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CONTRAINDICATI ON Hypersensitivity to levetiracetam or other pyrrolidone derivatives or any of the excipients of Keppra.
KEPPRA ANTICONVULSANT SYRUP
The precise mechanism(s) by which levetiracetam exerts its antiepileptic effect is unknown. Howe ver, the drug binds to a synaptic vesicle glycoprotein,SV 2A,( Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is a ubiquitous synaptic vesicle protein t hat in humans is encoded by the SV2A gene. The protein is targeted by the anti-epileptic drug (AED) levetirac etam. ) and inhibits presynaptic
Monotherapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures with or without secondary generalization in patients ≥16 years with newly diagnosed epileps y. As adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults and children ≥4 years with epilepsy; myoclonic seizures in adults and adolescents ≥12 years with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; primary generalized tonicclonic seizures in adults and adolescents ≥4
DOSAG NSG. E RESPONSIBILITI ES 10 cc -Establish safety Gastrointestina precautions l Disorders: (siderails, proper Abdominal lighting) pain, diarrhea,
dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting. -Nervous System Disorders: Amnesia, ataxia, convulsion, dizziness, headache, hyperkinesia, tremor, balance disorder, disturbance in attention, memory impairment. - Psychiatric Disorders: Aggression, agitation, depression, emotional lability/mood swings, hostility, insomnia, irritability, nervousness,
-Take drug as prescribed -Monitor elderly patients carefully for adverse effect -Report difficulty breathing, tremors, loss of coordination, sore muscle or muscle spasm
abnormal thinking. personality disorders. .Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Eczema. This is believed to impede nerve conduction across synapses. pruritus. Musculoskelet al and Connective Tissue Disorders: Myalgia.calcium channels. -Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: Anorexia. years with idiopathic generalized epile psy. rash. The risk of anorexia is higher when topiramate is coadministered with levetiracetam. increased weight. . Keppra infusion concentrate is an alternative for patients when oral administration is temporarily not feasible.
sachet ) tachycardia. intracranial. increased capillary fragility. diarrhea. heartburn & abdominal distention. Cerebral infarction. digestive & urinary tract & vitreous body hemorrhage. anorexia. cloudy or dark urine . inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity and suppressing cAMP degradation with a resultant increase in cAMP in platelets and blood vessels. edema & chest pain. hot flushes. Rash. severe headache. -Provide safety measures to prevent injury from bleeding. pain & cold sensation due to chronic arterial occlusive diseases. numbness. bleeding of the gums.GENERIC NAME BRAND NAME CLASSIFICATION MOA INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION ADVERSE REACTION DOSAGE NSG. headache/dull headache. dizziness. Pletaal and several of its metabolites are cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterase III inhibitors (PDE III inhibitors). alkaline phosphatase & lactate dehydrogenase. Prevention of recurrence of cerebral infarction excluding cardiogenic cerebral embolism. abdominal pain. sweating. increased ALT. Management of peripheral vascular disease. hemoptysis. leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation and vasodilation. . RESPONSIBILITIES Cilostazol Pletaal Anticoagulants The mechanism of the effects of cilostazol on the symptoms of intermittent claudication is not fully understood. Hemophilia. nausea. Women of childbearing potential. -Check for signs of bleeding -Report nosebleed. abdominal or lower back pain. unusual bruising . black or tarry stools. CHF. 50 mg ( 1 palpitation. insomnia. Pregnancy. AST. SC hemorrhage. vomiting. Powd for oral liqd: Relief of various ischemic symptoms eg ulcer.
