ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH

Support Materials and Exercises for

GRAMMAR: PART I
Parts of Speech

FALL 1998

PARTS OF SPEECH

ACADEMIC ENGLISH
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The following persons have contributed to the development of this learning material: Content and Structure: Curriculum Developer(s)

Leslie Childs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Curriculum Content Expert New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . . . . Bathurst

Project Supervision/Co-ordination:

Angela Acott-Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Co-ordinator New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . Woodstock

Kay Curtis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literacy Co-ordinator New Brunswick Community College . . . . . . . Woodstock

This document is available full-text on the World Wide Web thanks to the National Adult Literacy Database. http://www.nald.ca/CLR/search/ The financial support for this learning materials project was provided by the National Literacy Secretariat of Human Resources Development Canada. Fall 1998

This support module may be used with BAU-ENG 6.5,Parts of Speech, and IAUENG 2.1 Parts of Speech.
BAU-ENG 6.5 OBJECTIVE Upon successful completion of this unit, the learner will be able to 1. identify the eight parts of speech in simple sentences. 2. explain the function of each part of speech. TEACHING POINTS Noun 1 2 3 4 Pronoun 5 6 Verb 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Adjective 14 15 16 17 18 19 common and proper singular and plural possessive nouns (with ‘s) used to name people, places, things personal, indefinite, interrogative use to replace nouns identify verbs and verb phrases (e.g. walk, walks, walked, is walking, has walked, has been walking, etc .) singular and plural forms of “to be” (present, past, future) singular and plural forms of “to have” (present, past, future) use of basic verb tenses (past, present, future) principal parts of common irregular verbs uses to express action and state of being used to describe nouns and pronouns comparison of adjectives use of “er” ending to compare two things use of “est” ending to compare two or more things use of “more” and “most” with longer adjectives comparison of irregular adjectives e.g. good, better, best Level 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 PARTS OF SPEECH

why. how. how much usually end in “ly” comparison of adverbs: e. quickly. . when. most quickly used to show space and time relationship between nouns used to join complete thoughts used to express surprise. more quickly. or other strong emotions 3/4 3/4 5/6 5/6 5/6 3/4 Preposition Conjunction Interjection 23 24 25 Learners should be encouraged to use their own writing as well as traditional exercises to identify parts of speech.Adverb 20 21 22 used to describe verbs: where.g. horror.

emphatic relative Type: action & linking helping (auxiliary) & main = verb phrase active & passive voice Principal parts: regular & irregular Tense: simple (past. for. quantitative (e.g.) subordinate conjunction: (e. therefore. number. present. so) correlative (either/or. yet. but.IAU-ENG 2. nor. the learner will be able to 1. or.) 7 7 7 Pronoun (naming) Verb (stating: action/existence) 7 7 7 8 8/9 7 7 9 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8/9 9 Adjective (describing) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Adverb (describing) Preposition(joining) Conjunction(joining) . TEACHING POINTS Lev el Nouns (naming) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Types: common & proper concrete & abstract singular & plural possessive (with boy’s.g. future) perfect progressive (past. Comparison of adverbs: regular & irregular Types: simple & compound (e. in/in front of) Types: co-ordinate (and.1 PARTS OF SPEECH OBJECTIVES Upon successful completion of this unit. 2. future) perfect (past.. neither/nor. present. relative pronoun (e. future) Types: common & proper demonstrative articles (a. etc. identify the eight parts of speech in written and oral communications. if.g. boys’ and Charles’ Types: personal (gender.g. present. thus. that.g. because. describe the function of each part of speech. which. when. who. never). not. etc. present. future) progressive (past. reciprocal. indefinite reflexive. person. an. case) interrogative. not only/but also) conjunctive adverb (e. demonstrative. the) Comparison of adjectives: regular and irregular Types: regular (“ly”) & irregular negative (e.g.

Practice sentences can be found in every grammar text. 7 Practice is the key to developing mastery of this objective. in newspapers and magazines. . as well as in the learner’s own writing.Interjection 30 expressing horror. Learners should develop a “hands-on” approach to identifying parts of speech by regularly using their own writing as a source of practice material. surprise. etc.

9. Learners will benefit from using their own writing.NOTE TO FACILITATORS AND LEARNERS: 1. 3. 12. The real purpose for learning grammar is to help learner write and speak as effectively as possible. Many exercises may. those sections marked with an asterisk should be reviewed. Parts of Speech and IAU-ENG 2. Learners working in IAU-ENG should complete all sections of this module. 8. Do NOT write in this module.5 objectives. Sections of this module marked with an asterisk (*) should be completed by learners wanting to complete the BAU-ENG 6. Learners should be familiar with these. 2. Please make your notes and complete the exercises in your own notebooks so that other learners may also use these booklets. Alternate support materials may be appropriate. Facilitators are free to use any support materials appropriate to their learners’ needs. If they have previously completed the BAU-ENG programme. 5.Parts of Speech. Practice is essential to mastery of parts of speech.. Learners should be very familiar with the parts of speech before they attempt Module 6. be used to practice identifying a variety of parts of speech.5. 6. Parts of Speech. however.1. and novels as a source for practice sentences. presents information and exercises to accompany the objectives of BAU-ENG 6. 4. 10. Additional resource materials may be required for those wanting more information on this topic or for those needing more practice mastering certain areas. newspapers. magazines. . 11. Grammar terms are not always consistent. so that a wider variety of source materials are accessible to them. The first grammar module. 7. Where possible. Parts of the Sentence. The accompanying Practice Booklet contains exercises and an answer key in support of specific teaching points. this module indicates alternate terminology and ways of handling specific grammar situations.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of verb tenses . . . . . . . . . . 1 WHAT IS GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Irregular Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES . 25 A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principle parts of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . 17 A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS . . . . 3 Nouns . . . 7 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Interjections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Rules for forming possessive forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 INTERJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 . 37 42 47 48 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS . . . . . . . . 4 Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WHY STUDY GRAMMAR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 FEEDBACK FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CONJUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

write. they are using their knowledge of grammar. How did they learn it? When they were learning to talk. The etymology of “syntax” shows it meanings “putting together”. Everyone already knows a lot about grammar and uses it correctly most of the time. sang. and then write a simple sentence (about 6 or 7 words) to explain what you see. this makes grammar sound more difficult than it really is.1 GRAMMAR: PART I PARTS OF SPEECH I INTRODUCTION• This module is the first of three that focuses on the basics of English grammar you need to speak and write as effectively as possible. they learned the names of things (vocabulary). songs). 1 The root word “morph” means form. and their classification based on their function (parts of speech). and they learned how to put them into sentences in the right order (syntax) so they would be understood and get what they wanted. Whenever people read. Look at this picture. Be sure to write the sentence in your notebook. singing. or listen. A. their arrangement in phrases and sentences (syntax2). the different forms of a word (sings. speak. Like many dictionary definitions. WHAT IS GRAMMAR?• Dictionaries define grammar as the rules and explanations which deal with the forms and structure of words (morphology1). sung. 2 .

First. you may make a few mistakes. Understanding grammar also helps you write new kinds of sentences that are more effective and more persuasive. the action throw. it probably include the word ball. and your brain understood the ideas the picture presented. You might even have written 3. The ball is being thrown by the pitcher. Speaking and writing correctly are very important. 1. Finally. The man is throwing the ball. you probably started your sentence with a capital letter and ended it with a period (punctuation). You wrote the sentence the way you did because you already know and use the basic rules of grammar. The pitcher is going to throw the ball. 2. and a word that meant a man. Whatever you wrote. You certainly didn’t write Ball throwing man the the is. Usually the first impression someone. That wouldn’t make sense and people hearing or reading your message would be confused. you translated each sound in each word into letters (spelling) and wrote the entire sentence. Then you thought the names (vocabulary) for the things you just saw and arranged them (syntax) in an understandable order. has of us comes from what we say or write and how we say it. In fact. you saw the picture. People judge us and our abilities by the way we use . You see you really do know lots about grammar! B. including a possible employer. Here’s what probably happened at lightning speed in your head. Studying grammar is really just learning a new vocabulary so that you can talk about and learn how to correct these mistakes.2 Your sentence probably looks something like this. WHY STUDY GRAMMAR?• Although you do write “good sentences” most of the time.

For example..3 the language.. This module gives you a chance to find and correct any grammar mistakes you may be making. or classifications. (tells about an action. you have to look at what a word is doing in a specific sentence before you can classify it (name its part of speech). The system of classifying words based on their function is known as the parts of speech. you may be unfairly judged.. (names a thing. Because some words can be used in several different ways.” While the meaning is very clear. some people say “He sure done good!” or “He should of went to the dance” or “Hunters didn’t shoot a big amount of deer this year..noun) . every one can be placed into at least one of eight groups.adverb) They will fast to raise money for UNICEF. and your true abilities may go unrecognized. C.. The eight parts of speech are noun pronoun verb adjective adverb preposition conjunction interjection Learning about the eight parts of speech will help you understand the grammar explanations of some of the mistakes you make and figure out how to correct them.. look at these sentences. WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF SPEECH?• Although English has hundreds of thousands of words. (describes how he ran. He ran fast so he wouldn’t be late.verb) Their fast lasted for three days. Unless you correct those errors in grammar. the way it was said (or written) may encourage others to think that the speaker/writer probably doesn’t have much “schooling” or else isn’t very good at expressing him/herself. For example.

and most sentences contain several nouns.4 The word “fast” is spelled the same. Sometimes nouns appear without these little words. NOUNS• Words that name people. The following table lists a variety of nouns. an. the. II THE BASICS OF PARTS OF SPEECH• A. Paul is a noun that names a person. One way to find nouns is to look for the little words a. EXAMPLES OF NOUNS PEOPLE PLACES: THINGS: ANIMALS: OBJECTS: SUBSTANCES: ACTIONS: MEASURES: QUALITIES: cashier province cat fork iron (a) race kilogram happiness Carol New Brunswick Dalmatian television air (the) dance centimetre honesty boys lake bug car gold (the) hits day beauty Nouns can be found anywhere in a sentence. Children name people continent names a thing Africa names a place lions names a thing. Can you find 10 nouns in this picture? . The naming word that comes after them is probably a noun. but you can usually insert them without changing the meaning of the sentence. places and things are called nouns. Paul and his children visited the continent of Africa and saw some lions. but it functions differently in each sentence.

Everybody was glad when it was over. reader. and this are pronouns. PRONOUNS• Pronouns refer to and replace nouns (the names of people. places. you should do more exercises from other textbooks. Complete Exercise 1 and 2 in the Grammar Practice Booklet and check your answers in the Answer Key. you. it isn’t necessary to actually see the nouns (writer. Paul and his sister went to the zoo to see the elephants. Her lawyer bought an old house in Moncton last year. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. If you made more than one or two mistakes.5 Examine the following sentences carefully until you feel satisfied that you can identify the nouns in most sentences. Sometimes people eat more food than their bodies need. French is the first language of some citizens of Ontario. and things) that have already been mentioned. Use pronouns instead of nouns. think of a noun it could replace. or that the speaker/writer assumes are understood by the listener/reader. Finish your work before the big game starts on TV. The Smiths lived on a farm until a week ago when the family moved to town. In this sample sentence.” The words I. For each pronoun printed in bold type. and sentence) because the writer’s/speaker’s meaning is obvious Examine the sentences below. (e. What did you buy from them? Write a sentence about this picture. . and Fredericton is the capital of this province. You may also choose to use any of the exercises in the Grammar Practice Booklet to find nouns.g. B. She saw it when they bought it. For example. Sue saw the dog when the boys bought the dog. “I want you to read this again. The candy that we gave them was made last year.

We planted them. Some of this is important to me When she heard herself on tape she was embarrassed. 10. find more exercises either in another text or use other exercises in the Practice Booklet itself. A sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb.a group of words that belong together. never. Verbs change their form to tell about actions taking place at different times. Verb phrases can be interrupted by small words like not. one of the main parts of every sentence. Verbs are often found in the middle of sentences. they are verbs. For example. 12. . 14. Notice that some verbs have more than one word and are sometimes interrupted by small words that are not part of the verb. please. C. Who bought those from you? Fill it up.. 13. Verb phrases3 may have up to five words. 9. Here are some hints that may help you locate verbs.. but the birds ate everything. 11. 15. Verbs usually tell about an action. We walked to the store yesterday can be changed to show the action happening in the future. Verbs may consist of one word. Many signed up. Here are some sentences that show verbs at work.6 It barked loudly and then wagged its tail. We will walk to the store tomorrow. 3 Phrase. The word walked became will walk. Complete Exercise 3 and 4 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. VERBS• The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. but few were chosen. If you need more practice. therefore. always. We were surprised when they did the laundry themselves.

D. The dog was chasing its tail. Most students are usually sitting on the steps when the teacher arrives. you add “detail” words in front of the noun like little. To add descriptions to those nouns that give the reader a clearer picture of what you mean. rich. She is beautiful and talented. I have never seen anything like that before. Paul can do anything. ADJECTIVES• To talk or write about a person place or thing. 6. . Learning to identify verbs takes lots of practice. and 7 in the Practice Exercise Booklet. Have you written that letter? They had already bought her present.7 The pitcher threw the ball to the catcher. you use nouns like girl. is. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint verbs in most sentences. blue. My sister is a nurse. My dad thought that he could sell his old car for more. old. Some special verbs are a little more difficult to find because they do not show any action. and were used in a sentence between two nouns. I have finished the laundry. you have found one of these special kinds of verbs. are. Tracy will be buying her wedding dress in New York. was. The farmer used all the water in his pond. Sometimes these special verbs are used to show how a person is feeling or to describe a quality. Alex and Jim were unhappy with their marks. our father was a millwright. When you find the words am. house. Complete Exercises 5. or tree. The runner flew down the race track. She might have been being chased before her car smashed into the bridge. Words that tell more about nouns or pronouns are called adjectives. They were always honest. I am a teacher.

or alters the meaning of another word. The meaning of the word car has been limited from all the cars in the world to only those that are blue. these adjectives limit the noun woman to one specific person. A modifier is a word that limits. The second adds the adjective blue. an adjective limits. carefree child some tall. Examine the sample sentences below for a better understanding of adjectives. Adjectives are usually placed before the noun. Imagine that you are in a large meeting room full of people. only that I have one. I have a car. The first sentence does not tell anything about my car. cool. The word tall is an adjective and somewhat helpful. You will learn about these groups of words later in this module. changes. stately trees a rich dark chocolate layer cake five huge leafy bushes Here’s another way of thinking of adjectives. This descriptive word makes the sentence more interesting and helping the reader “see” your car in his/her mind’s eye. . Other adjectives like shiny. In other words. powerful could be added that would further limit the meaning of the word car or tell what kind it is. The third sentence adds even more details. The words tall and blond are adjectives that help you pick out a specific woman from a large group.8 An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. blond woman with the red dress”. “Give this piece of paper to the woman”. The group of words “with the red dress” is also a form of adjective that helps limit the meaning to one particular person. I have a blue car. Your boss tells you. To which tall women should you give the paper? Perhaps your boss said. as only six of the women are tall. The only problem is that there are twenty-three women in the room. changes. the white. “the tall. To which one should you give the paper? Your boss might have said “the tall woman”. new. or alters the meaning of a noun or pronoun. I have a small dark blue car. Therefore. puffy clouds a happy.

This belongs to Pete. Words which limit the noun by telling which one or ones are also adjectives. (pronouns) Pete bought this Ford. that coat. This and those modify or limit the meaning of the nouns book and pencils. Adjectives also tell how many. These are demonstrative adjectives. these. I have a blue car. Either is correct. these boots. as in this car. . and four children. that. (adjectives) This and those are pronouns in the first sentence because there are no nouns in the sentence for them to modify. several candies. Compare these two sentences to clarify the difference between their use as adjectives and pronouns. Such adjectives include this. The words this. This and those are adjectives because they come in front of the nouns book and pencils. This book belongs to Pete. Although some grammar books call them indefinite (a. these. I have the blue car. and those houses. and those. those pencils are Ted’s. this modifies the proper noun Ford. and those can be used as either adjectives or pronouns.9 One of the secrets of good writing is to include lots of details (adjectives). The words a and the change the meaning of the word car. those are Ted’s. The nouns they “stand for” or replace were probably mentioned in an earlier sentence. and Ted bought that Chevy. an) and definite articles (the). that modifies the proper noun Chevy.so the reader can accurately see the picture you are describing in his/her mind’s eye. as in many people. others called them adjectives. Compare the meaning of these two sentences. that. In the second sentence.

articles are also adjectives . bad taste.10 A REVIEW OF WHAT YOU HAVE READ SO FAR ABOUT ADJECTIVES: L L L L L an adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. as in many days. or school.a. if you are asked to identify the part of speech for glass. as in those books. few hours. . and an. couple of dollars. Adjectives are sometimes hard to find. Do you know the value of that school book? In cases like these. many grammar books call them adjectives: I could see that he had a glass eye. kitchen. Used in the following ways. these computers. an adjective tells what kind. this restaurant. and two cities. Sometimes nouns can be used as adjectives. that building. an adjective tells which one or ones. A good “trick” to remember is that adjectives are almost always placed next to the nouns that they modify. Hang the kitchen clock above the refrigerator. however. and cold day. and school are usually nouns. an adjective tells how many. kitchen. Glass. new clothes. as in old man. Examine these sentences that demonstrate this use of adjectives. there are two right answers: noun and/or adjective. the. The big orange school bus pulled up beside those leafy maple trees.

Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you can accurately pinpoint adjectives in most sentences.11 Write a sentence or two about this man that clearly describes him to someone who cannot see the picture. Underline all the adjectives you used. . Complete the Exercises 8 and 9 on adjectives in the Practice Exercise Booklet.

Beautiful is an adjective modifying the noun sunset. ADVERBS MODIFY VERBS• He is driving. where he is driving. ADVERBS• You have just learned that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. What part of speech is the word beautiful. or to what extent it was beautiful. The campers saw a very beautiful sunset. . This sentence tells you only that a person is doing an action. He is driving away. ADVERBS MODIFY ADJECTIVES In the following sentence. When a word is added that expresses how beautiful the sunset was. If you want to tell how beautiful it was. He is driving quickly. the noun sunset is described as beautiful. change. If an adverb is added. Another type of describing word or modifier is the adverb. The campers saw a beautiful sunset. Thus very and truly are adverbs modifying the adjective beautiful. you can add something in front of the adjective. or when he is driving. that word is called an adverb.12 E. He is driving now. Adverbs limit. The campers saw a truly beautiful sunset. you will find out how he is driving. How is he driving? Where is he driving? When is he driving? 2. 1. or alter the words they modify.

The dog ate quickly. we can find out how quickly the dog ate. By adding another adverb. . The adverb quickly modifies the verb ate and shows how the dog ate. change y to i ADD -LY brightly easily softly fully carefully quickly ADVERB * Check the dictionary if you are unsure about the correct spelling of any word. change ll to l *first. as follows: How quickly did the dog eat? The dog ate very quickly. ADJECTIVE bright easy soft full careful quick *first. ADVERBS MODIFY OTHER ADVERBS Adverbs may also be used to modify other adverbs. WORDS ENDING IN “LY”• Many adverbs are often made by adding ly to an adjective. extremely somewhat a little completely really tremendously particularly especially perfectly unusually 3.13 Here are some of the words that can be used as adverbs in front of adjectives.

but they are not verbs. (adjective) There is a late student. (adverb) A student is late. Three examples of such words are early.14 WORDS THAT ARE ALWAYS ADVERBS• Some words can only be used as adverbs. you learned that some small words can be found in the middle of verb phrases. (adverb) It was an early train. well4 quite very almost always usually often surely not never so (He was so happy. and late. fast. A list of these words follows. 4 usually an adverb . (adjective) Penny is a fast driver. Find more exercises if necessary and use them until you feel satisfied that you can accurately pinpoint adverbs in most sentences. Those words are adverbs.can be an adjective to describe a person's health .) In the section on verb phrases. WORDS THAT MAY BE ADVERBS OR ADJECTIVES A few words can be used as adverbs or adjectives. He was always asking questions. I have often wondered about the moon. and learn to recognize them in sentences. (adjective) Complete Exercises 9 and 10 on adverbs in the Practice Exercise Booklet. The train arrived early. never as adjectives. The only way to remember these words is to memorize them. He will never tell another lie. Eric will not shop on Sundays. (adverb) Penny drives fast.

called prepositional phrases. therefore. the prepositional phrases give more information about the verb “walked” by telling where she walked. The girl walked to the building. Other prepositions show different relationships between the girl walked and the building: Consider these prepositions. or ownership relation between two nouns/pronouns or a noun and a verb. in what way. which are used to show a time. The girl walked into the building. . place. preposition Time: after Place: under Ownership: of + + + + noun or pronoun the party the table our town = prepositional phrase = (after the party) = (under the table) = (of our town) Prepositions are always the first word in a prepositional phrase. The girl walked through the building. Anything that modifies a verb is an adverb. The girl walked beside the building. Where did the girl walk? Perhaps she walked around the building: The girl walked around the building. when. The girl walked behind the building. The word around is a preposition which tells the relationship between the girl walked and the building. In each sentence above. PREPOSITIONS• Preposition are joining words. The following sentence gives no details about the person or her actions: The girl walked. The girl walked near the building. Prepositional phrases are used to add more detail to a sentence.15 F. sometimes called connectives. these prepositional phrases. telling where she walked. Adverb phrases can also be used to tell how. are called prepositional adverb phrases. Prepositions and the nouns/pronouns that follow them are always grouped together and treated as a single grammar unit.

Find more exercises if necessary and continue to practise until you can accurately pinpoint prepositions and prepositional phrases in most sentences. The colour of that paint is just right. the prepositional phrase adds details about the noun. They rented the house on the corner. The books in that bag are yours. they are called prepositional adjective phrases. Some boxes from Japan were delivered yesterday. The sweaters on the shelf match these jeans. Here are some common prepositions: about above across after against along among at before below beneath beside between beyond by down during except for from in inside into of off on out outside over past since through toward under until up with without within Complete Exercises 10 and 11 on prepositions in the Practice Exercise Booklet. .16 Prepositional phrases can also be used as adjectives to modify a noun or pronoun. Because these phrases function as adjectives. In each example above. The presents under the tree were delivered this morning. The driver in the 96 Ford was responsible.

