of the National Institute of Building Sciences
NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
FEMA 451  August 2006
Prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the Department of Homeland Security
National Institute of Building Sciences Washington, D.C.
NOTICE: Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Additionally, neither FEMA nor any of its employees make any warranty, expressed or implied, nor assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, product, or process included in this publication. The opinions expressed herein regarding the requirements of the International Residential Code do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the International Code Council. The building official in a jurisdiction has the authority to render interpretation of the code. This report was prepared under Contract EMW1998CO0419 between the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the National Institute of Building Sciences. For further information on the Building Seismic Safety Council, see the Council’s website www.bssconline.org  or contact the Building Seismic Safety Council, 1090 Vermont, Avenue, N.W., Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20005; phone 2022897800; fax 2022891092; email bssc@nibs.org.
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FOREWORD
One of the goals of the Department of Homeland Security’s Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) is to encourage design and building practices that address the earthquake hazard and minimize the resulting risk of damage and injury. The 2003 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulation of New Buildings and Other Structures and its Commentary affirmed FEMA’s ongoing support to improve the seismic safety of construction in this country. The NEHRP Recommended Provisions serves as the basis for the seismic requirements in the ASCE 7 Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures as well as both the International Building Code and NFPA 5000 Building Construction Safety Code. FEMA welcomes the opportunity to provide this material and to work with these codes and standards organizations. This product provides a series of design examples that will assist the user of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions. This material will also be of assistance to those using the ASCE 7 standard and the models codes that reference the standard. FEMA wishes to express its gratitude to the authors listed elsewhere for their significant efforts in preparing this material and to the BSSC Board of Direction and staff who made this possible. Their hard work has resulted in a guidance product that will be of significant assistance for a significant number of users of the nation’s seismic building codes and their reference documents. Department of Homeland Security/ Federal Emergency Management Agency
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PREFACE
This volume of design examples is intended for those experienced structural designers who are relatively new to the field of earthquakeresistant design and to application of seismic requirements of the NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program) Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures and, by extension, the model codes and standards because the Provisions are the source of seismic design requirements in most of those documents including ASCE 7, Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; the International Building Code; and the NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. This compilation of design examples is an expanded version of an earlier document (entitled Guide to Application of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions, FEMA 140) and reflects the expansion in coverage of the Provisions and the expanding application of the Provisions concepts in codes and standards. The widespread use of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions signals the success of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and Building Seismic Safety Council efforts to ensure that the nation’s building codes and standards reflect the state of the art of earthquakeresistant design. In developing this set of design examples, the BSSC first decided on the types of structures, types of construction and materials, and specific structural elements that needed to be included to provide the reader with at least a beginning grasp of the impact the NEHRP Recommended Provisions has on frequently encountered design problems. Some of the examples draw heavily on a BSSC trial design project conducted prior to the publication of the first edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions in 1985 but most were created by the authors to illustrate issues not covered in the trial design program. Further, the authors have made adjustments to those examples drawn from the trial design program as necessary to reflect the 2000 Edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions. Finally, because it obviously is not possible to present in a volume of this type complete building designs for all the situations and features that were selected, only portions of designs have been used. The BSSC is grateful to all those individuals and organizations whose assistance made this set of design examples a reality: • James Robert Harris, J. R. Harris and Company, Denver, Colorado, who served as the project manager, and Michael T. Valley, Magnusson Klemencic Associates, Seattle, Washington, who served as the technical editor of this volume
The chapter authors – Robert Bachman, Finley A. Charney, Richard Drake, Charles A. Kircher, Teymour Manzouri, Frederick R. Rutz, Peter W. Somers, Harold O. Sprague, Jr., and Gene R. Stevens – for there unstinting efforts
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Greg Deierlein, J. Daniel Dolan, S. K. Ghosh, Robert D. Hanson, Neil Hawkins, and Thomas Murray for their insightful reviews William Edmands and Cambria Lambertson for their hard work behind the scenes preparing figures
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Special thanks go to Mike Valley and Peter Somers for their work annotating the design examples to reflect the 2003 edition of the Provisions and updated versions of other standards referenced in the 2003 version. The BSSC Board is also grateful to FEMA Project Officer Michael Mahoney for his support and guidance and to Claret Heider and Carita Tanner of the BSSC staff for their efforts preparing this volume for publication and issuance as a CDROM.
Jim. W. Sealy, Chairman, BSSC Board of Direction
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. FUNDAMENTALS by James Robert Harris, P.E., Ph.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.1 Earthquake Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.2 Structural Response to Ground Shaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3 Engineering Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 1.4 Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 1.5 Nonstructural Elements of Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 1.6 Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 2. GUIDE TO USE OF THE PROVISIONS by Michael Valley, P.E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS by Finley A. Charney, Ph.D., P.E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.1 Irregular 12Story Steel Frame Building, Stockton, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.1.2 Description of Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.1.3 Provisions Analysis Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.1.4 Dynamic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.1.5 Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 3.1.6 ModalResponseSpectrum Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 3.1.7 ModalTimeHistory Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 3.1.8 Comparison of Results from Various Methods of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 3.2 SixStory Steel Frame Building, Seattle, Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 3.2.1 Description of Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 3.2.2 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Preliminaries to Main Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4 Description of Model Used for Detailed Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 3.2.5 Static Pushover Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 3.2.6 TimeHistory Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3115 3.2.7 Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3143 4. FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by Michael Valley, P.E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.1 Shallow Foundations for a Seven Story Office Building, Los Angeles, California . . . . . . 44 4.1.1 Basic Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.1.2 Design for Gravity Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4.1.3 Design for MomentResisting Frame System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 4.1.4 Design for Concentrically Braced Frame System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 4.1.5 Cost Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 4.2 Deep Foundations for a 12Story Building, Seismic Design Category D . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 4.2.1 Basic Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 4.2.2 Pile Analysis, Design, and Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 4.2.3 Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
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5. STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN by James R. Harris, P.E., Ph.D., Frederick R. Rutz, P.E.,Ph.D., and Teymour Manzouri, P.E., Ph.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.1 Industrial HighClearance Building, Astoria, Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.1.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.1.2 Design Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5.1.3 Structural Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5.1.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.5 Proportioning and Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 5.2 SevenStory Office Building, Los Angeles, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 5.2.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 5.2.2 Basic Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 5.2.3 Structural Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 5.2.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 5.2.5 Cost Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574 5.3 TwoStory Building, Oakland, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 5.3.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 5.3.2 Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 5.3.3 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 5.3.4 Design of Eccentric Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 6. REINFORCED CONCRETE by Finley A. Charney, Ph.D., P.E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 6.1 Development of Seismic Loads and Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6.1.1 Seismicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6.1.2 Structural Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 6.1.3 Structural Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 6.2 Determination of Seismic Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 6.2.1 Approximate Period of Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 6.2.2 Building Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610 6.2.3 Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 6.2.4 Accurate Periods from Finite Element Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612 6.2.5 Seismic Design Base Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 6.2.6 Development of Equivalent Lateral Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 6.3 Drift and Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 6.3.1 Direct Drift and Pdelta Check for the Berkeley Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 6.3.2 Test for Torsional Irregularity for Berkeley Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 6.3.3 Direct Drift and Pdelta Check for the Honolulu Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624 6.3.4 Test for Torsional Irregularity for the Honolulu Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 6.4 Structural Design of the Berkeley Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 6.4.1 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 6.4.2 Combination of Load Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628 6.4.3 Comments on the Structure’s Behavior Under EW Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 6.4.4 Analysis of FrameOnly Structure for 25 Percent of Lateral Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 6.4.5 Design of Frame Members for the Berkeley Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636 6.5 Structural Design of the Honolulu Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676 6.5.1 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677 6.5.2 Combination of Load Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677 6.5.3 Accidental Torsion and Orthogonal Loading (Seismic Versus Wind) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 6.5.4 Design and Detailing of Members of Frame 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
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6.5.5 Design of Members of Frame 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692 7. PRECAST CONCRETE DESIGN by Gene R. Stevens, P.E. and James Robert Harris, P.E., Ph.D. 71 7.1 Horizontal Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 7.1.1 Untopped Precast Concrete Units for FiveStory Masonry Buildings Located in Birmingham, Alabama, and New York, New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 7.1.2 Topped Precast Concrete Units for FiveStory Masonry Building, Los Angeles, California (See Guide Sec. 9.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 7.2 ThreeStory Office Building With Precast Concrete Shear Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730 7.2.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730 7.2.2 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 7.2.3 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 7.2.4 Seismic Force Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 7.2.5 Proportioning and Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 7.3 OneStory Precast Shear Wall Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 7.3.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 7.3.2 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751 7.3.3 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 7.3.4 Seismic Force Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754 7.3.5 Proportioning and Detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756 8. COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE byJames Robert Harris, P.E., Ph.D. and Frederick R. Rutz, P.E., Ph.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 8.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 8.2 Summary of Design Procedure for Composite Partially Restrained Moment Frame System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 8.3 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 8.3.1 Provisions Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 8.3.2 Structural Design Considerations Per the Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 8.3.3 Building Weight and Base Shear Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 8.4 Details of the PRC Connection and System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 8.4.1 Connection Mq Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 8.4.2 Connection Design and Connection Stiffness Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811 8.5 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 8.5.1 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 8.5.2 Drift and Pdelta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821 8.5.3 Required and Provided Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822 8.6 Details of the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 8.6.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 8.6.2 WidthThickness Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 8.6.3 Column Axial Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 8.6.4 Details of the Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825 9 MASONRY by James Robert Harris, P.E., Ph.D., Frederick R. Rutz, P.E., Ph.D. and Teymour Manzouri, P.E., Ph.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 Warehouse with Masonry Walls and Wood Roof, Los Angeles, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91 93 93 94
