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Ip Fundamentals

Ip Fundamentals

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Published by Rajib Sharma

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Published by: Rajib Sharma on Jul 25, 2012
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IP FUNDAMENTALS

Some basic definations
• IP- Internet Protocol • Routing Routing is the act of moving information across a network from a source to a destination. • Subnet Network Elements (NEs) connected to a common site. LAN should be considered as a subnet (from an IP point of view). All equipment connected to that site LAN must be configured with IP addresses and subnet mask belonging to that subnet.

• Static routing In static routing are the routing table entered and updated manually • Dynamic routing (OSPF) The OSPF protocol automatically calculates the best route to a destination, based on the total cost of using the interfaces required to reach that destination.

IP address restrictions .

. which makes introducing changes easier as no other layers are effected.The OSI Model • OSI Model is meant for Networking manufacturers and developers to provide them a standard based on which they can make their products. • Ease of Troubleshooting. • All OSI Layers are independent from each other.

Why a Layered Network Model? 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical • Reduces complexity (one big problem to seven smaller ones) • Facilitates modular engineering • Assures interoperable technology • Accelerates evolution • Simplifies teaching and learning .

Devices Function at Layers 7 6 NIC Card Application Presentation Session 5 4 3 2 1 Transport Network Data Link Physical Hub .

Host Layers 7 6 5 4 Application Presentation Session Transport Network 3 Data Link } Host layers: Provide accurate data delivery between computers 1 Physical .

Media Layers 7 6 5 4 Transport 3 2 1 Network Data Link Physical Application Presentation Session } } Host layers: Provide accurate data delivery between computers Media layers: Control physical delivery of messages over the network .

file transfer. word as eg. and terminal emulation) excel.Layer Functions 7 Application Provides network services to application processes (such as electronic mail. .

Layer Functions 7 6 Application Network services to applications Data representation • Ensures data is readable by receiving system • Format of data • Data structure Presentation .

and terminates sessions between applications • Dial up communication • Dial up control. manages.simplex duplex • Checks other machine if free to communicate Presentation Session .Layer Functions 7 6 5 Application Network services to applications Data representation • Establishes.

Layer Functions 7 6 5 Application Network services to applications Data representation Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability • Concerned with data transport issues between hosts • Data transport reliability • Establishes. and terminates virtual circuits • Error recovery • Information flow control • CO and CL type • 3-way handshake Presentation Session 4 Transport . maintains.

Layer Functions 7 6 5 Application Network services to applications Data representation Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability Addresses and best path • Generates packets.assigns IP address • Provides connectivity and path selection between two end systems • Domain of routing Presentation Session 4 3 Transport Network .

• Error detection FCS. network topology. CRC 3 2 .Layer Functions 7 6 5 4 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Network services to applications Data representation Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability Addresses and best path Access to media • Provides Arbitration CSMA/CD. • Physical addressing.

.Layer Functions 7 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Network services to applications 6 5 4 3 2 1 Data representation Inter-host communication End-to-end connection reliability Addresses and best path Access to media Binary transmission • Wires. connectors.

Hardware involved in IP network • Hubs • Bridges • Switches • Routers .

Hub • Device that serves as the center of a star topology network. no forwarding intelligence . sometimes referred to as a multiport repeater.

Hubs 123 126 124 127 Hub 125 128 • • • • • Amplifies signals Propagates signals through the network Does not filter data packets based on destination No path determination or switching Used as network concentration point .

Hubs Operate at Physical layer Physical A B C D • All devices in the same collision domain • All devices in the same broadcast domain • Devices share the same bandwidth .

Hubs: One Collision Domain • More end stations means more collisions • CSMA/CD is used .

Bridge • Device that connects and passes packets between two network segments. . • More intelligent than hub—analyzes incoming packets and forwards (or filters) them based on addressing information.

Bridge Example 123 126 124 Bridge 127 Hub 125 Hub 128 Segment 1 Corporate Intranet Segment 2 • More intelligent than a hub—can analyze incoming packets and forward (or filter) them based on addressing information • Collects and passes packets between two network segments • Maintains address tables .

. • Provide full dedicated data transmission rate between two stations that are directly connected to the switch ports.Switches • Use bridging technology to forward traffic between ports. • Build and maintain address tables called content-addressable memory (CAM).

maintains address tables. ATM .e.Switching—―Dedicated‖ Media Workstation 31 10-Mbps UTP Cable ―Dedicated‖ Switch 34 35 32 100 Mbps 100 Mbps Corporate Intranet 33 36 • Uses bridging technology to forward traffic (i. and can filter) • Provides full dedicated transmission rate between stations that are connected to switch ports • Used in both local-area and in wide-area networking • All types available—Ethernet. Token Ring.