An interjection is a word or group of words used to express strong feeling. H. Before you can really understand clauses. Look at these examples. those that are left over are probably conjunctions. Following are some examples of interjections: Wow! Oh. When lightning struck the old barn. like prepositions. or clauses5. Clauses are “mini-sentences stuck into ‘real’ sentences” and which need special joining words (conjunctions) to attach them. 5 . but does it tell you at what time? No. the interjection is not linked in any way to any other word in the sentence. you will need to work through Module 6. it burned quickly ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ? noun verb adj adj noun pronoun verb adverb The word when looks like it might be an adverb. are also joining words or connectives. Unlike all the other parts of speech. phrases.. For the purpose of this module. It works like this: identify all the words you can in a sentence. INTERJECTIONS• Perhaps the easiest part of speech to find is the interjection. you can use the elimination method to find conjunctions. Part of the Sentence. CONJUNCTIONS• Conjunctions. It can be an actual word. Conjunctions can be found in any position in a sentence except the very end. or merely a sound and is followed by an exclamation mark (!) or a comma. What it does do is introduce a group of words that tells specifically when something happened. no! Never! Fantastic! No! Oh! Ouch! Fabulous! Ah! Wow! Do Exercise 12 in the Grammar Practice Booklet. the word itself doesn’t add any new information. Conjunctions are used to join words.17 G.

Evaluate your learning so far! Which statement below best describes you? I understand parts of speech. I am beginning to get the basics of parts of speech. Complete Exercises 13 and 14 on conjunctions in the Grammar Practice Booklet.18 Joe and Mike followed the young cub. ù ù ù ù verb adv verb pro The words and and but are conjunctions. what do you think you should do next? Review? Start again? Do more practice work? Go on to the next section? ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ . ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Based on how you rated your understanding of parts of speech. Then complete Review Exercise 15 before you continue with this module. I am a little confused about parts of speech. but joins two complete ideas. And joins two nouns. I am totally lost. I can usually identify the parts of speech correctly. but they ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù ù noun ? noun verb adj adj noun ? pro could not catch it.

dog. pride. When a word names a particular. car. place. Nouns like table. heard or touched. Examples: honesty. six committees. speed. Examples:Paul (the name of a particular person ). or thing in a sentence. crowd. and Ottawa (the name of a particular city). Do Exercise 18 in the Practice Booklet. places and things. 2. flock. they are categorized as abstract nouns. cloud. place or thing in general is called a common noun. A. swiftness. On the other hand. Collective nouns have both singular and plural forms: one committee. jury. faith 1. New Brunswick (the name of a particular province). committee. herd. car. friendship. Example: Six trials are scheduled so the judge called six juries. member of a class or group it is called a proper noun. TYPES OF NOUNS Nouns are classified according to their meaning. province. CONCRETE NOUNS AND ABSTRACT NOUNS• If a noun names something that can be detected by the five senses. girl. Proper nouns are always capitalized. seen. audience. tasted. sky are concrete nouns. if a noun refers to qualities which do not exist in the real world and cannot be felt. house. and city. Examples: waiter. house. COLLECTIVE NOUNS Collective nouns name groups or collections of people. Do Exercise 16 and 17 in the Practice Booklet. Doberman (the name of a particular kind of dog). height. panel. it is called a concrete noun. 3. or the only. Examples: team. .19 III A CLOSER LOOK AT NOUNS Nouns are words that name a person. brain. beauty. COMMON NOUNS AND PROPER NOUNS• A word which names a person.

land. money. but refer to non-living things which cannot be counted: They are always used in the singular even though they refer to many items. so he needed a huge amount of grain. bracelets. The jury is announcing its decision. The farmer bought a large number of cows. gold. however. the jury is acting as a single unit. Certain words and phrases are always used with non-count nouns. the first sentence describes a situation where the team has held several fundraisers and the team as a unit will order and pay for the clothes. The jury are stating their opinions. and there are many different opinions. MASS NOUNS Most nouns refer to things that can be counted like apples. jewellery. The second sentence reports that each member of the team will shop for and buy the uniform him/herself. clothing. chairs. . an amount of jewellery (non-count) a number of rings (count) a little meat (non-count) a few steaks (count) some furniture (non-count) several chairs (count) less clothing (non-count) fewer shirts (count) Here are some examples of correct usage. The team is buying new uniforms. timber. everyone agreed on one decision. furniture. Examples: meat. therefore called count nouns. In the first sentence. Mass nouns. food. The team are buying new uniforms. In the second case.20 Singular collective nouns can have a singular meaning (the group is acting as a single unit) or a plural meaning (the group is acting as individuals). miles. 4. In the second set of examples. are similar to collective nouns. each juror is acting as an individual. Do Exercise 19. steaks. Here are two examples that illustrate this point. equipment. dollars. Some grammar books call these mass nouns as non-count nouns. and are.

1. B. We bought several chairs and some bedroom furniture. or plural. Most nouns change their form by adding “s” when they are plural.21 His construction company owns several graders but only a little excavating equipment. They are easy to find in a sentence because they always include an apostrophe (’). Spelling. referring to more than one. 2. FORMS OF NOUNS Grammar is also the study of the changes in spelling of form that words make as they perform different functions in a sentence. Libby’s front teeth Eva’s big smile Greg’s tiny nose . However. or that something is part of something else. Be sure when you write or speak that you use the correct words to go with each type of noun. belonging. POSSESSIVE NOUNS• Common and proper nouns can sometimes be further classified as possessive nouns. Module 4. there are exceptions to every rule . A possessive noun shows ownership. My uncle owns a few acres in the country and a little land nearer town. explains the basic rules and the exceptions for forming plurals.and exceptions for the exceptions. SINGULAR AND PLURAL• Nouns may be singular referring to one.

the Jones' party .oxen's hooves .Mary Parsons' garden .my boss's approval .Gloria's career .the neighbour's car .children's toys . it shows that several .students' lounge . and already has an s at the end add only an apostrophe (') If a noun is plural and does not end in “s” add apostrophe (') s Now examine the following phrases: the boy’s bicycles the boys’ bicycles Which phrase refers to one boy? Which refers to several boys? How can you tell? If the apostrophe follows a singular form of the noun.if a new syllable is formed in the pronunciation of the possessive.Doris's store .the ladies’ room .if adding an extra “s” would make the word seem awkward or hard to pronounce.men's choir .Dennis's car . it indicates that one person owns the item.New Brunswick's art .the child's toys .witnesses' story .witness's description .John Hastings' store .22 RULES FOR FORMING POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS Conditions If a noun is singular and does not end in “s” If a noun is singular and ends in “s”.librarians' club . add only an apostrophe If a noun is plural. add an apostrophe plus “s” . If it follows the plural form of the noun.women's wear .Jesus' parables .Phillips' farm . be guided by the way you say the word Possessive Form add an apostrophe (') plus s to the noun Examples .

Which phrase correctly describes the man? the babies’ grandfather the baby’s grandfather How about the picture to the right? Which sentence is the best description of the whole picture? The books’ covers are different colours.23 people own it. The book’s covers are different colours. How many people own the house? The party is going to be at my friends’ house. Now examine these phrases: the lady’s room the ladies’ room Which phrase probably indicates a bedroom? Which likely refers to a washroom? Why? What grammar mistake is almost always made on the doors of public restrooms? Look at the illustration below. Look at the word with the apostrophe. Babies’ grandfather is correct The books’ covers is correct . It was already plural before the apostrophe was added. so the house is owned by two or more friends. Examine these phrases.

create a rule to explain what you found. each one owns a separate thing. 4. For example. Mary’s and Susan’s houses are on the same street. Do Exercises 22. If both nouns are possessive. A better version of the sentence would look like this: The house belonging to the mother of Sarah's boyfriend is for sale. Then. . Examine the following sentence. it is acceptable to use the possessive form for common expressions referring to time and measurement.” 5.24 Pay attention to the position of the apostrophe when you read or write because it gives you important information about who owns the item(s). The possessive form of a noun is rarely used in formal writing with plants and non-living objects." However. it is better to write "the legs of the table" instead of "the table's legs" or "the leaves of a tree" rather than "the tree's leaves. 2. you use an apostrophe only with the owner who is mentioned last. and 24 in the Practice Booklet. Hints for Using Possessive Nouns 1. You should have written something like this: “When two or more people “own” something together. Only one is acceptable. Here’s an example: Sarah's boyfriend's mother's house is for sale. 23. such as two weeks' vacation five dollars' worth one hour's time Avoid using two or more possessives together in a sentence. The above sentence contains 3 possessives. Mary and Susan’s mother arrived yesterday. 3.

What’s wrong with this paragraph? How does it sound? Would you want to read a whole book that was written like this? Why not? When the paragraph is rewritten. and three sisters love our cat. Everyone in our family loves the cat. using pronouns to replace some nouns. The following paragraph contains no pronouns. Our cat’s body is mostly white. Spot likes to play. My mother. it sounds more natural and interesting. Its body is mostly white but its four paws are black. It is for you! . and less repetitive. two brothers. Our cat’s name is Spot. my father. It purrs a lot. Our cat’s name is Spot.25 IV A CLOSER LOOK AT PRONOUNS• Pronouns replace nouns that were mentioned earlier. Our cat has a long black tail. It is black and white. Our cat has four black paws. Our cat is black and white. and it never scratches. It has a long black tail. Our cat purrs a lot. TYPES OF PRONOUNS• Pronouns are divided into eight groups depending on their meaning and how they are used in a sentence. We call our cat Spot. Our cat likes to play. Our cat never scratches.

These Personal Pronouns I. objects. his. and they are called third person pronouns because the person(s) referred to is not present. hers it. actions. yours they. Personal pronouns can be classed by number. my.26 A. your. their CAN BE USED IN PLACE OF: your name your name and the names of other people the name of someone else you are addressing boy. theirs they. it are singular forms. The pronouns I. they. it. man. his she. female plants. ours you. him. I and we are first person pronouns and refer to the writer/speaker. yours he. He. me. our. your. person. you. they are plural. you. its. hers it. mine Plural we. woman. ours. them. she. theirs. your. he. and other things you would not refer to as "he" or "she" people Do Exercise 26 in the Practice Booklet. mine we. substances. PERSONAL PRONOUNS• Personal pronouns are used frequently in English to make writing and speaking more interesting. she. him. Pronouns are also grouped by person. me. us. us. yours 3rd person he. Person 1st person Singular I. their. our. her. and case. obviously the “most important person(s)” in the message. theirs 2nd person you. the words we. The grammar term number means singular or plural. its . my. gender. You is classed as second person because the person referred is present. them. her. male girl. their. them. you. his she.

his her.) The term gender refers to nouns and pronouns. plural pronouns. Some of personal pronouns are used to show possession or ownership. regardless of gender. Nouns which name a female person are called feminine: waitress. That coat is hers. Mary is standing by the door. they. Grammar: Part 2. Mary is standing by the door. and she. yours his.27 * If the pronoun you is used to refer to one person. his show masculine gender. That coat belongs to Mary. Do Exercise 27 in the Practice Booklet. --our. ----Read the following sentence which does NOT contain possessive pronouns. its. I want you to be on time. The pronouns he. you. you is used to designate a group of people. actor. . him. we. Case is a term used in grammar to talk about the special forms of pronouns needed when they are used in different places in a sentence. Nouns which name a male person are called masculine: waiter. hers. are used to replace plural nouns. In English. Module 6. OR Mary is standing by the door. my. it is considered plural (Class. (I want you to close the door. animals. That is her coat. The sentence could be rewritten. etc. aviator. actress. The pronoun it which shows no gender is called neuter and is used to refer to plants. using the possessive pronoun hers to replace the second Mary and the part of the sentence belongs to. hers show feminine gender. and inanimate objects which are singular. theirs whose. ours their. mine your. aviatrix. on the other hand. then it is considered singular. explains case in greater detail.) If. her.

The sentence should read: My mother and I rushed into the house. but they must be present. The sentence should be corrected. the pronoun you can also refer to a group of people. Both pronouns replace People. My mother and me rushed into the house. You’re going to be surprised when you see your new sister. they are contractions of it is. It should read I rushed into the house. The people referred to in this sentence are . we/us. she/her. they/them is to test the pronoun alone. therefore. (I/me. you’re. you can test the sentence above by reading it. Of course. Their apartment will be for rent when they’re transferred to Saint John. The pronoun "me" is not correct in the right case. The pronouns. An easy way to select the right personal pronoun. and they are. For instance.28 Very important: Possessive pronouns do not need apostrophes because the spelling the word itself shows that it is possessive. PRONOUN SELECTION• What do you think is wrong with the following sentence? People are often told that if they want a good job you have to stay in school. using only the pronoun. Here’s another common error in pronoun selection. he/him. . do not match. It’s always funny when the dog chases its tail. not present at the time of speaking. Examine these sentences and learn the difference. You know that does not look right or sound right. A lot of people have been told if they want a good job they have to stay in school. a noun which means a group of people who are not present at the time of speaking. 1. you are. however. The words it’s. but they should match. Me rushed into the house. and they’re are not possessive pronouns. The only pronouns in the sentence are they and you.

Smith gave John and I three letters to mail. Smith gave to letter to only one person. 31. make. heard often in speech. You can find the error by imagining that Mr. and 33 in the Practice Booklet. Just as in the example above. The pronoun them is never used with a noun. Give me those pencils so I can sharpen them. the pronoun you is the correct choice. and the sentence should be corrected like this. but it contains a basic grammar mistake that lots of people. you can hear and see that this is not correct. Smith gave John and me three letters to mail. When speaking to one OR more than one person. Look at this sentence. Yous is not a word. Mr. Are yous going to the movie tonight? The error may seem obvious in print. This sentence may look and sound correct. The correct word to use in this sentence is those. Give me them pencils so I can sharpen them. Mr. . Many people make this mistake.29 It is obvious now that the correct pronoun is “I”. Smith gave I three letters to mail. but be careful when you are speaking. The next two examples show a very common error. 32. Do Exercises 30. The pronoun me is the correct form. even well-educated ones. Mr.

In this sentence. An employee must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. student. There are two ways to correct this grammar mistake. teacher. The only reason for knowing about antecedents at this point in the course is to improve your sentence writing.) is male or female. Make both words plural. . This means that the pronoun and its antecedent must match. The pronoun her replaces the possessive noun Margaret's and refers to the proper noun Margaret at the beginning of the sentence.30 2. Employees must always be ready to give their best service to each customer. Is the noun employee singular or plural? Is the pronoun their singular or plural? To make this sentence grammatically correct. etc. or make them both singular. person. PRONOUNS AND THEIR ANTECEDENTS• Margaret rode her bike to the mall. employee and the pronoun which replaces it their must agree. The noun “Margaret” is the antecedent of the pronoun “her”. An antecedent is the noun or nouns a pronoun refers to or replaces. who is supposed to give the best service? The antecedent of their is employee. the noun Margaret is the antecedent of the pronoun her. Note: When it is impossible to tell whether an employee (mechanic. The pronoun must agree with the antecedent it replaces. it is now considered more appropriate to write the singular form of the sentence this way. This means that the pronoun and the word it replaces must match. Read this sentence. in other words. OR An employee must always be ready to give his (or her) best service to each customer. An employee must always be ready to give his/her best service to each customer. What is the antecedent of the possessive pronoun their.

Sometimes when you are writing a story or an essay. The pronoun everybody is singular. Al and Tim actually cleaned his apartment yesterday. Everybody should sit in his or her seat until the plane has stopped. you should read it through just looking for correct agreement of pronouns and their antecedents. the antecedent does not appear in the same sentence as the pronoun which replaces it. The reader doesn’t know who his refers to because the writer hasn’t mentioned anyone else. the pronoun his is still incorrect because it has no antecedent. it is an called an indefinite pronoun. the sentence will read Al and Tim actually cleaned their apartment yesterday. The sentence is not clear. The pronoun they replaces the antecedents Carla and Jack in the previous sentence. Do not use the plural pronouns they/their to . When you proofread your own writing.31 Here is another place where using the right pronoun is essential. use a singular pronoun like he/his. B. If the apartment belongs to someone else entirely. Whose apartment was cleaned? Did it belong to Al? Tim? Al and Tim? or someone else entirely? When the pronoun agrees with its antecedent. Because it does not refer to any particular person or thing. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS• In the following sentence. The corrected version is Al and Tim actually cleaned Mark’s apartment yesterday. When referring to everybody. Do Exercises 34 and 35 in the Practice Booklet. Carla and Jack left for vacation yesterday. or she/he. They went to Tahiti. everybody is a pronoun.. How would you rewrite the sentence if the apartment belonged only to Al? Al and Tim actually cleaned Al’s apartment yesterday.

Even though it may sound “right” because you have heard it so often.32 replace everybody. Incorrect: Everybody should sit in their seat until the plane has stopped. Plural indefinite pronouns include: several all both Do Exercise 36 in the Practice Booklet. few some many . The correct version is Correct: Everybody should sit in his/her seat until the plane has stopped. it is NOT correct. Other singular indefinite pronouns include any anybody anything anyone everyone everything everybody either neither another everything everyone each nobody no one none nothing somebody someone something A few indefinite pronouns are plural. The pronoun they/their is the proper choice for replacing or referring to such indefinite pronouns.

Books is the antecedent of these Eat the pies. If you cannot find the antecedent. Pies is the antecedent of those.(singular) Such horses are hard to find. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) I sold some cakes.33 C. Coat and hat are the antecedents of them. these. Give her the books. and those are demonstrative pronouns. Book is the antecedent of this Eat the pie. but I gave those to Mary. Such a horse is hard to find. use that and those to refer to things that are farther away. Singular this that such Plural these those such Use this and these to point out something close to you. Give her these. The word such can be used as either singular or plural. (e. the words are not demonstrative pronouns. Take his coat and hat. (plural) Demonstrative pronouns are used to replace a noun or nouns. Take them. Give her this. I know that you are honest.g. Give her the book. Eat those. that. (A demonstrative pronoun) Do Exercise 37 in the Practice Booklet. (Not a demonstrative pronoun) Buy those pork chops. Eat that. Remember to look for the antecedent before you decide that this. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS This very small group of pronouns is extremely useful in making clear sentences. . Pie is the antecedent of that.

herself. Singular emphatic pronouns: myself. For example. or I. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns are used when the “receiver” of the action is the same person as the “doer”. They arranged their trip to Toronto themselves.34 D. yourselves. In other words. use the singular form yourself. I fixed the car myself. If the sentence is directed to one person. there is no such word as “themself”. Check the dictionary. The children frightened themselves with ghost stories. are better able to answer that question. himself. you might say. the action is expressed using a reflexive pronoun. I inspected the tree itself before deciding it was dead. when you want to point out that you did something all by yourself. itself Plural emphatic pronouns: ourselves. Players. if someone does something to himself or herself. EMPHATIC PRONOUNS Emphatic pronouns6 look exactly like reflexive pronouns but they are used to emphasize a noun or another pronoun. . Singular reflexive pronouns: myself. watch yourselves out there on the field today. Tammy cut herself on the broken glass. Can you find the word “themself”? Can you explain why not? E. Andy. itself Plural reflexive pronouns: ourselves. himself. Although it may sound and look correct. themselves Examples: You. you must be careful not to push yourself too far. themselves Notice the two different second person forms of the reflexive pronoun. yourself. yourself. myself. yourself. use the plural form yourselves. but if it refers to a group. yourselves. herself. wouldn’t pass judgement on him. 6 Some grammar texts call this group “intensive pronouns”.

Do Exercise 38 in the Practice Booklet. which. whom8 whose. Do Exercise 39 in the Practice Booklet. The man who lives there recently walked to Miramichi. G. The term “clause” really means extra bits of 7 Module 6 explains how to use “who” and “whom” correctly. H. She taught her children to help one another. Interrogative pronouns: who7. which. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS• When you ask a question about someone or something. they are not interrogative pronouns. whom. that in many sentences. Module 6 explains how to use “who” and “whom” correctly. RELATIVE PRONOUNS Relative pronouns are used to insert special grammar structures called clauses into a basic sentence. RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS There are only two reciprocal pronouns: each other. Example: The friends started listening to each other and their relationship improved. what Example: Who is going to the dance next week? Whom will you ask about the schedule? Which do you like best. 8 . We saw the boat which was damaged by the whale. If they are not used to ask a question. CDs or tapes? What are you going to wear tomorrow? You will see the words who. you often start with an interrogative pronoun. one another.35 F.

I saw the television program which was banned in the States........... whomever............. expressed in a special way..... Relative pronouns: who............... The teacher whom you met trained in France... Parts of the Sentence explains their use in detail....... whoever.to refer to people which.. 41. The driver who didn’t stop got a ticket..to refer to things that. Do Review Exercises 40............36 information in a sentence......... and 42 in the Practice Booklet. whom............... ... The driver that stopped didn’t get a ticket...... We went to see her favourite movie which was playing in Woodstock..... Module 6. I almost forgot that it was your birthday......to refer to people/things Examples: The man who is wearing the red shirt just robbed the bank..

37 V A CLOSER LOOK AT VERBS• The third part of speech presented in this module is the verb. They show that something is being done or that something is happening. She thought about what she had done. one of the main parts of every sentence. They realized their mistake. In fact. a sentence is not a sentence without at least one verb. ACTION VERBS• Most verbs are action verbs. Action verbs may also show mental action that cannot be seen or observed. A. such as The children ran after the dog. David decided to move to Woodstock. She drives very carefully when it’s snowing. TYPES OF VERBS• A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. You can guess the answer? Trish really loves her husband. Make sure they express a physical action you can actually observe. They refer to actions that can be observed with the five senses. 1. Make twenty short sentences like the ones above. That accounted for his absence. Do Exercise 43 in the Practice Booklet. . The rose grew very quickly. The horse jumped the fence. Underline the verbs you used. He caught the ball easily.

In other words. was were has been will be become (all forms) being be had been will have been seem (all forms) . Parts of the Sentence presents more information on linking verbs. In the second sentence. Examples of these types of verbs include: I am here. He was a good friend. You will be successful. We were scared. Sherri is an accountant. the noun student and the pronoun I refer to the same person. In the first sentence the verb am describes the writer’s state of being and “happy” describes how the writer is feeling. The dog was friendly. As well. This is one way to use a “state of being” or “linking verb. the verb in the third example ate definitely describes an action. The verb ate is an action verb. not a linking verb. A list of non-action or linking verbs includes LINKING VERBS am is are have been are Compare these sentences. I am happy. These non-action verbs are sometimes called linking verbs or copula verbs. the writer’s state of being is as a student. They were unhappy. STATE OF BEING VERBS• A very small number of verbs express a state of being. This is the second use of the “state of being” or “linking verb”. I am a student. I ate the apple. Module 6.38 2. They show that something or somebody exists. John is tired. On the other hand. You are hungry. and the sentence means that “I” = “a student”. I and apple do not refer to the same thing.

The evidence looks convincing in this case. smell grow taste sound feel look If these verbs are used to describe a physical action. Tom grew 3 inches last year. A bowl of chili does not have taste buds or a mouth and. or the fact that something has certain qualities. FORMS OF VERBS• AUXILIARY OR HELPING VERBS• In the previous section. 46. 45. The investigator looked carefully at the evidence. they are consider to be linking verbs. B. they are considered to be action verbs. He walked to school every day. If these same verbs are used to express a state of being. The sculpture felt smooth. cannot perform the physical action of tasting. therefore. . Do Exercise 44. 1. and 47 in the Practice Booklet. something that can really happen or that is observable. The sky grew dark before the storm. Martha tasted the chili. (Notice that you can replace each of these linking verbs with the verb seem or is or become. He felt the water before he jumped in. The chili tastes good. Examine the sentences below where these verbs are used as linking verbs. Bob smelled the smoke from the forest fire. The music sounded perfect in the arena.39 A few verbs can be used as either action verbs or linking verbs. the verbs you identified consisted of only one word.) The smoke smelled stronger now. Here are the most common ones. The engineer sounded the locomotive’s horn at the crossing.

