UNIT-1 Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless Communication

Multiple access schemes are used to allow many mobile users to share simultaneously a finite amount radio spectrum. The sharing of spectrum is required to achieve high capacity by simultaneously allocating the bandwidth (or the available amount of channels) to multiple users. 1.1 Introduction: (1).In conventional telephone systems, it is possible to talk and listen simultaneously, and this effect called duplexing, is generally required in wireless telephone systems. Duplexing may be done using frequency or time domain techniques. (2).Frequency division duplexing (FDD) provides two distinct bands of frequencies for every user. The forward band provides traffic from the base station to the mobile, and the reverse band provides traffic from mobile to base station. (3). In FDD any duplex channel actually consists of two simplex channels (forward and reverse), and a device called a duplexer is used inside each subscriber unit and base station to allow simultaneous bidirectional radio transmission and reception for both the subscriber unit and the base station and the duplex channel pair. (4).The frequency separation between each forward and reverse channel is constant throughout the system, regardless of the particular channel being used. (5).Time division duplexing (TDD) uses time instead of frequency to provide both a forward and reverse link. In TDD multiple users share a single radio channel by taking turns in the time domain. (6). Individual users are allowed to access the channel in assigned time slot, and each duplex channel has both a forward time slot and a reverse time slot to facilitate bidirectional communication. (7).If the time separation between the forwarded and reverse time slot is small, then the transmission and reception of data papers simultaneously to the user at both the subscriber unit and on the base station side. TDD allows communication on a single channel and simplifies the subscriber equipment since a duplexer is not required.




Reverse Time separation



(8).FDD is geared toward radio communications systems that allocate individual radio frequencies for each user. TDD enables each receiver to operate as either a transmitter or receiver on the same frequency, and eliminates the need for separate forward and reverse frequency bands 1.1.1 Introduction to Multiple Access: (1).Frequency division multiple access (FDMA), Time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple accesses (CDMA) are the three major access techniques used to share available bandwidth in wireless communication system. (2).These techniques can be narrow band and wide band systems, depending upon how the available bandwidth is allocated to users. The duplexing technique of a multiple access system is usually described along with the particular multiple access scheme, as shown in the examples that follows. Narrow band systems: (1).The term narrow band is used to relate the bandwidth of a single channel to the expected coherence band width of the channel. In a narrow band multiple access system the available radio spectrum is divided in to a large number of narrow band channels. The channels are usually operated using FDD. (2).To minimize interference between forward and reverse links on each channel, the frequency spectrum is made as great as possible with in the spectrum, while still allowing inexpressive duplexer and a common transceiver antenna to be used in each subscriber unit. (3).In narrow band FDMA, a user is assigned a particular channel which is not shared by other user in the vicinity, and if FDD is used (i.e., each duplex channel as a forward and reverse simple channel), then the system is called FDMA/FDD. (4). Narrow band TDMA, on the other hand allows user to share the same radio channel but allocates a unique timeslot to each user in a cyclical fashion on the channel, thus separating a small number of users in time on a single channel. (5).For narrow band TDMA systems, there generally or a large number of radio channels allocated using either FDD or TDD, and each channel is shared using TDMA. Such systems are called TDMA/FDD or TDMA/TDD access systems. Wide band systems: (1).In wide band systems the transmission bandwidth of a single channel is much larger than the coherence bandwidth of the channel. In wideband multiple access systems a large number of transmitters are allowed to transmit on the same channel. (2).TDMA allocates time slots to the many transmitters on the same channel and allow only one transmitter to access the channel at any instant of time, whereas spread spectrum CDMA allows all of the transmitters to access the channels at the same time. TDMA & CDMA systems may use either FDD or TDD multiplexing techniques. 1.2 Frequency Division Multiple Access(FDMA) (1).Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) assigns individual channels to individual users. Each user is allocated a unique frequency band or channel. These channels are assigned on


demand to users who request service. During the period of the call no other user can share the same channel. (2).In FDD systems, the user is assigned a channel as pair of frequencies; one frequency is used for the forward channel, while the other frequency is used for the reverse channel. The features of FDMA are as follows Table1:Multiple Access Techniques used in different wireless communication systems

Cellular system Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Global system for mobile(GSM) US Digital Cellular(USDC) Pacific Digital Cellular(PDC) CT2(Cordless Telephone) Digital European Cordless Telephone(DECT) US Narrowband Spread Spectrum(IS95) code W-CDMA(3GPP) cdma2000 (3GPP2)



C h a n n el 1

C h a n n el 2

C h a n n el 3

C h a n n el N


Fig2: FDMA where different channels are assigned for different frequency bands


y y y y


y y y

y y

The FDMA channel carrier only one phone circuit at a time. If an FDMA channel is not in use, then it sits idle and cannot be used by other users to increase or share capacity. It is essentially wasted resource. After the assignment of a voice channel, the base station and the mobile transmit simultaneously and continuously. The bandwidths of FDMA channel are relatively narrow (30 kHz in AMPS) as each channel support only one circuit per carrier. That is, FDMA is usually implemented in narrowband system. The symbol time of a narrowband signal is large as compared to the average delay spread. This implies that the amount of intersymbol interference is low and, thus, little or no equalization is required in FDMA narrowband system. The complexity of FDMA mobile system is lower when compared to FDMA systems, through this is changing as digital signal processing methods improve for TDMA. Since FDMA is a continues transmission scheme, fewer bits are needed for overhead purposes (such as synchronization and framing bits) as compared to TDMA. FDMA systems have higher cell site system costs as compared to TDMA systems, because of the single channel per the carrier design, and the need to use costly band pass filters to eliminate spurious radiation at base station The FDMA mobile unit uses duplexers since both the transmitter and receiver operate at the same time. This result in an increase in the cost of FDMA subscriber units and base station. FDMA requires tight RF filtering to minimize adjacent channel interface. Nonlinear Effect in FDMA: (1). In FDMA system, many channels share the same antenna at the base station. The power amplifier or the power combiners, when operated at or near saturation for maximum power efficiency, are nonlinear. (2).The nonlinearities cause signal spreading in the frequency domain and generate intermediation (IM) frequencies. IM is undesired RF radiation which can interfere with other channels in the FDMA systems. (3).The first US analog cellular system, the Advance Mobile Phone System (AMPS), is based on FDMA/FDD. (4).A single user occupies a single channel while the call is in progress, and the single channel is actually two simplex channels which are frequency duplexes with a 45MHz split. When call is completed, or when a handoff occurs, the channel is vacated so that another mobile subscriber may use it. (5). Voice signals are sent on the forward channel from the base station to mobile unit, and on the reverse from the mobile unit to the base station. (6).In AMPS, analog narrow band frequency modulation (NBFM) is used to modulate the carrier. The no of channels that can be simultaneously supported in a FDMA system is given by N=


and. TDMA system transmit data in a buffer.3 Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA) (1). 1. so a channel may be thought of as a particular time slot that reoccurs every frame. and in each slot only one user is allowed to either transmit or receive.burst method. so that duplexers are not required in the subscriber unit.It can be seen that a frame consist of a number of slots. (3). and tail bits. (2).3 TDMA scheme where each channel occupies a cyclically repeating time slot. thus the transmission for any user is non continuous. In general.Where Bt is the total spectrum allocation. where N time slots comprise a frame. TDMA/FDD systems intentionally induce several time slots of delay between the forward and reverse time slots for a particular user.Each user occupies a cyclically repeating time slot. half of the time slots in the frame information message would be used for the forward link channels and half would be used for reverse link channels. (5).Time Division Multiple Access(TDMA) systems divide the radio spectrum into time slots . Guard is the guard band allocated at the edge of the allocated spectrum band.In TDMA/TDD. Figure 1. an information message. (4). 5 . Each frame is made up of a preamble. and Bc is the channel bandwidth.

In a TDMA frame. The frame is cyclically repeated over time The features of TDMA include the following TDMA share a single carrier frequency with several users . the handoff process is much simpler for a subscriber unit. the transmitted spectrum will expand and cause interference to adjacent channels. TDMA uses different time slots for transmission and reception. a switch rather than a duplexer inside the subscriber unit is all that is required to switch between transmitter and receiver using TDMA . y y y y y y 6 . The number of time slots per frame depends on several factors. since it is able to listen for other base stations during idle time slots. Even if FDD is used. such as modulation technique. An enhanced link control. the preamble contains the address and synchronization information that both the base station and the subscriber use to identify each other. Guard times are utilized to allow synchronization of the receivers between different slots and frames. Data transmission for users of a TDMA system is not continuous. Adaptive equalization is usually necessary in TDMA systems. but occurs in bursts. since the subscriber transmitter can be turned off when not in use(which is the most of the time). since the transmission rates are generally very high as compare to FDMA channels. Because of discontinuous transmissions in TDMA. Bits Information Data Guard Bits Fig4:TDMA frame structure .etc.where each user makes use of non overlapping time slots. This results in low battery consumption. In TDMA.(6). If the transmitted signal at the edges of a time slots are suppressed sharply in order to shorten the guard time. the guard time should be minimized. available bandwidth . One TDMA Frame Preamble Information Message Trail Bits Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3 --------------- Slot N Trail Bits Sync. thus duplexers are not required. such as that provided by mobile assisted handoff (MAHO) can be carried out by a subscriber by listening on an ideal slot in the TDMA frame .

