USING ROLE PLAY IN TEACHING SPEAKING

(A Pre-Experimental Study at Islamic Junior High School Soebono Mantofani
Jombang-Ciputat)



This Paper (Skripsi)
Has Fulfilled the Requirement for the Degree of Sarjana (S1)
At the English Department in the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training

















By:
Ayu Diyah Harni Susanti
NIM: 102014023728




ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
2007 M / 1428 H
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USING ROLE PLAY IN TEACHING SPEAKING

(A Pre-Experimental Study at Islamic Junior High School Soebono Mantofani
Jombang-Ciputat)


A Paper (Skripsi)
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training in a Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana (S1)





By:
Ayu Diyah Harni Susanti
NIM: 102014023728




Advisor:




Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd.
NIP. 150.041.070






ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
2007 M / 1428 H
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LEGALIZATION OF EXAMINATION COMMITTEE

A ‘skripsi’ titled “USING ROLE PLAY IN TEACHING SPEAKING (A
Pre-Experimental Study at Islamic Junior High School Soebono Mantofani
Jombang-Ciputat)” was examined at examination session of the Faculty of Tarbiyah
of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta on 11 June 2007. This
‘skripsi’ has fulfilled the requirements for the Degree of Strata-1 (S1) at the English
Education Department.

Jakarta, 11 June 2007

Examination Committee

The Head of Committee The Secretary of Committee





Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, MA. Prof. Dr. H. Aziz Fahrurrozi, MA.
NIP. 150 231 356 NIP. 150 202 343


Committeemen



Examiner I Examiner II





Dr. Didik Santoso, M.Pd. Drs. H. Ahmad Zaenuri, M.Pd.
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i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



In the Name of Allah The Beneficent and The Merciful.
Praise be to Allah Lord of the world who has bestowed upon the writer in
completing this skripsi. Peace and blessing upon our prophet Muhammad SAW, his
families, his companion and his followers.
This skripsi is presented to the English Department of the Faculty of Tarbiyah
and Teachers’ training State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of strata I (SI).
This skripsi cannot be completed without a great deal of help from many
people, especially Mr. Nasrun Mahmud M.Pd. as advisor who always gives his
valuable help, guidance, correction and suggestion for the completion of this skripsi.
Her deepest gratitude also goes to those who have helped her in finishing this
skripsi, amomg others:
1. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada M.A., the Dean of Tarbiyah Faculty and Teacher’s
Training.
2. All lecturers and staff in English Department who had given their valuable
advice and cooperation.
3. UIN Central Library (Mr. Alwi), Tarbiyah Faculty Library (Mrs. Maryani),
AMINEF Library (Mr. Rizal) and Atma Jaya Language Library for their
cooperation and permission to use their books.
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ii
4. Dra. Siti Abidah Thohayah as the Principal of MTs. Soebono Mantofani, Drs.
Sutarto M.Pd. as her private teacher, her fellow teachers and her dearest
students, thank you for their cooperation and pray.
5. Her beloved parents (R. Tardi Wasito A.S. and Sufiyah) and brothers (Mikail
Alba R.F. and Ibnu Ahmad R.F.) who always give their materials, prays,
motivation and moral encouragement to finish her study.
6. Her best friend A. Syauqi Muharrom and Leny, thanks for their help, patience
and care to support the writer.
7. All her friends in UIN Syahid, good luck to them.
8. All the people who have helped the writer to finish her study that she cannot
mention one by one.
May Allah, The almighty bless them all, Amien.

Jakarta, May 2007

The Writer

iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT....................................................................................... i
TABLE OF CONTENTS......................................................................................... iii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of Study ....................................................... 1
B. Identification, Limitation and Formulation of Problem... 3
C. Objective of Study............................................................ 4
D. Method of Study............................................................... 4
E. Organization of Writing................................................... 4
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A. Speaking........................................................................... 6
1. Definition of Speaking................................................. 6
2. Teaching Speaking....................................................... 7
3. Activities to Promote Speaking.................................... 9
4. Guidance for Teachers in Teaching Speaking ............. 12
B. Role Play.......................................................................... 13
1. Definition of Role Play ................................................ 13
2. Type and Procedures in Using Role Play..................... 16
3. Significance of Role Play in Teaching Speaking......... 19

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iv
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Objective of Study............................................................ 21
B. Place and Time of Study.................................................. 21
C. Research Method.............................................................. 25
D. Population and Sampling ................................................. 25
E. Instrumentation ................................................................ 26
F. Procedures of Data Collecting ......................................... 26
G. Technique of Data Analysis……………………………. 32
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS
A. Description of Data………………………………………. 34
B. Interpretation……………………………………………... 39
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion ....................................................................... 41
B. Suggestion........................................................................ 42
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................... 44
APPENDIX


1
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study
English becomes the most essential language in the world. Almost all the
people from many different countries around the world use it to communicate.
The area of English has always become a special interest. It’s because of the
importance of English in any scope of our lives.
Julian Edge said: “Since British trade, followed by colonial and imperial
expansion, English spread around the world. Then the military and economic
dominance of the United States of America has confirmed English as the
international language of present historical period. As a consequence, English
serves for many times many more people as a barrier between themselves and
those some fields of interest, many people in their own countries will not be able
to become doctors, for example if they cannot learn enough English.”
1


In the international relationship, English speaking ability is very important
to be able to participate in the wider world of work. The speaking skill is
measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language. This
reality makes teachers and parents think that speaking ability should be mastered
by their students and children.
Based on the reasons above, in recent years, English language teaching has
focused on teach the English language rather than teach about the English
language. The emphasis is not only on linguistic competence of the language

1
Julian Edge, Essential of English Language Teaching, (Longman: 1993), P. 25
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learners but also on the development of their communicative ability. In order to
develop the learners' communicative ability, the teacher needs to create a
scenario to teach the target language in a vibrant, active and interesting manner.
In learning speaking skill, the students often find some problems. The
problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to
use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice
the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to
take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the
students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the
media among others including the technique in teaching English. Many
techniques can be applied including role play because many research findings say
that this technique is effective to use in teaching speaking.
Role play is very important in teaching speaking because it gives students
an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and in
different social roles. In addition, it also allows students to be creative and to put
themselves in another person’s place for a while. According to Stephen D.
Hattings based on his observation in the conversation class, the role play would
seem to be the ideal activity in which students could use their English creatively
and it aims to stimulate a conversation situation in which students might find


3
themselves and give them an opportunity to practice and develop their
communication skill.
2

For these reasons, the writer is interested in analyzing the use of role play
in teaching speaking for the students of the ninth grade in Islamic Junior High
School Soebono Mantofani Jombang-Ciputat, Tangerang. She also wants to
know the advantages and the problems encountered by learners and teachers in
using it.

B. Identification, Limitation and Formulation of Problem
1. Identification of Problem
There are many problems of language teaching that can be identified as
research subjects. In this case, the writer would like to discuss about:
a. What is speaking?
b. What is role play?
c. What are the problems encountered by students in practicing speaking?
2. Limitation of Problem
To clarify the problem, the writer limits those problems in the use of role
play activities in teaching speaking, the basic concept of speaking, some types
and procedures in using role play.


2
Jo MC. Donough and Christoper Show, Material and Method in ELT: Applied Language Studies,
(Cambridge : Blackwell, 1993), p. 165


4
3. Formulation of Problem
Are the scores of speaking taught by using role play better or not?

C. Objective of Study
From the previous discussion in the background of study, the writer finds
out that using role play in teaching speaking is quite effective. Therefore, the
writer would like to prove whether the scores of speaking taught by using role
play better or not. The writer also wants to know the process of role play
activities.

D. Method of Study
The method that is used in this study is a quantitative method. The study is
based on both library and a field research. In the field research, the writer
collected the data by teaching and observing the subjects.

E. Organization of Writing
This skripsi is systematically divided into five chapters. The following is
short description about what each chapter contains.
Chapter One: Introduction. It includes background of study, identification,
limitation and formulation of study, objective of study, method of study, and
organization of writing.


5
Chapter Two: Theoretical Framework. It discusses about speaking;
definition of speaking, teaching speaking, activities to promote speaking, and
guidance for teachers in teaching speaking. It also discusses about role play;
definition of role play, types and procedures in using role play, and significance
of role play in teaching speaking.
Chapter Three: Research Methodology. It includes objective of study, place
and time of study, research method, population and sampling, instrumentation,
procedures of data collecting and technique of data analysis.
Chapter Four: Research Findings. It includes description of data and
interpretation.
Chapter Five: Conclusion and Suggestion. It contains conclusion and
suggestion from the writer based on the previous discussion.




6
CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Speaking
1. Definition of Speaking
In Oxford Advanced Dictionary the definition of speaking is “to
express or communicate opinions, feelings, ideas, etc, by or as talking and it
involves the activities in the part of the speaker as psychological,
physiological (articulator) and physical (acoustic) stages.”
1

According to Chaney, speaking is “the process of building and sharing
meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of
contexts.”
2

While another expert, Theodore Huebner said “Language is essentially
speech, and speech is basically communication by sounds”. And according to
him, speaking is a skill used by someone in daily life communication whether
at school or outside. The skill is acquired by much repetition; it primarily a

1
Oxford Advanced Dictionary, p. 13

2
A. L. Chaney and T. L. Burke, Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8, (Boston: Allyn &
Bacon, 1998), p. 13

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7
neuromuscular and not an intellectual process. It consists of competence in
sending and receiving messages.
3

From the above definition, it can be inferred that speaking is expressing
ideas, opinions, or feelings to others by using words or sounds of articulation
in order to inform, to persuade, and to entertain that can be learnt by using
some teaching – learning methodologies.
2. Teaching Speaking
Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching.
Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been
undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking
just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. However, today's
world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students'
communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express
themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in
each communicative circumstance.
a. What is Teaching Speaking?
What is meant by teaching speaking is to teach English language
learners to:
1) Produce the English speech sounds and sounds patterns.
2) Use words and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of
the second language.

3
Theodore Huebner, Audio Visual Technique in Teaching Foreign Language, (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1960) p. 5


8
3) Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social
setting, audience, situation and subject matter.
4) Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.
5) Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.
6) Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses,
which is called fluency. (Nunan 2003)
4


b. How to Teach Speaking?
When teaching young learners we constantly have to keep in mind the
fact that what we have in front of us is a mixed class with varied abilities,
expectations, motivation level, knowledge and last but not least, different
learning styles. Thus, we need to vary our approaches and offer as much
opportunity as possible to make the whole class find a little something to
hold on to, expand and grow.
5

Young learners are like sponges, they soak up everything we say and
how we say it. Thus clear and correct pronunciation is of vital importance,
since young learners repeat exactly what they hear. What has been learned
at an early stage is difficult to change later on. One rule that applied here is
slowly and steadily through constant revision and recycling. With the help
of mixed activities, such as dialogues, choral revision, chants, songs,
poems and rhymes, students speaking abilities grow, their pronunciation
gets better and their awareness of the language improves. When applying

4
Hayriye Kayi, Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language, The
Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XII, No. 11, November 2006. http://iteslj.org/Articles/Kayi-Teaching
Speaking.html. p. 1 - 2

5
Natasa Intihar Klancar, Developing Speaking Skills in the Young Learners Classroom, Internet
TESL Journal, Vol. XII, No. 11, November 2006. http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Klancar-Speaking
Skills.html. p. 1


9
the above-mentioned tools into the teaching practice, what should be kept
in mind is that interaction is an important way of learning. Therefore,
increased oral emphasis should be included in our teaching to give the
students as much speaking time as possible.
6

Now many linguistics and English as second language (ESL) teachers
agree on that students learn to speak in the second language by
"interacting". Communicative language teaching and collaborative learning
serve best for this aim. Communicative language teaching is based on real-
life situations that require communication. By using this method in ESL
classes, students will have the opportunity of communicating with each
other in the target language. In brief, ESL teachers should create a
classroom environment where students have real-life communication,
authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that promote oral language. This
can occur when students collaborate in groups to achieve a goal or to
complete a task.
3. Activities to Promote Speaking
There are many activities to promote speaking. As Hayriye Kayi inferred
from many linguistics on her article in the internet on Teaching English as A
Second Language (TESL) Journal, there are thirteen activities to promote
speaking, which are:


6
Ibid.


10
a. Discussion
After a content-based lesson, a discussion can be held for various
reasons. The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share ideas about
an event, or find solutions in their discussion groups. Before the
discussion, it is essential that the purpose of the discussion activity is set
by the teacher. In this way, the discussion points are relevant to this
purpose, so that students do not spend their time chatting with each other
about irrelevant things.
b. Role Play
Students pretend they are in various social contexts and have a variety
of social roles. In role-play activities, the teacher gives information to the
learners such as who they are and what they think or feel. Thus, the
teacher can tell the student that "You are David, you go to the doctor and
tell him what happened last night, and…" (Harmer, 1984)
c. Simulations
Simulations are very similar to role-plays but what makes simulations
different than role plays is that they are more elaborate. In simulations,
students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. For
instance, if a student is acting as a singer, she brings a microphone to sing
and so on.
d. Information Gap
In this activity, students are supposed to be working in pairs. One
student will have the information that other partner does not have and the
partners will share their information. Information gap activities serve
many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information. Also,
each partner plays an important role because the task cannot be completed
if the partners do not provide the information the others need.
e. Brain Storming
On a given topic, students can produce ideas in a limited time.
Depending on the context, either individual or group brainstorming is
effective and learners generate ideas quickly and freely. The good
characteristic of brainstorming is that the students are not criticized for
their ideas so students will be open to sharing new ideas.
f. Storytelling
Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from
somebody beforehand, or they may create their own stories to tell their
classmates. Story telling fosters creative thinking. It also helps students
express ideas in the format of beginning, development, and ending,
including the characters and setting a story has to have.
g. Interviews
Students can conduct interviews on selected topics with various
people. It is a good idea that the teacher provides a rubric to students so
that they know what type of questions they can ask or what path to follow,


11
but students should prepare their own interview questions. After
interviews, each student can present his or her study to the class.
Moreover, students can interview each other and "introduce" his or her
partner to the class.
h. Story Completion
For this activity, a teacher starts to tell a story, but after a few
sentences he or she stops narrating. Then, each student starts to narrate
from the point where the previous one stopped. Each student is supposed
to add from four to ten sentences. Students can add new characters, events,
descriptions and so on.
i. Reporting
Before coming to class, students are asked to read a newspaper or
magazine and, in class, they report to their friends what they find as the
most interesting news. Students can also talk about whether they have
experienced anything worth telling their friends in their daily lives before
class.
j. Playing Cards
In this game, students should form groups of four. Each suit will
represent a topic. For instance: diamonds represent earning money, hearts
represent love and relationships, spades represent an unforgettable
memory, and card represent best teacher. Each student in a group will
choose a card. Then, each student will write 4-5 questions about that topic
to ask the other people in the group. For example: if the topic "diamonds:
earning money" is selected, here are some possible questions: “Is money
important in your life? Why?” or “What is the easiest way of earning
money?” or “What do you think about lottery?” Etc.
However, the teacher should state at the very beginning of the activity
that students are not allowed to prepare yes-no questions, because by
saying yes or no students get little practice in spoken language
production. Rather, students ask open-ended questions to each other so
that they reply in complete sentences.
k. Picture Narrating
This activity is based on several sequential pictures. Students are
asked to tell the story taking place in the sequential pictures by paying
attention to the criteria provided by the teacher as a rubric. Rubrics can
include the vocabulary or structures they need to use while narrating.
l. Picture Describing
For this activity students can form groups and each group is given a
different picture. Students discuss the picture with their groups, then a
spokesperson for each group describes the picture to the whole class. This
activity fosters the creativity and imagination of the learners as well as
their public speaking skills.



12
m. Find the Differences
For this activity students can work in pairs and each couple is given
two different pictures, for example, picture of boys playing football and
another picture of girls playing tennis. Students in pairs discuss the
similarities and/or differences in the pictures.
7


4. Guidance for Teachers in Teaching Speaking
Here is some guidance for English language teachers while teaching oral
language:
a. Provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target language by
providing a rich environment that contains collaborative work, authentic
materials and tasks, and shared knowledge.
b. Try to involve each student in every speaking activity; for this aim,
practice different ways of student participation.
c. Reduce teacher speaking time in class while increasing student speaking
time. Step back and observe students.
d. Indicate positive signs when commenting on a student's response.
e. Ask eliciting questions such as "What do you mean? How did you reach
that conclusion?" in order to prompt students to speak more.
f. Provide written feedback like "Your presentation was really great. It was a
good job. I really appreciated your efforts in preparing the materials and
efficient use of your voice…"
g. Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes very often while they are
speaking. Correction should not distract student from his or her speech.
h. Involve speaking activities not only in class but also out of class; contact
parents and other people who can help.
i. Circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right track
and see whether they need your help while they work in groups or pairs.
j. Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in speaking
activities.
k. Diagnose problems faced by students who have difficulty in expressing
themselves in the target language and provide more opportunities to
practice the spoken language.
8



7
Op. Cit. p. 2 – 5

8
Ibid. p. 5-6


13
B. Role Play
1. Definition of Role Play
In Cambridge International Dictionary of English, role defined as the
person whom an actor represents in a film or play, while role play is a method
of acting out particular ways of behaving or pretending to be other people who
deal with new situations. It is used in training courses language learning and
psychotherapy.
9

In this case, Gillian Porter Ladousse illustrated that when students
assume a ‘Role’, they play a part (either their own or somebody else’s) in
specific situation. ‘Play’ means that is taken on in a safe environment in
which students are as an inventive and playful as possible.
10

According to Crookal and Oxford, there is a little consensus on the
terms used in the role playing and simulation literature. A few of the terms
often used interchangeably are, simulation, games, role play, simulation-
game, “role play simulation, and role playing game.
11

There seem to be some agreement; however, simulation is a broader
concept than role playing. Simulations are complex lengthy and relatively

9
Paul Procter (Ed.), Cambridge International Dictionary of English, (New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1996), p. 123

10
Gillian Porter Ladusse, Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series, (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1995), p. 5

11
Crookal,D. and Oxford, R. L., Linking Language Learning And Simulation/Gaming . In D.
Crookal and R. L. Oxford (Eds.), Simulation, Gaming, and Language Learning, (New York: Newbury
House, 1990), p. 3


14
inflexible events. Role play, on the other hand, can be a quite simple and brief
technique to organize. It is also highly flexible, leaving much more scope for
the exercise of individual variation, initiative and imagination. And role play
also included in simulation as well.
12

In defining role play, Donn Byrne gave comments that role play is a
part of drama activity. In details, he described that there are three terms to
cover the drama activities. They are mime (mimicry-memorization), role play
and simulation. He distinguished the terms as follows:
a. Mime, the participants perform actions without using words (although as
we shall see, this activity leads naturally on to talk).
b. Role play, the participant interact either as themselves in imaginary
situations.
c. Simulation, this involves role play as defined above. However, for this
activity the participants normally discuss a problem of some kind with
some setting that has been defined for them.
13


Both role play and simulation are commonly used in foreign language
classes to facilitate communicative competence. Whereas mime seems more
appropriate as a language game. It is performing actions without using words.
For instance, if someone mimes and action, the others try to guess what it is.
Another definition is stated by Joanna Budden in British Council
Teaching English (BBC) on her article with the title ‘Role Play’. She said that
role-play is any speaking activity when you either put yourself into somebody

12
Op. Cit.

13
Donn Byrne, Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher, (Singapore:
Longman Group, 1986), p. 115


15
else's shoes, or when you stay in your own shoes but put yourself into an
imaginary situation.
14

What is meant by imaginary people is that students can become
anyone they like for a short time. The President, the Queen, a millionaire, a
pop star…, the choice is endless. Students can also take on the opinions of
someone else. 'For and against' debates can be used and the class can be split
into those who are expressing views in favour and those who are against the
theme.
15

Functional language for a multitude of scenarios can be activated and
practiced through role play in imaginary situations. 'At the restaurant',
'Checking in at the airport', 'Looking for lost property' are all possible role-
plays.
16

From those explanation above, the writer views that role play is a
technique which involves fantasy or imagination to be someone else or to be
ourselves in a specific situation for a while, improvising dialogue and creating
a real world in scenario. It aims at the students to encourage thinking and
creativity, lets students develop and practice new language and behavioural
skills in a relatively non-threatening setting, and can create the motivation and
involvement necessary for learning to occur.

14
Joanna Budden, Role Play, (BBC – British Council Teaching English)

15
Ibid.

16
Ibid.


16
2. Types and Procedures in Using Role Play
In view of the persons taking an actor, Gillian explained that there are
several types of role. The first is the roles which correspond to a real need in
the students’ lives. In this category, it involves such roles as doctors dealing
with patients, or salesman traveling abroad. The second type of role is the
students play themselves in a variety of situations which may or may not have
direct experience. The example which include in this category is a customer
complaining or a passenger asking for information. The third type is the type
that few students will ever experience directly themselves, but it is easy to
play because the teachers have such vast indirect experience of them. The
television journalist is a good example of this type and it is very useful kind of
role taken from real life. The last type is fantasy roles, which are fictitious,
imaginary, and possible even absurd.
17

In case of role play activities, according to Donn Byrne, role play can
be grouped into two forms, scripted and unscripted role play. In details, those
types of role play activities described as follows:





17
Gillian, Op. Cit, p. 13



17
a. Scripted Role Play
This type involves interpreting either the textbook dialogue or
reading text in the form of speech. The main function of the text after all is
to convey the meaning of language items in a memorably way.
18

For more details, Adrian Doff gave an example of scripted role play
dialogue and reading text and how the process is:
Angela : Good morning. I want to send a letter to Singapore.
Clerk : Yes, do you want to send it by air mail or ordinary mail?
Angela : I think I’ll send it air mail. I want it to get there quickly. How
much does it cost?
Clerk : To Singapore? That will be 30 pence, pleas.
Angela : (give the clerk 50 pence) Here you are.
Clerk : Here’s your stamp, and here’s 20 pence change.
Angela : Thank you. Where is the post box?
Clerk : You want the air mail box. It’s over there, by the door.
(Adapted from living English book 2 : A.G. Abdalla et al)

To demonstrate a role play activity based on the dialogue, the
procedures given by Adrian Doff is as follows:
1) First, the teacher guides the role play by writing these prompts:
(where? / air mail / how much? / post box? / thanks). Talk as you write
to show what the prompts mean.
2) If necessary, go through the prompts one by one, and get students to
give sentences or question for each one.
3) Call two students to the front: one play the role as Angela and the
other one is the post office clerk. They should improvise the
conversation using the prompts to help them. Point out that the
conversation should be similar to the one in the textbook, but not
exactly the same; the conversation can be shorter than the presentation
dialogue. It should just cover the main points indicated by the prompts.
4) Call out a few other pairs of students in turn, and ask them to have
other conversation based on the prompts.
19


18
Don Byrne, Op. Cit, p. 122-123


18

Based on these procedures, the writer views that the ways of
organizing this dialogue can be carried out into pairs of students who
would improvise a conversation in front of class, in turns. The teacher can
also ask the students to practice the conversation privately with their
partners before they act it out in front of the class.
b. Unscripted Role Play
In contrast to scripted role play, the situations of unscripted role play
do not depend on textbooks. It is known as a free role play or
improvisation. The students themselves have to decide what language to
use and how the conversation should develop. In order to do this activity,
good preparation from teacher and students is really necessary.
The example and procedures of unscripted role play which is
adapted from Adrian Doff’s book are as follows:
One student has lost a bag.
He/she is at the police station.
The other student is the police officer, and asks for details.

To brings out this ideas:
1) The teacher could prepare the whole class, by:
a) Discussing what the speakers might say (e.g. the police officer
would asks the students how he or she lost the bag).
b) Writing prompt on the board to guide the role play, and any key
vocabulary.
2) The teacher could divide the class into pairs, and:
a) Let them discuss together what they may say.

19
Adrian Doff, Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers trainer’s Handbooks,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Inc. The British Council, 1988), p. 233 - 234


19
b) Let them all try out the role play privately, before calling on one or
two pairs to act out in front of the class.

Susan House explained that there are several procedures in using role
play:
a. Students read and familiarize themselves with the (example) dialogue.
b. Divide the class in pairs, A and B, give A and B roles from the dialogues.
c. Let students act out their role play, not just say them but students should
read it loudly.
d. Walk around correcting and checking.
e. Students swap roles and repeat, those whose finish first can be asked to
make up their own role play, using different words to fill the gaps.
20


The above procedures do not mean an exact to be used. It is flexible;
teacher can create or develop procedures which is appropriate and suitable
with his/her own class.
3. Significance of Role Play in Teaching Speaking
It has been mentioned before in the above discussion that role play is one
of the activities to promote speaking. Through role play activities the students
learn how to express ideas, opinions, or feeling to others by using words or
sounds of articulation.
Larsen Freeman explained that role plays are important in the
communicative approach because they give learners an opportunity to practice
communicating in different social contexts and different social roles.
A role play is a highly flexible learning activity which has a wide scope
for variation and imagination. According to Ladousse, role play uses different

20
Susan House, An Introduction to Teaching English to Children, (Richmond Publishing, 1997),
P. 23


20
communicative techniques and develops fluency in the language, promotes
interaction in the classroom and increases motivation. Here peer learning is
encouraged and sharing of responsibility between teacher and the learner in
the learning process takes place.
Role play can improve learners’ speaking skills in any situation, and helps
learners to interact. As for the shy learners, role play helps by providing a
mask, where learners with difficulty in conversation are liberated. In addition,
it is fun and most learners will agree that enjoyment leads to better learning.
Several reasons for using role play in teaching speaking quoted from
Ladousse as follows:
a. A very wide variety of experience can be brought into the classroom and
we can train our students in speaking skill in any situations through role
play.
b. Role play puts students in situation in which they are required to use and
develop those phatic forms of language which are so necessary in oiling
the works of social relationships, but which are so often neglected by our
language teaching syllabuses.
c. Some people are learning English to prepare for specific roles in their
lives. It is helpful for these students to have tried out and experimented
with the language they will require in the friendly and safe environment of
a classroom.
d. Role play helps many shy students by providing them with a mask.
e. Perhaps the most important reason for using role play is that it is fun.
21


In conclusion, role play is a technique which can develops students’
fluency in target language, promotes students to speak or interact with others
in the classroom, increases motivation and makes the teaching – learning
process more enjoyable.