When you called. has have had would could should may might must can am is are was were has have had shall will do does did have been.40 My Aunt Teresa feels sick. I will eat all the cookies before the sale. Before calling. Within a verb phrase. Did you write that poem? In the above sentences. are being. is being. Travel.) Here are some other words that can be used as helping or auxiliary verbs. were being . called a verb phrase. had been am being. it is a helping or auxiliary verb. I had eaten my dinner. I will travel to Halifax on the train. however. Think about how the auxiliary verbs change the meaning in the sentences below. A verb can sometimes be made up of more than one word. as in I willed all my property to my children. finishing. were. Sometimes. will can be a main verb. Sue and Greta were finishing the decorating. the word that expresses the action is called the main verb and the other words that tell when the situation took place are called auxiliary verbs. We have thought about a vacation this winter. thought. When will comes before a main verb. was being. I am eating my dinner now. and write are the main verbs. has been. and did are helping or auxiliary verb. have. I was eating my dinner. will. I will have eaten my dinner by 6 o’clock.

past. and future. in the past. In order to talk about the present. you cannot have a sentence without a verb. In some sentences. 2. called PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERB. . I should have enough saved by Christmas to buy a special gift. the main verb is separated from the auxiliary verb or verbs by other “non-verb”words.. The main verb is saved. The word enough is not a verb nor an auxiliary verb. in the future. Verbs express states of being or things happening today. Here tested is the main verb. but which are never part of the verb phrase. sometimes with the help of auxiliary verbs. I will have saved enough money by Christmas. we need to use different forms of verbs.41 As you have just seen. Saved is the main verb. VERB TENSES• Verbs are the most important part of the sentence. some sentences have more than one helping or auxiliary verb. Although rare. before today. Here is a list of some of words that you may find in the middle of a verb phrase. not never scarcely always usually sometimes please enough hardly almost just Do Exercise 48 in the Practice Booklet. the new engine will have been being tested for 57 hours. I have never driven in a big city before. In fact. At 5:00 p. should and have are the auxiliary verbs. and will have been being are the auxiliary verbs. as well as what will happen after today. Both will and have are auxiliary verbs.m. Every verb has FOUR main forms. in the present. it is possible to have as many as four helpers in one verb phrase.

42 PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB I PRESENT walk9 carry bring sing hit do am. is has. “carries”. 3. 1. present. Decide when the action in each of these verbs took place: past. in the third person singular. Present 3. and future.the auxiliary helps indicate the time Although English has many verb tenses. . 2. the present or the future. “brings”.. this module explains four common tenses. How can you tell? 1. The children are reading the story. etc. have II PAST walked carried brought sang hit did was. Past 2. are. simple tenses perfect tenses progressive tenses perfect progressive tenses 9 This form becomes “walks”.. The children will be hearing the story. Future. The children had heard the story. were had III PAST PARTICIPLE walked carried brought sung hit done been had IV PRESENT PARTICIPLE walking carrying bringing singing hitting doing being having We use these forms of verbs to write and talk about things that happen at different times: past.

Simple present He walks to school. To create this tense use shall or will as auxiliaries along with the first principal part of the verb from Column I. Notice that the future tense always contains an extra word: shall or will. We shall walk home You (singular-one person) will sing a song. To create this tense use the first principal part of the verb. Simple Verb Tenses• These verb tenses are used to express actions in their simplest form. I and we.present Column I . It is built using . Today. or is about to be. Simple future They will walk to the movies tomorrow. he walks They will publish b. He will talk to them They will attend the lecture. You (plural) will write that test. It will be here. completed. There are three forms of the simple tense: past. will in the second and third person.past Column I .present EXAMPLE I walked I walk. present and future. “will” is almost always used when speaking about the future. from Column I. She will make the cake. but the correct written form uses “shall” in the first person. To create this tense use the second principal part of the verb. Perfect Tenses The three forms of the perfect tense (past. The perfect tenses are often used to show which of two actions happened first. SUMMARY OF SIMPLE TENSES TENSE Simple past Simple present Simple future AUXILIARY none none will or shall PRINCIPAL PART Column II . from Column II.43 a. Simple past I walked to the store today. I shall walk to the store. present and future) are used to express a single action which has been.

Past Perfect Which action happened farthest in the past? Which action happened most recently? You can see that the present perfect refers to action that happened more recently.Present Perfect The truck had delivered the washing machine. Compare the two sentences below to understand the difference in meaning between the two tenses. . Present perfect - .He will have launched the boat before the storm hits. The third form of the perfect tense is the future perfect. but see how one action (launching and showering) takes place closer to the present than the other. Here all the action definitely takes place in the future. but the actions happened more recently (closer to the present) than if the past perfect tense were used. shall will have) plus the past participle (Examples of past participles are shown in Column III of the chart called Principal Parts of the Verb. I shall have showered before you arrive. it uses had.) Past perfect .I had answered your letter before you called me. He has finished his work. have. the past form of to have as its auxiliary. had. Here the time frame is a little more difficult to see. It is easy to see that the action happened in the past. but it is clear that the boat launching will definitely take place before the arrival of the storm. . Because this is the past perfect. Future perfect .44 some form of the auxiliary to have (has. The future perfect uses the future form of the verb to have (shall have or will have). I have completed my assignment. The truck has delivered the load of topsoil. but also notice that the answering took place before the calling. this present perfect verb tense tells about actions that happened in the past. Despite its name.

have will have. you use one of the progressive tenses.past participle EXAMPLE We had walked He has sung I shall have done c. are. This tense is constructed by using some form of the verb to be (am. were.past participle Column III. This tense is constructed by using the past form of the verb to be (was. Future progressive: Eventually. the action described in this sentence will be taking place over a period of time. Present progressive: The children are watching a puppet show. is. In this case. Here. present and future. The future form of to be (will be. . are. were) plus the present participle from Column IV (washing). shall be) acts as the auxiliary along with the present participle from Column IV (selling). was. Progressive Tenses The progressive tenses also describe actions in the past. and the auxiliary is the present form of the verb to be (am. When you want to describe actions that continued over a period of time. the action of “watching” takes place over a period of time. they will be selling only new computers. will be) plus the present participle from Column IV in the chart. Notice how the action of washing dishes takes place over a period of time. at sometime in the future. shall be. Past progressive: Gilda was washing the dishes when he arrived.past participle Column III.45 SUMMARY OF PERFECT TENSES TENSE Past perfect Present perfect Future perfect AUXILIARY had has. is) plus the present participle form from Column IV (watching). too. shall have PRINCIPAL PART Column III.

this is truly an example of a past perfect tense... Present Perfect Progressive: My groceries have been costing too much lately.... Try this one yourself.. shall be Perfect Progressive Tenses The perfect progressive tenses are a combination of the perfect tense and the progressive tense.. were EXAMPLE Column IV-present participle He was eating Column IV-present participle You are eating Column IV-present participle We will be doing Present Progressive am........ look at the main verb.....had answered 2..the perfect tenses 4...had is in the past form. As a final check.. Is it in the form of a past participle (Column III)? Yes... Identify the auxiliary.. The main verb in the perfect progressive tenses is taken from Column IV...... My sisters had been discussing my birthday party....46 SUMMARY OF THE PROGRESSIVE TENSES TENSE Past Progressive AUXILIARY PRINCIPAL PART was... present or future........... They will have been driving for sixty hours when they arrive.. Sheila had answered all their questions. Which tenses use the auxiliary to have?. Is the auxiliary in the past. He has been saving his money to buy a car.. The students will be walking to school from now on. the present participle... 1. is Future Progressive will be. Future Perfect Progressive: I shall have been watching TV for hours by then... RECOGNIZING VERB TENSES The key to naming verb tenses lies in recognizing the auxiliary verb and the principal part of the main verb it uses. The verb phrase had answered is in the past perfect tense. d. Here the auxiliary is had from the verb to have 3.. Perfect progressive tenses are created by using forms of both to have and to be as auxiliaries. ..... Begin by identifying the whole verb phrase. are. Then. Past Perfect Progressive: This man had been asking too many questions..

The following chart is a combination of all the summary charts dealing with verb tenses. but you learn them later.47 Identify the verb phrase will be walking Identify the auxiliary verb will be This comes from to be Tense is progressive What form? will is future The verb tense is future progressive Remember one of the best reasons for learning about verb tenses is so that you will recognize the complete verb phrase in a sentence. is. There are other tenses. were am. are shall/will be had been has/have been will have been PRINCIPA EXAMPLE L PART Column II Column I Column I Column III Column III Column III Column IV Column IV Column IV Column IV Column IV Column IV I walked He sings They will sing We had hit She has carried I shall have rung He was hearing You are finding She will be fitting I had been sitting He has been filling We will have been biting Do Exercises 49 and 50 in the Practice Booklet. and choose the correct form when writing. SUMMARY OF VERB TENSES TENSE Simple Past Simple Present Simple Future Past Perfect Present Perfect Future Perfect Past Progressive Present Progressive Future Progressive Past Perfect Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Future Perfect Progressive AUXILIARY none none shall or will had has. have shall/will have was. .

The next chart lists a few of these irregular verbs. just use the dictionary. IRREGULAR VERBS PRESENT throw feel spring ring drink bring burst eat rise raised swim cut PAST threw felt sprang rang drank brought burst ate rose raised swam cut PAST PARTICIPLE thrown felt sprung rung drunk brought burst eaten risen raised swum cut lain laid lie (to recline) lay lay (to place) laid Do Exercise 51 in the Practice Booklet.”ing” or “ed” to form its principal parts. it is a regular verb and all you need to do is add “s”. If there are no words written in bold type. If it is an irregular verb. . Look up the verb.48 IRREGULAR VERB• As you may have noticed. If you are unsure about the correct form of a verb. These verbs are called irregular verbs. some verbs form their principal parts by changing their spelling. the dictionary gives its principal parts right after the “entry word”.

based on s sentence structure and meaning. The effect of using a passive voice is to “downplay” the “doer” of the action. One of them is to reduce someone’s or something’s responsibility for an action. the VIA train has the strongest focus. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE A final way to categorize verbs is as active voice or passive voice. sentences that use verbs in the passive voice look like this. When you hear or read a sentence. In sentences using active voice. If you can’t find a “by” phrase... the verb is probably passive. In this case. Read the sentence and see if you can find a phrase that starts with “by. which of the three sentences above would you write? The one which “downplays” the railway’s responsibility is The truck was hit on a stormy night. There are only a few occasions when the passive voice is useful. The truck was hit by the VIA train on a stormy night. The VIA train hit the truck at 7:43 P.49 3. If you can. Many beginning writers use a lot of passive voice verbs in their writing. you naturally place the most importance on the thing you hear first. if you worked for VIA and were afraid that the company might be sued for negligence. the person or thing that did the action is usually mentioned first and the thing that received the action is mentioned last. Often it is phrased in the passive.someone/something”. The truck was hit on a stormy night. That house was designed by a famous architect. Think about how you report bad news.M..) . (by me). For example. Verbs when used in the active voice look like this in a sentence. Here’s an easy way to find passive verbs.. On the other hand. My report card got lost.. try to insert one of your own. The candles were melted.. the focus is now centred on the truck because it is mentioned first. (by whom? by what?. on a stormy night.(by me). Kids are really good at using the passive to avoid responsibility. I had an accident and the fender was crumpled.by the heat. “Good writing” generally avoids the passive voice because it takes away from and weakens the message.. so in this example.

58. restructure the sentences to place the “doer” of the action at the beginning of the sentence.. 59. 53. putting the “doer” at the beginning.. How many verbs did you use? What tenses did you use? Proofread your story and look for passive verbs. This would be more effective if the verbs were in the active voice. Finish the story in 5 or 6 more sentences. 57. Complete Review Exercises 55. the guests played CDs and discussed local news. Passive verbs make your message weak and ineffective. CDs were played and local news discussed. you should always read it through just looking for passives. Do Exercises 52. When you find them.. At the party. she still grabbed Clark’s arm and . .. A vicious dog bit Mark. For example. if you find a sentence that looks like this Mark was bitten by a vicious dog. When you proofread your work. and 54 in the Practice Booklet. and 60 in the Practice Booklet.. At the party. you should rewrite it. Although Lois could barely keep up.. Make sure your story uses only active verbs.50 It is important to know how to reduce the number of passive verbs you use in your writing.. 56.

puffy and white. I am frustrated with my son's behaviour. The man with the umbrella stood in the rain. lined the driveway. Here are some more examples of adjectives used with linking verbs. adjectives can occasionally be found AFTER nouns and pronouns. The counsellors were very angry. The clouds. I am happy about winning the lottery. The trees. busy and happy. Do Exercises 61 and 62 in the Practice Booklet. The boys will be hungry. sailed across the autumn sky. It seems to be injured. The survivors. Adjectives which follow a noun are always surrounded by commas. You will learn more about these predicate adjectives in Module 6. happy. Adjectives are usually placed BEFORE the nouns or pronouns they modify. angry are all adjectives. is the best thing a mother can think of. puffy. stately. They became nervous when they heard the thunder. . white. However. These are a special kind of adjective called a predicate adjective. pale and fearful. Max was late again today. A child. The book is heavy. The words tall. The tourists are American. A sentence with a linking verb uses adjectives like this: The trees were tall and stately. tall and leafy. The clouds were white and puffy. huddled in the ambulance.51 VI A CLOSER LOOK AT ADJECTIVES• Adjectives are describing words which add details about the nouns in a sentence. They are placed after the linking verb and give more information about the person or thing which comes before the verb. Writers choose to place the adjectives after the noun to get a special effect.

bright: This light is brighter than that one. . 64. If the sentence sounds awkward. nice: This sweater is nicer than my red sweater. and other adverbs. When comparing two things. Or I feel well. use the adjective good because it modifies a noun and tells more about the noun answer.52 VII A CLOSER LOOK AT ADVERBS Adverbs are describing words which add details to the sentence by modifying verbs. add “er” to most modifiers. adjectives. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS• The word good is an adjective and the word well is almost always used as an adverb. COMPARISONS USING MODIFIERS• Sometimes a sentence compares two or more things. Well is usually an adverb. and 65 in the Practice Booklet. either adjective or adverb. well modifies the verb answered and that tells how the questions was answered. Adverbs often end in “ly”. Exception: The word well can be used as an adjective when used in relation to how someone feels. you use the word more in front of the adjective or adverb instead of adding “er”. He answered the question well. In the sentence below. quick: The spaniel is the quicker of my two dogs. Review the section on adverbs on page 10 at the beginning of this module before continuing. He wrote a good answer. In this sentence. you must know which part of speech is needed in the sentence you are creating: an adverb or an adjective. Do Exercises 63. To use them properly. How are you? I am well. comfortable: This chair is more comfortable than mine. Practice is the best way to master adverbs and adjectives. Using the “wrong” modifiers is a common mistakes both in speaking and writing.

add “est”. Chop the pepper more finely than the onions. kind: My math teacher is the kindest I have ever had. finely: Usually. bravely: He acted more bravely than this brother. “est”. Use the word more in front of the adverb instead. Do not add “est” to adverbs ending in “ly”. nice: Our view is the nicest of all the ones on this street. the suffix “er” is not added to ANY modifier with more than one syllable. Examples of other irregular modifiers follow. fast: He always drives fastest at night. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS• Some words do not form comparisons simply by adding “er”. peaceful: The time I spend at the lake are the most peaceful hours of my day. When comparing two things. this car's motor runs most quietly. DO NOT add “er” to adverbs ending in “ly”. goodest. quietly: Of the four. more than two things are compared. or by using more or most. such as the adjectives beautiful and gorgeous. Some of the rules change when comparing more than two things. Vanilla ice cream tastes good. It is not correct to say gooder. beautiful: Today’s sunset is more beautiful than yesterday's. or more good. Often. carefully: Barbara drives more carefully than Pat. Instead of adding “er”. . They left sooner than we did. sickly: Tom is the most sickly guy I have ever met.53 fast: soon: He walked faster than I did. and use most with modifiers of more than one syllable. but chocolate tastes the best of all. strawberry tastes better. These words actually change their form.

further COMPARING THREE OR MORE Least Most Most Best Worst Farthest.words such as. correct and dead. or not correct. or correcter. some Well Bad. If something is dead. These words are called absolute adjectives . badly Far COMPARING TWO Less More More Better Worst Farther. An answer on a test is either correct.54 SINGLE FORM Little Many Much. furthest ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES Still other words cannot be used in comparisons. It cannot be less dead or more dead. because of their meaning. . It cannot be more correct. it is dead.

an adjective is necessary. If the word modifies a noun or a pronoun.55 EXAMPLES OF ABSOLUTE ADJECTIVES complete conclusive eternal final immaculate level perfect perpendicular perpetual right round spotless square supreme unanimous unique CHOOSING THE CORRECT MODIFIER• When making comparisons. therefore the correct version is He is really happy. The correct adverb is really. . some writers make mistakes because they can’t decide whether to use an adjective or an adverb. He is real happy is incorrect. an adjective. If the word modifies a verb. It is no different than distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs at any other time. Happy is an adjective and needs an adverb to modify it. or another adverb. Do Exercise 66 in the Practice Booklet. use an adverb.

Do Exercise 67 and 68 in the Practice Booklet. Review the list of prepositions on page 13 of this module before continuing. where. in front of the house by means of a tow rope on top of the hill in addition to their good health ahead of everyone in spite of his good intentions except for my sister out of kindness as far as the gas station These prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives that modify a noun/pronoun or as adverbs that modify a verb. Always use the personal pronouns me. with her The underlined nouns or pronouns are called the object of the preposition. in the middle of is the preposition in the middle of the football field is the complete phrase Here is a list of some compound prepositions. consist of two or more words which are treated as a single unit.56 VIII A CLOSER LOOK AT PREPOSITIONS• Prepositions are little words that show the relationship between nouns/pronouns or tell when. you. sometimes called complex prepositions. after the accident = prepositional phrase ù ù preposition + noun The noun or pronoun which completes the prepositional phrase is called the object of the preposition. to the library. at Superior School. Compound prepositions. There are three prepositional phrases in the sentence below. them after a preposition. Some grammar textbooks list prepositions in two categories: simple and compound. Example: They were standing in the middle of the football field. Prepositions are also sometimes called connectives because their function in a sentence is to connect the modifier with the thing it modifies. Prepositions are always part of a group of words called a prepositional phrase. . how the action in a verb took place. us. it. her. him. The students at Superior School went to the library with her.

(2 ideas) He always gets lost. B. (2 ideas) * Notice how the word order changes when this conjunction is used. 2 verbs) The young and restless children ran quickly and effortlessly. TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS• A. but I can’t find the time. phrases or clauses. A conjunction may join words. and so on. (2 ideas) I can’t finish this dessert. The cat and the dog always eat and sleep together (2 nouns. 2 adverbs) The girls sang. yet he never carries a map. and the boys danced.recognition only) Conjunctions are also joining words and are sometimes called connectives. but also at the wrong address. . (2 complete ideas) I want to go. (2 prepositional phrases. not only/but also Example: Harold was not only late. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS This small group of joining words are similar to co-ordinate conjunctions. (2 ideas) She couldn’t attend school. CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS• Co-ordinate conjunctions join words that are the same part of speech: a noun with a noun. an adjective with an adjective. nor* can I drink my coffee. but they are always used in pairs. 2 verbs) After the hike and before dinner. (2 ideas) It rained. they peeled vegetables and told stories. (2 adjectives. (2 ideas) You can write a report. so they cancelled the outing. There are only seven coordinate conjunctions: and for but yet or so nor Some people use the mnemonic FANBOYS to remember them.57 IX A CLOSER LOOK AT CONJUNCTIONS (BAU. or you can make a speech. for she had no money.

whether/or I don't care whether Harold gets here or not. When a conjunctive adverb is used to join two complete sentences. We did. consequently. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are used to join two complete sentences that are very closely related in meaning. they are adverbs. therefore. it burned to the ground. therefore moreover thus consequently as a result however nevertheless hence otherwise besides anyway instead meanwhile furthermore still If these words do not join two complete ideas. either/or Harold was either late. therefore. call them to explain. Here is a list of some common conjunctive adverbs.58 Example: neither/nor Harold was neither on time. Although these could be two unconnected events. The old farmhouse burned to the ground. A writer might choose to say Lightning struck the old farmhouse. however. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. place a semicolon in front of it and a comma after it. Example: Example: Example: C. or lost. Do Exercise 69 in the Practice Booklet before continuing. . nor at the right address. Lightning struck the old farmhouse. in this case. Compare It snowed last night. the house burned down because it was struck by lightning. we didn’t go. both/and Both Harold and Steve arrived two hours late. it burned to the ground.

You must look at the sentence carefully to determine whether these words are used as prepositions or conjunctions. make sure Mark is alright. These are called subordinate conjunctions. after* since * whether although while where as than* why as if though when because unless how before* until* even if if The words with an asterisk (*) may sometimes be used as prepositions. The road was slippery. The truck drivers stopped carefully. You won’t be able to write your GED unless you sign up now. D. We stopped at the grocery store after we bought gas. I will be able to come sometime. Parts of the Sentence gives more details on identifying subordinate conjunctions. She was confused. Although she was confused. Here are some examples of other subordinate conjunctions at work. Here are some common subordinate conjunctions. The truck drivers stopped carefully because the road was slippery. If it is a subordinate conjunction it will be followed by a noun and a verb. Look at the following sentences and decide which contain subordinate conjunctions and which have prepositions. I am not sure when that time will be. Module 6 explains this in more detail. If the word is a preposition it will be followed by only a noun or pronoun. Since she got that job. she didn’t ask any questions. . I am not sure when I will be able to come. I would start studying now. Her boyfriend will do whatever she asks. They are used to join two ideas which otherwise would require two separate sentences. she hasn’t been able to go to school. Notice that every sentence that contains a subordinate conjunction has at least two complete verb phrases. She didn’t ask any questions.59 SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS• Another group of words are often used as conjunctions. If I were you. Module 6. As soon as you can.