TDMA has an advantage in that it is possible to allocate different numbers of time slots per frame to different users. and this results in the TDMA systems having larger overhead as compared to FDMA. br is the number of overhead for reference burst. Note that guard bands. However. There are two main types of spread spectrum multiple access techniques. The frame efficiency f is thus given as f = [1-(bOH/bT)]*100% Number of channels in TDMA system: The number of TDMA channel slots that can be provide in a TDMA system is found by multiplying the number of TDMA slots per channel by the number of channel available and is given by N= m ( B tot ± 2B guard) / Bc Where m is maximum number of TDMA users supported on each radio channel. (3). The frame efficiency can found as follows. is bT = TfR where Tf is frame duration. Thus. is the percentage of bits for frame which contains transmitted data. since many users can share the same spread spectrum bandwidth without interfering with one another. 7 . µ f¶.SSMA also provides immunity to multipath interference and robust multiple access capability.y y High synchronization over head is required in TDMA systems because of burst transmissions. 1.A pseudo-noise (PN) sequence converts a narrowband signal to a wideband noise-like signal before transmission. Nt is the number of traffic bursts per frame. Efficiency of TDMA. The frame efficiency. The number of overhead bits for frame is boH = Nrbr+Ntbp+Ntbg+Nrbg where Nr is the number of reference bursts for the frame. bandwidth can be supplied on demand to different users by concatenating or reassigning time slots based on priority. guard slots are necessary to separate users. The total number of bits for frame. In addition.Spread spectrum multiple access(SSMA) uses single which have a transmission bandwidth that is several orders of magnitude greater than the minimum required RF bandwidth. frequency hopped multiple access (FH) and direct sequence multiple access(DS). bp is the number of overhead bits for preamble in for each slot. (2).4 Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (1). SSMA is not very bandwidth efficient when used by a single user. and bg is the number of ebullient bits in each guard time interval. Direct sequence multiple access is also called code division multiple access(CDMA). spread spectrum systems become bandwidth efficient in a multiple user environment. bT. TDMA transmissions are slotted. and R is the channel bit rate. and this requires the receivers to be synchronized for each data burst.The efficiency of a TDMA system is a measure of the percentage of transmitted data that contains information as opposed to providing overhead for the access scheme. one at the low end of the allocated frequency band and one at the higher end. are required to ensure that user at the edge of the band do not ³bleed over ³into an adjacent radio service. (4).

on the particular PN code of the user. At any given point in time. thereby allowing for multiple access over a wide range of frequencies.The difference between FHMA and a traditional FDMA system is that the frequency hopped signal changes channels at rapid intervals. (2). FHMA allows multiple users to simultaneously occupy the spectrum at same time.5 Spread spectrum multiple access in which each channel is assigned a unique PN code which is orthogonal or approximately orthogonal to PN codes used by other users 1. 8 . (3).1 Frequency Hopped Multiple Access(FHMA) (1).Figure 1. where each user dwells at a specific narrowband channel at a particular instance of time based.If the rate of change of the carrier frequency is greater than the symbol rate. (4).Frequency hopped multiple access(FHMA) is a digital multiple access system in which the carrier frequencies of the individual users are varied in a pseudorandom with in a wide band channel. it is called slow hopping. (5).4. (6).The pseudorandom change of the channel frequencies of the user randomizes the occupancy of a specific channel at any given time. If the channel changes at a rate less than or equal to the symbol rate. relatively narrow channel since narrowband FM or FSK is used.The digital data of each user is broken into uniform sized bursts which are transmitted on different channel within the allocated spectrum band.5 Spread sp Figure 1. then the system is referred to as a fast frequency hopping system. a frequency hopped signal only occupies a single.

Bluetooth and Home RF wireless technologies have adopted FHMA for power efficiency and low cost implementation. (6).The Spreading signal is a pseudo noise code sequence that has a chip rate which is orders of magnitude greater than the data rate of the massage. y Multipath fading may be substantially reduced because the signal is spared over a large spectrum.Error control coding and interleaving can also be combined to guard against erasures which can occur when two or more users transmit on the same channel at the same time. The features of CDMA are y Many users of CDMA system share the same frequency. then the near-far problem occurs. If the power of each user within a cell is not controlled such that they do not appear equal at the base station receiver. 1. power control is used in most CDMA implementations.The near-far problem occurs when many mobile users share the same channel.The FH signal is somewhat immune to fading. 9 .4.The receiver performs a time correlation operation to detect only the specific desire codeword. since error control coding and interleaving can be used to protect the frequency hopped signal against deep fades which may occasionally occur during the hopping sequence. (7). (5). thereby decreasing the probability that weaker signals will be received. Power control is provided by each base station in a cellular system and assures that each mobile within the base station coverage area provides the same signal level to the base station receiver. (8). Either TDD or FDD may be used. If the spared spectrum bandwidth is greater than the coherence bandwidth of the channel.In code division multiple access(CDMA) systems. (3). In general.To combat the near-far problem. the narrowband message signal is multiplied by a very large bandwidth signal called the spreading signal. (8).2 Code Division Multiple Access(CDMA) (1). there is no absolute limit on the users in CDMA.In CDMA the power of multiple users at a receiver determines the noise floor after de correlation. (9). and improves as the number of users is decreased. All other code words appear as noise due to décor relation. Increasing the number of users in a CDMA system rises the noise floor in a linear manner. stronger received signal levels raise the noise floor at the base station demodulators for the weaker signals. (2). the inherent frequency diversity will mitigate the effect of small scale fading. Each user has its own pseudorandom codeword which is approximately orthogonal to all other code words.All users in a CDMA system use the same carrier frequency and may transmit simultaneously. CDMA has a soft capacity limit.(7). Rather. the strongest received mobile signal capture the demodulator at a base station. y Unlike TDMA or FDMA. (4). Thus.In CDMA. the system performance gradually degrades for all users as the number of users is increased.

because of different radio propagation paths between each user and the base station.y Channel data rates are very high in CDMA systems. y The near-far problem occurs at a CDMA receiver if an undesired user has a high detected power as compared to the desired user. SDMA serves different users by using spot beam antennas. the base station has complete control over the power of all transmitted signal on the forward link. (2). (6). y Since CDMA use co-channel cells. then the reverse link for user is improved and less power required. it can use macroscopic spatial diversity to provide soft handoff. Soft handoff is performed by MSC. Second. the transmitted power from each subscriber unit must be dynamically controlled to prevent any single user from driving up the interference level for all other users. However.In addition.With SDMA all users within the system would be able to communicate at the same time using the same channel. hence in the dispreading of a particular PN code. adaptive antennas implement optimal SDMA.In the limiting case of infinitesimal beam width and infinitely fast tracking ability. (7). Consequently.Space division multiple access (SDMA) controls the radiated energy for each user in space. which can be simultaneously monitor a particular user from two or more base stations. non-zero contributions to the receiver decision statistic for a desired user arise from the transmissions of other users in the system. thereby providing a unique channel that is free from the interferences of all other users in the cell. Self-jamming is arises from the fact that the spared sequence of different users are not exactly orthogonal. 1.The reverse link presents the most difficulty in cellular systems for several reasons.If the base station antenna is made to spatially filter each desired user so that more energy is detected from each subscriber. (8). Since PN sequence have low autocorrelation. (3). A RAKE receiver can be used to improve reception by collecting time delay versions of the required signal. (9). y Self-jamming is problem in CDMA system.5 Space Diversity Multiple Access(SDMA) (1). (5). a perfect adaptive antenna system would be able to track individual multipath components for each user and combine them in an optimal manner to collect all of the 10 . These different areas covered by the antenna beam may be served by the same frequency or different frequencies. multipath which is delayed by more than a chip will appear as noise. (4). transmit power is limited by battery consumption at the subscriber unit. The MSC may choose the best version of the signal at any time without switching frequencies. the symbol duration is very short and usually much less than the channel delay spared. therefore there are limits on the degree to which power may be controlled on the reverse link.Adaptive antennas used at the base station promise to mitigate some of the problems on the reverse link. First.

ALOHA allows each subscriber to transmit whenever they have data to send. but has low spectral efficiency and may induced delays.6 Packet Radio (1).Collisions from the simultaneous transmission of multiple transmitters are detected at the base station receiver. 11 .available signal energy from each user.Packet radio multiple access is very easy to implement. and a NACK indicates that the previous bursts were not received correctly by the base station. many subscribers attempt to access a single channel in an uncoordinated manner. the subscriber waits a random amount of time. (4). (2). (7).The performance of contention techniques can be evaluated by the throughput(T).In packet radio (PR) access techniques.The transmitting subscribers to listen to the acknowledgment feedback to determine if transmission has been successful or not. and then retransmit the packet. The advantage of packet contention techniques is the ability to serve a large number of subscribers with virtually no overhead. (8). Transmission is done by using bursts of data. The subscribers use a contention technique to transmit on a common channel.By using ACK and NACK signals. even though traffic delay due to collision may be high. (6). in which case of ACK or NACK signal is broadcasted by the base station to alert the desired user of received transmission. The perfective adaptive antenna system is not feasible since it requires infinitely large antennas. (9). (3).ALOHA protocols. developed for early satellite systems.The ACK signal indicates an acknowledgment of a received burst from a particular user by the base station. which is defined as the average number of messages successfully transmitted for unit time.If a collision occurs. (5). 1. and the average delay(D) experienced by a typical message burst. are the best examples of contestation techniques. a PR system employs perfect feedback.