21
Gillian, Op. Cit, p. 6 - 7
21
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Objective of Study
The objective of study is to know whether the scores of speaking taught
by using role play better or not by comparing the students’ scores before and
after being taught by using role play technique.

B. Place and Time of Study
This research was taken in Islamic Junior High School Soebono
Mantofani at Jl. Sumatera No. 75 Jombang – Ciputat, Tangerang, on
September 20
th
to December 14
th
2006.
1. School’s Profile
MTs. Soebono Mantofani is the first formal education institute in
Soebono Mantofani Foundation. Besides MTs., this foundation has also
established Islamic Kindergarten (RA) and Islamic Senior High School
(MA). In informal education, it has been established an Islamic Boarding
School, Madrasah Diniyah, Majlis Taklim and Computer Education
Institute. Soebono Mantofani Foundation was established by Hj. Titi Sri
Sulaksmi Soebono Mantofani in memory of her loving husband Brigjen.
Soebono Mantofani S. H. on 7
th
May 1994.
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22
About a year later this foundation established MTs. Soebono
Mantofani. It was established on 11
th
March 1995 and has acted to assist
the government in giving equal education opportunity to every child since
the early year. The first students’ acceptance was started in 1995/1996
academic year and succeeded to get 42 students at the age of 12 to 13
years.
At the early year, it didn’t have a building yet. The students studied
inside the Soebono Mantofani Mosque and in the mosque hall. This is one
unfortunate thing that the first year students have to face. But thanks to
Allah, by the end of year 1996 this school has owned a luxury building
with three floors right next to the gateway of Soebono Mantofani campus.
In 1997/1998 academic year, the students of MTs. Soebono
Mantofani got the first rank for the average score of National Final Test
(EBTANAS) in Tangerang Regency level. This EBTANAS was the first
that this school ever follows. It is an outstanding achievement that an
education institute can get at the early age of its birth.
MTs. Soebono Mantofani had succeeded to get various achievements
in the field of academic and creativity and also supported by teaching –
learning activities which conducive. Based on these reasons, Religion
Department accredited MTs. Soebono Mantofani with statistic number
21.2.32.19.06.109 and got equal status. Until now, this school has
established for 12 years.
23
The vision of Soebono Mantofani Education institute is poured in a
basic framework formulation which is called Tri Matra Visi. It contains
IMAN, IPTEK and IHSAN. While its missions are to improve Islamic
knowledge and apply it, to create qualified and democratic education
system and climate, to increase qualified human resources and to create an
integrated curriculum between Islamic education and science technology.
The amount of students in 2006/2007 academic year is 341 students.
There are 9 classes in this school, 4 classes in 7
th
grade, 2 classes in 8
th

grade and 3 classes in 9
th
grade. Here is the detail based on the gender.
Table 1
No. Class Male Female Total
1.
VII.1
VII.2
VII.3
VII.4
22
20
21
19
20
22
21
24
42
42
42
43
2.
VIII.1
VIII.2
16
19
18
15
34
34
3.
IX.1
IX.2
IX.3
17
20
20
19
14
14
36
34
34
Total 174 167 341

There are 22 teachers and employee in MTs. Soebono Mantofani.
They come from different education backgrounds. Here is the list based on
their position in this school and their education background.


24
Table 2
No. Name
Education
Background
Position Duty
1. Dra. Siti Abidah Thohayah IIQ Principal Aqidah Akhlak
2. Drs. Sutarto M.Pd. IKIP Vice Principal MTK
3. Syaefullah UIN Vice Principal SKI
4. Nurul Khoiriyah S.Pd. UNJ Homeroom Teacher IPS
5. Suyatno S.Pd. UTP Homeroom Teacher Penjas
6. Ike Handayani S.Ag. IAIN Homeroom Teacher Fiqh/Qurdits
7. Dra. Tuty Rahayu IAIN Homeroom Teacher B.Inggris
8. Ida Farida STKIP K Homeroom Teacher PPKN
9. Wadi’in S.Pd. UIN Homeroom Teacher B. Arab
10. Sumardi S.Ag. IAIN Teacher B. Indonesia
11. Ahmad Baihaqi S.H.I. PTIQ Homeroom Teacher Mulok
12. Heriyanto S.Pd. UIN Homeroom Teacher IPA
13. Abdul Azis S.Pd. UIN Homeroom Teacher MTK
14. Djayadi UIN Head of the Lab. TIK
15. Rina Fakhriyani S.Pd. UPI Teacher B. Indonesia
16. Yumaenah S.Pd. IAIN Teacher B. Inggris/IPS
17. Ayu Diyah Harni Susanti UIN Teacher B. Inggris
18. Mustain S.Ag. UIN Teacher KTK
19. Suryati UIN Administration T.U. Keu
20. Iman Darojah UIN Administration T.U. Keu
21. Dashwira Nofiandi UNPAM Administration Sekretaris
22. Sudarnoto - Cleaning Service
Cleaning
Service

2. School’s Facilities
Soebono Mantofani Foundation’s land area was bought in 1991. It is
17, 238 of square meters large. While the width of MTs. building is 48 x13
square meters. It was built in 1996. Below is the specification of MTs.
Soebono Mantofani facilities.


25
Table 3
No. Facilities Total
1. School Building 1
2. Classroom 9
3. Praying Room/Mosque 2
4. Principal’s Room 1
5. Teachers’ Room 1
6. Library 1
7. Teacher’s Restroom 2
8. Students’ Restroom 4
9. Hall 1
10. Computer Lab. 1
11. Science and Biology Lab. 1
12. School Yard 1
13. Canteen 1
14. Announcement Board 5
15. Administration Room 2
16. Securities’ Room 1
17. OSIS Room 1
18. Flagpole 1

C. Research Method
In this research, the writer used pre-experiment method by using “one
group pre-test and post-test design,” where the writer did an experiment in a
single group only.

D. Population and Sampling
The population of this research is the students of ninth grade in Islamic
Junior High School (MTs.) Soebono Mantofani Jombang – Ciputat. There are
three classes in this grade and the amount of students is 104. The writer
26
chooses IX.1 class with 30 students as the sample to observe by using cluster
random sampling.

E. Instrumentation
To know the effectiveness of teaching speaking by using role play, the
writer gives oral test to the students. Because the test is oral test, the writer
divided the score into five criteria, which are the scores of pronunciation,
grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension. Each criteria, then, is rated
into five scale of rating scores, it is based on David P. Haris’ scale rating scores.
1

After that, to get the mean, the scores from all criteria are sum and
divided into five. The pre-test had been given before the treatment was given.
Moreover, the post-test was given after he had given the treatment to the class.

F. Procedures of Data Collecting
One important thing in this research is to collect the data that can determine
the result of the research. The procedures of data collecting used in this research
are:
1. Greeting
On this occasion, teacher greets and asks about the students’ condition.
The teacher also reviews their previous lesson. These are done in order to

1
David P. Haris, Testing English as a Second Language, (New York: Mc. Graw Hill Book Company,
1969), p. 84-85
27
warm up the situation. After that the teacher tells the students what they are
going to learn or to do on that day.
2. Pre-Test
The writer gives the pre-test to the students. The pre-test is in oral test
form. The test consists of 10 questions. The scores are taken in five criteria,
which are the scores of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and
comprehension. Then, to get the mean, the scores from all criteria are sum and
divided into five.
3. Presentation Stage
In the presentation stage, the teacher assigns roles to the students and
divides them into three groups. Then, the teacher explains their roles, the
situation that the students have to do in the role play and the goal or outcome
that they have to get. The teacher also must not forget to clarify the cues and
gives the example/model of the roles that the students play. Finally, the
teacher sets the time limit and encourages students to be creative and use their
own language resources.
Below are the brief explanations of the presentation stage activities.
Table 4
No. Teacher Activities Students Activities
1.
Teacher tells the students about
what they are going learn or to
do on that day such as
following: “Today we are going
to practice our speaking by
Students listen carefully to the
teacher and ask if there is
something they don’t understand
such as following: ”What is role
play Miss? And why does it call
28
using role play activities. The
title of our role play is
consequences role play.”
consequences role play?”
2.
Teacher asks the students to
prepare a piece of paper. On
this paper, the teacher asks
them to write the following
things:
a. The name of a celebrity or
an idol (movie star, singer,
model, or public figure) that
they don’t like most with the
same gender to themselves.
b. The name of their favorite
celebrity or their idol but the
opposite gender to
themselves.
c. A number between 1 to 9.
d. The names of fruits, the
same number as mentioned
in the number above.
e. A job they don’t like.
f. Their favorite job that they
would like to do.
g. A description of their dream
house, for example is by the
sea side, in the mountain, or
near by the river, etc.
h. Finally, they describe what
country they would really
like to live in.
Students prepare a piece of paper
and write eight points that the
teacher has told them.
3.
Teacher ask the students to
change character to the person
they have described on the piece
of paper. Here are the points
above mean:
a. This is their name.
b. This is their husband’s or
wife’s first name.
c. This indicates the number of
children they have.
d. This indicates the children’s
The students change character to
the person they have described on
the piece of paper and try to
remember it.

29
names.
e. This is their job.
f. This is their husband’s or
wife’s job.
g. This describes the family
house and tells the listener
where it located.
h. This last point tells what
country they come from.
4.
The teacher divides the class
into three groups. Then, the
teacher tells them to read
through the points and asks
them to act as if they were in a
party where they are meeting
famous people. In the party
they have to introduce
themselves to several people as
this person. They have to
practice it when the role play
has started.
Students separated into three
groups. Each group has 10 pupils.
They read through the text and
listen to the teacher’s explanations
about what they have to do with
their character.
5.
Teacher tells the students the
goal of this role play, which is
to get as much as information
about the people in the party.
All these activities are done in
each group.
Students listen carefully and take
notes about the goal of the role
play.
6.
The students need to share the
conversation and be interactive
to reach the goal. Therefore,
the teacher gives them cues by
giving them vocabulary,
grammar, idiomatic expressions
and sentences that might be
used in the conversation.
Students take notes about the cues,
study and memorize it.
7.
The teacher demonstrates how
the conversation might occur
such as following: “Hello,
allow me to introduce my self.
I’m Paris Hilton, how do you
do?”
Students pay attention to the
teacher.
8. The teacher gives the students Students work individually to
30
some time to prepare and let
them work individually to
outline their ideas and the
language they will need to
express.
prepare themselves in the role
play.
9.
The teacher sets the time limit
for the role play. For this role
play the teacher limits the time
20 to 30 minutes.
Students take notes the time limit
and remember it.
10.
The teacher reminds the
students to use their own
English language resources and
try to act as natural as possible.
Students prepare themselves to use
their own English language
resources and also prepare their
mental to act as natural as possible
in the role play.
11.
Before the role play begins, the
teacher asks the students
whether they understand clearly
or not about what they have to
do in the role play activity.
Students answer the teacher’s
question whether they understand
or not and ask to the teacher if
they don’t understand.

The method that was used in this presentation stage is discourse method
that is submitting information or description concerning with the root of
matter verbally.
4. Practice Stage
In this stage, the teacher asks the students to begin the role play while
she goes around the class checking and giving help as the students needed.
Here are the brief explanations of the activities.
Table 5
No. Teacher Activities Students Activities
1.
Teacher goes around the class
coming to each group checking
and giving help as the students
needed.
Students begin the role play as the
teacher has explained before.
2. While checking the students, the Students do the role play by
31
teacher only gives help to the
students if it really necessary or
when the students ask for it.
themselves and only ask for help
to the teacher if they really need it.
3.
Teacher does not correct the
students’ error in grammar or
pronunciation if the others can
still understand what they mean.
Students help each other in each
group if one of them is having
trouble in speaking.
4.
Teacher lets the students do the
role play without her interfere.
Students do their best in the role
play by using their own language
resources.

The method that was used in this stage is experiment method. It was
used to make the students able to communicate with others by using their own
language based on the cues that had been given by the teacher before.
5. Production Stage
In this stage, the teacher asks the students about the outcome of their
role play. Next, the teacher gives feedback on grammar or pronunciation
problems that she heard. Below are the explanations of this stage:
Table 6
No. Teacher Activities Students Activities
1.
Teacher asks one of them to
represent his/her own group to
report all information that he/she
gets from the role play.
Each group sent their
representation to report the
information or the goal that he/she
gets from the role play.
2.
Teacher giving feedback on
grammar or pronunciation
problems that she herds during
the role play.
Students pay attention, listen
carefully, and take notes to the
teacher’s explanations.