StevensJohnson syndrome. dizziness. EENT Sinusitis (6%). bullous rashes including erythema multiforme.CContraindicated in stroke. especially if taking more than one class of lipid lowering drugs. GI Diarrhea (5%). asthenia (4%). apo B. toxic epidermal necrolysis (postmarketin g). insomnia (at least 2%). with unexplained persistent reductas Heterozygous familial increases in e.GENERIC NAME BRAND NAME CLASSIFICATION MOA INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION Atorvastatin Lipitor HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor Its MOA To reduce the risk of MI. Adolescent girl must be at least 1 year postmenarche ADVERSE REACTION CNS Headache (17%). and patients is revascularization hypertensive to specific procedures in the drug and in patients with no those with active inhibition evidence of CAD liver disease or of HMG. .Asses patient’s and family’s knowledge of drug therapy. angina.Monitor 80 mg patient’s lipid and liver function levels at baseline and periodically thereafter. rhinitis (at least 2%). Dermatologic Rash (4%). levels. RESPONSIBILITIES .with multiple risk conditions linked CoA factors. pharyngitis (3%). . hypercholesterolemi transaminase a. DOSAGE NSG. -Monitor patient for signs of rhabdomyolyis. total cholesterol. abdominal pain (4%). -AAdjunct to diet to reduce elevated LDL. and triglyceride levels to increase HDL level in patients with primary hypercholesterolemi a and mixed dyslipidemia.
arthritis (at least 2%). back pain (4%). arthralgia (5%). hematuria. Musculoskelet al Myalgia (6%). Metabolic Peripheral edema (at least 2%).constipation. flatulence (3%). nausea (at least 2%). rhabdomyolysi s (postmarketin g). Respiratory Bronchitis (at least 2%). dyspepsia. . UTI (at least 2%). Genitourinary Albuminuria.
RESPONSIBILITIES Arixtra Fondaparinx Anticoagulats a synthetic and selective inhibitor of activated factor X (Xa). restricted mobility during acute illness who are at risk of thromboembolic complications. MI & refractory ischemia. bleeding of the gums. -Check for signs of bleeding -Report nosebleed. Anemia. severe headache. unusual bruising . fondaparinux potentiates (about 300 times) the innate neutralization of factor Xa by ATIII. The antithrombotic activity of fondaparinux is the result of antithrombin III (ATIII)mediated selective inhibition of factor Xa.5 gm. cloudy or dark urine . knee & hip replacement surgery. ST segment elevation MI (STEMI) acute coronary syndrome for the prevention of death & myocardial re-infarction CONTRAINDICATION ADVERSE REACTION DOSAGE NSG. purpura. abdominal surgery at risk of thromboembolic complications. Active clinically significant bleeding. edema. . unstable angina or non-ST segment elevation MI (UA/NSTEMI) acute coronary syndrome for the prevention of death. Treatment of acuteDVT & pulmonary embolism (PE). Acute bacterial endocarditis. By binding selectively to ATIII. abdominal or lower back pain. Neutralization of factor Xa interrupts the blood coagulation Known hypersensitivity to fondaparinux sodium or any of the excipients of Arixtra. -Provide safety measures to prevent injury from bleeding. bleeding.GENERIC NAME BRAND NAME CLASSIFICATION MOA INDICATION Prevention of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery of the lower limbs eg hipfracture including extended prophylaxis. 2. black or tarry stools.
Fondaparinux does not inactivate thrombin (activated factor II) and has no known effect on platelet function.cascade and inhibits both thrombin formation and thrombus development. . in patients who are managed w/ thrombolytics or who initially are to receive no other form of reperfusion therapy.
the desired activating effects have also been associated with agitation (aggression. Organic. In rare cases. respiratory tract infections) were reported. hypertension. cough. thereby balancing out the critical energy deficit associated with this disease. rare cases of hyperventilation. postoperative trauma. metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders of the brain especially senile dementia of Alzheimer's type. gastrointestinal disturbances eg. RESPONSIBILITIES 10 mg . Epilepsy. doubled the survival rate. insomnia). Severe renal impairment. inhibited edema formation. Hypersensitivity to one of the components of Cerebrolysin. -Cerebrolysin appears to significantly increase the number of glucose transport molecules in the blood-brain barrier. dyspepsia. Although there are no data indicating that Cerebrolysin causes renal stress. and normalized lesion-related neurological failure and learning deficits. apathy. ADVERSE REACTION In rare cases. tiredness. DOSAGE NSG. Positive results were also obtained using models of Alzheimer's disease. cerebral contusion or concussion. cold. depression. dizziness and symptoms of influenza (eg. In 1 study. tremor. Single cases of grand mal attacks and convulsions have been reported after administration of Cerebrolysin. loss of appetite. confusion. stabilized microcirculation. hypotension.GENERIC NAME BRAND NAME CLASSIFICATION MOA INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION Cerebrolysin Neurotrophics Nootropics & Neurotonics -Cerebrolysin reduced infarct volume. Cerebrolysin should not be administered in the presence of existing severe renal failure. craniocerebral trauma. postapoplectic complications.