it is important to determine the vulnerable period.The above figure shows the vulnerable period for a packet using ALOHA. Even if only a small portion of packet A sustains a collision. (3). it is assumed that all packets sent by all users have a constant packet length and fixed.1 Packet Radio Protocols (1). channel data rate. which is defined as the time interval during which the packets are susceptible to collisions with transmissions from other users. Vp. (4).6. the interference may render the message useless.To study packet radio protocols. and all other users may generate new packets at random time intervals. then the traffic occupancy or throughput R of a packet radio network is given by R= 12 .Transmitter 1 Packet B Packet A Transmitter 2 Packet A One packet time( ) t1 + 2 t1 Vulnerable Period (2 ) 1. The packet A will suffer a collision if other terminals transmit packets during the period t1 to t1+2 . If is the packet duration in second.In order to determine the throughput. it is assumed that packet transmission occurs with a Poisson distribution having a mean arrival rate of  packets per second.Furthermore. (2).

then the packets generated by the user exceed the maximum transmission rate of the each channel. (6).Under condition of normal lording. and hybrid access.e. Thus. there is no coordination among the user and the message are transmitted from the users as they arrive at the transmitter.. the vulnerable period is double the packet duration. The normalized throughput is given as the total offered load times the probability of successful transmission. Hybrid access is a combination of random access and scheduled access. a grater delay occurs because the probability of the collision increases.no collision) during this interval is given by Pr(0) = e-R (11). (2). the user waits for an acknowledgment on either the same channel or a separate feedback channel.Here Pr[no collision] is the probability of a user making a successful packet transmission the probability that n packets are generated by the user population during a given packet duration interval is assumed to be Poisson distributed and given as Pr(n) = (Rne-R)/n! (10). scheduled access. the throughput of the ALOHA protocol is found by 13 .. the rate at which new packets are generated must lie within 0<R<1. T = R.Scheduled access is based on a coordinated access of users on the channel. (7). A user access a channel as soon as a message is ready to be transmitted. 1. and the users transmit message within allotted slots or time intervals. the terminal waits for a random period of time and retransmits the message.For the ALOHA protocol. (12).The normalized throughput is always less than or equal to unity and may de through of as the fraction of time a channel is utilized. The probability that zero packets are generated (i.One may evaluate the mean of the above equation to determine the average number of packets sent during 2 (this is useful in determining the offered traffic.A packet is assumed successfully transmitted if there is no other packets are transmitted during the given packet interval. to obtain a reasonable throughput.After a transmission.Based on the type of access. Pr[no collision] (9). R is the normalized channel traffic due to arriving and buffering packets. contention protocols are categorized as random access. when a NACK is received).(5). In random access. and is a relative measure of the channel utilization..e. Thus. the probability of no collision during the interval of 2 is found by evaluating P r(n) given as Pr(n) = [((2R)ne-2R)/n!] at n=0 (5).1.) the probability of no collision is Pr(0) = e-2R. the throughput T is the same as the total offered load.6.In case of collision (i.The ALOHA protocol is a random access protocol used for data transfer.e. (3). i.In the above equation . L. (8).If R>1. Pr[no collision] = .1 pure ALOHA (1). As the number of users increase. the load L is the sum of the newly generated packets and the retransmitted packets that suffered collisions in previous transmissions. (4).

(5). If tp is propagation time in seconds.The subscribers each have synchronized clocks and transmit a message only at the beginning of a new time slot.1. (2). (6). (3).The probability that no other packets will be generated during the vulnerable period is e-R. a greater delay will occur due to complete collisions and the resulting repeated transmission of those packets originally lost.Detection delay is a function of the receiver hardware and is the time required for a terminal to sense whether or not the channel is idle. CSMA protocols are based on the fact that each terminal on the network is able to monitor the status of the channel before transmitting information. (2). and m is the expected number of bits in data packet.6. (4).2 slotted ALOHA (1).The vulnerable period for slotted ALOHA is only one packet duration. thus resulting in a discreet distribution of packets.By listening the channel before engaging in transmission.This prevents the partial collisions. Rb is the channel bit rate. As the number of users increase.T = Re-2R 1. (4). (7).With a small detection time.If the channel is ideal then the user is allowed to transmit a packet based on a particular algorithm which is common to all transmitters on the network. since partial collisions are prevented through synchronization.In CSMA protocols. and small propagation delay means that a packet is transmitted through the channel in a small interval of time relative to the packet duration. where one packet collide with a portion of another.Propagation delay impacts performance of CSMA protocols. a terminal detects a free channel quite rapidly. and therefore do not exploit information about other users. greater efficiencies is achieved. then the propagation delay td can be expressed as td = (tpRb)/m 14 .In slotted ALOHA. (8).6.Aloha protocol do not listen to the channel before transmission. time is divide into equal time slots of length greater than the packet duration .The number of slots which a transmitter waits prior to retransmitting also determines the delay characteristics of the traffic. the throughput for the case of slotted ALOHA is thus given by T = R e-R 1. (3). detection delay and propagation delay are two important parameters. (5). (6).2 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Protocols (1). Propagation delay is a relative measure of how fast it takes for a packet to travel from a base station to mobile terminal.

the terminal is allocated the next regular slot in the frame for data transmission 1. after receiving a negative acknowledgment the terminal waits a random time before transmissions of the packet. and the transmission is immediately aborted in midstream. and it is possible for users to reserve slots for the transmission of packets. This is popular of wireless LAN applications.6. (3). the packet is transmitted in the first available slot with probability p or in the next slot with probability 1-p. This is handled by a user have both a transmitter and receiver which is able to support listen-while-talk operation.3. Each user attempts to detect a busy-idle message which is interspersed on the forward control channel.2 Packet Reservation Multiple Access (PRMA) (1). If two are more terminals start transmission at the same time.Another scheme allows a user to transmit a request on a sub slot which is reserved in each frame.6.For high traffic conditions.PRMA uses a discrete packet time technique similar to reservation ALOHA and combines the cyclical frame structure of TDMA in a manner that allows each TDMA time 15 . y Non-persistent CSMA. As soon as the channel is idle. y P-persistent CSMA ± p-persistent CSMA applied to slotted channels. collision is detected. If the transmission is successful. certain packet slots are assigned with priority. y Data Sense Multiple Accesses (DSMA) ± DSMA is a special type of CSMA that relies on successfully demodulating a forward control channel before broadcasting data back on a receiver channel. a full duplex transceiver is used. This technique is used in the cellular digital packet data (CDPD). Slots can be permanently reserved or can be reserved on request. reservation on request offers better throughput.3 Reservation Protocols 1. 1.6. a user monitors¶ its transmission for collisions. where the packets transmission interval is much greater than the propagation delay to the farthermost user.In this type of CSMA strategy.1 Reservation ALOHA (1). For a single radio channel. y CSMA/CD ± in CSMA with collision detection (CD). the terminal making a successful transmission reserves a slot permanently until its transmission is complete. this is done by interrupting the transmission in order to sense the channel.Reservation ALOHA is packet access scheme based on time division multiplexing. When a channel is found to be idle.y 1-persistent CSMA ± The terminal listens to the channel and waits for transmission until it finds the channel idle. the terminal transmits its message with probability one. In this protocol. (2).3. a user is free to send a packet. For duplex systems. In one type of reservation ALOHA. When the busy-idle massage indicates that no users are transmitting on the reverse channel. although very large duration transmission may be interrupted.

PRMA was proposed as a means of integrating bursty data and human speech.-’<m. 2«.e. there are a fixed number of time slots which may be designated as either ³reserved´ or ³available´.5 MHz. designate the IM frequencies that lie inside and outside the band. For n=0. and Bc is 30KHz. Inter modulation products n=0 1930 1928 1932 1934 n=1 1926 1924 1936 1938 n=2 1922 1920 1940 1942 n=3 1918 1916 1944* 1946* *Are the frequencies that lie outside the allocated mobile radio band Example 1. Solution: Inter modulation distortion products occur at frequencies mf1+nf2 for all integer values of m and n.slot carry either voice or data.PRMA defines a frame structure. If the mobile radio band is allocated from 1920 MHz to 1940MHz. much like is used in TDMA systems. Bguard is 10KHz. n<’. where voice is given priority. etc. Within each frame. (2n+1) f1-2nf2. i. 16 .2 If a US AMPS cellular operator is allocated 12. (2n+2) f2-(2n+1) f1. Some of the possible inter modulation frequencies that are produced by a nonlinear device are (2n+1) f1-2nf2. (2n+2) f1-(2n+1) f2.5 MHz for each simplex band. 1. depending on the traffic as determined by the controlling base station.1 Find the inter modulation frequencies generated if a base station transmits two carrier frequencies at 1930 MHz and 1932 MHz that are amplified by a saturated clipping amplifier. (2). find the number of channels available in an FDMA system. Example 1. and if Bt is 12.

Example 1. which is broken into radio channels cf 200 KHz. (c) The time duration of a frame.83 kbps in the channel. and data is transmitted at 270.615ms.the time duration of a slot. If 8 speech channels are supported on a single radio channel. 17 . which is a TDMA/FDD system that uses 25 MHz for the forward link. the time duration of a frame. find the number of simultaneous users that can be accommodated in GSM. how long must a user occupying a single time slot wait between two successive transmissions. and (d). (b) The time duration of a slot. GSM can accommodate 1000 simultaneous users. Solution: The number of simultaneous users that can be accommodated in GSM is given as = 1000 Thus. for its next transmission.25 bits.4 If GSM uses a frame structure where each frame consists of eight time slots. and if no guard band is assumed. (d) A user has to wait 4. (c).577ms. the arrival time of a new frame. find (a).615ms. and each time slot contains 156. Tb= = 3. (b).692 s. each carrier is allocated 416 channels.the time duration of a bit. Example 1. Tslot = 156.25 x Tb = 0. Tf = 8 x Tslot = 4.Solution: The number of channels available in the FDMA system is given as = 416 In the US.3 Consider global system for mobile. Solution: (a) The time duration of a bit.