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Before the party started, we went to the store. Before the game, they bought popcorn and a drink. Because she lost her wallet, she couldn’t go to the concert. Because of her loss, she was unable to afford the plane ticket. Since I won the lottery, I decided to buy a new car. Since the election, the politicians have stayed in Fredericton. The best way to learn how to identify conjunctions is to practise. Do Practice Exercise 70 in the Practice Booklet. E. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Relative pronouns, which you learned in the pronoun section, are also used as conjunctions. These words are relative pronouns: who, whom, which, that, whomever, whichever. Do not confuse them with interrogative pronouns, used to start a question or pronouns. Example: That club always has good entertainment. (Demonstrative adjective) That is a good idea! (Demonstrative pronoun) Ivan said that he will be working. (Relative pronoun) What did you say? (Interrogative pronoun) They guessed what I was giving them for Christmas. (Relative pronoun) Who is the designated driver? (Interrogative pronoun) The driver who was hired last week was laid off. (Relative pronoun) Most students need more practice identifying prepositions and conjunctions than can be provided in any one textbook. All grammar books contain exercises suitable for extra practice. It is the student’s responsibility to decided when he/she needs extra work and to locate the practice exercises he/she needs. The instructor may suggest sources for supplementary work. You can practice identifying parts of speech using sentences from the newspaper or magazines. You can write your own or trade with a class mate. As well, any of the exercises in the Practice Exercises Booklet may be used to practice identifying parts of speech. Do Exercise 71 in the Practice Booklet.

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X

INTERJECTIONS• Interjections are the eighth and final part of speech. Interjections are exclamations and may be followed by an exclamation point (!) or a comma. They are straightforward and simple to use because they are not related to any other word in the sentence. Whew! Ouch! Oh! My goodness! Eek! Yuck! Wow, did you see The Grateful Dead concert. Boy, that was a funny episode with Robin Williams. Do Exercise 72 in the Practice Booklet.

Wow! Yikes! Yippee! Hey! I just won the lottery!

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XI

SOME COMMON GRAMMAR MISTAKES•

Boy, it is some cold today! Boy, it is very cold today. Boy, it is real cold today! Boy, it is really cold today. Some is a pronoun or and adjective and cannot modify an adjective. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective cold and show how cold it is. Use very cold. If he had went home sooner, he wouldn’t have missed dinner. If he had gone home sooner, he wouldn’t have missed dinner. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. The verb phrase had went is meant to be in the past perfect tense. The past perfect is constructed using the past participle from Column III, not the past form from Column II. Use had gone. I done well on that test. I did well on that test. The form of the verb tense is incorrect. This sentence requires the simple past tense which created using the form from Column II. Done is the past participle form taken from Column III. Use the simple past form did. The pictures should of been ready by now. The pictures should have been ready by now. The verb phrase is incorrect. Of is a preposition and does not belong in a verb phrase. This verb phrase requires the auxiliary have. I ain’t finished yet. I’m not finished yet. There is no such word as ain’t anymore. Bob said, “Very best, I’ll go with you next week”. Bob said, “Of course, I’ll go with you next week. English does not include the phrase very best. It is a translation of the French très bien and does not belong in a correct English sentence. Use a phrase like Of course. Fran had did her best on that test. Fran did her best on that test. The verb phrase is incorrectly constructed. The verb phrase had did is meant to be in the simple past tense. The simple past is constructed using the principal part of verb from Column II. Use did.

The relative pronoun which can only be used to refer to things. Use really pleased. The officer which stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. Start by identifying the kinds of mistakes you make without realizing it. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective pleased and show how pleased Polly was. Use certainly late. In this sentence. Be sure that you are comfortable with the parts of speech and can accurately identify them at least 80% of the time. “Unlearning” something you have said all your life is not easy. He is the tallest of my two boys. the correct form of the word is taller. Real is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective. The word tallest is used to compare more than two things. Polly was really pleased with her new dress. only two things are being compared. learning about parts of the sentence will be much easier. He is sure late with his payment this month. If you understand parts of speech well. really late. Sure is an adjective and cannot be used to modify another adjective late. The officer who stopped me for speeding gave me a warning. CONCLUSION Getting rid of all the grammar mistakes in your writing and speaking will help you progress more quickly. or very late. Keep a section of your notebook for the explanations and corrections of your personal grammar problems that is set up like the one above. therefore. Do another self-evaluation? What do you think you should do next? Review? Write a pre-test? Find more practice exercises? . He is the taller of my two boys. The officer is obviously a person. This sentence needs an adverb to modify the adjective late and show how late he was. so the correct pronoun is either who or that.63 Polly was real pleased with her new dress. A final word of advice before you move on to Module 6. Parts of the Sentence.

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ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH

Supplementary Exercises

GRAMMAR: PART I
Parts of Speech

FALL 1998

clams. the little boats began to appear. she went for a tetanus shot. Underline all the nouns you used. Penguins live near the South Pole. From the top of a small hill. that even truck drivers pulled into motels. Then. many husbands and wives were separated. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the nouns. What did you bring with you? 4. The passengers on the ship witnessed the collision with the iceberg. 2. 9. Local markets are full of mussels. their catch is usually large. 1. . 8. If the weather is good. Give everybody something to eat before they leave. 3. 5. Robert drove his car to Saint John and shopped for a new truck. The dog chased the cat under the porch. So much snow covered the roads. but few stayed long. the fishermen return to their harbours for the night. Exercise 2: Nouns A. Many retired couples move to Florida where the weather is warmer. 5. Check your answers in the answer key. 3. but these birds aren’t bothered by the cold. 4. My daughter sold her computer to a friend.1 Exercise 1: Nouns Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline all the nouns you can find. 9. Did they teach themselves how to speak German? 5. The ocean was calm. When their boats are full. and the clouds were beautiful. 6. 4. The fishermen were out checking their traps for lobster. 3. 6. and lobster. and then underline all the pronouns you can find in this exercise. 1. Write 10 sentences of your own. Storms make life on the water dangerous. After she cut herself. canneries prepare seafood for shipment to Japan. In small villages. Many people in this area spend most of their lives on the sea. 7. The Titanic sank in a few hours. 10. we saw the Northumberland Strait. Shediac is closer to the Confederation Bridge than Riverview is. Exercise 3: Pronouns Copy these sentences into your notebook. 10. Muffins made with blueberries are delicious. Many of them came. 2. B. 2. 7. 8. scallops. 1.

Who likes chocolate? The stones on the beach were green. This belongs to her. She never gave them any of it. 9. 4. 7. The lions slept in the sun for hours. 5. 4. Who told us that no one would be at the mall? 2. 7. He gave her several bottles of this. His parents thought about him every day. Seagulls flew lazily in the light breeze. He dreamed about his recent accident. The New Brunswick flag cost five dollars. Mine was destroyed by the flood. The robin perched on a lower branch. . 7. 8. 8. John ate his lunch slowly. 2. 1. B. Write 10 sentences of your own. Many told about the kindness of strangers. but these are pink. Exercise 6: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. 10. We always welcome suggestions. Exercise 5: Verbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. All of those are expensive. Copy these sentences into your notebook and then underline the pronouns. 3. 8. They told about the hardships we survived. None of us was frightened by that. Melissa always walks to work in the morning. 1. The pitcher threw the ball. 3. 5. 1. 6. 2. Give me some! 9. 10. She often rode the bus home at night. Phillip called to tell them about that. 9. Underline all the pronouns you used. 10. Sue sat on the bench as we were jogging through the park. Exercise 4: Pronouns A. but the insurance covered it. The Christmas tree looked beautiful.2 6. What did you give him and his wife for Christmas? 6.

7. 10. B. life was returning to normal. 2. 4. They are calling it the storm of the century. People from nearby communities brought many loads of firewood. or have you finished it? Lucy will send you her new address. 3. Volunteers arrived with emergency supplies. Rewrite it using enough adjectives . They used paper plates for the annual picnic. 1. Exercise 8: Adjectives A.3 3. 9. 6. Heavy icy was still bringing down many power lines. After three days. 5. 10. Only a few people could stay in their houses without electricity. You will never guess the answer. 7. The dark brown painted dripped on the new white carpet. we decided on a movie. the dealer agreed to our price. 8. The long summer months are usually hot and dry. We learned about the effects of the storm from Norma. The little girl ran along the dusty road. Everyone wants a lucky lottery ticket. and they flapped in the light breeze. Use the paragraph you wrote in Exercise 7B. they arrived at the train station. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adjectives 1. 5. Underline all the verbs you used. 9. After work. B. Finally. Write a paragraph about an exciting event. Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the verbs. Are you reading that magazine. The hockey arena is located on Water Street beside the steel mill. He was enjoying a ham and cheese sandwich. 9. 10. These apples are juicy and red. Six delicious cookies were cooling on the rack. 5. The old curtains were torn and faded. 6. food became scarce. 8. 8. 2. 6. We hope that we will not have another ice storm this year. nine miles from Minto. Soon. Since his accident. After a few hours. he has been driving more carefully. Exercise 7: Verbs A. A beautiful red rose bloomed in a quiet corner of that flower garden. 7. 3. 4. 4. Many branches had been broken by the wind.

4. Exercise 11: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the prepositions. 2. Today. very fast computers are needed. she wrote the very last sentence correctly. 10. You cannot drive there! 5. 8. 4. the strikers blocked the driveway effectively 7. Rick gave his girlfriend an extremely expensive gift. 4. he asked for a second helping. 1. Exercise 9: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. Finally. 10. 9. Kate is a truly courageous woman. Generally. They finished their work surprisingly quickly. they are quite easy to use. Yesterday. Many businesses use them daily. She smiled brightly and said that she was really sorry. Draw a circle around the nouns or pronouns that complete the prepositional phrase. 7. Put your coats on the bed in the guest room. 5. The books on airplanes were placed beside those on trains. The baby has been very cranky lately. She hid the presents behind the desk and under the stairs. 2. 3. The colour of her dress was really flattering. They produce statistics quickly and accurately. 3. Politely. Paula walked through the park and then turned towards home. 6. Underline the adjectives you used. 2. The weather turned really hot at the beach during this last week. 1.4 to make your reader see the scene clearly. Computers are relatively new devices. 8. 5. They arrived early for class. 1. Exercise 10: Adverbs Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the adverbs. 6. The bus will arrive here at noon tomorrow. 9. . She placed the crystal vase carefully on the table. Many people have never used a computer. Can you come soon? 3.

Exercise 12: Prepositions Copy these sentences in your notebook. 9. It was a life and death situation. A few of our friends from school arrived for supper at Julie’s. 1. 3. 6. 5. The time of day doesn’t matter. Underline the conjunctions. No! Don’t touch the brake.5 6. The man with the long scarf just robbed the store in the mall. 1. circle the nouns/pronouns that complete them. 2. 7. I hate boiled cabbage. Guests with tickets entered first. The camp beside ours was built in 1966 by John’s brother. . 2. 7. Exercise 14: Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook. did you see that jet! 2. most of the money disappeared. Exercise 13: Interjections Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the interjections. 10. In his new movie. In 1992. My aunt in Sackville gave several of the antiques to Gene. We saw six pheasant on the road to Stanley. 9. many of the survivors have received cash settlements. 3. Apples and oranges are good for you. or groups of words (phrases). 4. Brad Pitt drives a car from Toronto to Los Angeles. 8. 4. Then indicate whether they are joining words. Oh no! He lost the puck. 10. 5. Look under the table and in the closet. and then decide whether the prepositional phrase is used as an adjective or an adverb. The supervisor questioned the quality of her work. 8. The sap from maple trees is boiled into a syrup. The mine owners from Germany sold all of it to them. Since the crash. The chairs on the porch were painted white. Ouch! That hurts. 1. 3. Underline the prepositions. or complete ideas (clauses). None of the items on that page are available until July. Yuck. Wow.

Betty or Fran will bring the books which you wanted. 9. 12. We bought the tickets. Before he gets sicker. majestic Rocky Mountains are a truly beautiful sight. I wanted to travel quickly and cheaply. 4. Until the snow melts. After we saw a deer. 13. We ran home because it was raining. we can leave so we will be on time. We sent you a full and complete refund when you asked for it. 6. . This book cost six dollars. 4. CDs are great because they have good quality sound. 9. Our friends in Calgary were surprised when we arrived. 5. but I couldn’t get a ride. you should not take your new camera on your trip. 10. No. 11. 8. so we went to the concert. we won’t believe it. We jogged quickly through the dark woods. Exercise 15 Conjunctions Copy these sentences in your notebook and then underline the conjunctions. 2. The waiter who served our lunch was really nice but slow. 1. Andy bought it because he liked it yet he never wore it. 9.6 4. Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened. 3. I saw the nests that the robins built both on the porch and in the tree. we will have to stay home. 6. 7. they gave it to the teacher. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch. Roller blades and skateboards are very popular. 7. he should go to the doctor. Carol and I travelled to Alberta last year. 10. If you are ready. Turn at the lights and go two blocks west. The wind was cold. 6. she and Lily still arrived on time. 2. She was giving a short but interesting lecture. Although she missed the bus. 7. 5. Exercise 16: Review Identify the part of speech of every word in each sentence. The tall. but the sun was really warm. we drove to Doaktown. Their house was built in 1990. Most of the students listened politely. 1. 8. When they had finished. 3. 5. 14. 10. 8. We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday. Until we see it.

Robin and his family moved to Alberta when the mill closed. Do most people in Italy read the newspaper on the weekend? English is a language with many exceptions to the rules of grammar. c. 7. 5. 2. 10. Maple syrup is produced in rural areas of North America. 6. 9. Eric and they learned very quickly. 4. The hockey arena in Beresford is located near the main street. Underline all the nouns. 1.7 15. Early settlers to the Gaspé came from France and England. Copy the following sentences into your notebook. rose happiness school computer skiing bubbles justice cow truth grace stars fear . Bathurst is a small city on the Bay of Chaleur. b. Moonlight flickered on the dried leaves on the path from Black Lake. 3. The stores on Main Street are planning a large sale and carnival to boost their profits. 8. Place each noun you underlined in the appropriate column. Exercise 18: Common and Proper Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. Your instructor will correct your work. Marsha sent a parcel to her sister in Regina. Underline all the nouns you used and identify each as either a common or proper noun. Exercise 19: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Divide the words in this exercise into two lists: concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Create two columns in your notebook: one for common nouns and one for proper nouns. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns a.

5. . Ann receives too many junk mail. They bought several rings at the auction. write two sentences. Write the corrected form in your notebook. B Reword each of the following phrases. 3. Mary’s house is on the corner of Jones and Water Streets. the second should describe the group as a collection of people acting as individuals. 1. Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns A Record the possessive nouns in the following sentences in your notebook. The first should describe the group acting as a single impersonal unit.8 Exercise 20: Collective Nouns For each of the collective nouns below. 2. 1. using apostrophes. He received three months’ back pay yesterday. A large amount of deer were shot this season. family couple class staff crowd Exercise 21: Mass Nouns Decide which of these sentences using mass nouns needs correction. 4. Each of the boy’s bicycles was locked. 2. 5. 1. Owen has a great deal of assignments to do this week. Rewrite the sentences in your notebook and include apostrophes where necessary. the book belonging to the children the biggest fans of Elvis the meeting for the secretaries the memos sent by the bosses the car belonging to my oldest son the mens department the schedule for the buses the paws of the cats the barking of the coyote the pay for two weeks Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns The following sentences contain some words that need apostrophes to show possession. Sue’s friends bought her a sweater in the men’s department. Bobs uncle lives near Sharons farm. Have you seen the dog’s leash? 3. 4. There was a lot of traffic in town over the holidays.

4. 4. Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns If you had more than two mistakes in Exercise 22. (one girl. 10. City Councils regular meetings are held on Mondays. The girls hair had been cut short for the twins wedding. 7. (two uncles) 2.9 2. Finish your clients reports before you go to Smiths tonight. read the section on apostrophes again. The skateboarders park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. My uncles farmhouse was struck by during last summers storm. Frank and James mail order business is making them a rich mans fortune. his wifes income was reduced. Mr. 6. (one client) 9. The womens resumés were sent to the companies head offices by the bosses secretary. 5. 10. Make sure your instructor corrects your work before you continue with this module. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8. 8. Have you seen Mel Gibsons last three movies? 5. but the companys salesman went to my cousins place. Marthas sister was worried about her sons health. 3. Then try these sentences. 9. 6. Marks mother lives at my sisters. 7. (two sons) The childs name is Nora. Because of the accident. Charles company owed him two days pay. The suns rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 25: Possessive Nouns Write ten sentences of your own. two twins) 3. Smith was worried about her sons health. and the familys name is Boudreau. Childs car was being serviced at Eatons. A March snow storm is sometimes called “winters last lament”. Each sentence should include at least one possessive noun. The students cafeteria will be closed after next weeks graduation. (one son) Mr. 1. .

If you had any mistakes. mark your own work. you should review the parts of this section that gave you “trouble” thoroughly by doing more exercises and/or finding more explanations of the point(s) in another text book. C. Centennial Bridge. Chatham. or ask your instructor to mark it for you. That is my neighbour's new car. Bridge. 3. D. and do not peek at the answer key. When you have completed the test. B. A. Read the following sentence. 4. Read the following sentence. Ferry Road. As you work through the test. 5. Chatham. accidents. Laura is the oldest sister of Pam. try this test again. Chatham. D. Ferry. Those toys belong to the children. Centennial Bridge. connects. accidents. The new car is my neighbours'. I do not like the apartment belonging to Cheryl Hastings. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. That is my neighbours' new car. Road. D. Rewrite the following sentences to make the nouns in bold print possessive. B.10 Exercise 26: A Review of Nouns Use this review test to check out how well you have learned the grammar points presented so far in this module. What is a noun? 2. There have been many accidents on the Centennial Bridge which connects Chatham with Ferry Road. Centennial Bridge. B. A correct possessive form of the noun would be A. When you are satisfied that you really understand. E. Name the eight (8) parts of speech. That is the new car belonging to my neighbour. C. accidents. That new car is my neighbour. C. Chatham. . This is the store belonging to Doris. Ferry Road. The police wrote down the descriptions given by the witnesses. 1. do not look back at the material in the module.

Saint John D. river D. For each word below indicate whether it is a) common or proper b) concrete or abstract c) singular or plural d) count or non-count e) indicate which nouns are collective and/or possessive. holiday E. Nova Scotia. Halifax. Halifax. Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia. January B. 11. There is a burn mark on the chair's arm. C. The Morrisons just returned from two weeks' vacation. city C. 8. 9. C. . town. Canada C. Parker There are errors in SOME of the following sentences. town. B. friends. town. this. before they moved to this town. 7. friends. Dr. friends. Read the following sentence. Our friends lived in Halifax. A. D. Give a proper noun for each of the following common nouns. A. they. Nova Scotia. I had a great time last St.11 6. Halifax. Patricks Day. magazine Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. The flower's petals fell to the floor. Do you remember when ten cents worth of candy was enough to share with your friend's? E. this. Rewrite only the sentences you think are incorrect. soda pop B. A. D. Jupiter E. The nouns in the sentence are A. Halifax. B. Nova Scotia. correcting the errors.

2. church beauty armies boys’ grammar men’s trouble boy’s Church: common. Third person singular B. write its person and number . Cheryl gave her cold to them. When I went to the club last night. 3. her.Person. your. I saw them eating their lunch myself. 3. Exercise 28: Personal Pronouns . their. You. Gender A. Second person plural C. me. You should take yours. 1. her husband and their children visited your mother. Write each personal pronoun in the sentences below in your notebook. concrete. they took my jacket and your camera. us. but mine is on the desk. myself 2. We. yours. First person plural A. They. Third person plural D. 5. ourselves 4. 1. yourself F. singular. Where are you going with her tapes.12 The first one is done for you. mine. . 4. yourselves B. You. He may have taken her coat. They say that we should always mind our own business. hers. theirs. our. Beside each. They didn’t know it was theirs until they saw its label. 4. yours. First person singular E. my. Number. 1. I. herself 5. Try not to look at the chart above. themselves 3. For third person singular pronouns also include the gender. Did you give him his book? 2. them. your. She. ours. count mob news equipment jury fragrance surprise sunrise broccoli mice Canada’s meat loyalty March company English horn Lions’ Club Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns List all the personal pronouns in the following sentences in your notebook. My sister. Practice the terms above by matching the term in the first column with the examples in the second column.

me)! 6. The pronouns mine. they’re) ugly colour. their. John and (he. her) to town. 9. After finishing all the sentences. Students often think that (you. 3. (You. your. check the answers in the answer key. Have you seen my raincoat? That raincoat isn’t mine Exercise 30: Possessive Personal Pronouns Write 10 sentences of your own. Do you think that (he. her. 3rd person singular). Mom divided the Halloween candy between Stacey and (me. hers. 1. yours. but (you. him) were going to Miramichi. They were sure that Lisa and (he. 11. Then identify the pronoun by person and number (i. 10. your. her. they) have to keep trying. . 4. Rewrite the sentence in your notebook. your) going to pass. they) will fail. its) not likely to return. A student must try to find (his. yours. their) own learning modality. our. Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection The following exercise will help identify the problems you have selecting the appropriate pronoun. its) nest was destroyed and (it’s. ours. 5. his. using the correct pronoun. The first set is done for you. me) could go to the game? 7. 12. Your) hard work means that (you’re. theirs are used alone. (You’re. Notice that the pronouns my. Give the pencil to Martha or (I. him) and (I.e.13 Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Use each of the seven sets of possessive pronouns in a separate sentence. his. him) went to a meeting 2. Be sure to underline every personal pronoun you use. Each must contain at least one possessive pronoun. them) sneakers because of (their. 8. Yous) are all invited to go to the concert in Moncton. (It’s. I do not want (those. its. I). Jerry took his brother and (she. whose are always followed by a noun.

We sent her some flowers. 9. Although the car of Tim Maxwell is not a new car. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection Each of the following sentences contains one or more pronouns. 1. Be sure to replace some of the nouns with pronouns. The car of Tim Maxwell had been in an old lady's garage since the old lady's husband died in early 1990. 6. 10. Could him and me could go to the game? You and your husband should prepare yourself for some bad news. Rewrite the sentence. REWRITE the sentence. The car of Tim Maxwell is just like a new car. 3. They kept the secret from Jack and I. Rewrite it so that it is easier and more interesting to read. If a sentence is CORRECT. EXAMPLE: Mary gave she the keys. I took them clothes to the cleaners yesterday. 5. Tim Maxwells car is a 1989 Buick LeSabre.14 Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection Improve the following paragraph. the 1989 Buick LeSabre had not been driven very far when Tim Maxwell bought the car. 12. Mary drove Paul and I to the mall. Jane’s best friend is me. 4. 7. using the correct pronoun. 8. 2. leave it as it is. The 1989 Buick LeSabre had travelled only 800 kilometres! Eight hundred kilometres is not very many kilometres for a car as old as the car of Tim Maxwell. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. Leo and her gave yous the coffee money Monday. using the right pronoun Mary gave her the keys. The man standing outside in the rain is him. 11. Al met John and she at the movies. Them people pushed in line ahead of me! . If the WRONG pronoun is used in a sentence.