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9.1.3 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 9.1.4 Seismic Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 9.1.5 Longitudinal Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910 9.1.6 Transverse Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925 9.1.7 Bond Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940 9.1.8 InPlane Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940 9.2 Fivestory Masonry Residential Buildings in Birmingham, Alabama; New York, New York; and Los Angeles, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942 9.2.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942 9.2.2 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944 9.2.3 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 947 9.2.4 Seismic Design for Birmingham 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949 9.2.5 Seismic Design for New York City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965 9.2.6 Birmingham 2 Seismic Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 977 9.2.7 Seismic Design for Los Angeles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 984 9.3.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 9.3.2 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997 9.3.3 Seismic Force Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9100 9.3.4 Deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9126 9.3.5 OutofPlane Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9131 9.3.6 Orthogonal Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9132 9.3.7 Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9132 9.3.8 Diaphragm Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9132 10 WOOD DESIGN by Peter W. Somers, P.E. and Michael Valley, P.E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 10.1 Threestory Wood Apartment Building; Seattle, Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 10.1.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 10.1.2 Basic Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 10.1.3 Seismic Force Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010 10.1.4 Basic Proportioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016 10.2 Warehouse with Masonry Walls and Wood Roof, Los Angeles, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044 10.2.1 Building Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044 10.2.2 Basic Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045 10.2.3 Seismic Force Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1046 10.2.4 Basic Proportioning of Diaphragm Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1047 11 SEISMICALLY ISOLATED STRUCTURES by Charles A. Kircher, P.E., Ph.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 11.1 Background and Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 11.1.1 Types of Isolation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 11.1.2 Definition of Elements of an Isolated Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 11.1.3 Design Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 11.1.4 Effective Stiffness and Effective Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 11.2 Criteria Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 11.3 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 11.3.1 Isolation System Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 11.3.2 Design Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 11.4 Dynamic Lateral Response Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113 11.4.1 Minimum Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113
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11.4.2 Modeling Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.3 Response Spectrum Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.4 Time History Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5 Emergency Operations Center Using Elastomeric Bearings, San Francisco, California . . . 11.5.1 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5.2 Basic Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5.3 Seismic Force Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5.4 Preliminary Design Based on the ELF Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5.5 Design Verification Using Nonlinear Time History Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5.6 Design and Testing Criteria for Isolator Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1114 1116 1116 1117 1117 1120 1127 1129 1141 1145
12 NONBUILDING STRUCTURE DESIGN by Harold O. Sprague Jr., P.E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 12.1 Nonbuilding Structures Versus Nonstructural Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 12.1.1 Nonbuilding Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 12.1.2 Nonstructural Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 12.2 Pipe Rack, Oxford, Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 12.2.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 12.2.2 Provisions Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 12.2.3 Design in the Transverse Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 12.2.4 Design in the Longitudinal Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 12.3 Steel Storage Rack, Oxford, Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1211 12.3.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1211 12.3.2 Provisions Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212 12.3.3 Design of the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212 12.4 Electric Generating Power Plant, Merna, Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216 12.4.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216 12.4.2 Provisions Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1217 12.4.3 Design in the NorthSouth Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1218 12.4.4 Design in the EastWest Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1219 12.5 Pier/Wharf Design, Long Beach, California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1219 12.5.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1219 12.5.2 Provisions Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1220 12.5.3 Design of the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1221 12.6 Tanks and Vessels, Everett, Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1222 12.6.1 FlatBottom Water Storage Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1223 12.6.2 Flatbottom Gasoline Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1226 12.7 Emergency Electric Power Substation Structure, Ashport, Tennessee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1228 12.7.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1229 12.7.2 Provisions Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1230 12.7.3 Design of the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1230 13 DESIGN FOR NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS by Robert Bachman, P.E., and Richard Drake, P.E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1 Development and Background of the Provisions for Nonstructural Components . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.1 Approach to Nonstructural Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.2 Force Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.3 Load Combinations and Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1.4 Component Amplification Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
131 132 132 133 134 134
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13.1.5 Seismic Coefficient at Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 13.1.6 Relative Location Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 13.1.7 Component Response Modification Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 13.1.8 Component Importance Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 13.1.9 Accommodation of Seismic Relative Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 13.1.10 Component Anchorage Factors and Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 13.1.11 Construction Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 13.2 Architectural Concrete Wall Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 13.2.1 Example Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 13.2.2 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 13.2.3 Spandrel Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1311 13.2.4 Column Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317 13.2.5 Additional Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1318 13.3 HVAC Fan Unit Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1319 13.3.1 Example Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1319 13.3.2 Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1320 13.3.3 Direct Attachment to Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1321 13.3.4 Support on Vibration Isolation Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1324 13.3.5 Additional Considerations for Support on Vibration Isolators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1329 13.4 Analysis of Piping Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330 13.4.1 ASME Code Allowable Stress Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330 13.4.2 Allowable Stress Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332 13.4.3 Application of the Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333 Appendix A THE BUILDING SEISMIC SAFETY COUNCIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1
LIST OF CHARTS, FIGURES, AND TABLES Figure 1.21 Figure 1.22 Figure 1.23 Figure 1.24 Figure 1.25 Figure 1.26 Chart 2.1 Chart 2.2 Chart 2.3 Chart 2.4 Chart 2.5 Chart 2.6 Chart 2.7 Chart 2.8 Chart 2.9 Chart 2.10 Earthquake ground acceleration in epicentral regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Holiday Inn ground and building roof motion during the M6.4 1971 San Fernando earthquake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Response spectrum of NorthSouth ground acceleration recorded at the Holiday Inn, approximately 5 miles from the causative fault in the 1971 San Fernando earthquake . 16 Averaged spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Force controlled resistance versus displacement controlled resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Initial yield load and failure load for a ductile portal frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Overall Summary of Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Scope of Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Application to Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Basic Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Equivalent Lateral Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 SoilStructure Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Modal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Response History Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Seismically Isolated Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
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Chart 2.11 Chart 2.12 Chart 2.13 Chart 2.14 Chart 2.15 Chart 2.16 Chart 2.17 Chart 2.18 Chart 2.19 Chart 2.20 Chart 2.21 Chart 2.22 Chart 2.23 Table 21
Strength Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deformation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design and Detailing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Concrete Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composite Steel and Concrete Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masonry Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wood Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonbuilding Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Architectural, Mechanical, and Electrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigating Among the 2000 and 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions and ASCE 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226
Figure 3.11 Figure 3.12 Figure 3.13 Table 3.11 Table 3.12 Figure 3.14 Table 3.13 Figure 3.15 Figure 3.16 Table 3.14 Figure 3.17 Table 3.15 Table 3.16 Table 3.17 Table 3.18 Table 3.19 Table 3.110 Table 3.111 Figure 3.18 Table 3.112 Figure 3.19 Figure 3.110 Table 3.113 Table 3.114 Table 3.115 Table 3.116 Table 3.117 Table 3.118 Table 3.119 Figure 3.112 Figure 3.113 Table 3.120
Various floor plans of 12story Stockton building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Sections through Stockton building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Threedimensional wireframe model of Stockton building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Area Masses on Floor Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Line Masses on Floor Diaphragms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Key Diagram for Computation of Floor Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Floor Mass, Mass Moment of Inertia, and Center Mass Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Computed ELF total acceleration response system spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Computed ELF relative displacement response spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Equivalent Lateral Forces for Building Responses in X and Y Directions . . . . . . . . . 314 Amplification of accidental torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Computation for Torsional Irregularity with ELF Loads Acting in X Direction . . . . . 316 Computation for Torsional Irregularity with ELF Loads Acting in Y Direction . . . . . 316 ELF Drift for Building Responding in X Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 ELF Drift for Building Responding in Y Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Rayleigh Analysis for XDirection Period of Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Rayleigh Analysis for YDirection Period of Vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Computation of Pdelta Effects for XDirection Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Basic load causes used in ELF analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Seismic and Gravity Load Combinations as Run on SAP 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Seismic shears in girders (kips) as computed using ELF analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Mode shapes as computed using SAP2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Computed Periods and Directions Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Computed Periods and Effective Mass Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Response Structure Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Story Shears from ModalResponseSpectrum Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Response Spectrum Drift for Building Responding in X Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Spectrum Response Drift for Building Responding in Y Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Computation of Pdelta Effects for XDirection Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Load combinations from responsespectrum analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Seismic shears in girders (kips) as computed using responsespectrum analysis . . . . 336 Seattle Ground Motion Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
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Figure 3.114 Figure 3.115 Table 3.121 Table 3.122 Table 3.123 Table 3.124 Table 3.125 Figure 3.116 Figure 3.117 Table 3.126 Table 3.127 Table 3.128 Figure 3.21 Figure 3.22 Table 3.21 Table 3.22 Figure 3.23 Table 3.23 Figure 3.24 Table 3.24 Table 3.25 Table 3.26 Figure 3.25 Table 3.27 Figure 3.26 Figure 3.27 Figure 3.28 Figure 3.29 Figure 3.210 Figure 3.211 Figure 3.212 Figure 3.213 Figure 3.414 Table 3.88 Figure 3.215 Figure 3.216 Figure 3.217 Figure 3.218 Table 3.29 Figure 3.219 Figure 3.220 Figure 3.221 Table 3.210 Figure 3.222 Figure 3.223 Figure 3.224 Figure 3.225 Figure 3.226
Unscaled SRSS of spectra of ground motion pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ratio average scaled SRSS spectrum to Provisions spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Result Maxima from TimeHistory Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Result Maxima from TimeHistory Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TimeHistory Drift for Building Responding in X Direction to Motion . . . . . . . . . . . Scaled Inertial Force and Story Shear Envelopes from Analysis A00X . . . . . . . . . . . Computation of Pdelta Effects for XDirection Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combinations 1 and 2, beam shears (kips) as computed using timehistory analysis . All combinations, beam shears (kips) as computed using time history analysis . . . . . Summary of Results from Various Methods of Analysis: Story Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Results from Various Methods of Analysis: Story Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Results from Various Methods of Analysis: Beam Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . Plan of structural system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elevation of structural system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Member Sizes Used in NS Moment Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gravity Loads on Seattle Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Element loads used in analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equivalent Lateral Forces for Seattle Building Responding in NS Directions . . . . . . Simple wire frame model used for preliminary analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results of Preliminary Analysis Using Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results of Preliminary Analysis Including Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periods of Vibration From Preliminary Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Demandtocapacity ratios for elements from analysis with Pdelta effects included . Lateral Strength on Basis of RigidPlastic Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic mechanism for computing lateral strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detailed analytical model of 6story frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model of girder and panel zone region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A compound node and attached spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Krawinkler beamcolumn joint model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column flange component of panel zone resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column web component of panel zone resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forcedeformation behavior of panel zone region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transforming shear deformation to rotational deformation in the Krawinkler model . Properties for the Krawinkler BeamColumn Joint Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assumed stressstrain curve for modeling girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment curvature diagram for W27x94 girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Developing momentdeflection diagrams for a typical girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of equations for deflection of momentdeflection curves . . . . . . . . . . . Girder Properties as Modeled in DRAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Momentdeflection curve for W27x94 girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of plastic hinge properties for the W27x97 girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yield surface used for modeling columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral Load Patterns Used in Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two base shear components of pushover response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Response of strong panel model to three load pattern, excluding Pdelta effects . . . . Response of strong panel model to three loading patters, including Pdelta effects . . Response of strong panel model to ML loads, with and without Pdelta effects . . . . . Tangent stiffness history for structure under ML loads, with and without