25)+8(26) = 322 bits Thus. 8.Example 1.5 If a normal GSM time slot consists of six trailing bits.11) and this value can be seen as the maximum throughput in figure 9. The maximum throughput for slotted ALOHA is found by taking the derivative of equation (9. find the frame efficiency.1839 Thus the best traffic utilization one can hope for using ALOHA is 0.11) and equating it to zero ‡   ‡ = 0.24 % Example 1. Solution: The rate of arrival which maximizes the throughput for ALOHA is found by taking the derivative of equation T (equation 9.6 Determine the maximum throughput that can be achieved using ALOHA and slotted ALOHA protocols. 26 training bits.184 Erlangs. Solution: A time slot has 6+8.10.25 guard bits. and two traffic bursts of 58 bits of data. The number of overhead bits per frame is given by = 8(6)+8(8.12) and equating it to zero 18 . Maximum throughput achieved by using the ALOHA protocol is found by substituting  in equation T (equation 9.25+26+2(58) = 156.25 bits. the frame efficiency X 100 = 74. T = 0.25 = 1250 bits/frame. A frame has 8 x 156.

(C/I)eq = 18 ± 20 log (6.25 MHz. the required peak power for TDMA is 10logk higher than FDMA. (C/I)min = 2 dB System D: Bc = 6.25 kHz. channel bandwidth of 30kHz. where k is the number of time slots in a TDMA system of equal bandwidth. (C/I)min = 14 dB System C: Bc = 12. determine the maximum number of users that can be supported in a single-cell CDMA system using (a) Omni directional base station antennas and no voice activity detection.25 kHz.250 = 9 dB Based on comparision. Example 1. FDMA and TDMA have the same radio capacity and consequently the same spectrum efficiency. and (b) three19 . and choose the one with the maximum radio capacity. Therefore. double that of ALOHA. (C/I)min = 18 dB System B: Bc = 25 kHz.680 dB System B: Bc = 6.12). Example 1.22).25/30) = 31. the received carrier-to-interference ratio for a user in this TDMA system C¶/I¶ is the same as C/I for a user in the FDMA system.‡   ‡ = 0. Example 1. and use equation (9.25/12/5) = -4 dB System D: Bc = 6.3679  in equation (9.7 Evaluate four different cellular radio standards. System A: Bc = 30 kHz.10 T = 0.368 Erlangs. Assume n=4 propagation path loss. and this value can be Notice that slotted ALOHA provides a maximum channel utilization of 0. A TDMA system has three time slots. R= 9600 bps. However.8 Consider an FDMA system with three channels. (C/I) eq = 2 ± 20 log (6. the smallest value of (C/I)eq should be selected for maximum capacity in equation (9.25 kHz. Maximum throughput is found by substituting seen as the maximum throughput in figure 9.25 kHz.00 dB System C: Bc = 6. (C/I)min = 9 dB Solution: Consider each system for 6.23) System A: Bc = 6. each having a bandwidth of 10 kHz and a transmission rate of 10 kbps. System C offers the best capacity.5 kHz. and a minimum acceptable Eb/No is found to be 10 dB.9 If w= 1. (C/I) eq = 14 ± 20 log (6. and a transmission rate of 30 kbps. (C/I) eq = 9 ± 20 log (6.25 kHz bandwidth. For the TDMA scheme.25/6.25 kHz.25/25) = 26. for this example.

02 = 14 (b) Using equation (9.31)   = 1+13. = 3/8. since three sectors exist within a cell. we can find Ns.sectors at the base station and activity detection with limited.7 = 107 users/cell.   = 35.33) for each sector.7 The total number of users is given by 3Ns. therefore N = 3 x 35. Assume the system is interference Solution: (a) Using equation (9. 20 .

2.The common air interface specifies exactly how mobile subscribers and base stations communicate over radio frequencies and also defines the control channel signaling methods. (5).The term network may be used to describe a wide range of voice or data connections.2. must be connected to a central hub called the mobile switching center (MSC). radio links are established a carefully defined communication protocol called common air interface(CAI)which in essence is a precisely defined handshake communication protocol.The CAI must provide a great deal of channel reliability to ensure the data is properly sent and received between the mobile and the base station.. the air interface portion (i. and ultimately between all of the wireless subscribers in a system. and as such specifies speech and channel coding. and the remaining voice traffic is passed along to the MSC on fixed networks. (9). (10). (7).The cellular telephone system is responsible for providing coverage throughout a particular territory called a coverage region or market .The base stations. (8).e. copper cables.The connect mobile subscribers to the base stations. 21 .The network configurations in the PSTN are virtually static. (2). microwave links and satellite links. to the connection of a large MSC to the PSTN. (2).1.The PSTN forms the global telecommunications grid which connects conventional (landline)telephone switching centers(called central offices)with MSCs throughout the world.for example)an integrated network of base stations must be deployed to provide sufficient radio coverage to all mobile users. (6). from the case of single mobile user to the base station.Transfer of information in the public switched telephone network(PSTN) takes place over landline trunked lines(called trunks) comprised of fiber optic cables.II WIRELESS NETWORKING 2. signaling and synchronization data)of the mobile transmission is discarded.Differences between wireless and fixed telephone networks (1). Introduction to Wireless Networks (1).The interconnection of many such systems defines a wireless network capable of providing service to mobile users throughout a country or continent.UNIT. (4). in turn.At the base station. since the network connections may only be changed when a subscriber changes residence and requires reprogramming at the central office(CO) of the subscriber.The MSC provides connectivity between the public switched telephone network(PSTN) and the numerous base stations. (3).To provide wireless communications within a particular geographic region(a city.

and own and operate large fiber optic and microwave radio networks which are connected to LECs throughout a country or continent. PSTN Mobile Radio link (air interface) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) or Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) Voice and data links (Landline or microwave links) BS1 BS2 BS3 Figure1: Block diagram of a cellular system (4). In the PSTN . (4).Wireless networks. A LEC is a company that provides interrelate telephone service. (6). each city or geographic grouping of towns is called local access and transport area(LATA).The PSTN is highly integrated communications network that connects over 70% of the worlds inhabitants. (2).These companies are referred to as interexchange carriers(IXCs).(3). 2. whereas wireless networks are constrained by the meager RF cellular bandwidth provided for each user.A long distance telephone company collects toll fees to provide connections between different LATAs over its long distance network. 22 . and may be a local telephone company.1. on the other hand are highly dynamic. wireless networks must reconfigure themselves for users within small intervals of time (on the order of seconds)to provide roaming imperceptible handoffs between calls as a mobile moves about. or may be a telephone company that is regional in scope. (3).Surrounding LATAs are connected by a company called a local exchange carrier(LEC). with network configuration being rearranged every time a subscriber moves into the coverage region of a different base station or a new market. (5).The available channel bandwidth for fixed networks can be increased by installing high capacity cables(fiber optic or coaxial cable).2.While fixed networks are difficult to change.The public switched telephone network(PSTN) (1).Each country is responsible for the regulation of the PSTN within its borders. (5).

Telephone connections within a PBX are maintained by the private owner. (12). called a local exchange. Sometimes IXCs connect to the CO switch to avoid local transport charges levied by the LEC.Simplified illustration of a local telephone network. The CO is connected to a tandem switch which in turn connects the local exchange of the PSTN. Each local exchange consists of a central office(CO)which provides PSTN connection to the customer Phone Phone Phone Phone Private Branch Exchange IXC A IXC B Local Loop Tandem Switch IXC C Other COs House Central Office (CO) Figure2: Local landline telephone network premises equipment(CPE) which maybe an individual phone at a residence or a private branch exchange(PBX) at a place of business.The CO may handle as many as a million telephone connections. (11).in addition to conventional local and long distance services which pass through the CO.as well as private networking between organizational sites(through leased lines from LEC and IXC providers). (8). 23 .(7). (9). (10). whereas connection of the PBX to the private owner.The tandem switch physically connects the local telephone network to the point of presence(POP) of trunked long distance lines provided by one or more IXCs.A PBX allows an organization or entity to provide internal calling and other in-building services(which do not involve the LEC). whereas connection of the PBX to the CO is provided and maintained by the LEC.