32
The method that was used in this final stage is dialogue method. It was
used to know the students’ speaking ability and their understanding concerned
with the subject.
6. Post-Test
The writer gives the post-test to the students. The test is similar with the
pre-test. However, the post-test is given after the treatment had been done by
teaching speaking using role play. The scores are taken in five criteria, which
are the scores of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency and
comprehension. Then, to get the mean, the scores from all criteria are sum and
divided into five.
7. Closure
In this final stage, the teacher concludes the lesson on that day. The
teacher also has to find out the students’ response according to the role play
that they have done and closes the lesson by saying “Alhamdulillah” together.

G. Technique of Data Analysis
Having got the data from pre-test, they were analyzed and processed by
using statistic calculation of T-test formula with significance degree 5% and 1%.
2

The formula as follows:
MD
SE
MD
to=


2
Prof. Dr. Sugiyono, Statistik Penelitian, (Bandung: Alpabeta, 2004) lampiran
33
to : Test observation
MD : Mean of differences; the average score from the differences gained scores
between I variable and II variable, which are calculated with the formula;
¿
=
N
D
MD

∑D : Total score between I variable (X variable) and II variable (Y variable).
And D is gained with formula; D = X-Y
N : Number of cases
SD
D
: The standard deviation from differences between score of X variable and
Y variable, which is gained with the formula;
2
2
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
¿ ¿
N
D
N
D
SD
D

SE
MD
: The standard error from mean of differences that is gained with the
formula;
1 ÷
=
N
SD
SE
D
MD
df : Degree of freedom with formula: N-1
34
CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDINGS

A. Description of Data
After conducting the research, the writer obtained two kinds of data; the
scores of pre-test and the scores of post-test.
1. The Pre-Test Scores
The data of the pre-test scores can be seen in the table 7 below:
Table 7
No. Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension Total
1. 60 60 62 60 60 302
2. 66 60 70 65 70 331
3. 84 75 80 83 80 402
4. 62 62 65 60 64 313
5. 78 70 77 75 80 380
6. 75 70 76 73 78 372
7. 80 72 78 75 80 385
8. 65 60 63 63 65 316
9. 70 65 70 70 70 345
10. 90 85 90 90 90 445
11. 73 68 70 70 75 356
12. 68 65 70 70 70 343
13. 62 62 68 63 66 321
14. 83 86 85 80 90 424
15. 73 73 75 70 75 366
16. 60 60 63 62 63 308
17. 68 70 78 65 75 356
18. 70 69 74 73 70 356
19. 80 74 77 82 80 393
20. 70 70 75 70 78 363
21. 77 80 80 75 80 392
22. 64 60 70 62 67 323
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35
23. 60 60 65 60 64 309
24. 67 66 70 65 70 338
25. 85 80 90 84 85 424
26. 72 70 80 70 75 367
27. 63 70 70 64 77 344
28. 75 70 78 76 75 374
29. 72 75 75 70 75 367
30. 60 60 64 62 65 311

After the data is analyzed, it shows that the mean ( x ) is 357,53 the
standard deviation is 37,540 the median is 356 the highest score is 445 and
the lowest score is 302.
2. The Post-Test Scores
The data of the post-test score can be seen in the table 8 below:
Table 8
No. Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension Total
1. 60 60 65 62 65 312
2. 66 63 73 65 75 342
3. 85 80 82 85 86 418
4. 63 63 68 62 66 322
5. 80 73 80 75 82 390
6. 78 70 80 73 80 381
7. 80 75 80 75 85 395
8. 67 63 65 66 65 326
9. 70 70 70 75 74 359
10. 92 90 90 95 90 457
11. 73 70 70 73 75 361
12. 70 67 70 70 73 350
13. 62 62 70 65 68 327
14. 83 86 88 83 90 430
15. 73 73 80 73 75 374
16. 60 60 65 65 63 313
17. 70 73 78 70 75 366
18. 70 74 75 75 75 369
19. 80 75 80 85 83 403
36
20. 72 74 75 72 80 373
21. 80 80 80 77 80 397
22. 65 62 70 62 69 328
23. 60 62 65 60 65 312
24. 70 68 70 66 70 344
25. 85 85 90 86 86 432
26. 72 70 80 75 78 375
27. 64 70 70 65 77 346
28. 75 74 80 76 77 382
29. 72 75 80 70 78 375
30. 60 61 65 62 65 313

After the data is analyzed, it shows that the mean ( x ) is 365,73 the
standard deviation is 38,813 the median is 367,50 the highest score is 457 and
the lowest score is 312.
3. The Comparison of the Test Result
The comparison of the test result can be seen in the table below:
Table 9
No.
Score of Pre-Test
(X)
Score of Post-Test
(Y)
D = (X-Y) D
2
= (X-Y)
2

1. 302 312 -10 100
2. 331 342 -11 121
3. 402 418 -16 256
4. 313 322 -9 81
5. 380 390 -10 100
6. 372 381 -9 81
7. 385 395 -10 100
8. 316 326 -10 100
9. 345 359 -14 196
10. 445 457 -12 144
11. 356 361 -5 25
12. 343 350 -7 49
13. 321 327 -6 36
14. 424 430 -6 36
15. 366 374 -8 64
37
16. 308 313 -5 25
17. 356 366 -10 100
18. 356 369 -13 169
19. 393 403 -10 100
20. 363 373 -10 100
21. 392 397 -5 25
22. 323 328 -5 25
23. 309 312 -3 9
24. 338 344 -6 36
25. 424 432 -8 64
26. 367 375 -8 64
27. 344 346 -2 4
28. 374 382 -8 64
29. 367 375 -8 64
30. 311 313 -2 4
N=
30
∑X = 10726 ∑Y = 10972 ∑D = -246 ∑D
2
= 2342

Based on the data in table 9, the researcher calculated the result of ∑D =
-246 and ∑D
2
= 2342. Then, she tried to find out the standard deviation of
differences (SD
D
) with the formula:

( )
29 , 3
827 , 10
24 , 67 07 , 78
2 , 8 07 , 78
30
246
30
2342
2
2
2
2
=
=
÷ =
÷ ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸
÷
÷ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
¿ ¿
D
D
D
D
D
D
SD
SD
SD
SD
SD
N
D
N
D
SD

To find out the mean of differences (MD) between variable X and Y, the
researcher used the formula:
38

2 , 8
30
246
÷ =
÷
=
=
¿
MD
MD
N
D
MD

After gaining the result of SD
D
= 3,29 the researcher calculated the
standard error from mean of differences (SE
MD
) between variable X and Y:

1
D
MD
SD
SE
N
=
÷


611 , 0
38 , 5
29 , 3
29
29 , 3
1 30
29 , 3
=
=
=
÷
=
MD
MD
MD
MD
SE
SE
SE
SE

The last calculation is determining the result of t observation (to) of the
test with formula:

420 , 13
611 , 0
2 , 8
÷ =
÷
=
=
to
to
SE
MD
to
MD

The result -13,420 indicated that there was a difference of degree as
much as -13,420. Regardless the minus, it doesn’t indicate negative score.
Then, to complete the result of the research, the writer finds out the
degree of freedom (df) with the formula:
39
df = N – 1
= 30 – 1
= 29
df = 29 (see table of “t” value at the degree of significance of 5% and 1%)
At the degree of significance 5% = 2,045
At the degree of significance 1% = 2,756
The result is 2,045 < 13,420 > 2,756
The result of analyzing the data by using the above formula shows that
the coefficient is 13,420. It means that there is a significance increase after the
role play is used to teach speaking.

B. Interpretation
Having analyzed the data of pre-test and post-test by using t-test formula,
the result shows that the coefficient is 13,420. It means that there is a
significance increase in teaching speaking by using role play.
From the result of calculation, it is obtained the value of the t observation
(to) is 13,420 the degree of freedom (df) is 29 (obtained from N-1) = (30 – 1 =
29). The writer used the degree of significance of 5% and 1%. In the table of
significance, it can be seen that on the df 29 and on the degree of significance of
5% and 1%, the value of degree of significance are 2,045 and 2,756. If the to
compared with each value of the degrees of significance, the result is 2,045 <
40
13,420 > 2,756. Since to score obtained from the result of calculating, the
alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected.
1. If the result of t observation is higher than t table (to > tt), the null hypothesis
(Ho) is rejected and alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted. It means that
there is a significance difference between variable X and variable Y.
2. If the result of t observation is lower than t table (to < tt), the null hypothesis
(Ho) is accepted and alternative hypothesis (Ha) is rejected. It means that
there is no significance difference between variable X and variable Y.
Based on the result of the data analysis, it is proven that the students’ score
of speaking taught by using role play is better. It means that the use of role play
in teaching speaking is quite effective. Another reason based on the students’
responses is because most students find that role play is enjoyable. This reason
leads to better attention in learning and stimulate them to participate in role play
activities.
But the problem that they faced mostly is lack of confidence and lack of
vocabulary. In the early stages of the role play the students were uncomfortable
and uncertain. This led to initial lapses of silence. But soon they began helping
one another to decide who should speak. Towards the end, their shyness left them
and they began prompting each other with ideas.

41
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
Based on the research, the writer concludes that:
1. From the result of the analysis of the research, it is proven that the students’
score of speaking taught by using role play is better. This result has answered
the research question that the use of role play in teaching speaking is quite
effective.
2. The use of role play makes the speaking and learning activity more enjoyable
and interesting. It’s because role play helps the shy students by providing a
mask, where students with difficulty in conversation are liberated. In addition,
it is fun and most students will agree that enjoyment leads to better learning.
3. In role play, the world of the classroom is broadened to include the outside
world. This offers a much wider range of language opportunities. So, the
students can be anyone and in any situation they wish.
4. The use of role play makes the class more active and alive. Students are
willing to participate without any forces from the teacher.
5. The use of role play makes the students more motivated in learning and easier
to grasp the lesson.
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42
6. Problems that the students faced mostly in role play are lack of confidence
and lack of vocabulary.

B. Suggestion
The success in teaching doesn’t depend on the lesson program only, but
more important is how the teacher presents the lesson and uses various techniques
to manage the class more lively and enjoyable. Regarding to the teaching
speaking by using role play, the writer gives some suggestion for the teacher and
students as follow:
For the teacher:
1. The teacher should choose the materials that are appropriate and not too
difficult for the students.
2. Before assigning the role play to the students, the teacher should make sure
that the students have fully understood and have the information they need.
3. The teacher should keep control the students’ activities.
4. The teacher should present the language in an enjoyable, relaxed and
understandable way.
For the students:
1. The students are hoped not to be shy in acting out their role.
2. The students are hoped to be active and creative in enriching their
vocabularies.
43
3. The students are hoped to use English when they practice role play activities
although it is hard for them.
4. The students should take part much in acting out role play.
5. The students should ask to the teacher if there is something that they don’t
understand regarding to the role play activities.
44
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Budden, Joanna, Role Play. UK, London: BBC, 2006.

Byrne, Donn, Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English
Teacher. Singapore: Longman Group, 1986.

Chaney, A.L., T.L. Burke, Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998.

Crookal, D. and R.L. Oxford, Simulation, Gaming and Language Learning.
New York: Newbury House, 1990.

Doff, Adrian, Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers Trainer’s
Handbooks. The British Council: Cambridge University Press Inc., 1988.

Donough, Jo Mc. and Christoper Show, Material and Method in ELT: Applied
Language Studies. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1993.

Edge, Julian, Essential of English Language Teaching. Longman, 1993.

Haris, David P, Testing English as a Second Language, New York: Mc. Graw
Hill Book Company, 1969.

Harmer, Jeremy, The Practice of English Language Teaching: Longman
Handbooks for Language Teaching. USA: Longman Inc., 1983.

Huebner, Theodore, Audio Visual Technique in Foreign Language. New
York: Cambridge University Press, 1960.

id2048531 pdfMachine by Broadgun Software - a great PDF writer! - a great PDF creator! - http://www.pdfmachine.com http://www.broadgun.com
45
House, Susan, An Introduction to Teaching English to Children. Richmond
Publishing, 1997.

J.S. Atherton, Learning and Teaching: Exercises: Role Play. United
Kingdom, 2003.

Kayi, Hayriye, Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a
Second Language. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XII, No. 11, November 2006.

Klancar, Natasa Intihar, Developing Speaking Skills in the Young Learner
Classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XII, No. 11, November 2006.

Krish, Pramela, A role Play Activity with Distance Learners in an English
Language Classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VIII, No. 7, July 2001.

Kusnadi, The Application of Role Play As a Technique in Teaching Practical
Conversation. Jakarta: UIN Syahid, 2002.