338 339 340 340 342 342 342 343 344 345 346 347 352 353 353 353 356 358 360 362 362 362 363 365 366 367 367 368 369 371 372 373 374 375 378 379 380 382 384 385 386 387 389 390 391 392 392
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Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Patterns of plastic hinge formation: SP model under ML load, including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Table 3.211 Strength Comparisons: Pushover vs. Rigid Plastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Figure 3.228 Weak panel zone model under ML load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Figure 3.229 Comparison of weak panel zone model with strong panel zone model, excluding Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Figure 3.230 Comparison of weak panel zone model with strong panel zone model, including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Figure 3.231 Tangent stiffness history for structure under ML loads, strong versus weak panels, including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Figure 3.232 Patterns of plastic hinge formation: weak panel zone model under ML load, including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Table 3.212 Modal Properties and Expected Inelastic Displacements for the Strong and Weak Panel Models Subjected to the Modal Load Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . 3100 Figure 3.233 A simple capacity spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3102 Figure 3.234 A simple demand spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3102 Figure 3.235 Capacity and demand spectra plotted together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3103 Figure 3.236 Capacity spectrum showing control points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3104 Table 3.213 Damping Modification Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3105 Figure 3.237 Damping modification factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3106 Figure 3.238 Capacity spectrum used in iterative solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3107 Table 3.214 Results of Iteration for Maximum Expected Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3109 Table 3.215 Points on Capacity Spectrum Corresponding to Chosen Damping Values . . . . . . . . 3110 Figure 3.239 Capacity spectrum with equivalent viscous damping points and secant stiffnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3111 Figure 3.240 Demand spectra for several equivalent viscous damping values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3112 Figure 3.241 Capacity and demand spectra on single plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3113 Figure 3.242 Closeup view of portion of capacity and demand spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3114 Table 3.216 Summary of Results from Pushover Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3115 Table 3.217 Structural Frequencies and Damping Factors Used in TimeHistory Analysis . . . . . 3117 Table 3.218 Seattle Ground Motion Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3118 Figure 3.243 Time histories and response spectra for Record A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3119 Figure 3.244 Time histories and response for Record B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3120 Figure 3.245 Time histories and response spectra for Record C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3121 Figure 3.246 Ground motion scaling parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3123 Table 3.219 Maximum Base Shear in Frame Analyzed with 5 Percent Damping, Strong Panels, Excluding Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3124 Table 3.220 Maximum Story Drifts from TimeHistory Analysis with 5 Percent Damping, Strong Panels, Excluding Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3124 Table 3.221 Maximum Base Shear in Frame analyzed with 5 Percent Damping, Strong Panels, Excluding Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3124 Table 3.222 Maximum Story Drifts from TimeHistory Analysis with 5 Percent Damping, Strong Panels, Including Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3125 Figure 3.247 Time history of roof and firststory displacement, ground Motion A00, excluding Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3126 Figure 3.248 Time history of total base shear, Ground Motion A00, excluding Pdelta effects . . . 3126 Figure 3.249 Energy time history, Ground Motion A00, excluding Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . 3127 Figure 3.227
xv
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3132 Time history of total base shear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Motion B00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3133 Time history of roof and firststory displacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground motion B00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 Figure 3. . . .261 Figure 3. . . . . Ground Motion A00. . . . 3131 Energy time history.273 Figure 4. with and without Pdelta effect . . . . Strong Panels. . . . . including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . .256 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254 Figure 3. . . 3133 Time history of total base shear. . Ground Motion A00. . . . . . . . . . 3129 Time history of total base shear. . . . . .) from TimeHistory Analysis Ground Motion A00. . . . Including Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 Figure 3. . . . . Ground motion A00. . . including Pdelta effects . . . . . . 3143 Typical framing plan . . including Pdelta effects . . including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Motion C00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3141 Base shear time histories obtained from column forces . . . . . . . . Strong Panels.259 Figure 3. . . . . .260 Figure 3. . . . 3132 Energy time history.11 Table 4. . . .253 Figure 3. .264 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 3128 Energy time history. Ground Motion A00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3129 Energy time history. . . . . . . . . . 3141 Base shear time histories as obtained from inertial forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Motion C00.271 Figure 3. . . . . . 3140 Response of structure with discrete dampers and with equivalent viscous damping . . . . including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . .257 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3138 Maximum Story Drifts (in. 3127 Time history of total base shear. . . . . including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Motion C00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Including Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3131 Time history of roof and firststory displacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . excluding Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . .263 Figure 3. . . . Ground Motion C00. . . . . . .267 Table 3. . . Including Pdelta Effects . . . . . . . . . . 3139 Modeling a simple damper . . . . .266 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Motion B00. including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Time history of roof and first story displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . excluding Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . Geotechnical Parameters . . . . 3135 Yielding locations for structure with strong panels subjected to Ground Motion A00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3134 Energy time history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Motion C00. . . . . .12 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 Figure 3. . .272 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Motion B00. . . 3142 Energy timehistory for structure with discrete added damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3134 Timehistory of roof displacement. Ground Motion A00. . . . 3130 Time history of roof and firststory displacement. . . excluding Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . .262 Figure 3. .269 Figure 3. . excluding Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . 3137 Comparison of inertial force patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268 Table 3. . . . . . . .225 Figure 3. . . . .265 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3135 Time history of base shear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . .250 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 Table 3. . . 3128 Time history of roof and firststory displacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical sections for isolated footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Motion B00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3138 Maximum Base Shear (kips) in Frame Analyzed Ground Motion A00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Motion C00. . . . . . . . . Soil pressure distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . excluding Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . .251 Figure 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 45 47 47 xvi . . . 3136 Summary of All Analyses for Strong Panel Structure. . . . . . including Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3130 Time history of total base shear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 with and without Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .23 Table 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Figure 4. . . . . . Summary of Material Quantities and Cost Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PM interaction diagram for Site Class E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundation plan for gravityloadresisting system . Schematic model of deep foundation system . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Foundation plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Figure 4. . . . .Table 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Table 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Table 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 Design response spectrum . . . . .16 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Figure 4. . . . .21 Table 4. .216 Figure 4. . . . . . . .22 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Framing plan for moment resisting frame system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 xvii . Calculated group effect factors . . . . . . 516 Gable frame schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results of pile analysis – sheer versus depth . . . .23 Figure 4. .111 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Figure 5. . . . . . . .25 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design condition . . Pile Lengths Required for Axial Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Pile Size. . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Figure 4. . . Foundation plan for momentresisting frame system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 ELF Vertical Distribution for NS Analysis . . . . . . . Demands for MomentResisting Frame System . . . . . . . . .22 Figure 4. . . Gravity and Seismic Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Figure 4.113 Table 4. . . . . . . .11 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pile detailing for Site Class E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 ELF Analysis in NS Direction . . . . . . . . .27 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Figure 5. . . . Envelope of mat foundation flexural demands . . . . . . . . . Length. .14 Figure 4. . . . . . . . Foundation tie section . . . . . . Results of pile analysis – applied lateral load versus head moment . . . . Critical sections for shear and envelope of mat foundation shear demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . Mat Foundation Section Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geotechnical Parameters . . . . . . .211 Figure 4.15 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundation plan for concentrically braced frame system . PM interaction diagram for Site Class C . . . . . 516 Moment diagram for seismic load combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Table 4. . . . . . . . . .13 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pile cap free body diagram curves . . . . . . Results of pile analysis – displacement versus depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Framing plan for concentrically braced frame system . 516 Axial Forces in Gable Frames Members . . . . . . . .15 Table 4. . . . . .212 Figure 4. . . . . . Soil Pressures for controlling bidirectional case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results of pile – head displacement versus applied lateral load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pile detailing for Site Class C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Roof framing and mezzanine framing plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Longitudinal Reinforcement . . . . . .13 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 Moments in Gable Frame Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218 Figure 5. . . . 410 411 412 412 416 416 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 430 431 434 435 435 435 436 436 438 439 441 442 442 443 444 445 447 Framing elevation and sections . . . . . . .14 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mat foundation flexural reinforcement. . . . . . . . . . . Pile axial capacity as a function of length for Site Class C . . . . . .29 Figure 4. . . . . . . . Passive pressure mobilization curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Results of pile analysis – moment versus depth . . . . . . .213 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . Pile axial capacity as a function of length for Site Class E . . . .26 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Figure 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section of mat foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Footing Design for Gravity Loads . . . .210 Figure 4. . . . . 512 Design Response Spectra . . . .13 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Representative py curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .27 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220 Figure 5. Second level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Comparison of Standards . . Alternative A (Moment Frame) Story Drifts under Seismic Loads . . . . . . . . . . . 518 519 520 524 526 528 530 531 531 535 541 541 542 544 545 545 546 547 548 548 549 549 550 554 554 555 556 557 559 559 561 562 563 564 565 568 569 570 571 572 572 573 575 576 577 579 579 585 xviii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Table 5. . . . . . . . . .110 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative A Torsional Analysis . . . . . Typical floor framing plan and building section . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Critical Member Design Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arrangement at knee . . . . . .22 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . .17 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative B Story Drifts under Seismic Load . . . . . . . .31 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . .26 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 Figure 5. . . . SMRF frame in EW direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Table 5. . . . . . . . SMRF frame in NS direction . . . . .24 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 Figure 5. Bracing connection detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Figure 5. . .215 Figure 5. . . . FEMA 350 Methods for panel zone shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concentrically braced frame elevations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bolted stiffened connection at knee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End plate connection at ridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free body diagram bounded by plastic hinges . . Framing plan for special moment frame . . . . . NSdirection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WUFW weld detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Figure 5. . . . .210 Figure 5. . Story height and clear height . . . . . Dual System Seismic Forces and Moments by Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative C Story Drifts under Seismic Load . Alternative C Amplification of Accidental Torsion . . Approximate effect of accidental of torsion . . .223 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Whitmore section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces at beam/column connection . . . . . . . . Moment Frame Seismic Forces and Moments by Level . . . . . . . .22 Table 5. . WUFW connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . Bracetobrace connection . . . . . Column shears for EW direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Link and upper brace connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . Alternative B Amplification of Accidental Torison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 Figure 5. Alternative B. . . .23 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main floor framing plan . . . . . . Braced Frame Seismic Forces and Moments by Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Braced frame of dual system in NS direction . . . . . .24 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Braced frame in EW direction . . . . . . . . . . . . .221 Figure 5.211 Figure 5. . . Moment frame of dual system in EW direction . . . . . . Section on Grid F . . . .24 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Figure 5. Projection of expected moment strength of beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illustration of AISC Seismic vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mezzanine framing . Alternative A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram of eccentric braced bream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Table 5. . . . .25 Figure 5. . . Column shears for NS direction . . . . . .213 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear force in roof deck diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral force component in braces for NS direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Braced frame in NS direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Braced frame of dual system in EWdirection . . . . . . . . . .218 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . .28 Figure 5. . . . . . .27 Figure 5. . .29 Figure 5. .225 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . Moment frame of dual system in NS direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ColumnBeam Moment Ratios for FiveBay Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . ColumnBeam Moment Ratios for SevenBay Frame . . . . Typical eccentric braced frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table 5. . . .214 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . .29 Table 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Figure 5. . . . Alternative C. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 Shears forces for transverse reinforcement . . . . 636 Layout for beam reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Drift Computations for the Honolulu Building Loaded in the NS Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Response Modification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 Loading for determination of rebar cutoffs . . . . 643 Diagram for computing column shears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 Drift Computations for the Honolulu Building Loaded in the EW Direction . 621 Pdelta Computations for the Berkeley Building Loaded in the NS Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 25 percent story shear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 Pdelta Computations for the Honolulu Building Loaded in the EW Direction . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic Shears Coefficients.Figure 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Story Weights. 619 Drift profile for Berkeley building . . . . . . . . . . . . and Moments of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 Vertical Distribution of NS and EW Seismic Forces for the Honolulu Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 Preliminary rebar layout for Frame 1 . 615 Vertical Distribution of NS Seismic Forces for the Berkeley Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 Design and Maximum Probable Flexural Strength for Beams in Frame 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 25 percent story shears. 617 Comparison of wind and seismic story shears for the Berkeley building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .000 psi LW Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638 Bending moments Frame 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 typical elevations of the Berkeley building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 Story shears in the EW direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 Periods and Modal Response Characteristics for the Berkeley building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Base Shears for the Berkeley and Honolulu buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame 1 EW direction . . . . . 613 Periods and Modal Response for the Honolulu Building . . 623 Drift profile for the Honolulu building . . . . 648 Development length for top bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 Vertical Distribution of EW Seismic Forces for the Berkeley Building . . . . . Overstrength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 Computing joint shear stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame 2 EW direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623 Pdelta Computations for the Berkeley Building Loaded in the EW Direction . . . . . . . 621 Drift Computations for the Berkeley Building Loaded in the EW Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masses. . . . . . . 586 Typical floor plan of the Berkeley building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 Design and Maximum Probable Flexural Strength For Beams in Frame 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 628 Story forces in the EW direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 Tension Development Length Requirements for Hooked Bars and Straight Bars in 4. . . . . and Deflection Amplification Coefficients for Structural Systems Used . . . . . . . . . . . 618 Comparison of wind and seismic story shears for the Honolulu building . .36 Figure 61 Figure 62 Table 61 Table 62 Table 63 Table 64 Table 65 Table 66 Table 67a Table 67b Table 68 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 65 Table 69a Table 69b Table 610a Table 610b Figure 66 Table 611a Table 611b Table 612a Table 612b Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 610 Figure 611 Figure 612 Figure 613 Table 613 Figure 614 Figure 615 Table 614 Figure 616 Figure 617 Figure 618 Figure 619 Figure 620 Figure 621 Table 615 Figure 622 Lower brace connections . . . 648 Free body diagrams . . . 620 Drift Computations for the Berkeley Building Loaded in the NS Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 Comparison of Approximate and “Exact” Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 Story overturning moments in the EW direction . . . . . . 633 25 percent story shears. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 Pdelta Computations for the Honolulu Building Loaded in the NS Direction . . . . 613 Comparison of Periods. . . . . . . . 652 xix . . . . 649 Final bar arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame 3 EW direction .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Details of structural wall boundary element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Figure 7. . . . . . . Bending moment envelopes at Level 5 of Frame 1 . . . Computing joint shear force . . . . Interaction diagram for column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design of Shear Reinforcement for Haunched Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 xx . . . . . 716 Anchorage region of shear reinforcement and collector reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . moments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Figure 7. . . . . . . Interaction diagram for structural wall . . . . . . . Frame 3 . . . . . . 711 Diagram plan and critical design regions . . . . . Interaction diagram for Column A . . . .18 Table 7. . . . . . . . . . Computing shear in haunched girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Table 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With loading requirements from ASCE 7 . 9. . . . Interaction diagram and column design forces . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear strength envelopes for Span AB of Frame 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Figure 7. . . . . . .17 Figure 7. 723 Diaphragm plan and section cuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layout and loads on column of Frame A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variation of neutral axis depth with compressive force . . 721 Design Parameters form Sec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design forces and detailing of haunched girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 Boundary member and chord and collector reinforcement . . . 78 Birmingham 1 Fpx Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 Joint 4 exterior longitudinal walls to diaphragm reinforcement and outofplane anchorage 720 Walltodiaphragm reinforcement along interior longitudinal walls . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Figure 7. . . . . .14 Table 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design interaction diagram for column on Gridline A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Shear Wall Overstrength . . . . . . . . . . . 712 Joint 3 chord reinforcement at the exterior edge . . . . . . . Isolated view of Column A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . .22 Table 7. seismic shears in exterior bay of Frame 1 . . . . Loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loading for Column A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . .13 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 623 Figure 624 Figure 625 Figure 626 Figure 627 Figure 628 Table 616 Figure 629 Figure 630 Figure 631 Figure 632 Figure 633 Table 617 Table 618 Figure 634 Figure 635 Figure 636 Figure 637 Figure 638 Figure 639 Figure 640 Figure 641 Figure 642 Figure 643 Figure 644 Figure 645 Figure 646 Figure 647 Figure 648 Figure 649 Figure 650 Table 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Forces for Structural Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Detailed shear force envelope in Span BC . . . . . . . . . . . Details for Column A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design of Structural Wall for Shear . . . . . . . 717 Joint 2 transverse wall joint reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 Fpx Calculations from Sec. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary reinforcement layout for Level 5 of Frame 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . Column loading . . . . . . . . Details of reinforcement for column . . . .2 . . . . . . Shear force envelope for haunched girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Diagram force distribution and analytical model . . . . . . . . . .14 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715 Interior joint reinforcement at the ends of plank and the collector reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . and reinforcement for haunched girder . . Computation of column shears for use in joint . . Overall details of structural wall . . 653 655 656 658 659 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 673 674 675 676 679 681 682 683 686 687 689 691 692 695 697 698 699 Design Parameters from Example 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .311 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767 Typical floor plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 736 Freebody diaphragm for longitudinal walls . . . . . . .31 Figure 7. . .32 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754 Freebody diagram of a panel in the transverse direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825 Detail at spandrel . . . 84 Building side elevation . . . . .2D + 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2DSD . . 812 Analysis of seatangle for tension . . . . . . . . . . . .310 Figure 81 Figure 82 Figure 83 Figure 84 Table 81 Figure 85 Figure 86 Table 82 Figure 87 Figure 88 Figure 810 Figure 811 Figure 812 Table 83 Table 84 Table 85 Figure 813 Figure 814 Figure 815 Collector reinforcement at the end of the interior longitudinal walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 826 Detail at building corner . . . . .113 Figure 7. . . . . 735 Forces on the transverse walls . . . . 822 Column Strength Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . showing only shear forces and resisting moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 Freebody of angle with welds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726 Walltowall diaphragm reinforcement along interior longitudinal walls . . . . .2SDSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 Shear connection at base . . .28 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 Detail at column . . . . 762 Section at the connection of the precast/prestressed shear wall panel and the footing 764 Details of the embedded plate in the DT at the base . . . . 811 Partially Restrained Composite Connection Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Figure 7.21 Figure 7. .35 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . .33 Figure 7. . . . . . . .) and Pdelta Analysis . . . . . . . . . .37 Figure 7. . . . . . . 819 Illustration of input for load combination for 1. . . . . 818 elevation of typical connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5L + 1. .0QE 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Table 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Building and elevation . . . 750 Freebody diagram of a panel in the longitudinal direction . 85 Design Parameters . . . for W10x77 . . . . . . . . . . .22 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 755 Cross section of the DT drypacked at the footing . . . . . 826 xxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742 Shear connections on each side of the wall at the second and third floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 Forces on the longitudinal walls . . . . . . . 820 Illustration of input for load combination for 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746 Singlestory industrial warehouse building plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Table 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815 Moment diagram for typical beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9D + 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 Overturning connection detail at the base of the walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0QE + 0. . . . . . . . . . . . 730 Design Parameters . . . . . . . top view.112 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821 Story Drift (in. . 810 Mθ Curve for W21x44 connection with 8#5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822 Maximum Connection Moments and Capacities . . . . .111 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 Freebody diaphragm of the transverse walls . . . . . . . .26 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Typical composite connection . . . . . . 749 Design Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757 Cross section of one DT leg showing the location of the bonded prestressing tendons or strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766 Sketch of connection of nonloadbearing DT wall panel at the roof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766 Sketch of connection of loadbearing DT wall panel at the roof . . . . . . 758 Freebody of the angle and the fillet weld connecting the embedded plates in the DT and the footing . .36 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727 Exterior longitudinal walltodiaphragm reinforcement and outofplane anchorage . . . . . . 728 Threestory building plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Mθ Curve for W18x35 connection with 6#5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 94 Comparison of Em . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944 Design Parameters . . . . . .22 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .thick CMU side wall . . . . . . . 932 Inplane design condition for 8ft. .16 Figure 9. . 917 Outofplane strength for 8in. . . . . . . . . . . . 960 Ductility check for Birmingham 1 Wall D .110 Table 9. . . . . .118 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 917 Cracked moment of inertia (Icr) for 8in. .Figure 816 Figure 9. . . . . . . . 915 Basis for interpolation of modulus of rupture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 951 Location of moments due to story shears . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925 Trial design for piers on end walls . . . . . . . . . . .12 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937 Combined Loads for Flexure in End Pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 End wall elevation . . . . . 926 Inplane loads on end walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . 933 Inplane seismic strength of pier . . . . . . . . .wide pier . . . . . . . . . 