(2).To assure adequate area coverage .2. the deployment of many base stations throughout a market is necessary. first generation wireless systems(analog cellular and cordless telephones) were developed in the early and mid 1980s.the wireless network requires an air interface base stations and subscribers to provide telephone grade communications under a wide range of propagation conditions and for any possible user location. (5). (7). frequency reuse techniques. (9). and supports many more users on each trunked line. (8). (5).Spectrally efficient modulation techniques. fixed telephone network.The advantage of separate but parallel signaling channel allows the voice trunks to be used strictly for revenue-generating voice traffic.and to other MSCs viva separate cellular signaling network.As wireless systems grow. one or more IXCs .Merging wireless networks and the PSTN (1). (3). (4).2.3.A problem unique to wireless networks is the extremely hostile and random nature of the radio channel.First .Throughout the world. and geographically distributed radio access point are vital components of wireless networks. revolutionary advances were being made in the design of the PSTN by land line telephone companies.This requires simultaneous connections to the LEC.2Limitations in wireless networking (1).The overhead required in the PSTN to handle signaling data on the same trunks as voice traffic was inefficient. and each of these base stations must be connected to the MSC. 2.As first generation wireless systems were being introduced. (4).As compared with local. where all end users are static.2. the necessary addition of base stations increases the switching burden of the MSC.The MSC must eventually provide connection for each of the mobile users to the PSTN.A single physical connection was used to handle both signaling traffic and voice traffic for each user. (3).Most analog landline telephone links throughout the world sent signaling information along the same trunked lines as voice traffic. (2). (6). the MSC is forced to switch calls imperceptibly between base stations throughout the system. thus wireless systems are constrained to operate in a fixed bandwidth to support an increasing number of users over time. (6). 24 . and since users may request service from any physical location while travelling over a wide range of velocities. since this required a voice trunk to be dedicated during periods of time when no voice traffic was actually being carried. a wireless communication system is extremely complex.The radio spectrum available for this purpose is limited.

such as call handling and processing. (9). during the mid 1980s. low-rate. (10).3.The MSC is interconnected with the PSTN via landline trunked lines (trunks) and a tandem switch. the cellular telephone signaling network uses No. In modern cellular telephone systems.In first generation cellular networks. (3). (9).Development of wireless networks 2. the base stations.First generation cellular and cordless telephone networks are based on analog technology.Access to the signaling network is usually provided by IXCs for a negotiated fee.The MSC also performs all of the network management functions. (5). In North America. time division multiplex format for transmission between the base station and the MSC and are always digitized for distribution from the MSC to the PSTN. so that each mobile receives the same features and services as fixed wire line telephones in the PSTN. the system control for each market resides in the MSC. however. which includes the mobile terminals. In the second generation wireless systems. but the signaling information used to provide call set-up and to inform MSCs about a particular user is carried on the SS7 network. common signaling channels were not used and signaling data was sent on the same trunked channel as the voice user.1. and MSCs.A typical example of a first generation cellular telephone system is the Advanced Mobile Phone Services(AMPS) system used in the United States. (8). the speech signals are usually digitized using a standard. (6). (4).(7).7 signaling system (SS7). 25 .First Generation wireless networks (1).In many of to days cellular telephone systems. the air interfaces have been designed to provide parallel user and signaling channels for each mobile. This technique is called common channel signaling.First generation cellular radio network. and one dedicated to call signaling traffic. and cordless telephones use a single base station to communicate with a single portable terminal.However. billing and fraud detection within the market. (2). long distance voice traffic is carried on the PSTN.3. (10). the PSTN was transformed into two parallel networks-one dedicated to user traffic.In the first generation cellular systems. voice traffic is carried on the PSTN while signaling information for each call is carried on a separate signaling channel.Thus. data transmission between the base station and the mobile user. 2. and each MSC uses the IS-41 protocol to communicate with other MSCs on the continent. (7). (8).The PSTN is a separate network from the SS7 signaling network. which maintains all mobile related information and controls each mobile handoff.All first generation cellular systems use FM modulation.First generation wireless systems provide analog speech and inefficient.

The registration command is sent in the overhead message of each control channel at five or ten minute intervals.The MSC is able to distinguish home users from roaming users based on the MIN of each active user. (18). and includes a timer value which each mobile uses to determine the precise time at which it should respond to the serving base station with a registration transmission. Each mobile reports its MIN and ESN during the brief registration transmission so that the MSC can validate and update the customer list within the market. In the early 1990s.(11). (13). IS-41 allows MSCs of different service providers to pass information about their subscribers to other MSCs on demand. US cellular customers that roamed between different cellular systems had to register manually each time they entered a new market during long distance travel.when the user roams into a new market covered by a different service provider.The global cellular network is required to keep track of all mobile users that are registered in all markets throughout the network. This is called inter operator roaming. base station and MSC in first generation wireless networks. which allows the MSC to constantly update its customer list. (16).Until the early 1990s. (17). (19). (14). and maintains a real-time user list in the home location register (HLR) and visitor location register (VLR).This required the user to call an operator to request registration. so that it is possible to forward incoming calls to roaming users at any location throughout the world.IS-41 relies on a feature of AMPS called autonomous registration. 26 . (12). the wireless network must register the user in the new area and cancel its registration with the previous service provider so that calls may be routed to the roamer as it moves through the coverage areas of different MSCs.The mobile accomplishes this by periodically keying up and transmitting its identity information. Reverse Voice Channel Forward Voice Channel Voice Circuits Mobile User Base Station MSC Reverse Setup Channel Forward Setup Channel 9600 B/S Data link Figure3: Communication signaling between mobile. (15). Autonomous registration is a process by which a mobile notifies a serving MSC of its presence and location. US cellular carriers implemented the network protocol standard IS-41 to allow different cellular systems to automatically accommodate subscribers who roam in to their coverage region.

Second generation wireless networks have introduced new network architectures that have reduced to the computational burden of the MSC. such as the MSC and BSC.The network controlling structure is more distributed in second generation wireless systems.DECT is an example of a second generation cordless telephone standard which allows each cordless phone to communicate with any number of base stations.In PACS/WACS.2. the base station. (10). the Personal Access Communication System (PACS) local loop standard. by automatically selecting the base station with the greatest signal level. and between each MSC and the PSTN. (3).In third generation wireless systems.In second generation wireless networks.This trend in standardization and inter operability is new to second generation wireless networks. will be available as off-the-shelf components.Second Generation Wireless Networks (1). (8). wireless network components.2.Second generation wireless systems employ digital modulation and advanced call processing capabilities. the BSC is called a radio port control unit. (2). (7).Eventually.Second generation wireless networks have been specifically designed to provide paging.The aim of third generation wireless networks is to provide a single set of standards that can meet a wide range of wireless applications and provide universal access throughout the world.Third generation wireless systems will evolve from mature second generation systems. (9).Third Generation Wireless Networks (1). much like there wire line telephone counter parts.3. which is inserted between several base stations and the MSC. thereby allowing carriers to use different manufacturers for MSC and BSC components. and the MSC while a call is in progress. the TDMA and CDMA US digital standards.3. Second Generation Cordless Telephone(CT2). the handoff process is mobile-controlled and is known as mobile assisted handoff (MAHO).GSM introduced the concepts of a base station controller (BSC). (5). 2. and Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT). (11). the British standard for cordless telephone. (2). (6). (12). and other data services such as facsimile and high-data rate network access. The systems employ dedicated control channels with in the air interface for simultaneously exchanging voice and control information between the subscribers. (4).All second generation systems use digital voice coding and digital modulation.Second generation systems also provide dedicated voice and signaling trunks between MSCs. (3).3. which is the European standard for cordless and office telephone. Examples of second generation wireless systems includes the Global System for Mobile (GSM). since mobile stations assume greater control functions. the distinctions between cordless telephones and cellular 27 . The architectural change has allowed the data interface between the base station controller and the MSC to be standardized.

(3). and call handling techniques which must be employed. and the entire message must be retransmitted from the beginning. and video).If coding is not sufficient to protect the traffic. will operates in varied regions(dense or sparsely populated regions). such as the internet and other public and private databases. (4).For example. The communications path between the message source and destination is fixed for the entire duration of the message. The terms 3G Personal Communication Systems (PCS) and 3G Personal Communication Network (PCN) are used to imply emerging third generation wireless systems for hand-held devices.Packet radio communications will likely be used to distribute network control while providing a reliable information transfer. and instead relies on packet-based transmissions. and will serve both stationary users and vehicular users travelling at high speeds. data. and connectionless services (datagram services). (5). (7).Traffic Routing in Wireless Networks (1).Third generation systems will use the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network(BISDN) to provide access to information networks. (9). and video communication services.Other names for PCS include Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems (FPLMTS) for worldwide use which has more recently been called International Mobile Telecommunication (IMT-2000). (8). These are connection oriented services (virtual circuit routing). on the other hand.The amount of traffic capacity required in a wireless network is highly dependent upon the type of traffic carried.Alternatively. (7). The type of traffic carried by a network determines the routing services. (6).A connection oriented service relies heavily on error control coding to provide data protection in case the network connection becomes noisy. protocols. some traffic may have an urgent delivery schedule while some may have no need to be sent in real-time.Two general routing services are provided by networks. 28 .telephones will disappear. (4). whereas control and signaling traffic may be bursty in nature and may be able to share network resources with other bursty users.Connectionless routing. (5). (6).In connection oriented routing. 2. and a universal personal communicator(a personal handset)will provide access to a variety of voice.4. and a call set-up procedure is required to dedicate network resources to both the called and calling parties.Since the path through the network is fixed. traffic in connection-oriented routing arrives at the receiver in the exact order it was transmitted. a subscribers telephone call (voice traffic) requires dedicated network access to provide real time communications. (2). and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) for advanced mobile personal services in Europe. data. the call is broken. does not establish a firm connection for the traffic. third generation networks will carry many types of information(voice.

