Pore Pressure Determination
2 . 1
c
c
n
normal d
calculated d
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P


.

\



.

\


.

\

÷ ÷ =
2 . 1
n
obs
n
R
R
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P


.

\



.

\


.

\

÷ ÷ =


.

\

µ
µ


.

\



.

\

=
ACTUAL
NORMAL
B
6
C
*
D 10
W 12
log
N 60
R
log
d
2 . 1
o
n
n
C
C
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P


.

\



.

\


.

\

÷ ÷ =
0 . 3
o
n
n
t
t
D
P
D
S
D
S
D
P


.

\

A
A


.

\


.

\

÷ ÷ =
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 48
Pore Pressure Determination
Abnormal Pressure
 Definition, Causes Normal Pore Pressures Abnormal Pore Pressure Gradients
Fracture Gradients
Mud Weights
Casing Seat Depths
What Causes Abnormal Pressure?
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 2
Normal and Abnormal Pore Pressure
Normal Pressure Gradients West Texas: 0.433 psi/ft Gulf Coast: 0.465 psi/ft Abnormal Pressure Gradients
10,000’
Depth, ft
Pore Pressure, psig
Abnormal Pressure
??
10.1 3
Pore Pressure vs. Depth
0 0.433 psi/ft 0.465 psi/ft 8.33 lb/gal 9.0 lb/gal
5,000
10,000
Normal Abormal
15,000
20,000 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Pore Pressure Equivalent, lb/gal 16
{ Density of mud required to control this pore pressure }
Abnormal Pressure
10.1 4
5 .Fracture Gradient Pore Pressure Gradient Abnormal Pressure 10.1.
1.6 .* Pore Pressure Gradients * Fracture Gradients * Casing Setting Depths Abnormal Pressure 10.
2.7 .1.Some Causes of Abnormal Pressure 1. Incomplete compaction of sediments Fluids in sediments have not escaped and are still helping to support the overburden. Tectonic movements Uplift Faulting Abnormal Pressure 10.
8 . Aquifers in Mountainous Regions Aquifer recharge is at higher elevation than drilling rig location. Charged shallow reservoirs due to nearby underground blowout.. Abnormal Pressure 10.Some Causes of Abnormal Pressure 3.1. 5. Large structures.. 4.
9 . Abnormal Pressure 10.HIGH PRESSURE NORMAL PRESSURE Thick.1. Below such layers abnormal pressure may be found. impermeable layers of shale (or salt) restrict the movement of water.
1.HIGH PRESSURE NORMAL PRESSURE Hydrostatic pressure gradient is lower in gas or oil than in water.10 . Abnormal Pressure 10.
1 . 11 Abnormal Pressure 10.When crossing faults it is possible to go from normal pressure to abnormally high pressure in a short interval.
Well “A” found only Normal Pressure .12 .1. Abnormal Pressure 10...
sob p sz sOB = p + sZ Abnormal Pressure 10.13 .1.
1.14 .? Abnormal Pressure 10.
Seismic data 2. Shale density 6.15 .1. Sloughing shale 4. Gas units in mud 5.Indications of Abnormal Pore Pressures Methods: 1. Chloride content Abnormal Pressure 10. Drilling rate 3.
MWDLWD Abnormal Pressure 10. Bentonite content in shale 10. Paleo information 11.16 . cont’d: 7.1. Temperature of Mud Returns 9. Wireline logs 12.Indications of Abnormal Pore Pressures Methods. Change in Mud properties 8.
Before drilling Shallow seismic surveys Deep seismic surveys Comparison with nearby wells Abnormal Pressure 10.17 .1.Prediction and Detection of Abnormal Pressure Zones 1.
While drilling Drilling rate. gas in mud.Exponent DC .18 .Exponent MWD . etc.1. D .Prediction and Detection of Abnormal Pressure Zones 2.LWD Density of shale (cuttings) Abnormal Pressure 10. etc.
After drilling Resistivity log Conductivity log Sonic log Density log Abnormal Pressure 10.Prediction and Detection of Abnormal Pressure Zones 3.1.19 .
1.41 e 0. 0.20 .000085 DS – . Abnormal Pressure 10..
1.21 .What is dexponent? Decreasing ROP Abnormal Pressure 10.
22 W R KN D B E D Abnormal Pressure . ft/hr K = drillability constant N = rotary speed.1. Exponent or D .exponent 10. lbs DB = bit diameter.D .Exponent The drilling rate equation: Where R = drilling rate. in D = bit wt. W = bit weight. RPM E = rotary speed expon.
23 .D .Exponent If we assume that K = 1 and E = 1 Then W R KN D B E D R W N DB Abnormal Pressure D R log N D W log D B 10.1.
24 .1.Exponent A modified version of this equation follows: R log 60 N d 12 W log 6 10 D B Abnormal Pressure 10.D .
25 . dc d 1.1.g.37 12 12 Abnormal Pressure 10..82 * 1.Example d may be Corrected for mud density as follows: mud weight for normal gradient (ppg) dc d actual mud weight in use(ppg) 9 9 e.