1. Norm and Al filled his basket with apples from Fredericton. The jury were presenting their opinions. 7. 3. The students asked for new books. We ourselves were happy to participate. 1. 4. 8. 3. Exercise 36 : Pronouns and Antecedents Rewrite the following sentences so the meaning is clearer. Draw an arrow from the antecedent to the noun it replaces. 4. The dog's ears are pointed. 10. The boys tried out for the football team. The dog belonging to you has run away again. Our family is not large. The instructor will give them those. These will be used to buy Christmas toys. 2. . Some managers write their business letters themselves. Explain in your own words what an antecedent is. It gathers once a year for a reunion. 2. replacing the underlined word or words with an appropriate pronoun. The merchants gave donations. A student should always be on time for his or her class. and he should pay it. Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents A. Rewrite these sentences in your notebook. The police officer told him that he deserved the ticket. 6. 5. 1. The president should take his office seriously. The audience clapped for their performance. The class asked their mother to help at the bake sale. One of the girls will receive her trophy at the banquet.15 Exercise 34: Pronoun Selection Rewrite the following sentences. 5. B. 9. 4. 2. Tracy's children are giving Tracy a surprise party. 3. My family are always ready to support their relatives. 5. Philip gave her her present. The blue coat in your closet is a coat belonging to me.

6.g. his. Such cannot be true! 4. You will have to drive yourself to the hospital. Does anybody know (his or her. e. 3. Do not write This book is mine Exercise 39: Reflexive. . The deer hurt (her. 7. 8. He cut himself when she was cleaning the kitchen. 5. 4. 4. Write each corrected sentence in your notebook. her. 1. Wash the car yourself this time. our) marks. 5. her. his or her.16 Exercise 37: Indefinite Pronouns Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct pronoun. their) dues. its) leg when it jumped the fence. 6. Write at least five sentences of your own that use demonstrative pronouns. his or her. This is the one I want to buy. 3. Max and Helen sang at (her. her. that. their) pen. A few of us have received (his. Be sure that they are not attached to a noun. her. 5. Whose book is that on the floor? B. and those as describing words later. Give me all of these and some of those. Several of the men have paid (his. Many hens have escaped from (her. No one should submit (his or her. Exercise 38: Demonstrative Pronouns A. her or his. their) supervisors. 2. Then tell which is which. Each of those buyers should consult (his. The soldiers hoisted each other over the stone wall. 10. their) own bus ticket. Did he really say that? 3. Write This is mine. A few forgot (his. Emphatic. their) Social Insurance Number? 2. You will learn about the use of this. these. their) lunches. Underline the demonstrative pronouns in these sentences. None of the boys has paid for (his. his or her. Reciprocal Pronouns Underline the all the reflexive. their) mutual friends' wedding. 2. his. their. The players patted one another on the back after they scored. 1. their) report later than tomorrow. 1. emphatic and reciprocal pronouns used in the following sentences. I myself won’t put up with that. 9.

We laughed when we watched ourselves on TV. How many different groups of pronouns are there? What is the first letter in the name of each group? As a mnemonic to help you learn all these names. The furniture was destroyed. 10. making notes as you go. 5. He said many things which I didn’t understand. Which is the fastest way to the airport? 9. Which is right? There are two choices. He reported to his boss that those which you bought were too expensive. That is definitely the kind of book that someone like you would read. 1. 8. both of them look correct. Read this entire section on types of pronouns again. but the house itself was undamaged. List all the pronouns in the following sentences. What have you done with the keys? 10. . Beside each one give as much information as you can about it.17 7. can you create a catch word or silly sentence using these first letters. He hasn’t decided what he wants to do next. Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns A. Who stole the money? 2. 4. 2. 1. 7. When you talk about that accident. 8. 3. B. 6. 10. Which of them belongs to Marla? 7. She limited herself to less than 1600 calories a day. What did you bring for lunch? 3. The dealer totalled their bill and then asked them how they would pay it. My first attempt was a failure. it always gives me the shivers. A nurse should protect himself or herself from infectious diseases. Ian is the one who knows that. 5. Exercise 40: Interrogative Pronouns Underline only the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences. Whom should we reward? 6. 8. 9. What would anyone do with that? 4. but later I had learned from it. 9. The children themselves saw it. Marg and Steve built their new house themselves. The man who won is my friend Steve. She asked herself if any of the dresses really suited her.

Match the term on the left with the example on the right. 2. these 2. a. reflexive pronoun I. e. Exercise 43: Review of Pronouns 1. each other 3. You didn’t give that to them. Did they give themselves a pre-test before writing that exam? 4. We can tell you who leaked that information to the press! 8. “What can I do to help those less fortunate?” 10. a word that doesn’t exist J. but he took mine. Always ask yourselves. did you? 5. she) went to the automatic teller. d. 1. Sherri took your boots. its K. relative pronoun D. its) tail. 9. All of my friends saw that movie starring Whoopi Goldberg. themself 8. reciprocal pronoun C. Have you read the article in the Times Transcript about you and (I.18 Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns Underline and identify each pronoun used in these sentences. interrogative pronoun B. 1. 7. Something is missing from this recipe. Rewrite these sentences using the correct form of the pronoun. The dog (who. me). but the contractor poured the cement. which) is barking lives next door. everybody 6. few 2. c. our 4. We did most of the work ourselves. He cut (himself. The cat often chases (it’s. What is the function of a pronoun? 3. possessive pronoun H. Sheila and (her. its 5. 6. himself 9. demonstrative pronoun F. 1st person plural A. hisself) on that rusty can. . indefinite pronoun (plural) E. Who brought the ketchup and mustard for the hotdogs? 3. indefinite pronoun (singular) G. The couple who just arrived on the plane kissed each other. what 7. b. which 10.

the kids and ourselves returned to Rexton. B. A. g. we and the kids returned to Rexton. Everyone should buy their own hockey equipment. 4. Which sentence below is correct? A. Bill is the antecedent of he C. Which group of words below correctly completes this sentence. their. 7. themself) Write a paragraph (about 6 or 7 sentences) about a pet. Which statement below is not correct. give yourself a hand for a great fundraising effort. Do you think there house is big enough? The cab drove Mike and me to the airport. the kids and them returned to Rexton. Volunteers. A. they’re) old car. i. it is the antecedent of bonus. . bonus is the antecedent of it 5. Be sure and tell her where (your. him).19 f. (they’re. C. Mr. Underline every pronoun you have used. After Bill gave his employees their bonus. employees is the antecedent of them D. B. j. there) too expensive. C. After the holidays. B. My aunt always sends a card to Angela and (he. D. Don’t buy (those. us and the kids returned to Rexton. there. Hutchins bought (their. 6. D. them) shoes. She says that Jimmy and the boys usually cut the wood (themselves. you’re) house is. he told them to spend it wisely. h.

Check with your instructor to make sure you have used only linking verbs in your sentences. A. Smyth was my uncle. The dog jumped over the fence. 4. it is classed as an action verb. His car smashed into a bridge. There were fourteen people in that class last year. Think of some other verbs that express a mental action. For each underlined pronoun. Remember even if the verb is expressing a mental action. My sister’s name is Paula. Write ten sentences that use verbs that express a physical action that can be observed. 7. Ask your instructor to review your work. They will be angry about your forgetfulness. C. . 12. 8. 1. 2. B. Exercise 45: Linking Verbs Write at least 10 sentences that use linking verbs. The companies which produce these CDs handle their advertising themselves. Mr. 9. My old roommate from college drove to Fredericton last night. 11. Exercise 44: Action Verbs A. We were afraid of the storm. Use each one in a sentence. Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs Copy these sentences into your notebook.20 8. Then underline the verbs. We watched a movie last night. For each verb that you identify. The little mouse squeaked loudly. B. 5. Buy yourself something expensive. 13. identify its type and give as much information about it as you can. The baseball hit the boy in the face. 10. Those are mine. We feared the storm. indicate whether it is an action or a linking verb. 3. Few of them knew the right answer. The students were happy about their marks. Who knows anything about this? E. D. 6.

The policeman believed their every word about the robbery. 10. please. taste. He looks taller than Mario. indicate the main verb in each of the following sentences. the other with a linking or copula verb. 15. 8. 3. and the auxiliary or helping verb(s). The pie smells good. The puppy carefully tasted his new food. sound. Write two sentences for each verb: one with an action verb. if any. 1. feel. 13. the bookkeeper at Colpitt’s. identify the verbs in the following sentences and record whether they are action or linking verbs. That newspaper publishes editions in both Toronto and Vancouver. Close the door to the garage. 9. He felt the smoothness of the fur pelt with his hand.21 14. Madonna sings and dances well. The children became excited before the snow storm. grow. Because of the dust. he slammed the door and drove down the lane. 15. . 7. This stew tastes good on a cold winter’s night. You know my aunt. The sailors looked intently at the horizon for signs of another ship. 4. Exercise 47: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs In your notebook. and look can be used as both action and linking verbs. 5. I felt sick after the party. we coughed all day. 6. You may want to create a chart like the one on the next page. 2. 14. She fell down the stairs and broke her leg. Exercise 48: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs The verbs smell. Exercise 49: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs In your notebook. Wolves always howl at the moon. 12. Suddenly. 11.

The washing machine has broken down. 4. The men should have eaten that supper by now. 1. 15. 10. not after the last trip. 4. I shall never agree to his proposal. Tomorrow. 3. Carl had kicked the ball across the field. 7. Sue may never have been given that letter. Have you ever heard such nonsense. Carl is kicking the ball across the field. That would have confused anyone! Would you please flip the hamburgers? There was a good show on TV last night. 6. . Yesterday. I will not be going. He might have consulted a doctor. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter. 9. Today. 3. Carl kicks the ball across the field. Today. 5.22 SENTENCE MAIN VERB HELPING VERB(S) (IF ANY) 1. Carl has been kicking the ball that way for years. Carl has kicked the ball across the field six times. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. Mitchell has lived here all his life. 2. Carl will have kicked the ball across the field. Today. 7. 14. 5. Carl will kick the ball across the field. 6. 12. Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses Name the verb tenses in the following sentences. 2. 13. Tomorrow. A child can easily learn this song. 11. 8. We played ball against their team Saturday.

3. I had completed my income tax return before April 30. He has finished painting my house. I think I will soon receive a letter from my friend in Ottawa. We're afraid we have served dinner too early. I am completing my income tax return early this year. I will have completed my income tax return before the deadline. He is finished painting my house. B. I have completed my income tax return. C. C. we will serve dinner. You will be leaving Bathurst tomorrow. B. 5. B.23 8. By the time they arrived. 4. C. They will have been living here for two months by the end of the week. Do you think I will have received a letter from my friend by next week? D. When they arrive. won’t you? My aunt was giving lectures in Asiatic culture this summer. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple past tense? A. C. D. They lived in Halifax before moving here. I recently received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. D. D. Which one of the following sentences is written in the past perfect tense? A. . 2. At 8:00 pm we will have served dinner. Exercise 51: Identifying Verb Tenses 1. He will finish painting my house soon. D. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present progressive tense? A. 9. They have lived here for two months. we had already served dinner. He will be finished painting my house by tonight. B. He had been learning Chinese at school. B. They have lived in Halifax and Charlottetown. 10. Which one of the following sentences is written in the future perfect tense? A. I had received a letter from my friend in Ottawa. C. Which one of the following sentences is written in the simple future tense? A.

Write a sentence in the present perfect tense using the verb to talk. 12. Exercise 52: Irregular Verbs 1. 8. Which one of the following sentences is written in the present perfect tense? A. Write a sentence in the past progressive tense using the verb to sign. 11. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to do. 9. Use the past perfect progressive tense in a sentence. She has designed a logo for the company. 10. 7. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to wash. C. D. Write a sentence in the future perfect tense using the verb to know. She will design a logo for the company. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Be sure to have your instructor correct your work. She is designing a logo for the company. Indicate the tense used after each sentence. Write a sentence in each of the 12 tenses using the verb to cut. She designed a logo for the company. 2. Use the present perfect progressive tense in a sentence.24 6. Write a sentence in the future progressive tense using the verb to need. 3 . B.

I have just been thinking about you. B. I am feeling better already. 15. . 11. G. The train will be making three stops before Montreal The butcher had already delivered our order. By the time you get to school. I might have forgotten to add your name to the list. 2. 1. D. 10. the votes were recounted several times. Write your answers in your notebook. After the elections. We have been searching for answers to our questions. Our MLA will be voted into office again in the next election. 12. 9. SENTENCE A. Barry threw the ball to first base. TENSE? Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Identify the verbs in the following sentences by underlining them. 14. 13. the bell will already have rung. The audience will be arriving in the next hour. C. The strike vote is being called for next Monday. 7. 3. My car ran out of gas on the Resources Road. Sandra’s writing is improving daily. The child was struck by a stray bullet. 4. 8. My son did his homework last night. F. That document was written in Halifax in 1774. 5. Indicate the tense of the underlined verbs in the following sentences. E. 6.25 4. Then decide if the verb is in the active or passive voice. I was frightened by the storm. Stephen King has written many best sellers. The disaster relief team has sprung into action. Local workers will be hired to build the new mall. My heart was broken.

Look at the words below. Change the passive verbs to active ones.26 Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Practice changing verbs from the passive to the active voice by rewriting all the passive verbs you identified in the sentences in the previous exercise. Once they have been placed in a sentence. Exercise 55: Active and Passive Voice Write five sentences of your own in the active voice. It is at this point that a word develops into a part of speech. Is there more than one entry word with the same spelling? Which of these words can be used as both a noun and a verb? How many of these words can be other parts of speech besides nouns or verbs. All by themselves. . C. Write five sentences of your own in the passive voice. Write two (or more) sentences for each word above that demonstrate its uses as various parts of speech. words cannot have a part of speech. they start to function by carrying the writer’s meaning to the reader. This was a “trick” exercise to remind you that you cannot tell what part of speech a word is unless it is actually written in a sentence. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs A. Decide which words are nouns and which words are verbs. run still horse dog fly farm house calm storm sail motor book B. Now look up each word in the dictionary.

. My sister always rides her bike to the office. 6. Lunch will be served at twelve o’clock sharp. 14. 10. Mel has been asking for trouble for months. and Verbs List the nouns. 9. That company buys only the best automotive parts from us. When everyone is finished. I shall be seeing you again next week. Have you eaten here before? 4. 5. reword the sentence in the active voice and name that tense. 9. New friends are silver. 11. Pronouns. 8. 7. Exercise 58: Review of Nouns. He is dating a beautiful doctor. 15. pronouns. 8. so the dog was destroyed. 2. 12. they will announce the results. 1. but old ones are gold. 5. I am doing my homework now. 6. and verbs in each sentence. 3. The houses had just been repainted. Something should be done about each of these problems. The child was severely bitten. 1. The plane landed at Gander because of the ice on its wings. 13. He has never drunk stout before. What were you thinking? 10. write everything you can about it. The first one is done for you. The tour guides will show you the way to the restaurant. The couple usually walks to the office. The surgeon spoke quietly to the patient. Marcie had been asked to the recital by the committee. 7. My sister was teaching herself Spanish. 3. 2. For each one you identified. The men were unhappy with both of those. 4. Everything that Tom says about them is true.27 Exercise 57: Review of Verbs Underline every verb and verb phrase in the sentences below. They might not find each other at the airport. The music will have been playing for several hours. Number: 3rd person singular Tense: present perfect Voice: active Note: to name a passive verb tense. Verb Phrase: has drunk Person.

2. these come from Sackville. The storm grew worse as night approached. 9. Exercise 61: Review of Nouns. All of these will sell well. 5. How much money will you need next week? 7. 1. Aunt Gladys lives at my mother’s now. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. 4. and Verbs Follow the directions from in the exercise above. pronouns and verbs in each sentence. It was a dark and stormy afternoon. 2. and his mouth watered. Her relatives were eating lunch on the porch because of the heat. ask your instructor to find alternate resource material. Pronouns. 8. 1. 1. 10. 6. Pronouns. We were walking along the beach just before the accident. 4. 2. What has anyone seen lately. Where was he going? 5. Why haven’t you written that letter yet? 6. 9. 3. 3. Will you complete that survey? . The jury is discussing its decision. 7. They were anxious about their reservations in Cuba. 5. Then give as much information as you can about each. identify and review the area that is giving you problems. He had watched TV for more than an hour. and Verbs List the nouns. Your choices seem logical. study it. Pronouns. 3. Those were made in China.28 Exercise 59: Review of Nouns. Tony will have finished his course by next June. Oprah has changed people’s attitudes towards honesty. Luke is talking to his girlfriend on the phone. I am happy about your decision. Kevin gave me Marion’s card. The chefs are always being asked for their recipes. Many of the colours in these rooms are being changed by the decorator. 4. If you have too many mistakes. 8. and then return to these review exercises and try them again. He smelled the fresh bread. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns. If you find you are still confused about some points.

Two cats. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. An old rusty car is parked in my space. . 3. sweet and lovable. sparkling blue eyes. Adjectives Nouns 10. 13. 5. Don't forget articles. sat on the dining room table. Invite those six people. Liz had driven herself to Central Hospital.29 10. 12. Our cousins were eating huge. 6. 11. The road was rough and uneven. 4. Exercise 62: Adjectives In the following sentences. 8. I have had a boring. 7. The little girl had big. Mexican food? We bought Shelley and Tim’s house. Karl’s hockey skates are dull. 2. 15. juicy apples. 9. These parcels are heavy. depressing day. The child licked the sugary sweet icing from a big spoon. Write your answers in your notebook. This trip takes several days Do you like spicy. 14. Give them some light summer clothes. A ragged string dangled from the dusty light bulb. SENTENCE 1.

Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. They set up their canvas tents. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. Yesterday. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. The young hikers walked through the dark woods. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. Jensen’s chicken farm. 8. 10. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. 3. His ideas were quite useful in completing the project more efficiently. Where is the grocery store now? 4. 2. I have never seen such expensive jewellery. 9. Why was his work finished so quickly? 5. The weather was warm. they saw a beam of light. A few boys knew that they were lost. With relief.30 Exercise 63: Adjectives List all the adjectives in this paragraph. and one older boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook. They weren’t lost at all! Exercise 64: Adverbs Record the adverbs you find in these sentences in your notebook. After two long hours. . 7. 6. Bob read the material carefully. piercing the inky darkness. The circus was really exciting. lit a huge crackling fire. bright and narrow. He arrived there later with an extremely important message. They were dressed too casually for the banquet. and ate their supper. Krista almost never goes to the arena. and the hills were gentle. Simon is not a very good driver. the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been. Decided what kind of information each gives: how? when? where? how much? what kind? 1.

1. 2. 15. gracefully) across the stage. well) on his second driver’s test. 8. gracefully) across the stage. 9.31 Exercise 65: Adverbs Modifying Verbs. These chocolates taste (good. (adverb) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Leah behaves (good. badly) on that last hole! The lights shone (brightly. 6. . Tim was very happy about his success. slow). sadly) about the death of her dog. Make sure that you review daily. awfully) about what happened. simply) to follow. 3. She strolled leisurely down the mall. well). Adjectives. 5. 7. 4. Dave asked politely for another piece of pie. You work too (serious. real) sure if I will have a party. The repairs went (slowly. Write an explanation of your choice. Paul did (good. 11. Indicate the type of modifier.( ) She danced (graceful. The apples had been tightly packed in the box. The change in speed was (gradually. calmly) voice after the accident. 10. Sheila feels (sad. the old man chewed his dinner. 14. Example: Answer: 1. 5. We feel (awful. quickly). well). His deeply tanned body told of hours in the sun. Lynn spoke in a (calm. Exercise 66: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs Choose the correct modifier. Tiger Woods putted (bad. and Adverbs List the adverbs in this exercise. 3. tell whether it modifies a verb. 2. well). 7. seriously) sometimes. 8. I am sincerely grateful for your help. The directions were (simple. gradual). The soldiers were really tired after their training. I am not (really. 9. 6. bright) in my eyes. For each adverb. 4. Thoughtfully. I don't feel (good. adjective or adverb.e: adjective or adverb. Write your answers in your notebook. 12. 10. She danced (graceful. You must travel very fast if you are going to get there in time. 13. i. Firefighters must respond very (quick.

The cat with the sore ear comes to the door every day at noon. Have the women in your group chosen a theme for the conference? 10. B In the next part of this exercise. 2. Who is the (smaller.32 Exercise 67: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverbs Write the correct form of the modifier for the following sentences in your notebook. Exercise 68: Prepositions A Choose a preposition to join the following parts of sentences. 1. unique. 7. 2. more rapid) with each step. worser) than the damage to mine. 4. 1. He is the (elder. 3. Answer: Carl drove to. They searched for shells and pebbles along the beach at the end of the day. Cathy or Diane? My heart beat (rapidlier. 5. 9. Down the hill and around the corner came the three lost children. I think all the odd socks in the world end up under my son's bed. Tom thinks math is (difficulter. Smoking is not allowed the building. 1. find and underline the prepositions. Dawn fell the horse. How many different prepositions will fill in the blank? For example: Carl drove the bank. 8. 3. most small). 7. . Krista searched among the rubble for pictures of her mother and father.. 4. The prize for the best costume was given to the clown with the funny hat. 5. It snowed (most. Earl worked him. eldest) of the candidates. This idea is (more unique. The horse galloped the field. The damage to the other car looked (worse. 2. I will meet you the front entrance. the bank. 5. etc. 6. Be careful walking near the tree with the hornets' nest! 6. around. The houses beside the store on top of the hill were built in 1960 by my son. beside. Write the whole prepositional phrase in your notebook. I can never find a sales clerk or a cashier in this store! 4. more) in January than in February. more rapidly. smallest. most unique). near. from. C Now that you are familiar with finding prepositions go back to the beginning of this exercise and find the noun(s) or pronoun(s) which follow each preposition. 3. more badly. more difficult) than grammar exercises.

prepositional adjective phrase modifying “woman” on the bench. it is a prepositional adjective phrase... The men on the roof worked for two hours in the heat. She neither washes windows nor cleans ovens... 2. the designer placed a beautiful statue. Here’s an example... the children from the day care at the church have walked around the block every day...... I asked her to wait for me. tell whether it is used as an adjective or an adverb. 2... Exercise 70: Conjunctions . 5.. The women in the kitchen looked under the tables and in the closet.. On Fridays. Will you watch television tonight or go to the mall? 4... 9.... the volunteers did not hear about the revised forms.... it is an prepositional adverb phrase.33 D Each prepositional phrase you found is working as either an adjective or an adverb in its sentence.m... 5.Coordinate.. 3. but also steaming hot.. Conjunctive Adverbs Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences. but she went home on the bus. If it limits the meaning of a noun or pronoun.. 8. why or how the action of the verb took place.. The chili was not only spicy hot.prepositional adverb phrase modifying “sat” Exercise 69: Prepositional Phrases List the prepositional phrases in this exercise.. The blond woman with the red dress sat on the bench at 5:00 p.. the rest of the water drained from the basement. Skiing is both fun and good exercise.... Since his return. he answered an ad for a job in Manitoba... 3. During the night. He lived near the mall which was located to the north of the city limits. or Lynn and Joan will take our place. . Correlative. 1. Either Anna and I will go. when.where:..... After each one.. 6. with the red dress... The old lady with the big hat cut into the line in front of me at the store..... all of the staff at the radio station eats lunch at the old mill... 6. 7.when. Look at each prepositional phrase and decide if it is used as an adjective or adverb.m.. In the middle of a big spacious lawn.. 4. 1.. Because of the storm.prepositional adverb phrase modifying “sat” at 5:00 p... If it is telling where. 10... After his graduation in 1992..