(10).Thus.Several packets form a message. and each message burst is treated independently by the network. 29 . Circuit switching is best suited for dedicated voice-only traffic. (13).Successive packets within the same message might travel completely different routes and encounter widely varying delays throughout the network. a call set-up procedure is not required at the beginning of a call.Often. due to their short. and the PSTN dedicates a voice circuit between the MSC and the end-user. (3). (16). (5).In a connectionless service.Furthermore. the routing information. (4).Because packets take different routes in a connectionless service. and information needed to properly order packets at the receiver.Packet sent using connectionless routing do not necessarily arrive in the order of transmission and must to be recorded at the receiver. (14). however others may get through with sufficient redundancy to enable the entire message to be recreated at the receiver. (11). (2). 2.Packet switching (also called virtual switching) is the most common technique used to implement connectionless services and allows a large number of data users to remain virtually connected to the same physical channel in the network.4. connectionless routing often avoids having to retransmit an entire message. or for instances where data is continuously sent over long periods of time. (12). bursty transmissions which are often followed by periods of inactivity.Wireless data networks are not well supported by circuit switching. since a physical radio channel is dedicated for two-way traffic between the mobile user and the MSC.MSC dedicates a voice channel connection between the base station and the PSTN for the duration of a cellular telephone call. the time required to establish a circuit exceeds the duration of the data transmission. and the MSC dedicates a fixed. (2).Packet Switching (1). 2. but requires more overhead information for each packet. the destination address. a call initiation sequences is required to connect the called and calling parities on a cellular system. (15).When used in conjunction with radio channels. (6).Circuit Switching (1). There is always a dedicated radio channel to provide service to the user. connection-oriented services are provided by a technique called circuit switching.1. call set-up procedures are not needed dedicated specific circuits when a particular user needs to send the dat.2.Circuit switching establishes a dedicated connection for the entire duration of a call.Since all users may access the network randomly and at will.4. some packets may be lost due to network or link failure.Typical packet overhead information includes the packet source address. and individual packet in a connectionless service is routed separately. full duplex connection to the PSTN.

An advantage of packet-switched data is that the channel is utilized only when sending or receiving bursts of information. (14). a certain amount of control information is added to packet to provide source and destination identification. destination address. (11).Packet switching breaks each message into smaller units for transmission and recovery. and other routing and billing information. which typically consists of five fields: the flag bits.The control field defines functions such as transfer of acknowledgements. packet sequence number.The structure of a transmitted packet.(3).The flag bits are specific (or reserved) bit sequence that indicate the beginning and the end of each packet.When a message is broken into packets. (12). HEADER USER DATA Time TRAILER Figure 4(A): Packet data format User Data Control Field Trailer Header Flag Address Field Information Field Frame Check Sequence Field Figure 4(B): Fields in a typical packet of data (6). (10). The header specifies the beginning of a new packet and contains the source address. 30 . and a trailer. the information field. the user data. (13). (5). (7). packet switching (also called packet radio when used over a wireless link) provides excellent channel efficiency for bursty data transmissions of short length. the control field.The address field contains the source and the destination address for transmitting messages and for receiving acknowledgements.The trailer contains a cyclic redundancy checksum which is used for error detection at the receiver. (8). automatic repeat requests (ARQs).The packet consists of header information. the address field. as well as error recovery provisions. (9).The final field is the frame check sequence field or the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) that is used for error detection.In contrast to circuit switching.The information field contains the user data and may have variable length. and packet sequencing. and the frame check sequence field. (4).

procedural.25 protocols provides a standard network interface between originating and terminating subscriber equipment (called data terminal equipment or DTE).25 in OSI model (2). (5).The X. and the base station (DCE).4.The X.25 was developed by CCITT (now ITU-T) to provide standard connectionless network access (packet switching) protocols for the three lowest layers (layers 1. 2. as well as in fixed networks. the base stations (called data circuit-terminating equipment or DCE).25 protocols in the OSI model.The X. and functional interface between the subscriber (DTE). and 3) of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model.The Layer 2 defines data link on the common air-interface between the subscriber and the base station.X. and the MSC (called the data switching exchange or DSE). (4).25 protocols are used in many packet radio air interfaces. The Layer 1 protocol deals with the electrical. Layer 7 Layer 7 Layer 6 Layer 6 Layer 5 Layer 5 Layer 4 Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 3 Layer 3 Layer 3 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 2 Layer 1 Layer 1 Subscriber (DTE) Base Station (DCE) Layer 2 Layer 1 MSC (DSE) Layer 2 Layer 2 Layer 1 Layer 1 Base Station (DCE) Subscriber (DTE) Figure 5: Hierarchy of X.2.3.The hierarchy of X. mechanical. 31 . (3).25 Protocol (1).

Layer 3 provides connection between the base station and the MSC.A packet assembler dissembler (PAD) is used at layer 3 to connect networks using the X. X.25 protocol does not specify particular data rates. 32 . (7).(6). (8).25 provides a series of standard functions and formats which give structure to the design of software that is used to provide packet data on a generic connectionless network.25 interface with devices that are not required with a standard X. and is called packet layer protocol.25 interface.The X.

CPDP occupies voice channels purely on a secondary.CPDP transmissions are carried out using fixed-length blocks. while the reverse channel links all mobile users to the CPDP network and serves as the access channel for each subscriber. For each packet. The forward channel serves as a beacon and transmits data from the PSTN side of the network. (5).CPDP provides mobile packet data connectivity to existing data networks and other cellular systems without any additional bandwidth requirements. (13).As with conventional. so packet data may be transmitted until that channel is selected by the MSC to provide a voice circuit). (3). electronic mail. User data is protected using a Reed-Solomon (63. 47) block code with 6-bit symbols. first generation AMPS.1. GMSK BT=0.CPDP doesn¶t use the MSC. non-interfering basis. (8).200 bps. (14). so the CPDP radio channel varies with time. a particular cellular radio channel is unused. and packet channels are dynamically assigned (hopped) to different cellular voice channels as they become vacant. (11).CPDP directly overlays with existing cellular infrastructure and uses existing base station equipment.CELLULAR DIGITAL PACKET DATA (CPDP): (1). (7). (4). and field monitoring applications. but rather has its own traffic routing capabilities.5 modulation is used so that existing analog FM cellular receivers can easily detect the CPDP format without redesign.UNIT-III 3. making it simple and inexpensive to install. which provide correction for up to eight symbols. dispatch. each CPDP channel is diplex in nature.CPDP supports broadcast. 33 . and data is sent at 19. a large number of modems are able to access the same channel on an as needed.CPDP is a service for first and second generation US cellular systems and uses a full 30 kHz AMPS channel on a shared basis. (9).The MDLP also provides sequence control to maintain the sequential order of frames across a data link connection. 282 user bits are coded into 378 bit blocks. (10).Each CPDP simplex link occupies a 30 KHz RF channel.The MDLP provides logical data link connections on a radio channel by using an address contained in each packet frame. as well as error detection and flow control. (2). (12). Collisions may result when many mobile users attempt to access the network simultaneously.It also capitalizes on the unused air time which occurs between successive radio channel assignments by the MSC (it is estimated that for 30% of the time.Since CPDP is packet-switched.Two lower layer protocols are used in CPDP: The mobile data link protocol (MDLP) is used to convey information between data link layer entities (layer 2 devices) across the CPDP air interface.1. packet-by-packet basis. (6).

The subscribers (mobile end system or M-ES) are able to connect through the mobile data base switches (MDBS) to the Internet via intermediate systems (MD-IS).1.Short ARDIS messages have low retry rates but high packet overhead. and for users travelling at low speeds.0 uses the X. 34 . ARDIS has been deployed to provide excellent in-building penetration. (16). (18).The RRMP handles base station identification and configuration messages for all M-ES stations. layer 3 protocol used to manage the radio channel resources of the CPDP system and enables an M-ES to find and utilize a duplex radio channel without interfering with standard voice services.The Radio Source Management Protocol (RRMP) is a higher. (3). FIXED END IS MDBS Common air interface (Air link) MDBS MDBS MD-IS MD-IS IS IS M-ES M-ES M-ES: Mobile End Station MDBS: Mobile Data Base Station MD-IS: Intermediate server for CDPD traffic Fig3. (4). (2).ADVANCED RADIO DTA INFORMATION SYSTEMS (ARDIS): (1). while long messages spread the overhead over the length of the packet but have a higher retry rate. ARDIS provides 800 MHz two-way mobile data communications for short-length radio messages in urban and in-building environments. CDPD can carry either Internet Protocol (IP) or OSI connectionless protocol (CLNP) traffic.2. and large-scale spatial antenna diversity is used to receive messages from mobile users. Through the Iinterface.In this way.Advanced Radio Data Information Systems (ARDIS) is a private network service provided by Motorola and IBM and is based on MDC 4800 and RD-LAP (Radio Data Link Access procedure) protocols developed at Motorola. and provides information that the M-ES can use to determine usable CDPD version 1. (17).(15).1: The CPDP NETWORK I-interface (Internet OSI net) 3.25 wide area network (WAN) sub profile and frame relay capabilities for internal sub networks. mobile users are able to connect to the internet or the PSTN. which act as servers and routers for the subscribers.

Fax messages are transmitted as normal text to a gateway processor.19 Convolutional ½ . ARDIS base stations are able to insure detection of simultaneous transmissions.2: channel characteristics for RAM Mobile Data Protocol Speed (bps) Channel bandwidth (KHz) Spectrum efficiency Random error strategy Burst error strategy Fading performance Channel access Mobitex 8000 12. which then converts the radio message to an appropriate format by merging it with a background page. many base stations which are tuned to the transmission frequency attempt to detect and decode the transmission. (5).7 ms fade Slot CSMA Burst Error Strategy Fading Performance Channel Access Interleave 16 bits Withstands 3. even though the end-user receives what appears to be a standard fax. (6). Table3.Thus.k=7 RD-LAP 19. 8 Hamming code Interleave 21 bits Withstands 2. the packet-switched wireless transmission consists of a normal length message instead of a much larger fax image. rate=3/4 Interleave 32 bits Withstands 1.RAM Mobile Data (RMD) is a public.1: Channel characteristics of ARDIS PROTOCOL Speed (bps) Channel bandwidth (KHz) Spectrum Efficiency (b/Hz) Random Error Strategy MDC 4800 4800 25 0. Table 3.64 12. as long as the users are sufficiently separated in space.(5).200 25 0. in order to provide diversity reception for the case when multiple mobiles contend for the reverse link.77 Trellis coded modulation.RAM has capability for voice and data transmission.When a mobile sends a packet.1. (3).3 ms fade CSMA nonpersistent 3.In this manner. (4).5 0.3. two-way data service based upon the Mobitex protocol developed by Ericsson. but has been designed primarily for data and facsimile. (2).RAM MOBILE DATA (RMD): (1).6ms fade Slotted CSMA 35 .RAM provides street level coverage for short and long messages for users moving in an urban environment.