941 Typical floor plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .thick CMU wall . . . . . . . . . . .11 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912 Investigation ofoutplane ductility for the 8in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961 Birmingham 1 Cracked Wall Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 951 Shear Strength Calculations for Birmingham 1 Wall D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932 Inplane ductility check for 8ft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Table 9. .28 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940 Inplane deflection of end wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 827 Roof plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 923 Combined Loads for Shear in Side Wall . . . . . 943 Plan of walls . . . . . . . . . . . .122 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969 Demands for New York City Wall D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . 927 Investigation for outofplane ductility for end walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 972 xxii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Figure 9. . . . . . . 957 ΦP11 – ΦM11 diagram for Birmingham 1 Wall D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 963 Deflections. fx . . . . . . . 938 Combined Loads for Shear in End Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Table 9. . . . . 945 Birmingham 1 Seismic Forces and moments by Level . . . . . . . . . . . 954 Strength of Birmingham 1 Wall D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Figure 9. . . . . . . . .23 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 Figure 9. . 970 ΦP11 – ΦM11 Diagram for New York City and Birmingham 2 Wall D . . . . . . .123 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Figure 9. . . 931 Input loads for inplane and end wall analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929 Outofplane seismic strength of pier on end wall . . . .112 Figure 9. . . 942 Building elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .thick CMU side walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Figure 9. . . . . . . 954 Demands for Birmingham 1 Wall D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Figure 9. . . Birmingham 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969 Strength of New York City and Birmingham 2 Wall D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .wide pier . . . . . . . . . . . 935 Inplane ΦP11 – ΦM11 diagram for pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914 Comparison of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 963 Shear wall deflections . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Figure 9.21 Figure 9.121 Table 9. 911 Trial design for 8in. . . . . .210 Force transfer from deck to column . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Table 9. 920 Inplane ductility check for side walls . . . . . . . . . 966 New York City Shear Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Figure 9. . . . . . .116 Figure 9. . . . .19 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926 Outofplane load diagram and resultant of lateral loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928 Cracked moment of inertia for end walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964 New York City Seismic Forces and Moments by Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937 Inplane shear on end wall and pier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Figure 9. .120 Figure 9. . . . . . . 922 Grout cells solid within 10 ft of each end of side walls . . . . .11 Figure 9. . . .thick CMU walls . .111 Figure 9. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9112 ΦP11 – ΦM11 Diagram for Level 1 . . . 986 Los Angeles Shear Strength Calculations for Wall D . . . . 974 New York City Cracked Wall Determination . . . . . . .33 Table 9. . . . .31 Figure 9. 9116 Bulb reinforcement at upper levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985 Los Angeles Seismic Forces and Moments by Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Figure 9.35 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9115 Ductility check for Wall D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9109 Load Combinations for Wall D . . .37 Figure 9. 9103 Seismic Forces and Moments by Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass Participation Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9130 Floor anchorage to wall . . . . . . . . . . .212 Table 9. . . . . . Level 7 . . . . . . . . . . . .213 Table 9. . . . . . . . . Birmingham 2 . . . . . . .215 Table 9. . . . . . . . .210 Table 9. .39 Table 9. . 104 104 105 107 xxiii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass Participation Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 1 . . . . . . . and Modal Base Shears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 Elevation . . . . . . . . . and Modal Base Shears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 Variation in Reinforcement and Grout by Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Figure 9. 9118 Strength of Wall D at Level 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 9. . . . . 993 Los Angeles Deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Modal Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 991 Ductility check for Los Angeles Wall D . . .39 Figure 9. . . . . 975 New York City Deflections . . . . . . . . . .38 Table 9. . . . . . . . . 9119 ΦP11 – ΦM11 Diagram for Level 7 . . . . . . .311 Figure 9. . . . .38 Figure 9. . . . . . . Load path and shear walls . . . . . . . 9123 Shear Strength for Wall D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9107 Shear for Wall D . . 9110 Bulb reinforcement at lower levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9125 Cracked Wall Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Figure 9. . . . 982 Typical wall section fro the Los Angeles location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9111 Strength of Wall D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Modal Base Shears .31 Table 9. . 979 Birmingham 2 Seismic Forces and Moments by Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 Table 9. . . . . . . .33 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 9132 Shears and moments for diaphragm . . . . .13 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . .36 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Table 9. . . .220 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 981 Shear Strength Calculations for Wall D. . . . . . . . . . . . 988 Los Angeles: Strength of wall D . . . . . . . . . 995 Floor plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass Participations Ratios. . . . . 9104 Relative Rigidities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Longitudinal section and elevation .310 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass Particiaptions Ratios. . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Table 9. 998 Periods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . .216 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundation plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987 Los Angeles Load Combinations for Wall D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313 Figure 10. . . . . . . . 982 Birmingham 2 Demands for Wall D . . . . . . 9122 Ductility check for Wall D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9134 Typical floor plan . .311 Table 9. . . . . . . .218 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 976 Birmington 2 Periods. . . 9132 Diaphragm Seismic Forces . . . . .14 Ductility check for New York City and Birmingham 2 Wall D . . . . . . 997 Design Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 Table 9. . . 9108 Periods. . . . . . . . . . . . . 992 Los Angeles Cracked Wall Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221 Table 9. . . .214 Table 9. . . . . . 9127 Deflection for ELF Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 989 ΦP11 – ΦM11 diagram for Los Angeles Wall D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 980 Birmingham Periods. . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Figure 9.312 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 1 . . .219 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9129 Displacements from Modal Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9106 Wall dimensions . . .310 Figure 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Vertical shear distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Figure 11. . . . . . . . and total maximum displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Table 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perforated shear wall detail at floor framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing wall . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Table 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roof Diaphragm Framing and Nailing Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . and Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Deflection and Drift (Structural I Plywood Shear Walls) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross tie plan layout and subdiaphragm freebody diagram for side walls . .112 Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Acceptable Methods of Analysis . 1115 Bilinear idealization of isolator unit behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maximum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117 Typical floor framing plan . . . . . . . . . Chord splice detail . . . . . Wall Deflection . 1118 Penthouse roof framing plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 Figure10. . . . Fastener slip equations . . . . . .21 Table 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear wall tie down at suspended floor framing . . . . Building plan . . . . . . . . . .22 Figure 10. . . Total Elastic Deflection and Drift of End Wall . . . . . . . . . . . Transverse wall: overturning . . . . . . . . .16 Table 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross tie plan layout and subdiaphragm freebody diagram for end walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Table 10. 1116 Threedimensional model of the structural system .18 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . 116 Effective stiffness and effective damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . .26 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . Pdelta Stability Coefficient .16b Table 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Freebody diagram for Element 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Figure 10. . . . . . Transverse section: end wall . . . 1119 xxiv . . . . . . . Diaphragm at roof opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Deflection and Drift . . . . . . . .16a Table 10. . . . .15 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjustment for nonuniform nail spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Figure10. . . . 1118 Longitudinal bracing elevation . . . . . . . .17 Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Figure10. . . . .14 Table 10. . . . . . . . . . . .25 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Force distribution for flexural deflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Figure 10. . . . . . . . . . . .21 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111 Isolation system displacement and shear force as function of period . . . . Chord tie at roof opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Figure10. . . . . . . . . .32 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Figure 10. . . . Perforated shear wall at exterior . . Wall Deflection (per story) Due to Bending and Anchorage Slip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1110 Design. . . . . . . . Diaphragm chord splice . Seismic Coefficients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonbearing wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anchorage of masonry wall perpendicular to joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chord forces and Element 1 freebody diagram . . . .213 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011 1012 1018 1020 1021 1021 1022 1022 1025 1028 1029 1029 1030 1032 1036 1036 1037 1039 1043 1043 1044 1049 1049 1050 1051 1052 1054 1055 1056 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 Isolation system terminology .31 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . 1113 Summary of Minimum Design Criteria for Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Figure 10. . . . . . .28 Figure 10. . . . Foundation wall detail . . . . Plywood layout . . Perforated shear wall detail at foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Figure 10. Diaphragm framing and nailing layout . . . . Anchorage of masonry wall parallel to joists . . . . . . . . 1114 Moments due to horizontal shear and Pdelta effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Isolation system capacity and earthquake demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Table 10. . .42 Figure 11. . .210 Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .513 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Downward Force (kips) on Isolator Units . .54 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317 Air handling fan unit . . . .512 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Transverse bracing elevations . . . . . . .57 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical detail of the isolation system at columns . . . . . . . . . Elevation of framing on Column Line B . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1220 Storage tank section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of modeled isolator properties to test data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214 Boiler building . . . . . . . .52 Figures11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .511 Figure11. . . . . . 138 Detailed building elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Figure 11. . . . . 1327 Lateral restraint required to resist seismic forces . . . . . . . . . . . . Stiffness and damping properties of EOC isolator units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1320 Freebody diagram for seismic force analysis . . . 123 Pipe rack . . . . . .59 Figure11. . . . . 126 Steel storage rack . . . . .22 Figure 13. Minimum Downward Force for Isolator Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Figure 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119 1121 1123 1124 1125 1132 1132 1133 1133 1134 1134 1135 1136 1136 1138 1139 1142 1143 1144 1144 1145 1145 1146 1147 Applicability of the Chapters of the Provisions . . . . . Design Earthquake Response Parameters . . . . .51 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1223 Platform for elevated transformer . Vertical Distribution of Reduced Design Earthquake Forces . . . . . Isolator dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . 1323 ASHRAE diagonal seismic force analysis for vibration isolation springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1322 Anchor for direct attachment to structure . . . . .53 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Key Design Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shears and Overturning Moments . . . . . . . . . .513 Figure11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1325 Anchor and snubber loads for support on vibration isolation springs . . 1329 xxv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Figure 124 Figure 125 Figure 126 Figure 127 Figure 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Figure 13. . . . Gravity Loads on Isolator Units . Elevation of framing on Column Line 2 . . . . . . . . . .511 Table 11. . . . . . . . .33 Figure 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Considered Earthquake Response Parameters .57 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510 Table 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1229 Fivestory building evaluation showing panel location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Table 11. . . . . Maximum Downward Force on Isolator Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Figure 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .514 Table 121 Figure 121 Figure 122 Figure 123 Table 12. .) Of Isolator Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of design earthquake spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1311 Spandrel panel moments . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Table 11. . . . . . . . .510 Table 11. . First floor framing plan . . . . . . .512 Figure11. . . . . . . . . . 139 Spandrel panel connection payout from interior . . . . . . . . 1316 Column cover connection layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prototype Test Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Downward Force for Isolator Design . . . . . . . . . . .59 Figure11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Figure 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Figure 13. . . . . . 122 Combustion turbine building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Uplift Displacement (in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Figure 13. .514 Table 11. Earthquake Time History Records and Scaling Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Distribution of Unreduced DE and MCE Forces . . . . . . . . . .Figure 11. . . . 1314 Spandrel panel connections forces . . . . . . . . Maximum Uplift Displacement of Isolator Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1211 Seismic Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Figure 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Figure 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example design spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216 Pier plan and elevation . . . . .25 Figure 13.