12. After the lecture. he turned pro. 8. The weather was snowy. yet he decided to drive anyway. Tired but happy. 4. Thieves broke in while we were away. the wind was cool. They searched under the bridge and beside the river. they will be cut down. We will go. 23.34 7. 5. 20. as a result. He paid for her ticket because he liked her. If you are short. 11. so he just drank pop all night. the students asked if they could stay. 16. After the whale beached itself. 9. 19. . 7. Not only will I attend. Exercise 71: Conjunctions Copy these sentences and underline the subordinate conjunctions you can find. Neither Cal nor Emma wanted to leave. he couldn’t turn it. 2. The story explained why people believed in the ghost. He was the designated driver. but I don’t have a map. He organized his study time. we will not pay our own fare. Although he is stronger. I made supper. Since I first met Sheila and her. The roads were slippery because the snow was followed by rain. 10. 17. 11. 22. 21. Unless the Leafs win this game. He always talks as if he were an expert. the team returned home. After he won the gold medal. you missed it. 3. Since the maple trees were damaged in the storm. 15. Because you were late. 1. the children swam in the pool. 6. You just answered my questions before I asked them. 18. Les is five inches taller than I am. 13. 9. they couldn’t fix it themselves. 25. some local citizens rescued it. 14. they are out of the playoffs. It isn’t certain whether they will come or not. 12. The engineer from Mainframe explained how they would build the bridge. Mark knows more than I do about that case. Before they read the instructions. 15. 8. I won’t be able to go even though I have the money. I wonder why they are leaving so early. 13. but also I will perform. she has always been very polite. Although it was quite sunny. 24. 10. I don’t know how I will get there. meanwhile. 14. however. he felt prepared. you can’t reach that cupboard. I know where they have hidden the treasure.

9. The women who volunteered for the sale will work on Tuesday. 2. 5. My sister.35 B. He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). Exercise 72: Relative Pronouns A. Cars that cost more than $20. 7. For each sentence above. Detectives investigated the theft which Miles reported. The monkeys which escaped from the zoo were recaptured. Underline all the relative pronouns. 4. 10. Use both exclamation points and commas to punctuate your sentences. I know who bought the Fuller’s house. Copy these sentences into your notebook. The first one is done for you. came for a visit. I just introduced you to the man whom I met at the club. . Are you sure that you are right? 3. Exercise 73: Interjections Write TEN (10) sentences beginning with an interjection. who lives in Utah. 1. 8.000 aren’t worth the money. He reported that he had seen the incident. 6. put brackets around the subordinate conjunction and all the words that belong with it. That book that you bought last month is very interesting.

(9) You must never show your fear of snakes to your children. (11) 8. the thieves surveyed the neighbourhood until they spotted the right house. 14. (6) Mark smelled the skunk and left the area immediately. 13. (14) Casually. 6. (10) Your ancestors lived beside the sea. 12. 10.(7) The pioneers settle quickly on the small farms around Gloucester. (5) The frail. 11. you may consider asking your instructor for more practice. 3. 4. 9. (9) The students in this program are very hard workers. old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors’ home. (11) Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring.(15) I do not think about their problems now because I don’t have time. Dogs make good pets for young children. 15. mine lived near Moncton. 5. Count the number of correct answers. so you can buy several of them. 7. (12) He has always been a really excellent hockey coach. (10) Does he often go to the beach during the summer? (10) Those big. (9) She believes in his ability. . chunky pots sell for nine dollars. 2.(12) Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he did not.36 Exercise 74: REVIEW EXERCISES (BAU and IAU) Identify the part of speech of every word in each of these sentences. There are a total of 150 words in this review. If you have less than a 120. 1.

(14) I had been studying for three hours. and I still don’t know it. 4. 1. (13) 3. 7. (15) Usually. Sue often seeks my advice. (13) Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs. they finished their work. that knife is so sharp that I cut myself badly. they have some money. they bought lunch . (10) Since the accident. (14) Very quickly. (6) They had been writing their essays before they went there . Identify the parts of speech of each word.(9) Because they have cashed their cheques. 15. (9) Because of her problems. 2. the damage was minor. the chairs were placed near the windows. (11) Miles’ brother is extremely intelligent even if he can’t pass those provincial exams. 9. (10) Although the storm was very intense.(10) After they had mowed the lawn. . (12) Where did you hide the candy which I bought? (9) Ouch. the victims have recovered quite well. 13. 8. 5. Fred sat on the fence and ate his lunch while the others went into town. (8) Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before? (10) The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old friend of hers. 10. 14. 12.37 Exercise 75: Review Exercise (IAU only) These sentences are a little more difficult. 16. but today they are in a circle. 11. 6.

his clever tricks have failed. (6) The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly. Hey Eric. 18. try to pinpoint the areas you need to review based on the mistakes you made.38 17. . 19. If you encountered some problems or are confused about some aspects of parts of speech. did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend? (13) Finally. If you correctly identified 160 of them. (8) There are 200 words in this exercise. Ask your instructor for supplementary work. you can continue with the pre-test for this module which you can find in the back of this book.

using apostrophes correctly. Its 5. Possessive noun d. non-count noun 9. Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. f. Someone 2.(8) A. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. Sisters’ 8.PRETEST 1. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. We 3. b. Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. plural C. 3rd person plural H. indefinite pronoun F. and meat. The horses hooves needed new shoes. Proper noun h. Concrete noun i. 3rd person singular B. Michael’s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. 1st person plural G. Plural noun f. . fruit. Common noun g. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. c. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. g. Paul’s 7. In the paragraph above. d. Their 4. singular 3. Non-count noun c. Sallys covered a whole month of work. e. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. means “it is” E. Abstract noun j. Rewrite these sentences. Count noun b. Singular noun e. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work.39 BAU ENGLISH .(9) a. possessive noun. find one example of each of the following: (11) a. The six workers complaints were very reasonable. Noun used as an adjective 2. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. interrogative pronoun D. What 1. It’s 6. Collective noun k. Read this paragraph. possessive noun.

9. Write a sentence comparing two actions. The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. 6. 7. 9. 4.40 4. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. we work for Mr. John is always talking to his boss lately.(10) 1. (15) walk cut sing think drive List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. He always uses a cane since his accident. we will go to Disneyland. 6. 8. 3. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. During the week. 2. 7. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable. (2) Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. Write a sentence comparing two things. 10. .(11) 1. Are you cutting her hair? 6. They were afraid of bears. They ate six lobsters each. The teacher with the beard is Mr. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. I was the first one there! 8. His Ford has always run well. 7. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. Linton. 3. Next summer. 2. 10. Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. The crows flew toward the swamp. Write two (2) sentences using interjections. Use the correct form of the adjective good. 5. Charles. 5. 5. Write a sentence comparing two people. Paula will rent a car in Boston.

Sometimes he carried groceries like milk. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences.(9) a. Possessive noun d. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb’s friend. Use the correct form of the adverb early. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly. Abstract noun j. 1. Plural noun f. Common noun g. Proper noun h. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. He regularly flew supplies and construction equipment from Edmonton to Yellowknife. . Michael’s first job was with Bearskin Airlines as a bush pilot. Rewrite these sentences. Singular noun e. Collective noun k. fruit. In the paragraph above. Noun used as an adjective 12. He loved the beauty of the landscapes he saw and the honesty of the people he met. find one example of each of the following: (11) a.(41) 1. 2. Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. 14. 4. 5.41 11. Mollys pay cheque was for two weeks work. 3. He was pleased with his success and happy in his work. Concrete noun i. Our new neighbours have three young children. Her Read this paragraph. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. and meat. What are the correct pronouns in the following sentence? Josh and (she. Write a sentence comparing two actions. her) were the first to arrive. Non-count noun c. she and them 2. 2. 13. using apostrophes correctly. 1. Once he even transported a hockey team to a small settlement on the Arctic Ocean. Count noun b. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather.

Mollys and Sallys rent was due on the apartment they shared. It’s 6. Will you please wash your dishes after supper? 4. The workers complaints were very reasonable. The mice ate all of the cereal in the cupboard. g. 2. not a personal pronoun E. singular Write the four (4) principal parts of these verbs. Someone 2.(11) 1. 5. 7. 3rd person plural H. Sallys covered a whole month of work. . Their 4. The wagon with the red wheels was parked beside the general store. e. The leaves on the trees whispered softly in the light breeze. Linton. During the week. possessive noun.42 b. 6. The teacher with the beard is Mr. Those repairs will take more than a weeks work. c. 2. we work for Mr. indefinite pronoun F. 3. 4. The crows flew toward the swamp. We 3. 6.(10) 1. Charles. (2) Write the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. He always uses a cane since his accident. The ladys hats were bought at the Duncans store. They were afraid of bears. What 1. possessive noun. Match the term on the right with the correct example on the left. Its 5. 3. 4. 1st person plural G. d. Paul’s 7. They ate six lobsters each. non-count noun 9. The horses hooves needed new shoes. 7. 3. Sisters’ 8. f. 5. Write two (2) sentences using interjections.(8) A. (15) walk cut sing think drive List all the prepositional phrases in these sentences. 3rd person singular B. John is always talking to his boss lately. plural C. interrogative pronoun D.

9. Use the correct form of the adjective good. I was the first one there! Next summer. 10. Write a sentence comparing two people. Are you cutting her hair? The merchants have not sold many souvenirs. 9. . 6. Use the correct form of the adverb quietly. we will go to Disneyland. Write a sentence comparing two actions. Write a sentence comparing two things. 10. His Ford has always run well. 8. Paula will rent a car in Boston.43 5. 7. 8. Use the correct form of the adjective comfortable.

14. Our new neighbours have three young children and a dog. That team is going to Mount Carleton soon. Identify the part of speech of every word in these sentences. A. 5. Write a sentence comparing two actions. D. 2. Hey! What are you cooking for supper. 4. her and they C. marshes. are home to many kinds of plants and animals A. including ponds. she and they B. her) were the first to arrive.44 11. C. 13. How many nouns does this sentence contain? Wetlands. she and them D. and swamps. and (they. them) were the first to leave. 3. Many of these disks belonged to Jeb’s friend. her and them 12. Several of the men from the camp were always discussing the bad weather. B. Five Six Seven Eight . Write a sentence comparing more than two actions. What are the correct pronouns for the following sentence? Josh and (she. Use the correct form of the adverb early. Use the correct form of the adverb loudly.(44) 1. 15.

join groups of words or sentences. have lost B. and qualities. the. B. 20. very B. places. include the names of persons. ragged. was very hungry. D. C. never lost C. The complete verb in this sentence is A. playing They have never lost a game against that team. homeless. D. playing Florenceville B. the. dirty. lost D. dirty.45 16. How many pronouns does this sentence contain? What can you tell me about each of them? A. things. be playing C. very. The adjectives in this sentence are A. ragged. dirty C. Five Three Two Six 17. ragged and dirty. was. ragged. Nouns are words that A. homeless. lost against The homeless man. ragged. . animals. The complete verb in this sentence is A. 19. and people. B. homeless. are used to take the place of pronouns. describe substances. hungry 18. C. hungry D. dirty. has played D. Our hockey team has played Florenceville before.

C. 23. D. B. He insists his cold is badder today than it was yesterday. E. C. Only one sentence uses the correct modifier. C. The dogs blanket wasn’t in it’s house when the storm hit. Them sneakers are really great! Everybody who wants to enter the contest should put their form in the box. B. They are moving to Moncton. Which one? A. I think Toronto is farther away than Ottawa. D. Which one of the following sentences is correct? A. B. He divided the candy between Sarah and I. Rewrite the corrected version on your paper. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences. Did anybody lose their car keys? I found one.(9) A. Yesterday. Him and me went to the Ashleys house. The following sentences make comparisons. D. the chocolate covered. Everyone must sign their time sheet before leaving. TOTAL: 133 . Them skates are real good. Which donut is the biggest.46 21. The O'Neills are selling their trailer. I bought a pair of sneakers. 22. or the glazed? This fall is the prettier of all the falls I can remember.

Linton walking cutting singing thinking driving 3.47 ANSWER KEY: BAU ENGLISH . 5. 5. What Someone We Their Its It’s Paul’s sisters’ walked cut sang thought drove Interrogative pronoun Indefinite pronoun 1st person plural 3rd person plural 3rd person singular means “it is” possessive noun. in the light breeze beside the general store 6. 8. 2. 6. A. a. 4. 6. plural walked cut sung thought driven in the cupboard for Mr. Answers will vary.PRETEST 1. 7. 7. 5. 4. 4. singular possessive noun. 2. 3. . Duncan’s week’s workers’ horse’s or horses’ Explain the meaning of your choice. 2. weeks’ Sally’s Molly and Sally’s lady’s. walk cut sing think drive Molly’s. 3. of the cereal during the week after supper since his accident with the beard on the trees with the red wheels Answers will vary.

were..........adjective were.noun 5.adverb the.........adjective and..preposition of...verb supper...noun new... Answers will vary................ 1.....interjection are....pronoun for....verb young.....pronoun the.preposition disks..noun team.....adjective is.. has run.noun three.. Our.adjective .adjective children.. flew.pronoun these.....verb bad.verb to..preposition friend..........adjective belonged... possessive 3.preposition camp.......... 12.....verb Mount Carleton.noun... 13..noun going...pronoun/adjective neighbours.......... Several. 9....48 7....... is talking.noun What......noun to.verb cooking. Hey... 11....noun a.noun of...pronoun you..verb Jeb’s..adverb 4... will rent Answers will vary....preposition men... ate. Answers will vary.adjective 2. are cutting.... 8....... will go..... was.noun the.adjective have....adjective from.... 10.. Many........noun always....verb discussing... That..adjective weather..conjunction dog.................... have sold. Answers will vary........preposition soon. Answers will vary.

2. 19. Those skates are really good. 18. 23. 22. Everyone must sign his or her time sheet before leaving. 21. . 16.49 14. The dog’s blanket wasn’t in its house when the storm hit. 17. He divided the candy between Sarah and me. 15. He and I went to Ashley’s house. 4. A D A B C A C C A A. 3. 5. 20.

E. 4. The renovations to the Jones house gave him three weeks work. Rewrite the sentences and make the necessary correction. E. (7) A. I bought those pants in the childrens department. A month from now. 2. John will loan the maps to Erin' husband. Some nouns in the following sentences require apostrophes to show possession. The dentist was examining my teeth thoroughly. Beth handled the dog very well today. . The Sullivans have a new boat. F. D. I will call you. A. B. John had loaned the maps to Erin's husband. 3.PRETEST 1.(11) E.(16) In which one of the following sentences is the verb to loan written in the past perfect tense? A. Oh no.50 IAUENG . B. John has loaned the maps to Erin's husband. D. Each of these would have been correct. Are you really happy that they are coming here?(9) D. The bosses letters are always long and dull. B.(9) C. Identify the part of speech of each word. C.(6) B. Name the tense of each verb. D. Nimoy has been playing that role for over twenty years.(51) A. C. An extremely loud clap of thunder rattled the windows. Sheilas mother lives next door. The Martins bought Nicoles old washing machine. The kitten pulled on its mothers ear. John loaned the maps to Erin's husband. but the answers that you changed are now wrong. C. Matt will not have the money before the tour leaves Woodstock. Cheryl’s ideas are better than mine are.

Christmas. families. We watched the ships come in that night. Themself 9. (8) a. . We will have watched the ships arrive before dark. singular 5. today. 6. 8. These h. my neighbour's car. B. D. Cape Breton. Anne and Jim left for Cape Breton today to spend Christmas with their families. car belonging to my neighbour. Demonstrative pronoun 7. my neighbours car. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the car belonging to my neighbours? A. We are watching the ships arrive tonight. to. 7. Us g. Jim. spend. Indefinite pronoun 1. We will watch the ships arrive tonight. Anne. B. Which f. D. and. Someone d. C. Reciprocal pronoun 4. D. for. left. Personal pronoun 3. Reflexive pronoun. Interrogative pronoun 8. Match the term on the left with the name on the left. C. The proper nouns in the sentence are A. Yourselves e.51 5. plural 6. What b. C. Relative pronoun 2. Read the following sentence. B. Myself c. with. my neighbours' car. Each other Which one of the following sentences is the verb to watch written in the simple future tense? A. Emphatic pronoun.

changing the verb to the future perfect tense. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. the camera's strap. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). B. Write one sentence correctly using each of the following adverbs. the camera strap. Ron was late he stopped for me. Write the tense of the verb.52 9. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the club of university women? A. 13. B. C. university's women's club. C. 12. Rewrite the sentence. Which of the following is the proper possessive form for the strap of the camera? A. Do you like chocolate cake white cake? I shovel snow mow lawns. D. B. university womens' club.) Read the following sentence:(4) I will complete this course by April of next year. C.(6) early quite almost fast easily quickly (You should write a total of SIX sentences. the cameras' strap.(3) A. university's women club. D. A. the cameras strap’s 11. B. Choose the best conjunctions to join the parts of the following sentences. C. 10. university women's club. D. .

(6) A. Pronouns have been left out of the following paragraph. changing the verb to the present perfect tense.(5) Write three (3) sentences with interjections. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). looked abandonned. Monford’s old barn. red and expensive.(5) B. Read the following sentence:(4) We lived in New Brunswick all our lives. large and unpainted. 1. the soft fur of the ferret belonging to Shirley is the only good thing about the pet ferret belonging to Shirley. Use each in a sentence. 15. The ferret belonging to Shirley bites at every opportunity. is too flashy. and the ferret belonging to Shirley does not smell very pleasant. C. D. 16.(5) 2. In the following sentences.53 14. cold water. As far as I can see. Monica’s sneakers are always dirty and dusty.(6) 4. List five (5) linking verbs.(4) 5. .(3) 17.(3) 3. A.(5) Shirley has a pet ferret named Furry. I heard a great new song on the radio. Our children don’t like the icy. Their sporty new car. B. indicate the adjectives and the noun each modifies. Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. using pronouns as you think are necessary. The ferret belonging to Shirley was named Furry because of the soft fur of the ferret. Rewrite the paragraph. Rewrite the sentence. Write the tense of the verb. 18.

54

19.

Choose the correct modifier. Indicate whether the modifier is an adjective or an adverb.(10) A. Ted damaged his car (bad, badly). B. The entire team did not feel (well, good) after the meal. C. The managers had a (private, privately) meeting. D. Ken gets behind at school because he works (slow, slowly). E. He answered those questions (real, really) (well, good). Write five sentences using FIVE DIFFERENT auxiliary verbs.(5) Read the following sentence:(4) I feel the raindrops on my face. A. B. C. D. Rewrite the sentence and underline the complete verb (the main verb and any auxiliary verbs). Write the tense of the verb. Rewrite the sentence, changing the verb to the past perfect tense, Underline the complete verb in your new sentence. Write a sentence containing at least one example of each of the eight parts of speech. Write each word of your sentence in a line down the page. Indicate after the word the part of speech of each word (see example following).(8)

20. 21.

22.

A.

B.

Example: A. Cindy writes letters. B. Cindy - NOUN writes - VERB letters - NOUN

23.

Find five examples of prepositional phrases anywhere in this test.(5)

55

24.

Record and name all the conjunctions in these sentences.(10) A. Ruth and Steve will either write or telephone. B. While they were away, they visited Len and Jennifer. C. A storm was forecast; therefore, we cancelled our trip. D. Have you seen the movie that is playing downtown. E. The man who wrote that book is in town today. F. Your work is good, but it still needs more work. G. They completed the report which we requested, yet we never received it. Correct the grammar errors in these sentences.(12) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I bought some of them apples from he and Jim. He had went there several times before. The driver could of finished this if I had had the time. The lawyer will do all the work hisself. The tourists changed a large amount of dollars at the airport. Could him and me rent a movie? He sure done good on his last test. Each of the students should buy their own textbook for this course.

25.

Total 192

56

ANSWER KEY - IAU ENGLISH - PRETEST 1. A. Cheryl’s.....noun, possessive are.....verb than.....conjunction are.....verb. An.....adjective loud.....adjective of.....preposition rattled.....verb windows......noun Are.....verb really.....adverb that......conjunction/pronoun are.....verb here.....adverb Oh no.....interjection will.....verb have.....verb money......noun the.....adjective leaves......verb Each.....pronoun these.....pronoun have.....verb correct......adjective the.....adjective that......conjunction/pronoun changed......verb now......adverb ideas.....noun better.....adjective mine......pronoun extremely......adverb clap.....noun thunder.....noun the.....adjective you.....pronoun happy......adjective they......pronoun coming.....verb Matt.....noun not.....adverb the.....adjective before......conjunction tour......noun Woodstock.....noun of.....preposition would.....verb been.....verb but......conjunction answers......noun you.....pronoun are......verb wrong......adjective

B.

C.

D.

E.

2.

C

f. 8. Answers may vary. 5. 4 4. a. 7. C. 2. Answers may vary. 5. will complete Simple future will have completed 13. 6. 6. A. D. 9: e. 7.57 3. 10. C. E. 9. 2. E. 12. B. 3. 11. B A C B B Simple past Past progressive Simple future Simple present Present perfect progressive Sheila’s children’s Nicole’s bosses’ mother’s Jones’ weeks’ 3. b. g. 1 c. h. A. F. 14. D. . A. Answers will vary. d. B.

..song the.radio Monica’s.co-ordinate conjunction while. expensive. . abandonned.. unpainted. dusty. new. new..present perfect a.. 18..... 21.... old... sporty..adverb well... badly. either/or.adverb well....past perfect Answers will vary........adverb really..co-ordinate conjunction yet... and. feel simple present had felt.....car Answers may vary. dirty.... large.. 17.. Answers will vary...... flashy.children the.........adjective (after a linking verb) private......adjective slowly.... Answers may vary. icy.. lived Simple past have lived..... 22.relative pronoun but....58 15.... 23...adverb Answers may vary.co-ordinate conjunction 16..conjunctive adverb that. great.........sneakers Monford’s.subordinate conjunction therefore.barn Our. red......relative pronoun who..co-ordinate conjunction.. cold..........correlative conjunction and....water their. 19.. 24....... 20..

The tourists changed a large number of dollars at the airport. He had gone there several times before.59 25. . I bought some of those apples from Jim and him. Could he and I rent a movie? He certainly did well on his last test Each of the students should by his or her own textbooks for this course. The lawyer will do the work himself. The driver could have finished this if he had had the time.