(13). (10). Instead of being constrained to signaling data rates which are on the order of audio frequencies. a fiber optic cable) carries both the user traffic and the network signaling data.This technique. (3).For second generation wireless communication systems. (4). (5). out-of-band. reduced the capacity of the PSTN since the network signaling data rates were greatly constrained by the limitations of the carried voice channels. signaling data. (7).Even though the concept of CCS implies dedicated. parallel channels. (12). the SS7 families of protocols.Before the introduction of CCS in the 1980s. it is implemented in a TDM format for serial data transmission. and often the same physical network connection (i. The expense of a parallel signaling channel is minor compared to the capacity improvement offered by CCS throughout the PSTN. (6). the signaling channel may be operated in a connectionless fashion where packet data transfer techniques are efficiently used. and between MSCs. network signaling data is carried in a seemingly parallel.Thus. called in-band signaling. between the base station and the MSC. (9). and the PSTN was forced to sequentially (not simultaneously) handle signaling and user data for each call. signaling channel while only user data is carried on the PSTN.Since network signaling traffic is bursty and of short duration. (2).CCS supports signaling data rates from 56 Kbps to many megabits per second. (11). COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALING (CCS): (1).This is accomplished by using out-of-band signaling channels which logically separate the network data from the user information (voice and data) on the same channel. requiring that network information be carried within the same channel as the subscriber¶s voice traffic throughout the PSTN.CCS generally uses variable length packet sizes and a layered protocol structure.e. CCS is used to pass user data and control/supervisory signals between the subscriber and the base station. signaling traffic between the MSC and a subscriber was carried in the same band as the end-user¶s audio.3.2.In first generation cellular systems. and other related traffic throughout a network.Common channel signaling (CCS) is a digital communications technique that provides simultaneous transmission of user data. 36 . (14).The network control data passed between MSCs in the PSTN was also carried in band.CCS provides a substantial increase in the number of users which are served by trunked PSTN lines. but requires that a dedicated portion of the trunk time be used to provide a signaling channel used for network traffic. as defined by the Integrated System Digital Network (ISDN) are used to provide CCS.CCS is an out-of ±band signaling technique which allows much faster communications between two nodes within the PSTN. (8).

(4).CCS network architecture is composed of geographically distributed central switching offices. a service management system (SMS).The STP controls the switching of messages between nodes in the CCS network. wherever they happen to be.The MSC provides subscriber access to the PSTN via the SEP.3. (6).2. signaling transfer points (STPs). (8). For higher reliability of transmission (redundancy). SEPs are required to be connected to the SS7 network via at least two STPs. and SMS embedded within a central switching office.7 Fig 3. SEPs.The SCP instructs the SEP to create billing records based on the call information recorded by the SCP. and provides connectivity to the network in the event one STP fails.Out-of band signaling networks which connect MSCs throughout the world enable the entire wireless network to update and keep track of specific mobile users. each with embedded switching end points (SEPs).The SMS contains all subscriber records. THE DISTRIBUTED CENTRAL SWITCHING OFFICE FOR CCS: (1).2: common channel signaling (CCS) network architecture Showing STPs. Network A To other SEPs Network B SMS SS7 SS7 SEPs MSC STPs SS7 STPs SS7 SEPS STPs SS7 STPs SS7 SEPs: Switching End Points STPs: Signaling Transfer Points SMS: Service Management System SS7: Signaling System No. 37 . based on SS7.CCS forms the foundation of network control and management functions in second and third generation networks.This combination of two STPs in parallel is known as a mated pair. The SEP implements a storedprogram-control switching system known as the service control point (SCP) that uses CCS to set up calls and to access a network database. (2).1. (5). (7). and a database service management system (DBAS). and also houses toll-free database which may be accessed by the subscribers. (3).

(10). and video). Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a complete network framework designed around the concept of common channel signaling. (16). (13).The D channel supports 64 kbps for the primary rate and 16 kbps for the basic rate. as they provide network interfaces for common channel signaling traffic. new end-user data and signaling services can be provided with a parallel.The SMS and DBAS work in tandem to provide a wide range of customer and network provider services.In Europe.The BRI is intended to serve small capacity terminals (such as single line telephone) while the PRI is intended for large capacity terminals (such as PBXS).The BRI provides two 64 kbps bearer channels and one 16 kbps signaling channel (2B+D). (8). (3). (11).The second signaling component of ISDN is network signaling.The first component supports traffic between the end-user and the network. While telephone users throughout the world rely on the PSTN to carry conventional voice traffic. the basic rate interface (BRI) or the primary rate interface (PRI). (5).The B channels support 64 kbps data for both the primary rate and the basic rate interfaces. and is governed by the SS7 suite of protocols. 3. ISDN end-users may select between two different interfaces. called data channels (D channels). based on SS7. The PRI service is designed to be carried by DS-1 or CEPT level 1 links. the SS7 protocols within ISDN are critical to providing backbone network connectivity between MSCs throughout the world.(9). 38 .For wireless communications systems. dedicated signaling network. (12). (7). (4). Information bearing channels called bearer channels (B channels) are used exclusively for end-user traffic (voice.Access signaling defines how end-users obtain access to the PSTN and the ISDN for communications or services. data. whereas the PRI provides twenty-three 64 kbps bearer channels and one 64 kbps signaling channel (23B+D) for North America and Japan. (15).3. (14).The ISDN interface is divided into three different types of channels. and is called access signaling.ISDN provides a complete digital interface between end-users over twisted pair telephone lines.ISDN provides two distinct kinds of signaling components to end-users in a telecommunications network.ISDN defines the dedicated signaling network that has been created to complement the PSTN for more flexible and efficient network access and signaling and may be thought of as a parallel world-wide network for signaling traffic that can be used to either route voice traffic on the PSTN or to provide new data services between network nodes and the end-users. (10). (9). are used to send signaling and control information across the interface to end-users. (6). (2).Out-of-band signaling channels. INTGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN): (1).The DBAS is the administrative database that maintains service records and investigates fraud throughout the network. and is governed by a suite of protocols known as the Digital Subscriber Signaling System Number 1(DSS1). the primary rate interface provides thirty basic information channels and one 64 kbps signaling channel (30B+D).

3. (2).Several ISDN circuits may be concatenated into high speed information channels (H channels).To differentiate between wireless and fixed subscribers. the mobile BRI defines signaling data (D channels in the fixed network) as control channels (C channels in the mobile network). BROADBAND ISDN AND ATM: (1).4 Gbps and total switching capacities as high as 100 Gbps.H channels are used by the ISDN backbone to provide efficient data transport of many users on a single physical connection.This emerging networking technique is known as broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) and is based on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology which allows packet switching rates up to 2.3: Block diagram of ISDN 3. (3).Recent work has defined ISDN interface standards that increase the end-user transmission bandwidth to several Mb/s.1.For wireless service subscribers. an ISDN basic rate interface is provided in exactly the same manner as for a fixed terminal. so that a wireless subscriber has 2B+C service. 39 . (19). End-to End signaling Packet switching ISDN subscriber ISDN subscriber ISDN interface Circuit switching ISDN interface Common channel signaling User to network interface Network to user interface Fig3. and many also be used by PRI end-users to allocate higher transmission rates on demand. (18). End-user applications are required much greater bandwidths than the standard 64 kbps B channel provided by ISDN.(17). (20).

where a highly layered structure (transparent from layer to layer) is used to provide network communications.SS7 is used to interconnect most of the cellular MSCs throughout the US. 384 kbps.The SS7 signaling protocol is widely used for common channel signaling between interconnected networks. consisting of 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information.3: Types of bearer services in ISDN Mode of service Type of service Circuit mode services Unrestricted Circuit mode service Speech Speed of transmission 64 kbps. (10).4: Cell format of asynchronous transfer mode (4).Further work caused SS7 to evolve along the lines of the ISO-OSI seven layer network definition.Fixed length packets result in simple implementation of fst packet switches. priority information for queuing of packets.TABLE 3.H0. (5). (3).ATM is a packet switching and multiplexing technique which has been specifically designed to handle both voice users and packet data users in a single physical channel.A comparison of the OSI-7 network model and the SS7 protocol standard is given as in figure. (4). (9).D (or C) Header Data Fig 3.The ATM header also includes data for congestion control. ATM supports bi directional transfer of data packets of fixed length between two end points (7).H11 B Packet radio services unrestricted B. and is the key factor in enabling autonomous registration and automated roaming in first generation cellular systems. called cells. (8).ATM data rates vary from low traffic rates (64 kbps) over twisted pair to over 100 Mbps over fiber-optic cables for high traffic rates between network nodes.5 Mbps 64 kbps Depending on throughout Type of channel B. while preserving the order of transmission. 3.7(SS7): (1). SIGNALING SYSTEM NO. (2). (6). 1.SS7 is an outgrowth of the out-of-band signaling first developed by the CCITT under common channel signaling standard CCS N0.ATM data units. and a priority which indicates ATM packets can be dropped in case of congestion in the network. (5).4.ATM cells (packets) have a fixed length of 53 bytes. are routed based on header information in each unit (called a label) that identifies the cell as belonging to a specific ATM virtual connection.6. 40 . since packets arrive synchronous at the switch.