In a way. in the case of earthquakes. . . Earthquake effects on structures systematically bring out the mistakes made in design and construction. We must also face uncertainty on a large scale. the NEHRP Recommended Provisions has been composed of two volumes of text and a separate set of maps. The details of construction are very important because flaws of no apparent consequence often will cause systematic and unacceptable damage simply because the earthquake loading is so severe and an extended range of behavior is permitted.1 FUNDAMENTALS James Robert Harris. all the wealth of the world would prove insufficient to fill our needs: the most modest structures would be fortresses. P. indicate both organizational changes (as a result of a reformat of all of the chapters of the 2003 Provisions) and substantive technical changes to the 2003 Provisions and its primary reference documents. Also. Ph. Newmark and Rosenblueth (1971) comment: In dealing with earthquakes. 2. In introducing their wellknown text. . the definition of failure is altered to permit certain types of behavior and damage that are considered unacceptable in relation to the effects of other phenomena. While the general concepts of the changes are 11 . Otherwise. we must contend with appreciable probabilities that failure will occur in the near future.E. The probability that failure will occur is very real and is greater than for other loading phenomena. Several points essential to an understanding of the theories and practices of earthquakeresistant design bear restating: 1. Although the set of design examples is based on the 2000 Provisions. a large earthquake produces the most severe loading that a building is expected to survive. Part 1 (referred to herein as the Provisions) contains the actual requirements and Part 2 (referred to herein as the Commentary) provides a discussion of various aspects of the requirements.D. Note that through 2000. When appropriate. it is annotated to reflect changes made to the 2003 Provisions. earthquake engineering is a cartoon. . for it is our task to design engineering systems – about whose pertinent properties we know little – to resist future earthquakes and tidal waves – about whose characteristics we know even less. Annotations within brackets. . This applies both to knowledge of the loading function and to the resistance properties of the materials. 3. The levels of uncertainty are much greater than those encountered in the design of structures to resist other phenomena. even the minutest mistakes. and systems. members. Ordinarily. .. Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering. important aspects of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures are mentioned and reference is made to particularly relevant portions of the document. [ ]. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to a very abbreviated discussion of fundamentals that reflect the concepts on which earthquakeresistant design are based.
Designing structures to resist such hydrodynamic forces is a very specialized topic. large portions of a few metropolitan areas with the potential for significant ground shaking are susceptible to liquefaction. This factor. Once again. Longperiod sloshing of the liquid contents of tanks is addressed by the Provisions. and the rate of attenuation is less for lower frequencies of motion than for higher frequencies. The Commentary includes a method for prediction of susceptibility to liquefaction as well as general guidelines for locating potential fault rupture zones. earthquakes of the nineteenth century. the North American continent and the Pacific basin. they are associated with movements of and strains in large segments of the earth’s crust. some minor changes to the 2003 Provisions and the reference documents may not be noted. For various reasons. (This commonly occurs in California earthquakes but apparently did not occur in the historic Charleston. There is evidence that extreme motions near the fault in certain types of large earthquakes 12 . Even in the West. The sudden movement releases strain energy and causes seismic waves to propagate through the crust surrounding the fault. Earthquakes have many effects in addition to ground shaking. means that the uncertainty associated with earthquake loadings is higher in the central and eastern portions of the nation than in the West. This effect is captured. The amplitude of earthquake ground shaking diminishes with distance from the source. These are outside the scope of the Provisions.FEMA 451. For example. design for such events is specialized. This is not to say. to an extent.1 EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA According to the most widely held scientific belief. by the fact that the Provisions uses two sets of maps define the hazard of seismic ground shaking – one is pertinent for higher frequency motion (the SS maps) and the other for lower frequencies (the S1 maps). In the central and eastern United States. most earthquakes occur when two segments of the earth’s crust suddenly move in relation to one another. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples described. and it is this ground shaking that is the principal concern of structural engineering to resist earthquakes. Where related to the discussion in this chapter. South Carolina. earthquakes are not associated with such a plate boundary and their causes are not as completely understood. 1. Lifelines that cross faults require special design beyond the scope of the Provisions. These waves cause the surface of the ground to shake violently. and gross settlement are the result of ground shaking on susceptible soil formations. Modification of soil properties to protect against liquefaction is one important exception. however. and seiches (longperiod sloshing) in lakes and inland seas can have similar effects along shorelines. Nearly all large earthquakes are tectonic in origin – that is. seismic sea waves or tsunamis can cause very forceful flood waves in coastal regions.) Mass soil failures such as landslides. combined with the smaller amount of data about central and eastern earthquakes (because of their infrequency). the uncertainty (when considered as a fraction of the predicted level) about the hazard level is probably greater in areas where the mapped hazard is low than in areas where the mapped hazard is high. However. Missouri. The surface along which movement occurs is known as a fault. and it is common to avoid constructing buildings and similar structures where such phenomena are likely to occur. earthquake or the very large New Madrid. however. The structural loads specified in the Provisions are based solely on ground shaking. the design examples and calculations in this book have not been revised to reflect the changes to the 2003 Provisions. called plates. Abrupt ground displacements occur where a fault intersects the ground surface. the other effects generally are not major considerations in the design of buildings and similar structures. and it is common to locate structures so that mass soil failures and fault breakage are of no major consequence to their performance. they do not provide for ground failure. significant changes to the 2003 Provisions and primary reference documents are noted. liquefaction. This is the case with earthquakes in the far western portion of the United States where two very large plates. and virtually all such earthquakes occur at or near the boundaries of these plates. come together. that they should not be considered during site exploration and analysis.
13 . the historical record is too short to justify sole reliance on the historical record. there are more geological data available for the far western United States than for other regions of the country.” which is defined as having a 2 percent probability of being exceeded in a 50year reference period. the necessarily crude lumping of parameters. Ground shaking.Chapter 1. the aboveground portion of a structure is not subjected to any applied force. the basis became to “avoid structural collapse at the maximum considered earthquake (MCE) ground motion.2. Geological data have been developed for many locations as part of the nuclear power plant design process. Fundamentals are not captured by the maps. On the whole. note the description of the newest generation of maps introduced in 1997 and their close relationship to the development of a new design criterion. however. The increasing power and declining cost of computational aids are making such analyses more common but. for several representative earthquakes. In particular. The first is the historical record of earthquake effects and the second is the geological record of earthquake effects. not static. at a given location. Thus.21 shows accelerograms. Two basic data sources are used in establishing the likelihood of earthquake ground shaking. Prior to its 1997 edition. 1. The stresses and strains within the superstructure are created entirely by its dynamic response to the movement of its base. In the present interim. there is no place in the United States where the historical record is long enough to be used as a reliable basis for earthquake prediction – certainly not as reliable as with other phenomena such as wind and snow. Even on the eastern seaboard. the geological record is essential. even the response to wind is essentially static. For most structures. There are extended discussions of these issues in the appendices to the Commentary. records of the acceleration at one point along one axis. it is not commonly done for ordinary structures. Even though the most used design procedure resorts to the use of a concept called the equivalent static force for actual calculations. The Commentary provides a more thorough discussion of the development of the maps. Both sets of data have been taken into account in the Provisions seismic hazard maps. the change from life safety to structural collapse prevention as the limit state will create significant changes in procedures for design analysis. only a small minority of structures are analyzed for specific response to a specific ground motion. Note the erratic nature of the ground shaking and the different characteristics of the different accelerograms. but interim adjustments to design requirements for such a possibility are included in the Provisions.2 STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO GROUND SHAKING The first important difference between structural response to an earthquake and response to most other loadings is that the earthquake response is dynamic. but they are used widely to improve knowledge of seismicity. some knowledge of the theory of vibrations of structures is essential. the ground. is known to vary considerably over small distances and the Provisions maps do not attempt to capture all such local variations (commonly called microzoning). at this time. Given the infrequency of major earthquakes. or seismicity. Forces within the structure are due almost entirely to the pressure loading rather than the acceleration of the mass of the structure. In the long term. As of the 1997 edition. the ground motions for use with present design procedures are simply taken as being twothirds of the MCE ground motions.1 Response Spectra Figure 1. Such data require very careful interpretation. however. But with earthquake ground shaking. the basis of the Provisions was to “provide life safety at the design earthquake motion.” which was defined as having a 10 percent probability of being exceeded in a 50year reference period. 1. their probabilistic basis. Precise analysis of the elastic response of an ideal structure to such a pattern of ground motion is possible. and other related issues.
NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Northridge (Sylmar 360°) 1994 San Fernando (Pacoima Dam) 1971 Tabas 1978 Kern Taft 1952 El Centro 1940 Morgan Hill (Gilroy) 1984 Kobe 1995 Imperial 6 (Hudson) 1979 Northridge (Sylmar 90°) 1994 Loma Prieta (Oakland Wharf) 1989 San Fernando (Orion Blvd.21 Earthquake ground acceleration in epicentral regions (all accelerograms are plotted to the same scale for time and acceleration). Great earthquakes extend for much longer periods of time. Part (a) shows the ground acceleration along with the ground velocity and ground displacement derived from it.FEMA 451. Part (b) shows the 14 .22 shows further detail developed from an accelerogram.) 1971 Landers (Joshua Tree) 1992 North Palm Springs 1986 Mexico City 1985 Figure 1. Figure 1.