ACADEMIC STUDIES ENGLISH Answer Key for Supplementary Exercises GRAMMAR: PART I Parts of Speech FALL 1998 .

ship. passengers. no one 2. weather 2. muffins. boats 5. porch 3. drivers. that 2. wives 9. computer. boats. fishermen. themselves 6. She. They. 1. canneries seafood. Many B. lobster 8. Everybody. we 10. All. Titantic. daughter. few 3. Shediac. herself. ocean. Them. those 8. Northumberland Strait 3. dog. Robert. clouds 4. 2. Confederation Bridge. collision. top. couples. Answers will vary. birds. lobster 6. Who. life. husbands. snow. They. cat. What. Riverview Exercise 2: Nouns A. penguins. night 10. it 8. Florida. that 5. Who 9. them. storms. they 4. 1. catch Answers will vary. Stones. him. any. South Pole. . something. mussels. you 5. We 7. Mine. water B. area. markets. What. people. fishermen. traps. lives. He. us. motels 7. harbours. hill. cold 10. weather. her 3. you. us. his 6. this Exercise 4: Pronouns ( The second part of answers will vary) A. car. you. This. friend 5.1 ANSWER KEY Exercise 1: Nouns 1. she 7. Exercise 3: Pronouns 1. roads. shipment. iceberg 8. blueberries 4. Many. sea 7. Me. villages. them. some 9. None. scallops. these 10. She. her. hours. Saint John. truck 6. it 4. Japan 9. clams.

Arrived 9. Agreed 2. Flew 6. Could stay 7. Was enjoying 6. Became 8. Really. Hope. effectively 7. new. A. Will send 3. Learned 4. long. at the beach. Walks 9. there 5. you are really thinking. Soon 3. Will guess 9. Are calling 2. few. white 5. These. Threw 4. Looked 2. on the table. tomorrow 6. really Note: for class. the steel 10. delicious 3. hot dry 2. Wants Exercise 7: Verbs 1. Truly 9. Not . Surprisingly. The. train. will have Exercise 8: Adjectives 1. red Exercise 9: Adverbs 1. annual 9. the. quiet. Cost 7. Little. quickly 10. Paper. the. at noon. Ate 5. Thought 3. Was bringing 6. Sat. Yesterday. flower 7. Are reading. faded 6. dark. Perched 5. six the. during this last week are also adverbs because they answer the questions when. Has been driving 8. Had been broken 5. Was returning 3. Carefully 4. Brought 10. Early 2. Rides 10. were jogging 4. the. old. light 8. If you identified them as adverbs. Dreamed 8. Slept Exercise 6: Verbs 1. Decided 7. where. The. The. lately 8. These grammar points will be dealt with in a later section. summer. hockey. . beautiful.2 Exercise 5: Verbs 1. Six. A. The. why. Very. Here. torn. have finished 10. dusty 4. brown. that. juicy.

On the bed. Of the antiques prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun several To Gene: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb gave 2.3 Exercise 10: Adverbs 1. towards home Of her dress. Behind the desk. very 5. on trains 7. in the mall 2. very. quite 6. With the long scarf. In his new movie: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives From Toronto: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives To Los Angeles: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb drives 5. Quickly. Beside ours: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun camp In 1966: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built By John’s brother: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb was built 3. 8. correctly 10. really Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. Not. late 9. On the road. 6. Daily 3. Of her work: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun quality 7. Relatively 4. Of our friends: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun few From school: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun friends For supper: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived At Julie’s: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb arrived 8. in the guest room 3. Through the park. Finally. Today. With tickets 9. into a syrup Exercise 11: Prepositions 1. In Sackville prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun aunt. Never 8. On the porch From maple trees. Generally. In 1992: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb disappeared Of the money: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun most . Of the items: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun none On that page: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun items Until July: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb are 9. to Stanley 10. On airplanes. Politely. accurately 7. under the stairs 5. 4. Of day: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun time 6. Brightly 2. Since the crash: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb have received Of the survivors: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun many 4. beside those.

Because ideas 10. Wow 2. When 9. Before ideas 8. And words (2 nouns) 2. And words (2 nouns) 3. Because Exercise 15: Review 1. And adverbs But ideas 5. Yuck 2. From Germany: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the noun owners Of it: prepositional adjective phrase modifying the pronoun all To them: prepositional adverb phrase modifying the verb sold Exercise 12: Interjections 1. Because yet 3. Oh no 3. And 10. Until 7. Or which 4. Carol noun and conjunction I pronoun 4. And prepositional phrases 4. Although and 2. After ideas 7. If so 8. Until ideas Exercise 14: Conjunctions 1. Ouch Exercise 13: Conjunctions 1. Our friends in pronoun/adjective noun preposition . So ideas 6.4 10..and 6. Who but 5.. That both. No 5. And adjectives When ideas 9.

We jogged quickly through the dark woods pronoun verb adverb preposition adjective (article) adjective noun 7. She was giving a short but interesting lecture pronoun verb verb adjective (article) adjective conjunction adjective noun .5 travelled to Alberta last year verb preposition noun adjective noun Calgary were surprised when we arrived Their house was built in 1990 noun verb adjective conjunction pronoun verb pronoun/adjective noun verb verb preposition noun 3. tall adjective majestic adjective Rocky Mountains noun majestic adjective are verb a adjective (article) truly adverb beautiful adjective sight noun No you should not take your camera on your trip Most of the students listened politely interjection 6. preposition adjective (article) noun verb adverb 5. pronoun verb adverb verb pronoun/adjective noun preposition pronoun/adjective noun pronoun 8. The adjective (article) 4.

. The American fishermen caught two salmon for lunch Eric and they learned very quickly adjective adjective noun verb adjective noun preposition noun noun conjunction pronoun verb adverb adverb 14. 13. 15. This book cost six dollars adjective noun verb adjective noun 12.6 9. verb adjective (article) adverb adjective noun preposition noun adverb The wind was cold but the sun was really warm Sheila and he were talking to her when it happened Turn at the lights and go two blocks west adjective (article) noun verb adjective conjunction adjective (article) noun verb adverb adjective noun conjunction pronoun verb verb preposition pronoun conjunction pronoun verb verb preposition adjective (article) noun conjunction verb adjective noun adverb 11. We bought a very small quantity of food yesterday pronoun 10.

stores. stars. moonlight.) assignments to do this week. Ann receives (too much. Exercise 21: Possessive Nouns A. parcel. the word maple may be considered either a noun or an adjective. Sue’s. path Black Lake 2. Exercise 17: Common and Proper Nouns Answers will vary.) junk mail. city Bathurst. computer. (Many. many pieces of. skiing. sale. months’ 5. a large amount of. Regina 3. settlers Gaspé. weekend Italy 6. Alberta 5. people. a large number of. etc. 1. the children’s book Elvis’s biggest fans the secretaries’ meeting the bosses’ memos my oldest son’s car the men’s department 4. etc. exceptions.7 Exercise 16: Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns Proper Nouns 1. rules. syrup. street Beresford 9. Mary’s 2. France. grammar English 7. a few. maple*. fear Exercise 19: Collective Nouns Answers may vary. 3. happiness. leaves. areas North America 8. grace. carnival. cow. newspaper. hockey*. 4. a lot of. Bay of Chaleur 4. men’s . England 10. Exercise 20: Mass Nouns 1. etc. language. sister. mill Robin.) deer were shot this season. several. school. family. bubbles Abstract nouns: justice. several. truth. arena. Exercise 18: Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns: rose. profits Main Street * Depending on the grammar text you consult. Marsha. Owen has (many. boy’s B. dog’s 3.

(two uncles) 2. The women’s resumés were sent to the companies’ head offices by the bosses’ secretary. Childs’ car was being serviced at Eaton’s. Frank and James’ mail order business is making them a rich man’s fortune. Because of the accident. Bob’s uncle lives near Sharon’s farm. 7. . The girl’s hair had been cut short for the twins’ wedding. his wife’s income was reduced. and the family’s name is Boudreau. 4. A March snow storm is sometimes called “winter’s last lament”. 6. but the company’s salesman went to my cousin’s (cousins’)* place. Charles’ company owed him two days’ pay. City Council’s regular meetings are held on Mondays. Smith was worried about their sons’ health. 10. 7. 3. Have you seen Mel Gibson’s last three movies? 5. Did you see the dragsters collide on Old Oak Road yesterday? 8.8 the buses’ schedule the coyote’s barking the cats’ paws two weeks’ pay Exercise 22: Possessive Nouns 1. Martha’s sister was worried about her son’s health. Finish your client’s reports before you go to Smith’s tonight. * Depending on the meaning. 6. 3. (two sons) 5. The sun’s rays are too dangerous for us to sit on these lawn chairs for too long! Exercise 24: Possessive Nouns Answers will vary. 10. either would be correct. Exercise 23: Possessive Nouns 1. The skateboarders’ park had to be closed for repairs to its half pipes. 9. The child’s name is Nora. That is my neighbour's new car. 8. (one client) 9. (one son) 4. 2. Mr. Mrs. Exercise 25: Review of Nouns 1. The students’ cafeteria will be closed after next week’s graduation. A correct possessive form of the sentence would be C. Mark’s mother lives at my sister’s. My uncles’ farmhouse was struck by during last summer’s storm.

New River D. A. Easter. interjections The proper nouns in the sentence are B. John River. Sports 3.Canadian Living. Edmundston. Chatham. holiday Christmas. Salmon River. town. Ottawa C. thing. prepositions 7. Saint John. Orange Crush. 4. verbs 4. Coca-Cola. . city Moncton. The nouns in the sentence are C. 7-Up. Miramichi River. New Brunswick Day. The following is an example of answers you might have chosen. 6.Pepsi. Nova Scotia. Those are the children's toys. E. Discover. 5. Campbellton. Labour Day. adverbs 6. D. I do not like Cheryl Hastings' apartment. 7. Ferry Road. Inside Sports. Truro. conjunctions 8. Check your answer with your instructor. friends. Halifax. The police wrote down the witnesses' descriptions. Rewrite the following sentences to make the noun indicated by bold print possessive. pronouns 3.9 2. soda pop . nouns 2. Bathurst. B. Little River. Centennial Bridge. This is Doris's store. place. C. adjectives 5. Entertainment. Consumer Reports. A noun is a word which names a person. river St. Sprite B. Chatelaine. Canada Day E. Answers will vary. magazine . Boxing Day. A. Thanksgiving. Halifax. The eight parts of speech are: 1. or quality. Fredericton. Laura is Pam's oldest sister.

plural mob . abstract. Jupiter planet E. possessive news . non-count. Parker doctor A. singular fragrance . D. concrete. concrete.common. 10. abstract. abstract. singular jury . singular English horn .common. count.common. abstract. Dr. singular March .common. singular trouble . plural food .common. singular beauty . count**. singular gold .common. concrete.proper. concrete. non-count. Canada country C. count. count. plural. collective. singular boys’ .common. church .common. concrete. count. singular men’s .common.common. I had a great time last St. possessive loyalty . singular . abstract. count.common. plural. singular/plural grammar . The petals of the flower fell to the floor. Saint John city D.common.common.10 Illustrated. count. (Example: New Brunswick .common. collective.province) A.common.common. singular Canada’s . January month B. concrete. count. concrete. Write a common noun for each proper noun given below. singular surprise . singular. 9. concrete. count**. count. count. E. collective. concrete.common. abstract*. B. collective. count. concrete. count. singular mice . non-count. abstract*. Patrick's Day.common. non-count. count. abstract. Parents 8. abstract*. abstract*.proper. C. count. possessive company . no corrections Do you remember when ten cents' worth of candy was enough to share with your friends? There is a burn mark on the arm of the chair. singular armies . count.

My sister. me.proper.g. singular and plural * debatable ** could be counted if referring to more than one.2nd person singular/plural 4. First person singular A. Cheryl gave her cold to them. concrete. French/English Canada. concrete. 1. Third person plural B. yours. herself 3. e. They . concrete. singular. possessive Lions’ Club . Third person singular D.2nd person singular 2. yourselves 4.2nd person singular/plural her . ourselves 2.Person. them.3rd person singular theirs . “Lions’ possessive broccoli .3rd person plural they .3rd person plural its . Exercise 27: Personal Pronouns .3rd person singular 3. myself B.11 sunrise . She. We. count. 4. Exercise 26: Personal Pronouns 1. Exercise 29: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. Did you give him his book? 2. Upper /Lower Canada.3rd person plural my . hers. collective.1st person plural our -1st person plural Exercise 28: Possessive Personal Pronouns Answers will vary. mine. count.common. themselves 5.3rd person singular feminine you . singular boy’s . my. He may have taken her coat. your. They. Second person singular F. theirs.3rd person plural we . Gender A. her husband and their children visited your mother. count. etc. but mine is on the desk.1st person singular they . you .2nd person singular/plural yours . us. Number. First person plural C. You. 5. our. their. I.1st person singular your . ours. count. singular.3rd person plural it . I saw them eating their lunch myself 3. Exercise 30: Pronoun Selection . They . her. abstract. 1.common.common. I .

. it’s 2. I 10... you’re Exercise 31: Pronoun Selection Answers will vary. those. and break up the sentence as follows: Could him go to the game? 2. Its. read the sentence as though only the woman gave the money. Exercise 32: Pronoun Selection 1. Tim Maxwell recently purchased a car. their 12. It is a 1989 Buick LeSabre. Although his car is not a new one. Laura and she had hamburgers for lunch. he 5. Your. Al met she at the movies. 6. Have your instructor check your answer. The word yous does not exist. 3. You 8. 4. they. Now it’s easy to tell that me is the wrong pronoun to select. To find the right choice. Could he and I could go to the game? (Try the sentence with each pronoun separately. Your other choice is her. His car is just like a new one. her 7. The pronoun them never goes with a noun.. his. he 6. That doesn’t sound right. It had been in an old lady's garage since her husband died in early 1990. Read the sentence without John . Mary drove Paul and me to the mall. 5. her 3. Her is the right choice. he.. Leo and she gave you the coffee money on Monday. me 4.12 1. The following is an example of how you may have rewritten the paragraph. We sent her some flowers. It had travelled only 800 kilometres! That is not very many kilometres for a car as old as his. me 9. it had not been driven very far when he bought it. Mary drove I to the mall. Read the sentence as though only one person got a ride. they 11. Al met John and her at the movies. 7. Her gave. I took those clothes to the cleaners yesterday. so try Al met her at the movies.

The plural version of this pronoun is the right one. the second sentence sounds better. You and your husband should prepare yourselves for some bad news. Now the other pronoun choice.) 8. In this sentence. . Therefore. the correct pronoun selections in this sentence are he and I. Could me go to the game? Could I go to the game? Again. The pronoun yourself is singular.13 Could he go to the game? The second sentence sounds better. two people should be preparing themselves.

The obvious choice is the pronoun I.. 1. These..... Decide which sentence sounds the best. Use the same strategy as in sentence 11.. Me was Jane's best friend..... 10.....student (3rd person singular... Your instructor will check your answer.. Her 3. The man standing outside is he. Your 4.. 11.family (showing that each individual family member acts separately) 8. themselves. Their... It’s means “it is”.. Mine 5. Them. It. (This is tricky and may not sound right..... Their.. I was Jane's best friend. those..managers 3... Only one person received a trophy..) 7.... They kept the secret from I.students. 12.jury (used in this sentence as a plural) 5...but try switching the sentence around. Her...14 9..) Jane's best friend was I...president 2.. They 2.. He is the man outside..we 9.... Its (Remember that the personal pronoun has not apostrophe. Exercise 34: Pronouns and Antecedents A.... Ourselves.one (Girls is not the antecedent. The second choice makes more sense. His. The pronoun them is NEVER used to go along with a noun. Those (or these) people pushed in line ahead of me! This mistake is often heard in speech..... Read the sentence as if only one person did not know the secret. His or her... Him is the man outside.donations 10..family (used as a single unit) 6.. B.books 4..... the gender is not clear) ... They kept the secret from Jack and me. Exercise 33: Pronoun Selection 1.... and is the correct pronoun selection in this instance.. Their.

The deer hurt its leg when it jumped the fence. 9. Philip gave her a present. a pronoun always refers to the noun closest to it (in front of it) 1. The police officer told the driver. A few of us have received our marks. 2... Such 4. those B. 5. Yourself reflexive 6.. These. Max and Helen sang at their mutual friends' wedding. No one should submit his or her report later than tomorrow. Does anybody know his or her Social Insurance Number? 2. 1. Norm and Al filled Al’s (or Norm’s) basket with apples from Fredericton. 7. 3. 5.) Philip gave her the present that he had bought for Marilyn. None of the boys has paid for his bus ticket. 4. “You deserved this ticket. 3. Each other reciprocal 3.no one else washed it 4.. As well.” 5. Emphatic. A few forgot their lunches. (It is important to understand that too many pronouns make the meaning of a sentence unclear.an action he did to himself 2. Each of those buyers should consult his or her supervisors. Exercise 37: Demonstrative Pronouns A. 4.. Exercise 36: Indefinite Pronouns 1. Myself emphatic . and you should pay it. The audience clapped for the actors’ performance. Several of the men have paid their dues.. 10. 8. Reciprocal Pronouns 1. That Exercise 38: Reflexive. Himself reflexive. 6. (Donna bought the present. That 3. (Philip bought the present.. One another reciprocal 5. Norm and Al filled Jim’s basket with apples from Fredericton.15 Exercise 35: Pronouns and Antecedents Answers may vary.. Answers will vary. This 2. Many hens have escaped from their pen.. Yourself emphatic. Each member of the class asked his or her mother to help at the bake sale.) Philip gave her Donna’s present.

neuter (no gender)..... He... 9... Who 2..indefinite pronoun..... themselves.personal pronoun.. 1. She... 3rd person plural.. What 3. What. ---- Exercise 40: Review of Pronouns 1.....demonstrative pronoun... feminine any.. singular it. herself Ourselves emphatic reflexive reflexive reflexive Exercise 39: Interrogative Pronouns 1. (To) whom 10. you..personal pronoun..16 7. (PRRRIIDE) P personal R reflexive R reciprocal R relative I indefinite I interrogative D demonstrative E emphatic B.. singular that.. ----4.. ---6. Themselves Herself Himself...reflexive pronoun.. singular or plural. 3rd person.. 8.personal pronoun. Which 7.. 3rd person.. 3rd person. What 5... 1st person singular. 2nd person....personal pronoun. masculine . refers to person who is speaking 2. Which 9..indefinite pronoun her.... feminine 5.. singular. 3rd person singular...personal pronoun. refers to person(s) who are present that.....interrogative pronoun anyone.. 3rd person singular 3.. singular. singular...emphatic pronoun. ---8... Some students use PRIDE with 3 Rs and 2 Is. refers to the noun children it.. feminine herself. 3rd person.. replaces the noun accident me...personal pronoun.demonstrative pronoun 4. singular. 10.personal pronoun.

.personal pronoun. shows possession..... his.(as above) it. all....emphatic pronoun Exercise 41: Review of Pronouns 1..relative pronoun.personal pronoun .. masculine and/or feminine.. shows possession. singular. singular or plural That... refers to a singular noun mentioned previously.. 3rd person..personal pronoun... 10.... singular that..personal pronoun.personal pronoun. plural..... 1st person... masculine and/or feminine they.indefinite pronoun. refers to pronoun both which refers to the noun choices itself... 2nd person. plural. singular....personal pronoun. modifies the noun bill them..........indefinite pronoun you. plural.. masculine.reflexive pronoun 4.personal pronoun 2.............personal pronoun..... You. 3rd person...interrogative pronoun 3.. used as a conjunction to join two ideas those. singular.. singular or plural their.relative pronoun.... 3rd person.....17 6. 1st person... no gender.... shows possession.. singular..personal pronoun....... masculine and/or feminine.. 7.. 9.. who.indefinite pronoun my.. 3rd person....personal pronoun themselves...personal pronoun.. refers to a plural noun mentioned previously which.. plural.. refers to the person speaking I. singular.. refers to a “whole” idea (the first attempt was a failure) Which.personal pronoun. they.demonstrative pronoun..... refers to the noun choices them. modifies the noun boss that.. plural. plural.relative pronoun. My....interrogative pronoun both.. used as a conjunction joining two ideas someone.. 3rd person.... 8.personal pronoun. 3rd person.. refers to the person speaking I. modifies the noun attempt.demonstrative pronoun.. 3rd person....personal pronoun. used as a conjunction to join two ideas you.. neuter... 2nd person... refers to a plural noun mentioned previously it.

...personal pronoun mine.personal pronoun you.. 8.personal pronoun you.indefinite pronoun 7.. 1st person plural interrogative pronoun reciprocal pronoun relative pronoun indefinite pronoun (plural) demonstrative pronoun indefinite pronoun (singular) possessive pronoun reflexive pronoun a word that doesn’t exist 2..demonstrative pronoun Something... K... A..reciprocal pronoun your.... or I....personal pronoun who.......reflexive pronoun what.......emphatic pronoun yourselves...... C. 10. Exercise 42: Review of Pronouns 1......interrogative pronoun I..18 that. 6....... ..... F.... 9....demonstrative pronoun We.....personal pronoun (used as an adjective) he...... possessive We.. H...relative pronoun each other..personal pronoun 5. J.. who.. or I... G Pronouns are used to replace or refer to nouns and to make sentences more interesting and less repetitive.........personal pronoun ourselves......relative pronoun that. E.....demonstrative pronoun them..personal pronoun those.. B F.personal pronoun.

reflexive pronoun... himself e.. 5.. singular... Exercise 45: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1.reflexive pronoun. 6. shows possession which. D.demonstrative pronoun..... A... Answers will vary..action 2. 3rd person..... B. 9.. a. C. Few.. 7.... smashed.. Answers will vary. 5.. she d. me f.. plural mine....linking will be. was.indefinite pronoun E.demonstrative pronoun... hit.. B. singular something. its h.. plural Those. refers to companies Who..relative pronoun themselves.19 3.. were.. 1st person.. correctly completes the sentence.action 4..action is. which g..... Exercise 43: Action Verbs A....indefinite pronoun. B........ jumped. plural.....interrogative pronoun anything. your i.linking 6... their j... A..linking 8. themselves Answers will vary..... 7..action watched.. singular this. singular yourself. is correct b. 3. 8..action ...indefinite pronoun.. those c...linking 10... is incorrect D..linking feared... him 4.. Exercise 44: Linking Verbs Answers will vary...personal pronoun..... were.