Switches and Bridges Operate at Data Link Layer Data Link 1 2 3 4 OR 1 2 • Each segment has its own collision domain • All segments are in the same broadcast domain .

Switches Switch Memory • Each segment has its own collision domain • Broadcasts are forwarded to all segments .

Routers • Interconnect LANs and WANs • Provide path determination using metrics • Forward packets from one network to another • Control broadcasts to the network .

1 1.2 S0 4.3 S0 4.) 1.0 4.0 4.3 E0 2.Network Layer Functions (cont.2 1.1 2.1 1.2 E0 Routing Table NET INT Metric 1 E0 0 2 S0 0 4 S0 1 Routing Table NET INT Metric 1 S0 1 2 S0 0 4 E0 0 • Logical addressing allows for hierarchical network • Configuration required • Uses configured information to identify paths to networks .

Routers: Operate at the Network Layer • Broadcast control • Optimal path determination • Traffic management • Logical addressing • Connects to WAN services .

Network Device Domains Hub Bridge Switch Router Collision Domains: 1 4 Broadcast Domains: 4 4 1 1 1 4 .

Network Cabling • Media connecting network components – NIC cards take turns transmitting on the cable – LAN cables only carry one signal at a time – WAN cables can carry multiple signals simultaneously • Three primary types of cabling – Twisted-pair (or copper) – Coaxial cable – Fiber-optic cable .

Twisted-Pair (UTP and STP) STP only: Shielded Insulation to Reduce EMI Twisted-Pair Outer Jacket Color-Coded Plastic Insulation Speed and throughput: Relative cost: Maximum cable length: 10/100 Mbps Least costly 100 m RJ-45 Connector Media and connector size: Small .

Coaxial Cable OuterJacket Braided Copper Shielding Plastic Insulation Copper Conductor BNC Connector Speed and throughput: Relative cost: 10/100 Mbps More than UTP. but still low Media and connector size: Maximum cable length: Medium 200/500 m .

Fiber-Optic Cable Outer Jacket Kevlar Reinforcing Material Plastic Shield Glass Fiber and Cladding Speed and throughput: Average cost per node: 100+ Mbps Most expensive Media and connector size: Small Maximum cable length: single mode Up to 2 km for multimode. 100km for .

Identifying Static and Dynamic Routes •Static Route Uses a route that a network administrator enters into the router manually •Dynamic Route Uses a route that a network routing protocol adjusts automatically for topology or traffic changes .

Static Route Example Point-to-point A A Only a single network connection with no need for routing updates B B ―Stub‖ network • Fixed route to address reflects administrator’s knowledge .

Above command is used for configuring routing table in Static Routing .IP Route command ip route [destination_network ][mask ] [next_hop_address or exit interface ] It is a Global configuration mode command.

2 This route allows the stub network to reach all known networks beyond router A.0 0.0.2 172.0.1 B B ip route 0.16.0 SR Network A 172.16.2.0.16.0 172.16.2.0. .2.1.Default Routes Stub Network 172.

– It is not feasible in large networks because it would be a full-time job.Static Routing • Static Routing is the process of an administrator manually adding routes in each router’s routing table. • Benefits of Static Routing – No overhead on the Router CPU – No Bandwidth usage between routers – Security (Administrator can allow routing to selected networks) • Disadvantage of Static Routing – The administrator must really understand the full internetwork to configure routes correctly. – If one network is added to the internetwork the administrator must add a route to it on all routers. .

–If a change occurs in the network the dynamic routing protocols automatically inform all routers about the change.DYNAMIC ROUTING • Dynamic Routing: Dynamic routing is the process of routing protocols running on the router communicating with neighbor routers. .

Dynamic Routing • Most internetworks use dynamic routing A X B C A D X B C D A network change blocks the established path. …and an alternate route is found dynamically.. ..

An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem.DYNAMIC ROUTING All dynamic routing protocols are built around an algorithm. .

Understanding Virtual LANs .

users.Virtual LANs VLAN 1 VLAN 2 VLAN 3 • One broadcast domain within a switch • VLANs help manage broadcast domain • Can be defined on port groups. or protocols Server Farm • LAN switches and network management software provide a mechanism to create VLANs .