Ladousse, Gillian Porter, Role Play: Resources Book for the Teacher Series.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Mahmudin, Dani, Using Role Play Activities in Developing Speaking Abiity
for Children. Jakarta: UIN Syahid, 2004.

Mc Camley, Margot, Consequences Role Play. UK, London: BBC, 2006.

M. Ed., Dr. Engkoswara, Dasar-dasar Metodologi Pengajaran. Jakarta: Bina
Aksara, 1984.

Oxford Advanced Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 1995.

46
Procter, Paul (Ed), Cambridge International Dictionary of English. New
York: Cambridge University Press. 1996.

Sugiyono, Prof. Dr., Statistik Penelitian, Bandung: Alphabeta, 2004.

Sumardi., Muljanto Dr., Pengajaran Bahasa Asing. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang,
1974.

The National Capital Language Resource Center. Washington DC., 2004.

Tim Penyusun Yayasan Soebono mantofani, Yayasan Soebono Mantofani 10
Tahun Membangun Kemandirian. Ciputat, 18 Januari 2004.

Tompkins, Patricia K., Role Play/Simulation. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol.
IV, No. 8, August 1998.

Wachs, Stewart, Bones of Contention: “Listed” Role Plays for Students of
Oral English. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. III, No. 9, September 1997.

USING ROLE PLAY IN TEACHING SPEAKING
(A Pre-Experimental Study at Islamic Junior High School Soebono Mantofani Jombang-Ciputat)

A Paper (Skripsi) Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training in a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana (S1)

By: Ayu Diyah Harni Susanti NIM: 102014023728

Advisor:

Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd. NIP. 150.041.070

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY 2007 M / 1428 H

LEGALIZATION OF EXAMINATION COMMITTEE A ‘skripsi’ titled “USING ROLE PLAY IN TEACHING SPEAKING (A Pre-Experimental Study at Islamic Junior High School Soebono Mantofani Jombang-Ciputat)” was examined at examination session of the Faculty of Tarbiyah of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta on 11 June 2007. This ‘skripsi’ has fulfilled the requirements for the Degree of Strata-1 (S1) at the English Education Department. Jakarta, 11 June 2007

Examination Committee The Head of Committee The Secretary of Committee

Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, MA. NIP. 150 231 356

Prof. Dr. H. Aziz Fahrurrozi, MA. NIP. 150 202 343

Committeemen

Examiner I

Examiner II

Dr. Didik Santoso, M.Pd.

Drs. H. Ahmad Zaenuri, M.Pd.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the Name of Allah The Beneficent and The Merciful. Praise be to Allah Lord of the world who has bestowed upon the writer in completing this skripsi. Peace and blessing upon our prophet Muhammad SAW, his families, his companion and his followers. This skripsi is presented to the English Department of the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ training State Islamic University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of strata I (SI). This skripsi cannot be completed without a great deal of help from many people, especially Mr. Nasrun Mahmud M.Pd. as advisor who always gives his valuable help, guidance, correction and suggestion for the completion of this skripsi. Her deepest gratitude also goes to those who have helped her in finishing this skripsi, amomg others: 1. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada M.A., the Dean of Tarbiyah Faculty and Teacher’s Training. 2. All lecturers and staff in English Department who had given their valuable advice and cooperation. 3. UIN Central Library (Mr. Alwi), Tarbiyah Faculty Library (Mrs. Maryani), AMINEF Library (Mr. Rizal) and Atma Jaya Language Library for their cooperation and permission to use their books.

i

4.

Dra. Siti Abidah Thohayah as the Principal of MTs. Soebono Mantofani, Drs. Sutarto M.Pd. as her private teacher, her fellow teachers and her dearest students, thank you for their cooperation and pray.

5. Her beloved parents (R. Tardi Wasito A.S. and Sufiyah) and brothers (Mikail Alba R.F. and Ibnu Ahmad R.F.) who always give their materials, prays, motivation and moral encouragement to finish her study. 6. Her best friend A. Syauqi Muharrom and Leny, thanks for their help, patience and care to support the writer. 7. All her friends in UIN Syahid, good luck to them. 8. All the people who have helped the writer to finish her study that she cannot mention one by one. May Allah, The almighty bless them all, Amien.

Jakarta, May 2007

The Writer

ii

............................................... 6 1.................................. Teaching Speaking . 9 4............................. i TABLE OF CONTENTS............................. C............... E............... Definition of Role Play .............. 3 Objective of Study.......................................... Role Play .................................................. 4 Method of Study....... Type and Procedures in Using Role Play............................... 19 iii ................................... CHAPTER II Background of Study .............................................................. Limitation and Formulation of Problem........ D.......... Speaking... 4 Organization of Writing ............TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT........ 7 3........... iii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A..................... Significance of Role Play in Teaching Speaking..................... 13 1......... 4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A................ 1 Identification.................... 13 2... Definition of Speaking ............................. 6 2.................................................................. Guidance for Teachers in Teaching Speaking .............................. Activities to Promote Speaking........................................... 16 3.................. B................. 12 B................................................

.. Interpretation……………………………………………................................................................................ 25 Population and Sampling ......................... 26 Technique of Data Analysis……………………………....... 26 Procedures of Data Collecting .......... D.. 42 BIBLIOGRAPHY .... 44 APPENDIX iv ..................... F.......................... E................................ 34 B........................................................ 25 Instrumentation ............................................................. Description of Data……………………………………….....CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A.... C........................... 39 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A...... B........ Conclusion ....... 32 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS A.................... 41 Suggestion ........................ 21 Place and Time of Study ........................... G................................................................................................. Objective of Study.... B.... 21 Research Method..........................

for example if they cannot learn enough English. Based on the reasons above. (Longman: 1993). English spread around the world. Essential of English Language Teaching.”1 In the international relationship. English serves for many times many more people as a barrier between themselves and those some fields of interest. many people in their own countries will not be able to become doctors. in recent years. English speaking ability is very important to be able to participate in the wider world of work. Then the military and economic dominance of the United States of America has confirmed English as the international language of present historical period. The emphasis is not only on linguistic competence of the language 1 Julian Edge.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of Study English becomes the most essential language in the world. It’s because of the importance of English in any scope of our lives. The speaking skill is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language. 25 . This reality makes teachers and parents think that speaking ability should be mastered by their students and children. English language teaching has focused on teach the English language rather than teach about the English language. Almost all the people from many different countries around the world use it to communicate. As a consequence. The area of English has always become a special interest. P. Julian Edge said: “Since British trade. followed by colonial and imperial expansion.

Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. According to Stephen D. In addition. Role play is very important in teaching speaking because it gives students an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and in different social roles. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. Hattings based on his observation in the conversation class. Many techniques can be applied including role play because many research findings say that this technique is effective to use in teaching speaking. In learning speaking skill.2 learners but also on the development of their communicative ability. the role play would seem to be the ideal activity in which students could use their English creatively and it aims to stimulate a conversation situation in which students might find . the material. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. active and interesting manner. it also allows students to be creative and to put themselves in another person’s place for a while. In order to develop the learners' communicative ability. the teacher needs to create a scenario to teach the target language in a vibrant. the students often find some problems.

What are the problems encountered by students in practicing speaking? 2. What is role play? c. B. 1993). Identification. (Cambridge : Blackwell. Tangerang. the writer limits those problems in the use of role play activities in teaching speaking. In this case.2 For these reasons. the writer would like to discuss about: a. 165 . some types and procedures in using role play. the writer is interested in analyzing the use of role play in teaching speaking for the students of the ninth grade in Islamic Junior High School Soebono Mantofani Jombang-Ciputat. She also wants to know the advantages and the problems encountered by learners and teachers in using it. What is speaking? b.3 themselves and give them an opportunity to practice and develop their communication skill. Limitation of Problem To clarify the problem. Limitation and Formulation of Problem 1. Identification of Problem There are many problems of language teaching that can be identified as research subjects. the basic concept of speaking. p. Donough and Christoper Show. Material and Method in ELT: Applied Language Studies. 2 Jo MC.

4 3. method of study. It includes background of study. the writer collected the data by teaching and observing the subjects. Organization of Writing This skripsi is systematically divided into five chapters. Objective of Study From the previous discussion in the background of study. identification. the writer would like to prove whether the scores of speaking taught by using role play better or not. The writer also wants to know the process of role play activities. limitation and formulation of study. . Chapter One: Introduction. D. The study is based on both library and a field research. Therefore. In the field research. and organization of writing. The following is short description about what each chapter contains. the writer finds out that using role play in teaching speaking is quite effective. objective of study. Formulation of Problem Are the scores of speaking taught by using role play better or not? C. Method of Study The method that is used in this study is a quantitative method. E.

research method. . Chapter Four: Research Findings. definition of role play. instrumentation. It includes description of data and interpretation. population and sampling. It discusses about speaking. procedures of data collecting and technique of data analysis. activities to promote speaking. It also discusses about role play. It contains conclusion and suggestion from the writer based on the previous discussion. Chapter Five: Conclusion and Suggestion. place and time of study. It includes objective of study. Chapter Three: Research Methodology. and significance of role play in teaching speaking. types and procedures in using role play. teaching speaking.5 Chapter Two: Theoretical Framework. definition of speaking. and guidance for teachers in teaching speaking.

L. Burke. speaking is “the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols.6 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK A. it primarily a 1 Oxford Advanced Dictionary. p. 13 2 . Chaney and T. And according to him.”2 While another expert. physiological (articulator) and physical (acoustic) stages. 13 A. speaking is a skill used by someone in daily life communication whether at school or outside. 1998). Speaking 1. feelings. (Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Definition of Speaking In Oxford Advanced Dictionary the definition of speaking is “to express or communicate opinions. Theodore Huebner said “Language is essentially speech. ideas. by or as talking and it involves the activities in the part of the speaker as psychological. in a variety of contexts. p. and speech is basically communication by sounds”. The skill is acquired by much repetition.”1 According to Chaney. Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8. L. etc.

today's world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students' communicative skills. it can be inferred that speaking is expressing ideas. 1960) p. opinions. Theodore Huebner. because. Teaching Speaking Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching.7 neuromuscular and not an intellectual process. 5 3 . to persuade. Audio Visual Technique in Teaching Foreign Language. intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language. What is Teaching Speaking? What is meant by teaching speaking is to teach English language learners to: 1) Produce the English speech sounds and sounds patterns. and to entertain that can be learnt by using some teaching – learning methodologies. or feelings to others by using words or sounds of articulation in order to inform. only in that way. for many years.3 From the above definition. Despite its importance. teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues. (New York: Cambridge University Press. It consists of competence in sending and receiving messages. students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance. 2. 2) Use words and sentence stress. a. However.

chants. 1 5 4 . Vol. http://iteslj. such as dialogues.8 3) Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting. 11. expand and grow. Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language. expectations. which is called fluency. students speaking abilities grow.org/Articles/Kayi-Teaching Speaking. 4) Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence. With the help of mixed activities. their pronunciation gets better and their awareness of the language improves. How to Teach Speaking? When teaching young learners we constantly have to keep in mind the fact that what we have in front of us is a mixed class with varied abilities. since young learners repeat exactly what they hear. Internet TESL Journal. No. 1 .5 Young learners are like sponges. Thus clear and correct pronunciation is of vital importance. different learning styles. (Nunan 2003)4 b. p. The Internet TESL Journal. No.html. Thus. 5) Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments. XII. p. motivation level. audience.2 Natasa Intihar Klancar. poems and rhymes. When applying Hayriye Kayi. Vol.html. November 2006. http://iteslj. Developing Speaking Skills in the Young Learners Classroom. 6) Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses. knowledge and last but not least. 11. they soak up everything we say and how we say it.org/Techniques/Klancar-Speaking Skills. we need to vary our approaches and offer as much opportunity as possible to make the whole class find a little something to hold on to. XII. What has been learned at an early stage is difficult to change later on. November 2006. choral revision. songs. situation and subject matter. One rule that applied here is slowly and steadily through constant revision and recycling.