OSI MODEL LAYER 7 LAYER 6 LAYER 5 LAYER 4 LAYER 3 NETWORK APLLICATION OMAP SS7 PROTOCOL MODEL ASEs TCAP ISDN User part PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NULL SCCP MTP Level 3 MTP Level 2 LAYER 2 LAYER1 DATA LINK PHYSICAL MTP Level 1 NSP OMAP: Operations Maintenance and Administration Part ASE: Applications Service Element TCAP: Transaction Capabilities Application Part SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part MTP: Message Transfer Part NSP: Network Service Part Fig 3. (3).The SCCP in SS7 actually supports packet data network interconnections as well as connection-oriented networking to virtual circuit networks.(6).The NSP allows network nodes to communicate throughout the world without concern for the application or context of the signaling traffic. 3. (2).1. NETWORK SERVICE PART (NSP) OF SS7: (1).5: SS7 protocol architecture 41 .The NSP provides ISDN modes with a highly reliable and efficient means of exchanging signaling traffic using connectionless services.The lowest three layers of the OSI model are handled in SS7 by the network service part (NSP) of the protocol. which in turn is made up of three message transfer parts (MTPs) and the signaling connections control part (SCCP) of the SS7 protocol.4.

Physical channels may include copper wire. (4).Message Transfer Part (MTP) of SS7: (1). twisted pair.1. are defined in MTP Level 2. MTP is provided at three levels.1. and has provisions to allocate alternate routing facilities in the case of congestion or blockage in parts of the network.As in ISDN. whereas ANSI recommends 56 kbps. A single MSU cannot have a packet length which exceeds 272 octets.The function of MTP is to ensure that signaling traffic can be transferred and delivered reliably between the end-users and the network. (7). and notifies the higher levels of the SS7 protocol which take appropriate actions to reconnect the link. or satellite links.Signaling network management allows the network to reconfigure in case of node failures. mobile radio.Signaling data link functions (MTP level1) provide an interface to the actual physical channel over which communication takes place. fiber.Signaling message handling is used to provide routing. and a standard 16 bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) checksum is included in each MSU for error detection. (2).4. Signaling network functions (MTP Level 3) provide procedures that transfer messages between signaling nodes. (6).3.MTP Level 2 also provides flow control data between two signaling points as a means of sensing link failure. If the receiving device does not respond to data transmissions.8 kbps. (8). called message signal units (MSUs). (5). (9). (11).A wide range of error detection and correction features are provided in MTP Level 2. and traffic discrimination.Signaling link functions (MTP Level 2) correspond to the second layer in the OSI reference model and provide a reliable link for the transfer of traffic between two directly connected signaling points. (3). (10). and are transparent to the higher layers.Variable length packet messages. The minimum data rate provided for telephony control operations is 4. there are two types of MTP Level 3 functions: signaling message handling and signaling network management. distribution.6: functional diagram of message transfer part 42 . (12). MTP level2 uses a timer to detect link failure. User Message Processing User Message Processing Signaling Link Common Transfer Functions Link Control Functions Signaling Data Link Link Control Functions Common Transfer Functions Message Transfer Part Fig 3.CCITT recommends that MTP Level 1 use 64 kbps transmissions.

The SS7 user part includes the ISDN user part (ISUP).The signaling connection control part (SCCP) provides enhancement to the addressing capabilities provided by the MTP.In the past. telephony requirements were lumped in the TUP.The SS7 user part provides call control and management functions and call set-up capabilities to the network. SCCP uses local addressing based on subsystem numbers (SSNs) to identify users at a signaling node. (2).4: Different Classes of Service Provided by SCCP Class of service Class 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Type of service Basic connection class Sequenced (MTP) connectionless class Basic connection-oriented class Flow control connection-oriented class 3. (7). (3). 3. but this is now a subset of ISUP. (3).Table 3. (4). a circuit identification code (CIC). ISUP uses the MTP for transfer of messages between different exchanges. (6).SCCP provides four classes of service: two are connectionless and two are connectionoriented.The SCCP management block provides functions to handle congestion and failure conditions that cannot be handled at the MTP. and video in an ISDN environment.While the addressing capabilities are limited in nature. (4).Integrated Services Digital Network User Part (ISUP): (1).The SCCP routing block routes forwards messages received from MTP or other functional blocks. THE SS7 USER PART: (1).4. (2). (2).2. and a message code that serves to define the format and function of each message. The SCCP connection-oriented control block provides data transfer on signaling connections. data. the transaction capabilities application part (TCAP) and the operations maintenance and administration part (OMAP). such as 800 numbers or nonbilled numbers.ISUP message includes a routing label that indicates the source and destination of the message.Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) of SS7: (1).SCCP also provides the ability to address global title messages. 3.4. (3).4.1.2.The ISUP provides the signaling functions for carrier and supplementary services for voice.The telephone user part (TUP) and the data user part (DUP) are included in the ISUP.SCCP consists of four functional blocks.These are the higher layers in the SS7 reference model. (5).2. and utilize the transport facilities provided by the MTP and the SCCP. 43 .1.

They have variable lengths with a maximum of 272 octets that includes MTP level headers.2. (2). Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP): (1). calling line identification. and which are all handled under SS7.The Transaction Capabilities Application Part in SS7 refers to the application layer which invokes the service of the SCCP and the MTP on a hierarchical format.Whenever any of the mobile subscribers switches MSCs under a handoff condition. TCAP messages are used by IS-41. (5). TCAP is concerned with remote operations. 3. 3.2. Table 3.OMAP supports diagnostics are known throughout the global network to determine loading and specific sub network behaviors. inter-MSC handoffs. Operation Maintenance and Administration Part (OMAP): (1).The Operation Maintenance and Administration Part (OMAP) functions include monitoring.In addition to the basic bearer services in an ISDN environment. Thus.3. (3). (2). SIGNALING TRAFFIC IN SS7: (1). it adds to the amount of information exchanged.3.5: Signaling Load for Call Setup and Handoffs in GSM Call originating from a mobile Information on the originating MSC and the terminating switch Information on the originating MSC and the associated VLR Call terminating at a mobile Information on the switch and terminating MSC Information on the terminating MSC and associated VLR Information on the originating switch and HLR InterMSC HANDOFFS Information on the new MSC and associated VLR Information on the new MSC and old MSC load 120 bytes 550 bytes 120 bytes 612 bytes 126 bytes 148 bytes 383 bytes 44 . coordination. 3.Call set-ups.4. the facilities of user-to-user signaling. and control function to ensure that trouble free communications are possible.(4). and location updates are the main activities that generate the maximum signaling traffic in a network.4. closed user groups.The amount of signaling traffic that is generated for call-setup in GSM shown in table below.One application at a node is thus able to execute an application at another node and use these results.Setting up of a call requires exchange of information about the location of the called subscriber (call origination. (2).3.2. calling-party procedures) and information about the location of the called subscriber. (4). and call forwarding are provided.

PEFORMANCE OF SS7: (1). Q. Touch star: (1).The performance of the signaling network is studied by connection set-up time (response time) or the end-to-end signaling information transfer time.The maximum limits for these delay times have been specified in the CCITT recommendations Q. repeat dialing. call tracing. 45 . and alternate billing services. Congestion Control in SS7 Networks: With an increasing number of subscribers.706.In the 800-NXX plan the first six digits of an 800 call are used to select the interexchange carrier (IXC). 3.4.The cost associated with the processing of calls is paid by the service subscriber. it becomes important to avoid congestion in the signaling network under heavy traffic conditions. SS7 SERVICES: There are three main type of services offered by the SS7 network: the Touch star. calling card. and the 800 Database plan.766.716 and Q. 800 services. 800 services: (1). or collect etc. (3). and caller ID are provided.) from any number.These services use the CCS network to enable the calling party to bill a call to a personal number (third party number.The service is offered under two plans known as the 800-NXX plan.This kind of service is also known as CLASS and is a group of switchcontrolled services that provide its users with certain call management capabilities. Alternate Billing Service and Line Information Database (ADB/LIDB).In the 800 Database plan.6: Signaling Load for Location Updating in GSM Location updating Information on the current MSC and the associated VLR Information on the current VLR and HLR Information on new VLR and old VLR Information on the new VLR and old VLR Information on the old VLR and HLR Information on the new VLR and HLR load 406 bytes 55bytes 406 bytes 213 bytes 95 bytes 182 bytes 3. call block. (5). SS7 networking protocols provide several congestion control schemes.4. allowing traffic o avoid failed links and nodes.The delays in the signaling point (SP) and the STP depend on the specific hardware configuration and switching software implementation.Table 3.4. call forwarding.Services such as call return. (2). (2). (3). (2).These services were introduced by Bell system to provide toll-free access to the calling party to the services and database which is offered by the private parties. (4).5. the call is looked up in a database to determine the appropriate carrier and routing information.

46 . Information Transfer: CCS allows the transfer of additional information along with the signaling traffic providing facilities such as caller identification and voice or data identification. such as multi frequency. subsequently reducing the traffic on the network. high speed signaling networks are used for transferring the call setup messages resulting in smaller delay times when compared to conventional signaling methods. high trunking efficiency is obtained.Advantages of common channel signaling over conventional signaling: CCS has several advantages over conventional signaling which have been outlined below: Faster Call Set-up: In CCS. In heavy traffic conditions. Greater trunking (or Queuing) Efficiency: CCS has shorter call set-up and tear down times that result in less call-holding time.

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