If injected too quickly. pruritus and burning have been reported. feelings of heat or sweating. Injection site reactions eg. neck and limb pain. dyspnea. dizziness. headache. skin and local inflammatory reactions. hypersensitivity or allergic reactions eg. . chills and shocklike state have been observed. fever. palpitations or arrhythmias may result. erythema.diarrhea. constipation. In very rare cases. low back pain. have been observed. vomiting and nausea. and in isolated instances.
blurred vision. Pantoloc IV Concomitant use w/ atazanavir. -Tell the client to Report severe headache. Rarely. Pantoloc Antireflux Agents & Antiulcerants it inhibits specifically and doseproportionally H+. periorbital pain. . fever. nausea. reflux esophagitis -Duodenal & gastric ulcer -Eradication of H. ADVERSE REACTION Pantoloc Headache. consult with your nurse or physician.GENERIC NAME BRAND NAME CLASSIFICATION MOA INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION Pantoprozole Antacids. If this becomes difficult. . diarrhea.thus inhibiting the proton pump and causing suppression of stimulated and basal gastric acid secretion after single and multiple intravenous and oral pantoprazole dosing -Symptomatic treatment of mild reflux esophagitis -Duodenal & gastric ulcers.Maintain all of the usual activities and restrictions that apply to your condition. . upper abdominal pain. chills. the enzyme which is responsible for gastric acid secretion in the parietal cells of the stomach. flatulence. rash. pylori Pantoloc Hepatic impairment. cut. pruritus or dizziness. or crush them. worsening of symptoms.K+ATPase. DOSAGE NSG. RESPONSIBILITIES 40 mg IVTT -Tell the client to swallow the tablets whole—do not chew. Pregnancy.
25g. hypernatremia. source of alternative energy substrate during cell restoration postischemia. reduction of intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury. extravasation. burnt patient). CaCl2 (100%) 0. RESPONSIBILITIES Totilac Per 250 mL Na lactate (50%) 28. Febrile response. hypochloremia & metabolic alkalosis. as an alternative in the treatment of metabolic acidosis & electrolyte disorder (hyponatremia). metabolic alkalosis (pH >7. 120 cc .GENERIC NAME BRAND NAME CLASSIFICATION MOA INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION ADVERSE REACTION DOSAGE NSG. KCL 0. Small vol fluid therapy for rapid restoration of intravascular vol (eg hemorrhagic & dengue shock. potassium. hypervolemia. treatment for tissue/peripheral edema. prevention of hypovolemia & maintaining stable hemodynamic status (peri-op condition).05g Intravenous & Other Sterile Solutions Totilac is a neutral solution (pH = 7) containing cations (sodium.5) & renal failure w/ anuria. venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from site of inj. infection at site of inj. calcium) and anions (chloride and lactate) that causes a moderate pH increase after lactate is metabolized in the body. Severe hypernatremia (plasma Na >155 mmol/L).075g.
Direct IV administration should be made very slowly to prevent episodes of hypotension. Drops: Usual Dose: 100-200 mg (1-2 mL) twice or thrice daily. Adjust dose according to disease severity. poor concentration. INDICATION Acute and recovery phase of cerebral infarction (eg. hypotension. Vascular side effects (ie. tachycardia. dizziness. 250 mg/mL: Usual Dose: 1 injection daily. DOSAGE Tablet: Usual Dose: 500 mg once or twice daily. Can be administered through IM or IV (3-5 min) route and IV drip (infusion rate of 40-60 drops/min). RESPONSIBILITIES -Somazine must not administered together with medicines containing meclophenexate. . It is also known as CDP-choline or cytidine diphosphate choline (cytidine 5'diphosphocholine). bradycardia). CDP-choline belongs to the group of biomolecules in living systems known as nucleotides that play important roles in cellular metabolism. Cerebral insufficiency (eg. NSG. Cholinerv is compatible with hypertonic glucose solution and all IV isotonic solutions. CONTRAINDICATION Somazine Citicoline CNS Drugs & Agents for ADHD Patients with hypertonia of the parasympathetic nervous system. ADVERSE REACTION Gastrointestinal disorders (ie. diarrhea). Alzheimer's disease) and cerebrovascular disease.GENERIC NAME BRAND NAME CLASSIFICATION MOA Citicoline is a complex organic molecule that functions as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cell membrane phospholipids. disorientation) due to head trauma or brain injury. memory loss. ischemia due to stroke). Cognitive dysfunction due to degenerative (ie. Ampoule: 125 mg/mL: Usual Dose: 1-2 injections daily. stomach pain.