. ESL teachers should create a classroom environment where students have real-life communication. and meaningful tasks that promote oral language. 3. In brief. This can occur when students collaborate in groups to achieve a goal or to complete a task. By using this method in ESL classes. students will have the opportunity of communicating with each other in the target language.9 the above-mentioned tools into the teaching practice.6 Now many linguistics and English as second language (ESL) teachers agree on that students learn to speak in the second language by "interacting". Communicative language teaching and collaborative learning serve best for this aim. Activities to Promote Speaking There are many activities to promote speaking. increased oral emphasis should be included in our teaching to give the students as much speaking time as possible. which are: 6 Ibid. there are thirteen activities to promote speaking. authentic activities. Therefore. Communicative language teaching is based on reallife situations that require communication. what should be kept in mind is that interaction is an important way of learning. As Hayriye Kayi inferred from many linguistics on her article in the internet on Teaching English as A Second Language (TESL) Journal.

the teacher gives information to the learners such as who they are and what they think or feel. e. either individual or group brainstorming is effective and learners generate ideas quickly and freely. each partner plays an important role because the task cannot be completed if the partners do not provide the information the others need.10 a. Before the discussion. students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. It is a good idea that the teacher provides a rubric to students so that they know what type of questions they can ask or what path to follow. One student will have the information that other partner does not have and the partners will share their information. g. It also helps students express ideas in the format of beginning. Simulations Simulations are very similar to role-plays but what makes simulations different than role plays is that they are more elaborate. The good characteristic of brainstorming is that the students are not criticized for their ideas so students will be open to sharing new ideas. development. you go to the doctor and tell him what happened last night. she brings a microphone to sing and so on. . In role-play activities. Thus. Depending on the context. Storytelling Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from somebody beforehand. For instance. and…" (Harmer. Story telling fosters creative thinking. Discussion After a content-based lesson. or find solutions in their discussion groups. Information Gap In this activity. and ending. Brain Storming On a given topic. students are supposed to be working in pairs. In this way. Also. In simulations. or they may create their own stories to tell their classmates. 1984) c. the teacher can tell the student that "You are David. The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion. students can produce ideas in a limited time. including the characters and setting a story has to have. share ideas about an event. the discussion points are relevant to this purpose. it is essential that the purpose of the discussion activity is set by the teacher. b. if a student is acting as a singer. Information gap activities serve many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information. f. d. Interviews Students can conduct interviews on selected topics with various people. so that students do not spend their time chatting with each other about irrelevant things. Role Play Students pretend they are in various social contexts and have a variety of social roles. a discussion can be held for various reasons.

and card represent best teacher. each student can present his or her study to the class. then a spokesperson for each group describes the picture to the whole class. Story Completion For this activity. Each student is supposed to add from four to ten sentences. After interviews. they report to their friends what they find as the most interesting news. students can interview each other and "introduce" his or her partner to the class. Picture Describing For this activity students can form groups and each group is given a different picture. l. each student starts to narrate from the point where the previous one stopped. but students should prepare their own interview questions. students ask open-ended questions to each other so that they reply in complete sentences. students should form groups of four. Picture Narrating This activity is based on several sequential pictures. because by saying yes or no students get little practice in spoken language production. hearts represent love and relationships. Then. events. a teacher starts to tell a story. Then. Each suit will represent a topic. Reporting Before coming to class. This activity fosters the creativity and imagination of the learners as well as their public speaking skills. Rather. However.11 h. but after a few sentences he or she stops narrating. the teacher should state at the very beginning of the activity that students are not allowed to prepare yes-no questions. here are some possible questions: “Is money important in your life? Why?” or “What is the easiest way of earning money?” or “What do you think about lottery?” Etc. Moreover. Rubrics can include the vocabulary or structures they need to use while narrating. k. spades represent an unforgettable memory. in class. Students can add new characters. For example: if the topic "diamonds: earning money" is selected. i. . j. Students discuss the picture with their groups. Playing Cards In this game. Students can also talk about whether they have experienced anything worth telling their friends in their daily lives before class. students are asked to read a newspaper or magazine and. For instance: diamonds represent earning money. Each student in a group will choose a card. Students are asked to tell the story taking place in the sequential pictures by paying attention to the criteria provided by the teacher as a rubric. each student will write 4-5 questions about that topic to ask the other people in the group. descriptions and so on.

Circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right track and see whether they need your help while they work in groups or pairs. Involve speaking activities not only in class but also out of class. and shared knowledge. Step back and observe students. j. picture of boys playing football and another picture of girls playing tennis. for example. d. Students in pairs discuss the similarities and/or differences in the pictures. Reduce teacher speaking time in class while increasing student speaking time. Provide written feedback like "Your presentation was really great. practice different ways of student participation. f. Try to involve each student in every speaking activity. b. Diagnose problems faced by students who have difficulty in expressing themselves in the target language and provide more opportunities to practice the spoken language.8 7 Op. Indicate positive signs when commenting on a student's response. e. I really appreciated your efforts in preparing the materials and efficient use of your voice…" g.12 m. i. p. It was a good job. h. Cit. Correction should not distract student from his or her speech. k. p. contact parents and other people who can help. Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in speaking activities. Find the Differences For this activity students can work in pairs and each couple is given two different pictures. Ask eliciting questions such as "What do you mean? How did you reach that conclusion?" in order to prompt students to speak more. Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes very often while they are speaking.7 4. authentic materials and tasks. for this aim. Provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target language by providing a rich environment that contains collaborative work. c. Guidance for Teachers in Teaching Speaking Here is some guidance for English language teachers while teaching oral language: a. 2 – 5 Ibid. 5-6 8 .

(New York: Oxford University Press. Gillian Porter Ladousse illustrated that when students assume a ‘Role’. simulation is a broader concept than role playing.D.. 3 11 10 9 . however. R. Role Play 1.9 In this case. (New York: Newbury House. 1996). they play a part (either their own or somebody else’s) in specific situation. Oxford (Eds. role play.13 B. and role playing game. Role Play: Resources Books for Teacher Series. Simulations are complex lengthy and relatively Paul Procter (Ed. L. Crookal and R. Gaming. role defined as the person whom an actor represents in a film or play.11 There seem to be some agreement. “role play simulation. there is a little consensus on the terms used in the role playing and simulation literature. Definition of Role Play In Cambridge International Dictionary of English. 5 Crookal. (New York: Cambridge University Press. p. simulationgame. 123 Gillian Porter Ladusse. Simulation. p.). and Oxford. ‘Play’ means that is taken on in a safe environment in which students are as an inventive and playful as possible. while role play is a method of acting out particular ways of behaving or pretending to be other people who deal with new situations. A few of the terms often used interchangeably are.). games. 1995). p. and Language Learning. In D. It is used in training courses language learning and psychotherapy.10 According to Crookal and Oxford. 1990). Linking Language Learning And Simulation/Gaming . simulation. L. Cambridge International Dictionary of English.

role play and simulation. For instance. c. 115 13 . It is also highly flexible. if someone mimes and action. leaving much more scope for the exercise of individual variation.13 Both role play and simulation are commonly used in foreign language classes to facilitate communicative competence. Another definition is stated by Joanna Budden in British Council Teaching English (BBC) on her article with the title ‘Role Play’. for this activity the participants normally discuss a problem of some kind with some setting that has been defined for them. this activity leads naturally on to talk). Cit. Simulation. on the other hand. It is performing actions without using words. can be a quite simple and brief technique to organize. In details. She said that role-play is any speaking activity when you either put yourself into somebody 12 Op. They are mime (mimicry-memorization). the others try to guess what it is. Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher. He distinguished the terms as follows: a. he described that there are three terms to cover the drama activities. However. p. Role play. (Singapore: Longman Group.14 inflexible events. this involves role play as defined above. Mime. the participant interact either as themselves in imaginary situations. Whereas mime seems more appropriate as a language game. Donn Byrne gave comments that role play is a part of drama activity. initiative and imagination. Role play. And role play also included in simulation as well. the participants perform actions without using words (although as we shall see. Donn Byrne.12 In defining role play. 1986). b.

and can create the motivation and involvement necessary for learning to occur. 'Looking for lost property' are all possible roleplays. lets students develop and practice new language and behavioural skills in a relatively non-threatening setting.15 else's shoes. Role Play. the choice is endless. the Queen. the writer views that role play is a technique which involves fantasy or imagination to be someone else or to be ourselves in a specific situation for a while. It aims at the students to encourage thinking and creativity. a millionaire.16 From those explanation above. Ibid. Students can also take on the opinions of someone else. 14 Joanna Budden. 'At the restaurant'. 15 16 . improvising dialogue and creating a real world in scenario. (BBC – British Council Teaching English) Ibid. 15 Functional language for a multitude of scenarios can be activated and practiced through role play in imaginary situations. 'Checking in at the airport'. or when you stay in your own shoes but put yourself into an imaginary situation. 'For and against' debates can be used and the class can be split into those who are expressing views in favour and those who are against the theme.14 What is meant by imaginary people is that students can become anyone they like for a short time. a pop star…. The President.

which are fictitious. In details. Gillian explained that there are several types of role. according to Donn Byrne. The last type is fantasy roles. or salesman traveling abroad. role play can be grouped into two forms. The third type is the type that few students will ever experience directly themselves. scripted and unscripted role play. 13 . The first is the roles which correspond to a real need in the students’ lives. Op. 17 In case of role play activities. and possible even absurd. Types and Procedures in Using Role Play In view of the persons taking an actor. p.16 2. In this category. The example which include in this category is a customer complaining or a passenger asking for information. but it is easy to play because the teachers have such vast indirect experience of them. those types of role play activities described as follows: 17 Gillian. imaginary. The television journalist is a good example of this type and it is very useful kind of role taken from real life. Cit. The second type of role is the students play themselves in a variety of situations which may or may not have direct experience. it involves such roles as doctors dealing with patients.

G. Adrian Doff gave an example of scripted role play dialogue and reading text and how the process is: Angela : Good morning. How much does it cost? Clerk : To Singapore? That will be 30 pence. 3) Call two students to the front: one play the role as Angela and the other one is the post office clerk. and ask them to have other conversation based on the prompts. I want to send a letter to Singapore. It’s over there. (Adapted from living English book 2 : A. Angela : (give the clerk 50 pence) Here you are.17 a. go through the prompts one by one. the conversation can be shorter than the presentation dialogue. Clerk : Yes. the teacher guides the role play by writing these prompts: (where? / air mail / how much? / post box? / thanks). 4) Call out a few other pairs of students in turn. Point out that the conversation should be similar to the one in the textbook.18 For more details. and get students to give sentences or question for each one. Op. pleas. The main function of the text after all is to convey the meaning of language items in a memorably way. by the door. 122-123 . Clerk : Here’s your stamp. but not exactly the same. They should improvise the conversation using the prompts to help them. p. Abdalla et al) To demonstrate a role play activity based on the dialogue. Where is the post box? Clerk : You want the air mail box. do you want to send it by air mail or ordinary mail? Angela : I think I’ll send it air mail.19 18 Don Byrne. I want it to get there quickly. Scripted Role Play This type involves interpreting either the textbook dialogue or reading text in the form of speech. It should just cover the main points indicated by the prompts. the procedures given by Adrian Doff is as follows: 1) First. and here’s 20 pence change. Cit. Talk as you write to show what the prompts mean. Angela : Thank you. 2) If necessary.

233 .g. the police officer would asks the students how he or she lost the bag). p. b. the writer views that the ways of organizing this dialogue can be carried out into pairs of students who would improvise a conversation in front of class. and asks for details. by: a) Discussing what the speakers might say (e. In order to do this activity. Unscripted Role Play In contrast to scripted role play. It is known as a free role play or improvisation. He/she is at the police station. 2) The teacher could divide the class into pairs. the situations of unscripted role play do not depend on textbooks. and: a) Let them discuss together what they may say. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Inc. in turns. good preparation from teacher and students is really necessary. To brings out this ideas: 1) The teacher could prepare the whole class. and any key vocabulary. The example and procedures of unscripted role play which is adapted from Adrian Doff’s book are as follows: One student has lost a bag.234 19 . Adrian Doff. The other student is the police officer. The students themselves have to decide what language to use and how the conversation should develop.18 Based on these procedures. b) Writing prompt on the board to guide the role play. The teacher can also ask the students to practice the conversation privately with their partners before they act it out in front of the class. 1988). Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers trainer’s Handbooks. The British Council.

using different words to fill the gaps. those whose finish first can be asked to make up their own role play. d. Significance of Role Play in Teaching Speaking It has been mentioned before in the above discussion that role play is one of the activities to promote speaking. P. Larsen Freeman explained that role plays are important in the communicative approach because they give learners an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and different social roles. Students read and familiarize themselves with the (example) dialogue. before calling on one or two pairs to act out in front of the class. (Richmond Publishing. not just say them but students should read it loudly. Walk around correcting and checking. 23 .20 The above procedures do not mean an exact to be used. c. An Introduction to Teaching English to Children. give A and B roles from the dialogues. opinions. Susan House explained that there are several procedures in using role play: a. 1997). role play uses different 20 Susan House. It is flexible. b.19 b) Let them all try out the role play privately. According to Ladousse. A and B. Through role play activities the students learn how to express ideas. A role play is a highly flexible learning activity which has a wide scope for variation and imagination. 3. teacher can create or develop procedures which is appropriate and suitable with his/her own class. Students swap roles and repeat. Let students act out their role play. or feeling to others by using words or sounds of articulation. e. Divide the class in pairs.

c. d. Several reasons for using role play in teaching speaking quoted from Ladousse as follows: a.21 In conclusion. Here peer learning is encouraged and sharing of responsibility between teacher and the learner in the learning process takes place. Role play helps many shy students by providing them with a mask. Role play puts students in situation in which they are required to use and develop those phatic forms of language which are so necessary in oiling the works of social relationships. role play helps by providing a mask. promotes interaction in the classroom and increases motivation. Cit. Some people are learning English to prepare for specific roles in their lives. increases motivation and makes the teaching – learning process more enjoyable. p. it is fun and most learners will agree that enjoyment leads to better learning. In addition. 6 . It is helpful for these students to have tried out and experimented with the language they will require in the friendly and safe environment of a classroom. Perhaps the most important reason for using role play is that it is fun. Op. As for the shy learners. e. but which are so often neglected by our language teaching syllabuses. promotes students to speak or interact with others in the classroom. where learners with difficulty in conversation are liberated. Role play can improve learners’ speaking skills in any situation. and helps learners to interact. A very wide variety of experience can be brought into the classroom and we can train our students in speaking skill in any situations through role play.20 communicative techniques and develops fluency in the language. role play is a technique which can develops students’ fluency in target language.7 . b. 21 Gillian.

it has been established an Islamic Boarding School. In informal education. Objective of Study The objective of study is to know whether the scores of speaking taught by using role play better or not by comparing the students’ scores before and after being taught by using role play technique. Majlis Taklim and Computer Education Institute. this foundation has also established Islamic Kindergarten (RA) and Islamic Senior High School (MA). B. Besides MTs. Madrasah Diniyah. 75 Jombang – Ciputat. Soebono Mantofani S. Titi Sri Sulaksmi Soebono Mantofani in memory of her loving husband Brigjen. Soebono Mantofani is the first formal education institute in Soebono Mantofani Foundation. Soebono Mantofani Foundation was established by Hj.21 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A.. School’s Profile MTs. . Sumatera No. on 7th May 1994. Tangerang. on September 20th to December 14th 2006. Place and Time of Study This research was taken in Islamic Junior High School Soebono Mantofani at Jl. H. 1.