. Mitchell has lived here all his life. fell...action howl. Exercise 48: Auxiliary Verbs and Main Verbs looks....action 14.. 9. 3........ broke. 8.action drove.. Heather will rarely drive the car in winter.. 13...... 11.action sings. not after the last trip. 5. 6. 15... The men should have eaten that by now......action 6.... coughed......linking became. 3...action tasted...action 12. slammed. Close... 7.... We played ball against their team Saturday.action Exercise 46: Action Verbs and Linking Verbs 1. I will not be going..action SENTENCE MAIN VERB drive taken played confused flip was lived going eaten HELPING VERB(S) (IF ANY) will must have ---------would have would ------has will be should have 1..linking know. 9. 7..... looked.. 2... squeaked.......action 8.. 14. 4....linking 2.linking believed. were.action 4.. dances. smells..... 13..20 11. He must have taken my jacket by mistake. drove. ...action felt... felt.action publishes. tastes.linking Exercise 47: Action and Linking Verbs Answers may vary... That would have confused anyone! Would you please flip the hamburgers? There was a good show on TV last night. 15...action 12..... 5..linking 10.

simple future D. Exercise 51: Irregular Verbs . Answers may vary.... will kick.... had kicked.....present progressive C...... has been kicking... 12.. B. B. C. Answers may vary... A. The couple will be needing even more room soon. 5. 13. 11..simple present B.. 11..past perfect H.. broken heard has have consulted might have given agree learn may have been shall can Exercise 49: Identifying Verb Tenses A. Sue may never have been given that letter... Answers may vary. 15.. It had been snowing for three days.future progressive I.. was giving. Vanessa was signing her lease...past perfect progressive Exercise 50: Identifying Verb Tenses 1.. has kicked. We have been thinking about you lately. 14. Have you ever heard such nonsense.. He has talked to the Lions’ Club before. 2.. is kicking...21 10. The washing machine has broken down. D. A. had been learning. Answers may vary.present perfect F. 3.... 8. Answers may vary... They will have washed the laundry by then.future perfect G. 12.. 6. 10... will be leaving. 7. A child can easily learn this song..past progressive J.. will have kicked... He might have consulted a doctor. I shall never agree to his proposal. 4.present perfect progressive E.. 9. kicks.

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1-3. Answers may vary. 4. A. Present progressive B. Simple past C. Present perfect D. Future perfect E. Future progressive F. Past perfect G. Simple past

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Exercise 52: Active and Passive Voice 1. Passive 2. Active 3. Active 4. Passive 5. Passive 6. Active 7. Passive 8. Passive 9. Passive 10. Passive 11. Active 12. Active 13. Active 14. Passive 15. Active Exercise 53: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Exercise 54: Active and Passive Voice Answers will vary. Exercise 55: Review of Verbs Remember that it is impossible to decide on a word’s part of speech until it is used in a sentence. Exercise 56: Review of Verbs 2. Will show 3rd person plural simple future active voice 4. Had been asked 3rd person singular past perfect passive voice

3.

Have eaten 2nd person (singular or plural) present perfect active voice Has been asking 3rd person singular present perfect progressive active voice

5.

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The committee had asked

9 a). simple past passive voice The dog bit the boy 10 a) Are 3rd person plural (m or f) simple present active voice 11. Will be served 3rd person singular simple future passive voice “The waiter” will serve Shall be seeing 1st person singular future progressive active voice 7. her rides 3. bike. Pronouns. Am doing 1st person singular present progressive active voice Is dating 3rd person singular present progressive active voice 13. sister. . wings its landed 2.25 6. is 15. Had been repainted 3rd person plural. Spoke 3rd person singular simple past active voice 8. that. them says. ice. Walks 3rd person singular simple present active voice Will have been playing 3rd person singular future perfect progressive active voice 9 b) Was destroyed 3rd person singular (neuter) simple past passive voice “The vet” destroyed 10 b) Are 3rd person plural simple present active voice 12. neuter past perfect passive voice “The painter” had just repainted Exercise 57: Review of Nouns. Gander. 14. Was bitten 3rd person singular. office my. and Verbs Nouns Pronouns Verbs 1. Tom everything. planes.

concrete.noun. common. concrete...noun. 1st person singular..noun. each they....... singular 2.. men company..pronoun. simple past.verb..pronoun.. 5. 7. concrete lives. plural.. singular. 3rd person... personal.... Pronouns..... concrete...pronoun. linking. personal. 1st person singular am.. plural. 1st person... and Verbs 1.pronoun.. common. personal. proper.. singular or plural. proper. singular. active voice my. singular card. singular..verb. they were buys was teaching should be done might find were thinking is finished....verb.. all.. simple future.... possessive decision. active voice Exercise 59:Nouns.. possessive recipes. 2nd person..noun. parts sister..... 9. personal.. 3rd person...... possessive.. plural. 6. 1st person singular Marion’s. 8. plural these... Spanish problems airport ---results both. common. singular 3.. demonstrative...verb..verb.... singular. present progressive. 3rd person. common... Your. singular gave. singular 2..pronoun.noun... passive voice their. herself something. singular.verb. 3rd person. those us my.. common.. singular. concrete. plural . plural will sell.. and Verbs 1. collective is discussing..... 3rd person. proper.... jury. personal. personal...pronoun.... Kevin. 3rd person.. chefs.pronoun.26 4.. 3rd person. singular 4.. possessive. common. possessive choices. singular are being asked. concrete... simple present decision. plural 5.. each other you everyone. indefinite. common..........noun.noun.. simple present.... Aunt Gladys. Pronouns.pronoun..noun.. concrete.noun... mother’s.. 10. active voice its... concrete.... will announce Exercise 58: Review of Nouns... concrete.noun. I. present progressive.noun. concrete. possessive... concrete. common. active voice me.

. future perfect... concrete.. 8.. simple past. active voice TV.... plural.. present perfect.. singular is talking.pronoun.. proper will have finished..noun..... common.verb... 3rd. active voice people’s. 3rd person.. non-count..noun........ personal. 2nd person. 1st person....noun. personal. singular... singular... 2nd person.verb.. concrete.noun. action...noun.... common. 3rd. singular you. singular He..27 3..noun. used as an adjective . singular/plural will need. non-count.... 2nd person..pronoun.. singular... concrete.. common. simple future...... 3rd person. common.... singular phone.. singular has changed. concrete.. common. active voice bread. seem.. common. singular. active voice He. 3rd person.verb.. 3rd person.pronoun.. simple present Luke. active voice his... masculine. singular money. singular/plural. 10. concrete.pronoun. singular. 6.noun. singular hour. 3rd. possessive girlfriend. possessive attitudes... singular Tony.. common... singular. personal..... 4.. personal..noun.. singular.pronoun. proper. plural... concrete.....verb.. proper We.. singular. present progressive. active voice course. present perfect. Exercise 60: Review of Nouns and Pronouns 1...noun..noun. 3rd person. concrete. past perfect.. singular/plural have written. action 3rd person. personal. action. singular June... active voice You...... common... linking.. concrete. singular accident. singular Oprah. plural... masculine had watched. singular/plural. personal... 3rd person. He. abstract. 5.. common.verb...pronoun..... past progressive. concrete. 1st person.. masculine... 9... proper.pronoun..... concrete..pronoun....noun..noun. common...... masculine smelled... common. past progressive...verb. personal. concrete..noun. concrete.noun.. common. plural honesty. common. 2nd person.... 3rd person... 7..verb.. his...noun. singular. singular. active voice beach. 3rd person singular was going.. plural were walking.noun. singular..verb..verb.....noun. personal.. active voice letter..verb. concrete.

indefinite.pronoun.. 3rd person.... 3rd.. mouth. concrete..noun.. 3rd person. 3rd.noun.noun... singular Liz.. singular grew. count.. common.pronoun. action.. concrete. common. demonstrative. singular.verb.... 3rd.noun.. common..verb. concrete.. plural colours. plural. count. concrete. simple present. common...... reflexive.. concrete. proper.. common.... plural were made. 3rd person. linking verb.. singular/plural. common.. singular/plural....pronoun. singular approached....verb.noun.pronoun.. active voice It...pronoun.noun.verb... concrete... singular heat. 8.... singular porch.. proper Many.. proper.. concrete.noun........ concrete.. demonstrative.. plural are being changed.. concrete. singular..noun. What.. 6. possessive relatives. 3rd... simple past. active voice Will complete. plural... action. past progressive.. singular Those.... singular.noun... action. active voice herself.pronoun.verb. possessive lunch..... common..... plural were. non-count.. common....... concrete..verb. simple past.. passive decorator..noun... common..verb. night. active voice survey. simple future. count.. 3rd.verb.noun. 10..noun.noun. plural. linking.. count.. passive voice these.. simple past. personal. concrete.pronoun... active voice Sackville.....pronoun... simple past.noun... active voice storm. 3rd. concrete. action. 3rd.... 3rd person..verb.verb. singular. plural Cuba... active voice their. 5.. common. singular They...... feminine drove.. proper. present progressive.28 2..noun........ action. count... 4. personal... singular. past perfect. 3rd singular afternoon. simple past reservations.. singular watered. 3.pronoun. singular.. feminine Central Hospital. plural. concrete....noun.. 3rd... personal... action. concrete .. plural. singular.verb. concrete.. 3rd. count. plural come. 9..... personal.. action. plural were eating.. present perfect.. common. count. common. 7.... interrogative has seen... 3rd. plural. 2nd. singular Her.

sparkling. blue eyes 11. spicy. rusty car my space 3. depressing day 6. an. rough. dining room* table * These words are technically nouns but when used to describe another noun. the child the. summer* clothes 14. juicy apples 13. the group of tired boys still had not reached the isolated lake that was their final destination. little girl big. The youngest boys started to ask their Scout leader when they could stop and eat their sandwiches. six people 7. Tim’s* house 10. sweet. but most simply enjoyed the sweet smell of dried pine needles and autumn leaves that littered the ground. but as they continued on their way the sunlight became paler. hockey*. He told them that they would have to wait until they reach the little lake on the other side of the steep blue ridge ahead. lovable cats the. light* bulb 5. some. light. two. uneven road 2. Mexican food 9. they can be identified as adjectives. sugary. After two long hours. A few boys knew that they were lost. our cousins huge. big spoon 4. and one older . The weather was warm. these parcels 12. a.29 Exercise 61: Adjectives Adjectives Nouns modified 1. Karl’s*. old. and the hills were gentle. those. Exercise 62: Adjectives The young hikers walked through the dark woods. a. Shelley. The. sweet icing the. dull skates 15. The. boring. ragged string dusty. this trip several days 8.

.. daily modifies the verb review 4..... fast modifies the verb travel.. and ate their supper. Just as they were climbing into their snug sleeping bags. They weren’t lost at all! Exercise 63: Adverbs 1.how quickly efficiently.when 2.when really. thoughtfully modifies the verb chewed 3.when Exercise 64: Adverbs Modifying Verbs. piercing the inky darkness.... the leader realized that they were six miles south of where they should have been.interrogative adverb 5... they saw a beam of light...how exciting not...where 7. Why.when important more.when very.how very... very modifies the adverb fast 9. Jensen’s chicken farm......how good never.... 10... tightly modifies the verb packed 5....interrogative adverb 4. and Adverbs 1. bright and narrow...30 boy suggested that they set up camp beside a babbling brook.how later.... where..how efficiently extremely...... An adverb is needed to . politely modifies the verb asked 2. 9...how 3. lit a huge crackling fire. leisurely modifies the verb strolled Exercise 65: Distinguishing Between Adjectives and Adverbs 1........ really modifies the adjective tired 10... casually.. very modifies the adjective happy 6. 8... yesterday.negative almost.... Adjectives.. The sentence describes how she behaves.how useful 6.....how too. never.......... sincerely modifies the adjective grateful 7.. quite.when carefully... Well...how casually now. The car was obviously travelling on the Black River Road and they were only a mile or two from Mr... deeply modifies the adjective tanned 8... there.. They set up their canvas tents.. With relief.

Good. An adverb is needed to describe how the work was done. An adverb is required to describe how he putted. 15. Really is an adverb. An adverb is needed to describe how the work is done. an adverb. Calm is an adjective. Slowly. Worse (comparing two things) 5. bad is an adjective. Quickly. Feel is a linking verb which needs an adjective to complete its meaning. Simple. it is used as an adjective when speaking of someone’s health. Simple is an adjective. so well. Calm. 12. Unique. Sad. Although well is usually an adverb.31 2. Gradual is an adjective. calmly is an adverb. Slowly is an adverb modifying the verb went. 3. . Seriously is an adverb. The adverb well describes how Paul did on his driver’s test. Awful is an adjective. gradually is an adverb. This is another linking verb which needs an adjective to complete it. serious is an adjective. Gradual. Good is an adjective. modify the verb behaves. 5. More. simply is an adverb. Feels is a linking verb and it needs an adjective to complete it. Quickly is an adverb. Comparing snowfall for two months 4. Exercise 66: Comparisons with Adjectives and Adverb 1. More difficult (comparing two things) 6. sadly is an adverb. Unique is an absolute adjective and cannot be compared. Taste is a linking verb. quick is an adjective. Use the adjective good to complete it. 9. real is an adjective. awfully is an adverb. Smaller. An adverb modifies a verb. Brightly is an adverb describing how the light shone. Sure is an adjective completing the linking verb am. 4. 7. 11. 6. An adjective is needed to complete the linking verb were. Comparing more than two 7. Badly. 14. Well. An adverb is needed to describe how firefighters should respond. Eldest. Seriously. Comparing two people 2. Really. Awful. Well. 8. More rapidly 3. Badly is an adverb. 10. An adjective is needed to modify the noun voice. Brightly. 13. Sad is an adjective. is the best choice. An adverb is required to modify the adjective.

of. with . Among.32 Exercise 67: Prepositions A. on. at 8. in. in. with 6. in. near. B. for. to. For. 1. by (on top of) 9. of 3. for. around 7. with. in 4. under 5. beside. at. of (at the end of) 2. for 10. to. down. along. Answers will vary.

... 6.modifies the noun top on top of the hill.....modifies the noun houses on top.modifies the noun pictures in this store...........modifies the noun trees down the hill. 7. 8.... For shells and pebbles.when of the day. Some grammar books call on top of a compound preposition..adverb...... to the door.. 5.... on top.. 9......adverb......where for pictures.adjective. 3. for the conference for the best costume..adjective.. with the funny hat for shells and pebbles..when by my son...adverb.......adjective..adjective. at noon beside the store..........how 2.............where at noon....adjective....modifies the noun end among the rubble..adverb........... 8...adverb...where at the end.when beside the store..where around the corner.adverb. 10.adjective... to the clown.modifies the noun cat to the door... 3................. around the corner With the sore ear.....adjective... 4...adverb..can be considered as one prepositional phrase..modifies the noun socks under my son’s bed...adverb. in 1960... 5........ by my son (on top of the hill) in your group.. of the hill.... 1......why of her mother and father.... of the day (at the end of the day) among the rubble... with the hornets’ nest down the hill....why along the beach.adjective. at the end..where near the trees.where in the world.. for pictures. under my son’s bed near the trees.... 6. along the beach... 1. 7.where with the sore ear...... in 1960......adverb......adverb........ .adverb... D.. 4.adverb. of her mother and father in this store in the world.....adverb... 2..modifies the noun houses of the hill.........33 C....where with the hornets’ nest.adverb..

.................adjective....how long in the heat..adjective...adverb...modifying the noun men for two hours.........adjective..adverb..adjective..adverb......... how with the funny hat....how...... near the mall... in your group...where to the north.. In the middle.....modifying the noun lady into the line.... 10....................why from the day care....where in the closets............modifying the noun rest from the basement.......adverb...where 7..modifying the noun children at the church. during the night...adjective...............adverb.where.modifying the pronoun all at the radio station.....when of the water..modifying the noun north 4..... on the roof..adverb.....adverb......where (can be identified as a single phrase) at the store..... After his graduation.where 3.. with big hat..adjective..34 9.........adverb....modifying the noun station at the old mill...adjective.adverb.......adverb...adjective.............modifies the noun clown Exercise 68: Prepositional Phrases 1.... Because of the storm.when of the staff....when ...............adjective....adverb...adjective..adverb..modifying the noun front in front of me.....modifying the noun middle in the middle of a big spacious lawn..where 5..... where 2..modifies the noun women for the conference..........adverb..adverb....modifying the noun women under the tables...adjective....... in the kitchen...adjective.where in front.adverb...modifies the noun prize to the clown....adverb..............adjective..where 6..where of me.....adverb...where of the city limits.where 10.modifies the noun theme for the best costume....where of a big spacious lawn...........adverb.........adverb........adjective...adverb..adjective.. On Fridays...where 8...modifying the noun day care around the block......

. but also either. or 4. 15. but I don’t have a map. they were cut down.. 8. 2.. unless 23. 18... and 12. 7.adjective. 6. and.. or...adjective. 19.adjective... 24. even though since whether if while how as if after He paid for her ticket (because he liked her). local citizens rescued it. But is a conjunction joining two separate and complete ideas. 4. 15... and 6.35 in 1992.... 1. 9. however 8. 22. 7.modifying the noun Manitoba Exercise 69: Conjunctions 1. I know (where they have hidden the treasure). not only. nor neither. I won’t be able to go (even though I have the money).. . 16. 11. It isn’t certain (whether they will come or not). 9.. before B. 12.. (Since I first met Sheila and her). as a result Exercise 70: Conjunctions 1. yet 14.. neither. but 2. The engineer from Mainframe explained (how they would build the bridge). if 20. how 11.. after 5. 10. and 7.. Mark knows more (than I do about that case).. After the whale beach itself.. although 14. because 17.. 13. why 8.. (After the maple trees were damaged).. not only. 5. 3. because 2. both. 4. 5. 10. 21. 6. nor meanwhile but so since where than before because although why than 3.. but also 10. 25...modifying the noun graduation for a job. 3. 9.modifying the noun ad in Manitoba. she has always been very polite. 13. I wonder (why they are leaving so early).

Exercise 74: Review A 1. 6. The roads were slippery (because the snow was followed by rain). that Exercise 72: Interjections Answers will vary. 12. he couldn’t turn it. Compare this with. Les is five inches taller (than I am). they are out of the playoffs. 14. Compare the use of after. they fixed it themselves After the lecture. you can’t reach that cupboard. you missed it Thieves broke in (while we were away). In sentence 12.36 11. he turned pro. The adjective (article) pioneers noun settle verb quickly adverb on preposition the adjective (article) small adjective farms noun around preposition . 24. that 10. the students asked (if they could stay). 18. 23. 16. The roads were slippery because of the snow. the wind was cool. (Unless the Leafs win this game). (Although it was quite sunny). after is a preposition. that 4. dogs noun make verb good adjective pets noun for preposition young adjective children noun 3. He always talks (as if he were an expert). 21. Exercise 71: Relative Pronouns 1. 13. 9. The story explained (why people believed in the ghost). 17. (After he won the gold medal). (Because you were late). 25. (If you are short). (Before they read the book). who 8. I don’t know (how I will get there). that 2. 22. 19. 20. 15. which 5. who whom that 2. who 7. Why? (Although he is stronger). You just answered my questions (before I asked them).

adjective adjective noun verb preposition adjective noun conjunction pronoun verb (aux) verb (main) pronoun preposition pronoun 8. Does he often go to the beach during the summer I do not think their problems now because I do not have time verb (auxiliary) pronoun adverb verb (main) preposition adjective noun preposition adjective noun pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) adjective/pronoun noun adverb conjunction pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) noun 5. your ancestors lived beside the sea mine lived near Moncton Those big chunky pots sell for nine dollars so you can buy several of them adjective (pronoun) 4. 7. noun verb preposition adjective noun preposition verb preposition noun adjective/pronoun 6. Casually adverb the adjective thieves noun surveyed verb the adjective neighbourhood noun until conjunction they pronoun Everyone recognized his courage and strength even if he pronoun verb adjective/pronoun noun conjunction noun conjunction pronoun .37 Gloucester noun 3.

noun preposition adjective/pronoun noun verb adverb adjective noun adjective adjective adjective noun verb adjective conjunction adjective preposition adjective adjective/noun noun 14. He has always been a really excellent hockey coach pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) adjective adverb adjective adjective/noun noun .38 spotted the right house 9. did not verb (aux) adverb Mark noun smelled verb the adjective skunk noun and conjunction left verb the adjective area noun immediately adverb She believes in his ability pronoun verb preposition adjective/pronoun noun 11. 13. Lilacs always smell wonderful in spring verb adjective adjective noun noun adverb verb adjective preposition noun 10. The students in this program are very hard workers The frail old lady is safe but unhappy at the seniors’ home adjective 12.

sat verb on preposition the adjective fence noun and conjunction ate verb his adjective/pronoun lunch noun while conjunction the adjective others noun went verb into preposition town noun 3. Usually the chairs were placed near the windows but today they are in a circle Very quickly they finished their work adverb adjective noun verb (aux) verb (main) preposition adjective noun conjunction adverb pronoun verb preposition adjective noun adverb adverb pronoun verb adjective/pronoun noun .39 15. You must never show your fear of snakes to your children pronoun verb (aux) adverb verb (main) adjective/pronoun noun preposition noun preposition adjective/pronoun noun Exercise 75: Review B 1. Fred noun 2. I had been studying for three hours and pronoun verb (aux) verb (aux) verb (main) preposition adjective noun conjunction 4.

6. Since the accident the victims have recovered pronoun adverb verb (aux) adverb verb (main) pronoun pronoun verb verb verb adjective/pronoun noun conjunction pronoun verb adverb conjunction pronoun verb verb pronoun noun pronoun verb adjective noun preposition adjective noun adjective noun verb verb 10. Although the storm was conjunction adjective noun verb very intense the damage was minor Because of her problems Sue often seeks my adverb adjective adjective adjective verb adjective preposition adjective/pronoun noun noun adverb verbs adjective/pronoun . After they had mowed the lawn they bought lunch conjunction pronoun verb verb adjective noun pronoun verb noun 7.40 I still do not know it 5. They had been writing their essays before they went there Because they have cashed their cheques they have some money 9. 8.

Ouch that knife is so sharp that 16. Who thinks that these train tickets are ours and those are theirs pronoun verb conjunction adjective adjective/noun noun verb pronoun conjunction pronoun verb pronoun interjection adjective noun verb adverb adjective conjunction 14. Miles’ brother is extremely intelligent even if he noun/adjective noun verb adverb adjective conjunction pronoun . advice noun The elderly waiter who served us beer is an old of hers Where did you hide the candy which I bought adjective adjective noun conjunction verb pronoun noun verb adjective adjective preposition pronoun adverb verb pronoun verb adjective noun conjunction pronoun verb 13. Have you ever seen those boats in the harbour before adverb adverb verb pronoun adverb verb adjective noun preposition adjective noun adverb 12. 15.41 quite well 11.

42 I cut myself badly pronoun verb pronoun adverb can not pass those provincial exams 18. Finally his clever tricks failed verb adverb verb adjective adjective noun adverb adjective/pronoun adjective noun verb 17. Hey Eric did you complete that work on those cars during the weekend The Canadian economy is becoming worse very quickly interjection noun verb pronoun verb adjective noun preposition adjective noun preposition adjective noun adjective adjective noun verb verb adjective adverb adverb 19. .

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