.VLAN Definition • VLAN is defined as logical grouping of network resources & Users connected to predefined ports on a Switch. defined by An Administrator.

.VLAN • VLANs are used to create smaller broadcast domain within a switch. • A Single VLAN is treated as a separate subnet or broadcast domain.

• In layer 2 switched network. whether intended or not for that device . broadcast packet transmitted arrives at every device on the network .

Drawback of Layer 2 Switched Network • Larger the number of Devices and Users. the more broadcasts and packets are to be handle by each device • Lack of Security. the only security is assigning passwords on the Servers and other devices. The Solution is VLAN .

Remove the Physical Boundaries
Engineering Marketing Acctg.

Floor 3

Floor 2

Floor 1

• Group users by department, team, or application • Routers provide communication between VLANs

VLAN Benefits
• Reduced administrative costs – Simplify moves, adds, and changes • Efficient bandwidth utilization – Better control of broadcasts • Improved network security – Separate VLAN group for high-security users – Relocate servers into secured locations • Scalability and performance – Micro segment with scalability – Distribute traffic load

Advantages of VLAN
• Broadcast Control: Multimedia applications use broadcasts and multicast heavily, moreover, faulty equipment, inadequate segmentation can be major players for the above problem. • Switches forwards broadcasts to all segments and hence called as Flat Network because it is one Broadcast Domain.

0 192.17.1 172.13.0.0.0.17.1 HDR SA DA DATA 172.1 172.0.0.0 10.Introduction to TCP/IP Addresses 172.18.13.0.168.0. • Location is represented by an address .1.1 172.16.2 – Unique addressing allows communication between end stations.16.1 172.18.1. – Path choice is based on destination address.2 192.2 10.0.168.

168.12) • Each ―dotted decimal‖ is commonly called an octet (8 bits) . 192.g.IPv4 Addressing • 32-bit addresses • Commonly expressed in dotted decimal format (e.10..

IP Addressing 32 bits Dotted Decimal Maximum Network Host 255 255 255 255 .

IP Addressing 32 bits Dotted Decimal Maximum 1 Network Host 255 8 9 255 16 17 255 24 25 255 32 Binary 11111111 11111111 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 11111111 11111111 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 .

IP Addressing 32 bits Dotted Decimal Maximum 1 Network Host 255 8 9 255 16 17 255 24 25 255 32 Binary 11111111 11111111 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 11111111 11111111 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 Example 172 16 122 204 Decimal Example 10101100 00010000 01111010 11001100 Binary .

IP Address Classes 8 bits 8 bits Host 8 bits Host Host 8 bits Host Host Host •Class A: •Class B: •Class C: •Class D: •Class E: Network Network Network Network Network Network Multicast Research .

IP Address Classes Bits: 1 8 9 16 17 24 25 32 Class A: Bits: 0NNNNNNN Range (1-126) 1 8 9 Host 16 17 Network 16 17 Network Host 24 25 Host 24 25 Host 32 Host 32 Host 24 25 32 Class B: Bits: 10NNNNNN Range (128-191) 1 8 9 110NNNNN Range (192-223) 1 8 9 Class C: Bits: Network 16 17 Class D: 1110MMMM Multicast Group Multicast Group Multicast Group Range (224-239) .

135.777.214 .IP Addressing—Class A • 10.17 • Range of class A network IDs: 1–126 • Number of available hosts: 16.135.222.17 • Network # 10 • Host # 222.

128.245 • Range of class B network IDs: 128.IP Addressing—Class B • 128.1–191.254 • Number of available hosts: 65.128 • Host # 141.141.534 .245 • Network # 128.

150.12 • Host # 1 • Range of class C network IDs: 192.255.150.IP Addressing—Class C • 192.0.254 • Number of available hosts: 254 .12.1–223.1 • Network # 192.

384 # Hosts 16.0.0.0 128.214 65.33.IP Network Address Classes Class # Networks 126 16.0.0 Network Address Space .534 254 Example 01111111 00000000 00000000 00000000 A B C Class A Class B 10111111 11111111 00000000 00000000 2.777.0 Host Address Space Class C 132.097.33.152 11011111 11111111 11111111 00000000 35.5.

31.0 to 172.16.Private Addresses • Class A – 10.255.255.0.0 to 10.0 to 192.0.255 .0.255 • Class B – 172.168.255.255 • Class C – 192.168.255.0.

THANKS .

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