But thanks to Allah.19. This EBTANAS was the first that this school ever follows.2. This is one unfortunate thing that the first year students have to face. Soebono Mantofani. Soebono Mantofani with statistic number 21. the students of MTs. MTs.06.32. Soebono Mantofani got the first rank for the average score of National Final Test (EBTANAS) in Tangerang Regency level. In 1997/1998 academic year. . by the end of year 1996 this school has owned a luxury building with three floors right next to the gateway of Soebono Mantofani campus. this school has established for 12 years. Religion Department accredited MTs. Soebono Mantofani had succeeded to get various achievements in the field of academic and creativity and also supported by teaching – learning activities which conducive. The first students’ acceptance was started in 1995/1996 academic year and succeeded to get 42 students at the age of 12 to 13 years. It was established on 11th March 1995 and has acted to assist the government in giving equal education opportunity to every child since the early year. it didn’t have a building yet. At the early year.22 About a year later this foundation established MTs.109 and got equal status. It is an outstanding achievement that an education institute can get at the early age of its birth. Based on these reasons. The students studied inside the Soebono Mantofani Mosque and in the mosque hall. Until now.

1 VII.23 The vision of Soebono Mantofani Education institute is poured in a basic framework formulation which is called Tri Matra Visi. Soebono Mantofani.1 VIII. Here is the list based on their position in this school and their education background. IPTEK and IHSAN. There are 22 teachers and employee in MTs.2 IX.2 VII. The amount of students in 2006/2007 academic year is 341 students. to create qualified and democratic education system and climate. 3.1 IX.3 VII. Table 1 No. There are 9 classes in this school. Here is the detail based on the gender. Class VII. 1. 2 classes in 8th grade and 3 classes in 9th grade.2 IX.3 Total Male 22 20 21 19 16 19 17 20 20 174 Female 20 22 21 24 18 15 19 14 14 167 Total 42 42 42 43 34 34 36 34 34 341 2. 4 classes in 7th grade. . It contains IMAN. to increase qualified human resources and to create an integrated curriculum between Islamic education and science technology. They come from different education backgrounds.4 VIII. While its missions are to improve Islamic knowledge and apply it.

While the width of MTs.U. Below is the specification of MTs. Sudarnoto 2. Djayadi UIN 15. Inggris Teacher KTK Administration T. It was built in 1996.H.Ag.24 Table 2 Education Background 1. Keu Administration Sekretaris Cleaning Cleaning Service Service . Drs. Dra. Mustain S. IKIP 3. Indonesia Homeroom Teacher Mulok Homeroom Teacher IPA Homeroom Teacher MTK Head of the Lab. UPI 16. UNJ 5. UIN 14. 238 of square meters large. Position Duty Principal Aqidah Akhlak Vice Principal MTK Vice Principal SKI Homeroom Teacher IPS Homeroom Teacher Penjas Homeroom Teacher Fiqh/Qurdits Homeroom Teacher B. building is 48 x13 square meters. Name 22. It is 17. Dra.Pd. TIK Teacher B. Yumaenah S. Ayu Diyah Harni Susanti UIN 18. UTP 6. UIN 10.Pd. Abdul Azis S. School’s Facilities Soebono Mantofani Foundation’s land area was bought in 1991. Suyatno S.Pd.Pd. Nurul Khoiriyah S.Pd. Siti Abidah Thohayah IIQ 2. IAIN 17. IAIN 7. Sutarto M. Iman Darojah UIN 21.Ag. Ahmad Baihaqi S. Dashwira Nofiandi UNPAM No.U. Wadi’in S. Rina Fakhriyani S. Inggris/IPS Teacher B.Pd.Pd. Keu Administration T.I.Inggris Homeroom Teacher PPKN Homeroom Teacher B. Tuty Rahayu IAIN 8. Soebono Mantofani facilities. Ike Handayani S. Indonesia Teacher B. Heriyanto S. UIN 19.Pd. PTIQ 12. Suryati UIN 20. Arab Teacher B. IAIN 11. Sumardi S. Syaefullah UIN 4.Ag. UIN 13. Ida Farida STKIP K 9.

6.” where the writer did an experiment in a single group only. 15. 17. the writer used pre-experiment method by using “one group pre-test and post-test design. 5. 18. 16. 2. 9. Research Method In this research. 7. Population and Sampling The population of this research is the students of ninth grade in Islamic Junior High School (MTs. 4.25 Table 3 No.) Soebono Mantofani Jombang – Ciputat. The writer . 10. D. 1. There are three classes in this grade and the amount of students is 104. 8. 14. School Yard Canteen Announcement Board Administration Room Securities’ Room OSIS Room Flagpole Total 1 9 2 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 2 1 1 1 C. 11. Facilities School Building Classroom Praying Room/Mosque Principal’s Room Teachers’ Room Library Teacher’s Restroom Students’ Restroom Hall Computer Lab. 12. Science and Biology Lab. 13. 3.

Moreover. Procedures of Data Collecting One important thing in this research is to collect the data that can determine the result of the research.1 After that. is rated into five scale of rating scores. The pre-test had been given before the treatment was given. (New York: Mc. the writer gives oral test to the students. Testing English as a Second Language. 84-85 . grammar. it is based on David P. the post-test was given after he had given the treatment to the class. which are the scores of pronunciation.1 class with 30 students as the sample to observe by using cluster random sampling. The procedures of data collecting used in this research are: 1. Because the test is oral test. Greeting On this occasion. Haris. to get the mean. Instrumentation To know the effectiveness of teaching speaking by using role play. Each criteria. E. the scores from all criteria are sum and divided into five. fluency and comprehension. then. vocabulary. These are done in order to 1 David P. F. teacher greets and asks about the students’ condition. Haris’ scale rating scores. p.26 chooses IX. 1969). Graw Hill Book Company. the writer divided the score into five criteria. The teacher also reviews their previous lesson.

The pre-test is in oral test form. the situation that the students have to do in the role play and the goal or outcome that they have to get. Below are the brief explanations of the presentation stage activities. Presentation Stage In the presentation stage. . Pre-Test The writer gives the pre-test to the students. 2. The teacher also must not forget to clarify the cues and gives the example/model of the roles that the students play. Then. the teacher sets the time limit and encourages students to be creative and use their own language resources. The scores are taken in five criteria. 3. Finally. the teacher explains their roles. fluency and comprehension. Then. which are the scores of pronunciation. the scores from all criteria are sum and divided into five. grammar. the teacher assigns roles to the students and divides them into three groups. Teacher Activities Teacher tells the students about what they are going learn or to do on that day such as following: “Today we are going to practice our speaking by Students Activities Students listen carefully to the teacher and ask if there is something they don’t understand such as following: ”What is role play Miss? And why does it call 1. vocabulary. to get the mean.27 warm up the situation. The test consists of 10 questions. Table 4 No. After that the teacher tells the students what they are going to learn or to do on that day.

This is their husband’s or wife’s first name. etc. g. b. This indicates the children’s consequences role play?” Students prepare a piece of paper and write eight points that the teacher has told them. the teacher asks them to write the following things: a. The name of a celebrity or an idol (movie star. The students change character to the person they have described on the piece of paper and try to remember it. c. A number between 1 to 9. d. c. The name of their favorite celebrity or their idol but the opposite gender to themselves. Teacher ask the students to change character to the person they have described on the piece of paper. 3. d. they describe what country they would really like to live in. or near by the river. The title of our role play is consequences role play. b. A description of their dream house. On this paper. Finally. e. . h. The names of fruits. f. the same number as mentioned in the number above. This is their name.28 2.” Teacher asks the students to prepare a piece of paper. in the mountain. This indicates the number of children they have. or public figure) that they don’t like most with the same gender to themselves. using role play activities. Here are the points above mean: a. Their favorite job that they would like to do. singer. model. A job they don’t like. for example is by the sea side.

Students pay attention to the teacher. study and memorize it. Therefore.29 4. grammar. 5. Each group has 10 pupils. Teacher tells the students the goal of this role play. Students take notes about the cues. g. They read through the text and listen to the teacher’s explanations about what they have to do with their character. 8. 6. f. The teacher demonstrates how the conversation might occur such as following: “Hello. This last point tells what country they come from. how do you do?” The teacher gives the students Students separated into three groups. This is their husband’s or wife’s job. Then. the teacher tells them to read through the points and asks them to act as if they were in a party where they are meeting famous people. The students need to share the conversation and be interactive to reach the goal. names. e. The teacher divides the class into three groups. I’m Paris Hilton. which is to get as much as information about the people in the party. This is their job. In the party they have to introduce themselves to several people as this person. idiomatic expressions and sentences that might be used in the conversation. 7. They have to practice it when the role play has started. h. the teacher gives them cues by giving them vocabulary. allow me to introduce my self. This describes the family house and tells the listener where it located. All these activities are done in each group. Students listen carefully and take notes about the goal of the role play. Students work individually to .

4. 10. 1. the teacher asks the students whether they understand clearly or not about what they have to do in the role play activity. the teacher asks the students to begin the role play while she goes around the class checking and giving help as the students needed. Teacher Activities Students Activities Teacher goes around the class Students begin the role play as the coming to each group checking teacher has explained before.30 9. Students answer the teacher’s question whether they understand or not and ask to the teacher if they don’t understand. The teacher reminds the students to use their own English language resources and try to act as natural as possible. For this role play the teacher limits the time 20 to 30 minutes. and giving help as the students needed. While checking the students. The teacher sets the time limit for the role play. 11. prepare themselves in the role play. Practice Stage In this stage. The method that was used in this presentation stage is discourse method that is submitting information or description concerning with the root of matter verbally. Table 5 No. some time to prepare and let them work individually to outline their ideas and the language they will need to express. 2. the Students do the role play by . Here are the brief explanations of the activities. Students take notes the time limit and remember it. Before the role play begins. Students prepare themselves to use their own English language resources and also prepare their mental to act as natural as possible in the role play.

themselves and only ask for help to the teacher if they really need it. and take notes to the teacher’s explanations. Teacher lets the students do the role play without her interfere. the teacher gives feedback on grammar or pronunciation problems that she heard. The method that was used in this stage is experiment method. Teacher giving feedback on grammar or pronunciation problems that she herds during the role play. Students Activities Each group sent their representation to report the information or the goal that he/she gets from the role play. 1. Teacher Activities Teacher asks one of them to represent his/her own group to report all information that he/she gets from the role play. Students do their best in the role play by using their own language resources. 2. listen carefully. . It was used to make the students able to communicate with others by using their own language based on the cues that had been given by the teacher before. Students pay attention. Students help each other in each group if one of them is having trouble in speaking. the teacher asks the students about the outcome of their role play. 4. Next. Production Stage In this stage. Below are the explanations of this stage: Table 6 No. teacher only gives help to the students if it really necessary or when the students ask for it.31 3. Teacher does not correct the students’ error in grammar or pronunciation if the others can still understand what they mean. 5.