The underlying theory is based entirely on the response of a singledegreeoffreedom oscillator such as a simple onestory frame with the mass concentrated at the roof.22(b) (the vertical scales are different). a 7story. was approximately 5 miles from the closest portion of the causative fault. s 30 40 (a) Ground acceleration. velocity. the family of response spectra for one ground motion may be determined.4 1971 San Fernando earthquake: (a) northsouth ground acceleration. reinforced concrete frame building. Different earthquake ground motions lead to response spectra with peaks and valleys at different points with respect to the natural frequency. cm\s\s 500 Acceleration. cm\s 500 70 0 0 30 20 Displacement. based on some normalization for different amplitudes of shaking. and displacement and (b) northsouth roof acceleration. velocity. Note that the peak values are larger in the diagrams of Figure 1.22(a) and illustrates that the erratic nature of ground shaking leads to a response that is very erratic in that a slight change in the natural period of vibration brings about a very large change in response. s 30 40 30 0 10 20 Time. The Holiday Inn. The first step in creating a design response spectrum is to determine the maximum response of a given structure to a specific ground motion (see Figure 1. The vibrational characteristics of such a simple oscillator may be reduced to two: the natural frequency and the amount of damping. Figure 1. velocity. cm 70 30 0 0 20 0 10 20 Time. It depends very much on the vibrational characteristics of the structure and the characteristic frequencies of the ground shaking at the site. and displacement (b) Roof acceleration. and displacement (Housner and Jennings 1982). Thus.22 Holiday Inn ground and building roof motion during the M6. and displacement Figure 1. 15 . cm 0 0 250 30 Velocity. It is simply the plot of the maximum value of response for each combination of frequency and damping. In design. will lead to a smoother set of spectra. velocity. and displacement for the same event at the roof of the building located where the ground motion was recorded. cm\s Displacement. cm\s\s Velocity.22). Note that the vertical scale of (b) is different from (a). computing response spectra for several different ground motions and then averaging them. The recorded building motions enabled an analysis to be made of the stresses and strains in the structure during the earthquake. This increase in response of the structure at the roof level over the motion of the ground itself is known as dynamic amplification.Chapter 1. 250 Acceleration. velocity.23 shows such a result for the ground motion of Figure 1. Such smoothed spectra are an important step in developing a design spectrum. the response of a specific structure to an earthquake is ordinarily predicted from a design response spectrum such as is specified in the Provisions. By recalculating the record of response versus time to a specific ground motion for a wide range of natural frequencies and for each of a set of common amounts of damping. Fundamentals acceleration.
0. one being for the known frequency (period) while the other is for the cyclic frequency. 16 . Figure 1.23 or 1. velocity. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Figure 1. Cyclic frequency is the inverse of period. therefore. approximately 5 miles from the causative fault in the 1971 San Fernando earthquake (Housner and Jennings 1982).FEMA 451.23 and 1.24 are different.24 for a structure with known frequency (period) and damping. 0.20 of critical damping) recorded at the Holiday Inn.02.05. or displacement may be obtained from Figure 1. 0. 0. Figure 1.24 is an example of an averaged spectrum. Note that the horizontal axes of Figures 1.23 Response spectrum of northsouth ground acceleration (0.24 should be rotated about the line f = 1 to compare it with Figure 1. Note that acceleration.23.10.
Fundamentals Figure 1. this procedure changed. Blume. such as a multistory building. This has removed a portion of the uncertainty in predicting response accelerations. Reprinted with permission from the American Society of Civil Engineers.2 and 1. With the introduction of the MCE ground motions.24 Averaged spectrum (Newmark. however. Prior to the 1997 editions of the Provisions. The principles of dynamic modal analysis. and the design response spectrum is computed more directly. modeling each mode as an equivalent singledegreeoffreedom oscillator. and design response spectra were created using expressions that amplified (or deamplified) the ground acceleration as a function of period and damping. if many specific conditions are met. The Provisions does not require consideration of all possible modes of vibration for most buildings because the contribution of the higher modes (higher frequencies) to the total response is relatively minor. 17 . allow a reasonable approximation of the maximum response of a multidegreeoffreedom oscillator. The procedure involves dividing the total response into a number of natural modes. and Kapur 1973).0 second.Chapter 1. the maps that characterized the ground shaking hazard were plotted in terms of peak ground acceleration. 0.0 percent of critical damping). Few structures are so simple as to actually vibrate as a singledegreeoffreedom system. horizontal components (2. Mean and mean plus one standard deviation acceleration. Now the maps present spectral response accelerations at two periods of vibration. determining the maximum response for each mode from a singledegreeoffreedom response spectrum. and then estimating the maximum total response by statistically summing the responses of the individual modes.
(The MCE ground motion maps are drawn for sites on rock. but the displacement response is generally about the same for the ductile structure as for the elastic structure strong enough to respond without yielding. 2.23 shows a peak acceleration response of about 1. part (b) of the figure is characteristic of the response to forces such as gravity weight or wind pressure. are not permitted to approach the elastic limit. For structures with very low natural frequencies. Figure 1. Figure 1. The principal extension beyond ordinary behavior referenced at the beginning of this chapter is that structures are permitted to strain beyond the elastic limit in responding to earthquake ground shaking.2 Inelastic Response The preceding discussion assumes elastic behavior of the structure. very different design response spectra are specified depending on the type of soil(s) beneath the structure. and therefore strains. Different materials and different arrangements of structural members lead to different ductilities. especially at shorter periods as the amplitude of basic ground motion increases. therefore. Figure 1. 3. the following conclusions may be drawn: 1.25 illustrates the large amount of strain energy that may be stored by a ductile system in a displacementcontrolled event such as an earthquake. The reason is economic. while part (c) is characteristic of induced displacements such as foundation settlement or earthquake ground shaking. 18 .2. Response spectra may be calculated for oscillators with different levels of ductility. The two graphs are plotted with the independent variables on the horizontal axis and the dependent response on the vertical axis.FEMA 451. The Provisions accounts for this effect by providing amplifiers that are to be applied to the 0.) Thus. This is dramatically different from the case of design for other types of loads in which stresses. The dynamic nature of earthquake ground shaking means that a large portion of the shaking energy can be dissipated by inelastic deformations if some damage to the structure is accepted. 1. For structures with very high natural frequencies. but the displacement is increased. due to yielding in the soil.0 g (the acceleration due to gravity) for a structure with moderately low damping – for only a moderately large earthquake! Even structures that are resisting lateral forces well will have a static lateral strength of only 20 to 40 percent of gravity.0 second spectral accelerations for various classes of soils. the acceleration response is reduced by a factor equivalent to the ductility ratio (the ratio of maximum usable displacement to effective yield displacement – note that this is displacement and not strain). on the structure’s response. Thus. soft soils amplify the motion at the surface with respect to bedrock motions. The Commentary contains a thorough explanation of this feature. At the risk of gross oversimplification. Especially at low amplitudes of motion and at longer periods of vibration. The figures should not be interpreted as a horizontal beam and a vertical column. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The soil at a site has a significant effect on the characteristics of the ground motion and.2 and 1. This amplification is diminished somewhat. For intermediate frequencies (which applies to nearly all buildings).25(a) would represent a beam if the load W were small and a column if W were large. The degree to which a member or structure may deform beyond the elastic limit is referred to as ductility. the acceleration response is reduced. the acceleration response of the ductile structure is essentially the same as that of the elastic structure. The point being made with the figures is that ductile structures have the ability to resist displacements much larger than those that first cause yield.
the oscillator is excited into vibrations by the ground motion and it behaves essentially as a displacementcontrolled system and can survive displacements much beyond the yield point. the base moment (FR) increases until the yield point is reached. Most structures are designed for seismic response using a linear elastic analysis with the strength of the structure limited by the strength at its critical location.25 Force controlled resistance versus displacement controlled resistance (after Housner and Jennings 1982). this ductility is decreased dramatically. Inelastic response is quite complex. the force producing the yield point stress is close to the force producing collapse. As the displacement is increased. Yield must develop at four locations before the peak resistance is achieved. observation of the inelastic properties of a material. however. Fundamentals W ∆ H ∆ ∆U H HU Force control HY Displacement control ∆Y HY HU /H Y y 1 HU H ∆Y ∆U ∆ U /∆ Y >> 1 ∆ (a) (c) (b) Figure 1. The margin from the first yield to the peak strength is referred to as overstrength and it plays a significant role in resisting strong ground motion. As H is increased. This explains why ductile structures can survive ground shaking that produces displacements much greater than yield point displacement. stiffness. (As W increases.Chapter 1. The ductility does not produce a large increase in load capacity. Therefore. the redistributions allowed therein are minor compared to what occurs in response to strong ground motion. ACI 318 for the design of concrete structures) do allow for some redistribution of internal forces from the critical locations based upon ductility. a plastic hinge forms giving large displacements. the displacement increases until the yield point stress is reached. In part (c) the displacement is the independent variable. but this is not the same as the classic definition used in mechanics of materials. Note that a few key design standards (for example. If H is given an additional increment (about 15 percent). Systems that have a proven capacity to maintain a stable resistance to a large number of cycles of inelastic deformation are allowed to exercise a greater portion of their ultimate ductility in designing for earthquake resistance. In part (b) the force H is the independent variable. the displacement can be increased 10 to 20 times the yield point displacement before the system collapses under the weight W. Cycling the deformation can cause degradation of strength. or both. the base moment increases only a small amount. or system under a monotonically increasing load until failure can be very misleading.) During an earthquake. This property is often referred to as toughness. Figure 1. For this kind of system. For a ductile element. As the displacement increases still more. Earthquake ground motions involve a significant number of reversals and repetitions of the strains. member. Most structures possess enough complexity so that the peak strength of a ductile structure is not accurately captured by such an analysis. 19 .26 shows the load versus displacement relation for a simple frame.
and overstrength depend primarily on the type of building system. Cd.FEMA 451. ductility.δ curve Figure 1. and overstrength. Computations of displacement based upon ground motion reduced by the factor R will underestimate the actual displacements. 1. damping.3 Building Materials The following brief comments about building materials and systems are included as general guidelines only. ductility. Cd. the characteristics important in determining a building’s seismic response are natural frequency.5 3 3.2. the designer calculates. The natural frequency is dependent on the mass and stiffness of the building. and high damping combine to give timber 110 . Damping. and Ω0 are specified in the Provisions for the most common structural materials and systems. the natural period of vibration (the inverse of natural frequency). Much of this damping is caused by slip at the connections. Ω0 is intended to deliver a reasonably high estimate of the peak force that would develop in the structure. To summarize. ductility.1 Wood Timber structures nearly always resist earthquakes very well. and Ω0 – are provided to encompass damping. The margin from initial yield to failure (mechanism in this case) is known as overstrength. toughness. and overstrength. connection ductility. Cd is intended to be a reasonable mean for the amplification necessary to convert the elastic displacement response computed for the reduced ground motion to actual displacements. Sets of R.5 1 1. stability of resistance. These structures also possess a much higher degree of damping than the damping that is assumed in developing the basic design spectrum. even though wood is a brittle material as far as tension and flexure are concerned. Conventional timber structures (plywood or board sheathing on wood framing) possess much more ductility than the basic material primarily because the nails and other steel connection devices yield and the wood compresses against the connector. Three coefficients – R. It is used to compute a required strength. stability of resistance under repeated reversals of inelastic deformation. not for specific application. The increased strength. and its strength increases significantly for brief loadings. or at least approximates. but not the building’s size or shape.5 5 (a) Structures (b) H . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 160 HU HY 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 5 H 10 10 5 δ 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. such as earthquake.2. 1. It has some ductility in compression (generally monotonic).5 2 2. Using the Provisions. R is intended to be a conservatively low estimate of the reduction of acceleration response in a ductile system from that for an elastic oscillator with a certain level of damping.5 4 4.26 Initial yield load and failure load for a ductile portal frame.3.