depth plot.Exponent Calculate dc over 1030 ft intervals Plot dc vs depth (use only date from Clean shale sections) Determine the normal line for the dc vs.Procedure for Determining Pore Pressure From dc .1.26 . Establish where dc deviates from the normal line to determine abnormal pressure zone Abnormal Pressure 10.
Exponent Abnormal Pressure 10.27 .Exponent Depth Normal Abnormal dc .1.Procedure for Determining Pore Pressure From dc .
2 Pore Pressure Grad.1.Procedure for Determining Pore Pressure From dc . 10. quantify the magnitude of the abnormal pore pressure using overlays.Exponent If possible. Normal Pore Pressure Grad. Abnormal Pressure Overburden Stress Grad. or Ben Eaton’s Method P S S P dc calculated D D D D n dc normal 1.28 .
In normally pressured shales.1. shale compaction increases with depth Abnormal Pressure 10.29 .
2 0.1.Pore Pressure from Resistivity Shale resistivity plots may be developed from (i) logs or (ii) cuttings What is the pore pressure at the point indicated on the plot? [Assume Gulf Coast].30 .000’ 0. Depth=10.5 1 2 3 10.000 ft Abnormal Pressure 10.
05 lb/gal P = 0.55 ohms Robs = 0.95 0.55 1.80 0.5 1 2 3 10.7307 psi/ft = 14.From plot.80 ohms Depth EATON From Eaton: P S S P R obs D D D D n Rn 1.465 D 1. Rn = 1.2 P 0.000 = 7.1.2 0.2 10.95 0.307 psi Abnormal Pressure 0.000’ = 0.31 .7307 * 10.
32 Abnormal Pressure .Exponent Sonic Travel Time Conductivity of Shale 10.Prediction of Abnormal Pore Pressure Resistivity of Shale Temperature in the Return Mud Drilling Rate Increase dc .1.
EXAMPLE Shale Resistivity vs. Look for deviations (semilog) Abnormal Pressure 10. Establish normal trend line 2.1. Depth 1.33 .
Shale Resistivity vs.34 .1. Use OVERLAY Pore Pressure (lb/gal equivalent) 16 14 12 10 9 ppg (normal) to quantify pore pressure (use with caution) Abnormal Pressure 10. Establish normal trend line 2. Look for deviations 3. Depth 1.
1.35 Why? .Example 8.2 X Abnormal Pressure 10.
36 .exponent From Ben Eaton: P S S P d c D D D D n d cn 1.2 Abnormal Pressure 10.1.Determination of Abnormal Pore Pressure Using the dc .
0. psi/ft S D dc d cn Abnormal Pressure overburdenstress gradient. psi/ft P normal water gradient in area D n e.433 or 0. psi/ft actual d c exponent from plot d c exp onent from the normal trend 10.37 .P S S P d c D D D D n d cn 1.g.465..1.2 Where P D formation pressuregradient.
0 psi/ft. X = 12.000 ft.Example Calculate the pore pressure at depth X using the data in this graph.5 dc Abnormal Pressure 10.2 1.38 .1. Assume: West Texas location with normal overburden of 1. X 1.
2 1.5 P 0.1.39 .433] 1.Example From Ben Eaton: P S S P d c D D D D n d cn 1.2 1.5662 psi/ft D Abnormal Pressure 1.0 [1.0 0.2 10.
40 .9 lbm/gal 0.000 Abnormal Pressure 10.1.052 x 12.Example P 0.000 6794 psi 6794 EMW 10.5662 x 12.
Travel time decreases with depth) (why?) Abnormal Pressure 10.e. Pennebaker Used seismic field data for the detection of abnormal pressures.1.S. Under normally pressured conditions the sonic velocity increases with depth.41 .E. (i.
Pennebaker used overlays to estimate abnormal pore pressures from the difference between normal and actual travel times. Abnormal Pressure 10.E.1.42 . Pennebaker Any departure from this trend is an indication of possible abnormal pressures.S.
Interval Travel Time. msec per ft Abnormal Pressure 10.43 .1.
44 . Example: In a Gulf Coast well.0 psi/ft Abnormal Pressure 10. the speed of sound is 10. would be 12.1. What is the pore pressure at this depth? Assume: S/D = 1.500 ft.000 ft/sec. based on extrapolated trends.Ben Eaton also found a way to determine pore pressure from interval travel times.000 ft/sec at a depth of 13. The normal speed of sound at this depth.
0 .45 .0 .6904 psi/ft Abnormal Pressure 3 ( t a 1/v ) 10.465] 12.000 1.[1.000 0.0.1.0 10.Ben Eaton From Ben Eaton. P S S P t n D D D D n t 3.
6904 * 13.1.6904 / 0.46 . NOT 1.320 psig Note: Exponent is 3.28 lb/gal p = 0.Ben Eaton From Ben Eaton r = (0.500 = 9.052) = 13.0 this time.2! Abnormal Pressure 10.
2 S P S P D D D D n 1.0 10.Equations for Pore Pressure Determination dC R log 60 N * rNORMAL r 12 W ACTUAL log 10 6 D B S P S P D D D D n dc calculated d normal c 1.1.47 .2 S P S P D D D n D R obs R n Cn C o 1.2 S P S P D D D D n Abnormal Pressure t n t o 3.
1.Pore Pressure Determination Abnormal Pressure 10.48 .
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1.10 Abnormal Pressure will be available on