RESPONSIBILITIES .GENERIC NAME BRAND NAME CLASSIFICATION MOA INDICATION CONTRAINDICATION ADVERSE REACTION DOSAGE NSG.
wheezing. Children: Dosage should be expressed in terms of age of the child and either in mg/kg/day or mL of suspension per dose or equivalent for other presentations.Effective against strains of Escherichia coli.Augmentin Coamoxicla v Penicillins. . otitis media. Broadspectrum penicillin . Nervous System Disorders: Two co-amoxiclav 250/125 mg tablets should not be substituted for 1 coamoxiclav 500/125 mg tablets since they are not equivalent.Assess respiratory status. skin and soft tissue. lower respiratory tract infections and UTI. known as betalactamas e. serum sicknesslike syndrome. anaphylaxis. . skin and soft tissue and recurrent tonsillitis. . .Penicillin hypersensitivity. nose and throat infections. fever or swelling in the joints. this could indicate an allergy and should be reported. and ear. . It destroys bacteria by disrupting their ability to form cell walls. l Coamoxicla v is active against . Haemophilus influenzae. Proteus mirabilis. Streptococcu s faecalis. that some bacteria have against penicillins .Observe for anaphylaxis. genitourinary. hypersensitivity vasculitis.History of coamoxiclavassociated or penicillin-associated jaundice or hepatic dysfunction.Ensure that the patient has adequate fluid intake during any diarrhoea attack. Infections and Infestations: Common: Mucocutaneous candidiasis. Prolongation of bleeding time and prothrombin time. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Rare: Reversible leukopenia (including neutropenia) and thrombocytopen ia. Streptococcu s pneumoniae and some betalactamaseproducing organisms. Children weighing ≥40 kg should be dosed according to the adult recommendations The lower dose is recommended for infections eg.An antibiotic that combines amoxicilli n and clavulanic acid. itching. Clavulani c acid blocks the chemical defence. Immune System Disorders: Very Rare: Angioneurotic edema. The higher dose is recommended for infections eg.If the patient develops a rash. Very Rare: Reversible agranulocytosis and hemolytic anemia.Report haematuria or oliguria as high doses can be nephrotoxic. No clinical data are available on doses of these formulations >40/10 mg/kg/day 3 times daily (4:1) or 45/6. Patient teaching . .4 mg/kg/day Nursing considerations . . .Patients must ensure they take .Assess bowel pattern before and during treatment as pseudomembranou s colitis may occur. sinusitis.Known or suspected amoxicillinresistant infections including respiratory tract.
headache. nausea. the full course of the medicine. Very Rare: Reversible hyperactivity and convulsions. Dosing recommendations in this population therefore cannot be made. . If there is evidence of renal impairment. dose as for adults. Convulsions may occur in patients with impaired renal function or in those receiving high doses. twice daily (7:1) in children <2 years. .Report diarrhoea. . Premature: No dosage recommendation can be made for this category. vomiting. dose should be adjusted as for renally impaired adults.bacterial infections that have become resistant to amoxicilli n. vomiting. . Gastrointestinal Disorders: Adults: Very Common: Diarrhea. Elderly: No adjustment needed. cramping and blood in stools as pseudomembranou s colitis may occur. Common: Nausea.If oral contraceptives are used. Renal Impairment: Dosage adjustments are based on the maximum recommended level of amoxicillin. Uncommon: Dizziness. Children: Common: Diarrhea.The medicine must be taken in equal doses around the clock to maintain level in the blood. use alternative contraception. There are no clinical data for the 7:1 formulation for patients <2 months.
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