The scores are taken in five criteria.2 The formula as follows: to 2 MD SEMD Prof. Sugiyono. 2004) lampiran . they were analyzed and processed by using statistic calculation of T-test formula with significance degree 5% and 1%. It was used to know the students’ speaking ability and their understanding concerned with the subject. 6.32 The method that was used in this final stage is dialogue method. Then. the scores from all criteria are sum and divided into five. Post-Test The writer gives the post-test to the students. grammar. The test is similar with the pre-test. Closure In this final stage. Dr. vocabulary. Technique of Data Analysis Having got the data from pre-test. G. which are the scores of pronunciation. 7. the teacher concludes the lesson on that day. the post-test is given after the treatment had been done by teaching speaking using role play. fluency and comprehension. to get the mean. (Bandung: Alpabeta. However. Statistik Penelitian. The teacher also has to find out the students’ response according to the role play that they have done and closes the lesson by saying “Alhamdulillah” together.

And D is gained with formula. which are calculated with the formula. which is gained with the formula. D = X-Y N : Number of cases SDD : The standard deviation from differences between score of X variable and Y variable. MD  ∑D D N : Total score between I variable (X variable) and II variable (Y variable). SEMD  df SD D N 1 : Degree of freedom with formula: N-1 . the average score from the differences gained scores between I variable and II variable. SDD  D N 2  D    N    2 SEMD : The standard error from mean of differences that is gained with the formula.33 to MD : Test observation : Mean of differences.

13. 1. the scores of pre-test and the scores of post-test. 6. Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary 60 60 62 66 60 70 84 75 80 62 62 65 78 70 77 75 70 76 80 72 78 65 60 63 70 65 70 90 85 90 73 68 70 68 65 70 62 62 68 83 86 85 73 73 75 60 60 63 68 70 78 70 69 74 80 74 77 70 70 75 77 80 80 64 60 70 Fluency Comprehension Total 60 60 302 65 70 331 83 80 402 60 64 313 75 80 380 73 78 372 75 80 385 63 65 316 70 70 345 90 90 445 70 75 356 70 70 343 63 66 321 80 90 424 70 75 366 62 63 308 65 75 356 73 70 356 82 80 393 70 78 363 75 80 392 62 67 323 . 5. 11. 9. 16. 15. 4. 12. 1. 17. 14.34 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS A. 19. The Pre-Test Scores The data of the pre-test scores can be seen in the table 7 below: Table 7 No. 20. the writer obtained two kinds of data. 10. 7. Description of Data After conducting the research. 2. 3. 18. 22. 8. 21.

12. 6. 2. 13. 60 67 85 72 63 75 72 60 60 66 80 70 70 70 75 60 65 70 90 80 70 78 75 64 60 65 84 70 64 76 70 62 64 70 85 75 77 75 75 65 309 338 424 367 344 374 367 311 After the data is analyzed. 10.35 23. 26. 24.540 the median is 356 the highest score is 445 and the lowest score is 302. The Post-Test Scores The data of the post-test score can be seen in the table 8 below: Table 8 No. 14. 25. 29. 30. 2. it shows that the mean ( x ) is 357. 3. 9.53 the standard deviation is 37. 1. 5. 8. 7. 4. 28. 27. 11. 17. Pronunciation 60 66 85 63 80 78 80 67 70 92 73 70 62 83 73 60 70 70 80 Grammar 60 63 80 63 73 70 75 63 70 90 70 67 62 86 73 60 73 74 75 Vocabulary 65 73 82 68 80 80 80 65 70 90 70 70 70 88 80 65 78 75 80 Fluency Comprehension Total 62 65 312 65 75 342 85 86 418 62 66 322 75 82 390 73 80 381 75 85 395 66 65 326 75 74 359 95 90 457 73 75 361 70 73 350 65 68 327 83 90 430 73 75 374 65 63 313 70 75 366 75 75 369 85 83 403 . 16. 18. 15. 19.

6. Score of Pre-Test Score of Post-Test (X) (Y) 302 312 331 342 402 418 313 322 380 390 372 381 385 395 316 326 345 359 445 457 356 361 343 350 321 327 424 430 366 374 D = (X-Y) -10 -11 -16 -9 -10 -9 -10 -10 -14 -12 -5 -7 -6 -6 -8 D2 = (X-Y)2 100 121 256 81 100 81 100 100 196 144 25 49 36 36 64 . 13. 3. 1. 5. 30.50 the highest score is 457 and the lowest score is 312. 10. 14.73 the standard deviation is 38. 28.813 the median is 367. 29. it shows that the mean ( x ) is 365. 26. 3. 24. 9. 11. 25. 22. 15. 8. 12.36 20. 2. 4. The Comparison of the Test Result The comparison of the test result can be seen in the table below: Table 9 No. 23. 7. 21. 72 80 65 60 70 85 72 64 75 72 60 74 80 62 62 68 85 70 70 74 75 61 75 80 70 65 70 90 80 70 80 80 65 72 77 62 60 66 86 75 65 76 70 62 80 80 69 65 70 86 78 77 77 78 65 373 397 328 312 344 432 375 346 382 375 313 After the data is analyzed. 27.

30.2 SDD  78. 26.37 16. 29.29 2  D    N    2 2 To find out the mean of differences (MD) between variable X and Y. 20. 17. the researcher calculated the result of ∑D = -246 and ∑D2 = 2342. 25. N= 30 308 356 356 393 363 392 323 309 338 424 367 344 374 367 311 ∑X = 10726 313 366 369 403 373 397 328 312 344 432 375 346 382 375 313 ∑Y = 10972 -5 -10 -13 -10 -10 -5 -5 -3 -6 -8 -8 -2 -8 -8 -2 ∑D = -246 25 100 169 100 100 25 25 9 36 64 64 4 64 64 4 ∑D2 = 2342 Based on the data in table 9. 18.827 SDD  3. she tried to find out the standard deviation of differences (SDD) with the formula: SDD  D N 2 2342   246   SDD   30  30  SDD  78. 24. 28. 21.07   8.24 SDD  10. 23. 19. the researcher used the formula: .07  67. 27. Then. 22.

2 After gaining the result of SDD = 3.611 The last calculation is determining the result of t observation (to) of the test with formula: to  to  MD SE MD  8.420 The result -13.2 0.611 to  13. it doesn’t indicate negative score.38  0. the writer finds out the degree of freedom (df) with the formula: .29  5.420 indicated that there was a difference of degree as much as -13. to complete the result of the research.38 MD   D N  246 MD  30 MD  8. Then.29 29 3.29 the researcher calculated the standard error from mean of differences (SEMD) between variable X and Y: SEMD  SE MD  SE MD  SE MD SE MD SDD N 1 30  1 3. Regardless the minus.29 3.420.

B. It means that there is a significance increase in teaching speaking by using role play.045 At the degree of significance 1% = 2. In the table of significance.420.420 the degree of freedom (df) is 29 (obtained from N-1) = (30 – 1 = 29).045 and 2.39 df = N – 1 = 30 – 1 = 29 df = 29 (see table of “t” value at the degree of significance of 5% and 1%) At the degree of significance 5% = 2. From the result of calculation. the result is 2. It means that there is a significance increase after the role play is used to teach speaking. the result shows that the coefficient is 13.756.420. the value of degree of significance are 2.756 The result is 2. If the to compared with each value of the degrees of significance. it can be seen that on the df 29 and on the degree of significance of 5% and 1%. it is obtained the value of the t observation (to) is 13.045 < 13. The writer used the degree of significance of 5% and 1%.045 < .756 The result of analyzing the data by using the above formula shows that the coefficient is 13.420 > 2. Interpretation Having analyzed the data of pre-test and post-test by using t-test formula.

But the problem that they faced mostly is lack of confidence and lack of vocabulary. Towards the end.40 13. But soon they began helping one another to decide who should speak. This reason leads to better attention in learning and stimulate them to participate in role play activities. 1.420 > 2. It means that there is no significance difference between variable X and variable Y.756. their shyness left them and they began prompting each other with ideas. the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected and alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted. the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. the null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted and alternative hypothesis (Ha) is rejected. Another reason based on the students’ responses is because most students find that role play is enjoyable. It means that there is a significance difference between variable X and variable Y. In the early stages of the role play the students were uncomfortable and uncertain. It means that the use of role play in teaching speaking is quite effective. Based on the result of the data analysis. Since to score obtained from the result of calculating. 2. If the result of t observation is lower than t table (to < tt). . This led to initial lapses of silence. it is proven that the students’ score of speaking taught by using role play is better. If the result of t observation is higher than t table (to > tt).

The use of role play makes the class more active and alive. . Students are willing to participate without any forces from the teacher. the students can be anyone and in any situation they wish. The use of role play makes the students more motivated in learning and easier to grasp the lesson. the world of the classroom is broadened to include the outside world. This offers a much wider range of language opportunities. This result has answered the research question that the use of role play in teaching speaking is quite effective. it is proven that the students’ score of speaking taught by using role play is better. Conclusion Based on the research. In addition.41 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. 5. 3. The use of role play makes the speaking and learning activity more enjoyable and interesting. 4. the writer concludes that: 1. It’s because role play helps the shy students by providing a mask. From the result of the analysis of the research. 2. In role play. it is fun and most students will agree that enjoyment leads to better learning. where students with difficulty in conversation are liberated. So.

but more important is how the teacher presents the lesson and uses various techniques to manage the class more lively and enjoyable.42 6. The students are hoped to be active and creative in enriching their vocabularies. The teacher should keep control the students’ activities. the teacher should make sure that the students have fully understood and have the information they need. Suggestion The success in teaching doesn’t depend on the lesson program only. The teacher should present the language in an enjoyable. Problems that the students faced mostly in role play are lack of confidence and lack of vocabulary. . Regarding to the teaching speaking by using role play. 2. The students are hoped not to be shy in acting out their role. The teacher should choose the materials that are appropriate and not too difficult for the students. 3. relaxed and understandable way. 4. the writer gives some suggestion for the teacher and students as follow: For the teacher: 1. Before assigning the role play to the students. 2. For the students: 1. B.

The students should take part much in acting out role play. The students should ask to the teacher if there is something that they don’t understand regarding to the role play activities.43 3. The students are hoped to use English when they practice role play activities although it is hard for them. . 4. 5.

Chaney. Longman. The Practice of English Language Teaching: Longman Handbooks for Language Teaching. Haris. 2006.44 BIBLIOGRAPHY Budden. Jo Mc. London: BBC. . Audio Visual Technique in Foreign Language. Donough.. Doff. Crookal. 1969. Testing English as a Second Language. Role Play. 1988. David P. Gaming and Language Learning. Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers Trainer’s Handbooks. D. Julian. 1993. UK. Byrne. Cambridge: Blackwell. Oxford. New York: Newbury House. USA: Longman Inc. 1990.. Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8. Graw Hill Book Company. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. and R.L. Harmer. Burke. Simulation. Edge.L. Theodore. Joanna. and Christoper Show. 1993. 1983. 1960. Material and Method in ELT: Applied Language Studies. Jeremy. Adrian. 1998. Huebner. The British Council: Cambridge University Press Inc. Donn. New York: Cambridge University Press.. T.L. A. Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher. Essential of English Language Teaching. New York: Mc. Singapore: Longman Group. 1986.

No. Engkoswara. VIII. Gillian Porter. 1984.S. 1995. Consequences Role Play. J. Susan. Vol. Mc Camley. Pramela. Oxford University Press. Hayriye. Kayi. November 2006. UK. Ed. The Application of Role Play As a Technique in Teaching Practical Conversation. November 2006. 2004. XII. Developing Speaking Skills in the Young Learner Classroom. Klancar. The Internet TESL Journal. 11. Dasar-dasar Metodologi Pengajaran. Natasa Intihar. Jakarta: UIN Syahid. A role Play Activity with Distance Learners in an English Language Classroom. The Internet TESL Journal. Krish. Margot.. Oxford Advanced Dictionary.45 House. 1997. Jakarta: Bina Aksara. Ladousse. Kusnadi. 1995. Dr. July 2001. . Learning and Teaching: Exercises: Role Play. M. United Kingdom. The Internet TESL Journal. No. Atherton. XII. Mahmudin. Dani. 11. 2006. An Introduction to Teaching English to Children. London: BBC. New York: Oxford University Press. 2002. 7. Jakarta: UIN Syahid. Using Role Play Activities in Developing Speaking Abiity for Children. Richmond Publishing. No. Vol. Vol. 2003. Role Play: Resources Book for the Teacher Series. Teaching Speaking: Activities to Promote Speaking in a Second Language.

September 1997.46 Procter. Tompkins. New York: Cambridge University Press. Tim Penyusun Yayasan Soebono mantofani. Vol.. The National Capital Language Resource Center. No... Patricia K. Pengajaran Bahasa Asing. August 1998. Muljanto Dr. Yayasan Soebono Mantofani 10 Tahun Membangun Kemandirian.. 2004.. Sugiyono. Dr. 1996. 1974. Prof. III. No. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang. . Sumardi. Vol. Cambridge International Dictionary of English. Statistik Penelitian. The Internet TESL Journal. Stewart. 9. Ciputat. 8. The Internet TESL Journal. Washington DC. 2004. 18 Januari 2004. Wachs. Paul (Ed). Role Play/Simulation. Bandung: Alphabeta. IV. Bones of Contention: “Listed” Role Plays for Students of Oral English.

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