but it can deliver successful performance. except for rocking of masonry piers on a firm base. Fundamentals structures a large reduction from elastic response to design level.2. and other factors lead to larger reductions from the elastic response. 1. the sequence of plastification.2 Steel Steel is the most ductile of the common building materials. in which local buckling is usually a limiting factor.4 Masonry Masonry is a more diverse material than those mentioned above. The connections between pieces of precast concrete commonly are not as strong as the members being connected. Many common connection schemes. Successful performance of such systems requires that the connections perform in a ductile manner.g. and very little reduction from the elastic response is permitted. makes it difficult. 1. however. Other defects.. The large reduction in acceleration combined with the light weight timber structures make them very efficient with regard to earthquake ground shaking when they are properly connected.3. Thus.2.2. also affect earthquake resistance as demonstrated in the Northridge earthquake. the reduction factors for reinforced masonry are not quite as large as those for reinforced concrete. however. This requires some extra effort in design. This large reduction should not be used if the strength of the structure is actually controlled by bending or tension of the gross timber cross sections. to take some of the steps (e. Clever arrangements of connections can create systems in which yielding under earthquake motions occurs away from the connections. As a point of reference.5 Precast Concrete Precast concrete obviously can behave quite similarly to reinforced concrete.3. buckling of compression bars. Thus. but less is known about its inelastic response characteristics. The nature of the masonry construction. confinement of compression members) used with reinforced concrete to increase ductility and stability. The moderatetolarge reduction from elastic response to design response allowed for steel structures is primarily a reflection of this ductility and the stability of the resistance of steel. such as stress concentrations and flaws in welds.3. reinforced masonry behaves in a fashion similar to reinforced concrete. the most common wood 111 .2. Further. however. For certain types of members (such as pure cantilever shear walls). will not do so.Chapter 1. Unreinforced masonry possesses little ductility or stability. but it also can behave quite differently. there is a wide range of reduction factors from elastic response to design response depending on the detailing for stable and assured resistance. Members subject to buckling (such as bracing) and connections subject to brittle fracture (such as partial penetration welds under tension) are much less ductile and are addressed in the Provisions in various ways. Some carefully detailed connections also can mimic the behavior of reinforced concrete.3 Reinforced Concrete Reinforced concrete achieves ductility through careful limits on steel in tension and concrete in compression. Providing stability of the resistance to reversed inelastic strains. The basic and applied research program that grew out of that demonstration has greatly increased knowledge of how to avoid low ductility details in steel construction. Reinforced concrete beams with common proportions can possess ductility under monotonic loading even greater than common steel beams. The Commentary and the commentary with the ACI 318 standard for design of structural concrete explain how controlling premature shear failures in members and joints. requires special detailing. in which case the similarity to reinforced concrete is very real.3. This is confirmed by their generally good performance in earthquakes. the discrete differences between mortar and the masonry unit create additional failure phenomena. 1. concrete compression failures (through confinement with transverse reinforcement). if not impossible. 1.
Connection details often make development of ductility difficult in braced frames.0 and 1. Only two values of the redundancy factor. Unbraced frames generally are allowed greater reductions from elastic response than walls and braced frames. A simple. it is not universally accepted and is likely to change in the future. having several different locations with approximately the same stress levels. a radical change was made to the requirements related to redundancy. 1. for seismic design of precast structures. are defined: 1.3 ENGINEERING PHILOSOPHY 112 . deemedtocomply exception is provided for certain structures. such as masonry and concrete). In the context of the Provisions.6 Composite Steel and Concrete Reinforced concrete is a composite material. 8. Redundancy is frequently cited as a desirable attribute for seismic resistance. These structures generally are an attempt to combine the most beneficial aspects of each material.] Walls that are not load bearing are allowed a greater reduction than walls that are load bearing. A quantitative measure of redundance has been introduced in recent editions of the Provisions in an attempt to prevent use of large reductions from elastic response in structures that actually possess very little redundancy. such as unconfined concrete and the welded steel joint used before the Northridge earthquake. 1.2. Design provisions appear in 2003 Provisions Sec. The Provisions includes guidance. are penalized with small reduction factors. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples seismic resisting systems perform well yet have connections (nails) that are significantly weaker than the connected elements (structural wood panels).4 Building Systems Three basic lateralloadresisting elements – walls. In part. composite is a term reserved for structures with elements consisting of structural steel and reinforced concrete acting in a composite manner.3.3. braced frames. Assignment of a value for ρ is based on explicit consideration of the consequence of failure of a single element of the seismicforceresisting system.6. As with many new empirical measures. [The 2003 Provisions include proportioning and detailing rules for bucklingrestrained braced frames.FEMA 451. This new system has the advantages of a special steel concentrically braced frame. but with performance that is superior as brace buckling is prevented.2. Systems using connection details that have not exhibited good ductility and toughness. another is that axial compression generally reduces the flexural ductility of concrete and masonry elements (although small amounts of axial compression usually improve the performance of materials weak in tension.] 1. this is because frames are more redundant. [In the 2003 Provisions. and common beamcolumn joints frequently exhibit an ability to maintain a stable response through many cycles of reversed inelastic deformations. ρ. Eccentrically braced steel frames and new proportioning and detailing rules for concentrically braced frames have been developed to overcome these shortcomings. Systems that combine different types of elements are generally allowed greater reductions from elastic response because of redundancy. some only for trial use and comment. and unbraced frames (moment resisting frames) – are used to build a classification of structural types in the Provisions. Redundancy is one reason. and buckling of compression members also limits their inelastic response.
structural damage from the design earthquake ground motion would be repairable although perhaps not economically so. The Provisions recognizes that the risk presented by a particular building is a combination of the seismic hazard at the site and the consequence of failure. The design earthquake ground motion level mentioned is twothirds of the MCE ground motion. of the building. For ground motions larger than the design levels. a classification system is established based on the use and size of the building. and distortion. For essential facilities. Most of these adjustments were simple factors to be applied to conventional allowable stresses. Fundamentals The Provisions. For most structures designed and constructed according to the Provisions. A third linear method. The yieldlevel strength provided must be at least that required by the design spectrum (which is reduced from the elastic spectrum as described previously). stability. subject to certain limitations. In the past. Structural elements that cannot be expected to perform in a ductile manner are to have strengths greater than those required by the Ω0 amplifier on the design spectral response. Yieldlevel strengths for steel and concrete structures are easily obtained from common design standards. . 1.” states: The design earthquake ground motion levels specified herein could result in both structural and nonstructural damage. .4 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS The Provisions sets forth several procedures for determining the force effect of ground shaking. The stability criterion is imposed by amplifying the effects of lateral forces for the destabilizing effect of lateral translation of the gravity weight (the Pdelta effect). . the intent of the Provisions is that there be low likelihood of structural collapse. The distortion criterion as a limit on story drift and is calculated by amplifying the linear response to the (reduced) design spectrum by the factor Cd to account for inelastic behavior. With the deletion of these methods from the Provisions. The most common design standards for timber and masonry are based on allowable stress concepts that are not consistent with the basis of the reduced design spectrum. a full history of dynamic response (often referred to as a timehistory or responsehistory analysis). These methods use real or synthetic ground motion histories as input but require them to be scaled to the basic response spectrum at the site 113 . Analytical procedures are classified by two facets: linear versus nonlinear and dynamic versus equivalent static. A combined classification called the Seismic Design Category (SDC) incorporates both the seismic hazard and the SUG. and a nonlinear method are also permitted. The two points to be emphasized are that damage is to be expected when an earthquake (equivalent to the design earthquake) occurs and that the probability of collapse is not zero. the Provisions stipulated adjustments to common reference standards for timber and masonry to arrive at a strength level equivalent to yield and compatible with the basis of the design spectrum. This classification is called the Seismic Use Group (SUG). The flow charts in Chapter 2 illustrate how these classifications are used to control application of various portions of the Provisions. The basic structural criteria are strength. Thus. Although strengthbased standards for both materials have been introduced in recent years. the engineering profession has not yet embraced these new methods. under “Purpose. The SDC is used throughout the Provisions for decisions regarding the application of various specific requirements.Chapter 1. The two most fully constrained and frequently used are both linear methods: an equivalent static force procedure and a dynamic modal response spectrum analysis procedure. due to any cause. methods have been introduced into model building codes and the ASCE standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures to factor downward the seismic load effects based on the Provisions for use with allowable stress design methods. it is expected that the damage from the design earthquake ground motion would not be so severe as to preclude continued occupancy and function of the facility.
The entire reduction from the elastic spectrum to design spectrum is accomplished by dividing the elastic spectrum by the coefficient R. A nonlinear static method. uncertainties in the strength and stiffness of the structural elements. With the equivalent static force procedure. These limits prevent the use of a very flexible model in order to obtain a large period and correspondingly low acceleration.FEMA 451. This distribution is based on the results of dynamic studies of relatively uniform buildings and is intended to give an envelope of shear force at each level that is consistent with these studies. This concept is referred to as horizontal torsion.) Calculation of a period based on an analytical model of the structure is encouraged. Total values for subsequent analysis and design are determined by taking the square root of the sum of the squares for each mode. The resulting internal forces are combined with the effects of gravity loads and then compared to the full strength of the members. also know as a pushover analysis. The twist produced by real and accidental torsion is then compared to a threshold. That exception accounts for uncertainties in the location of the center of mass. is described in an appendix for trial use and comment. [In the 2003 Provisions. In many respects. The particular acceleration for the building is determined from this spectrum by selecting a value for the natural period of vibration. and the value for R. the remainder of the equivalent static force analysis is basically a standard structural analysis. The distribution of forces. on the results of the Applied Technology Council’s Project 55. The primary difference is that the natural period and corresponding deflected shape must be known for several of the natural modes of vibration. The Provisions requires that the center of force be displaced from the calculated center of mass by an arbitrary amount in either direction (this torsion is referred to as accidental torsion). which is generally the total permanent load. particularly in tall buildings. the equivalent static force procedure specifies how this force is to be distributed along the height of the building. This summation gives a statistical estimate of maximum response when the participation of the various modes is random. and rotational components in the basic ground shaking. which are not reduced by a factor of safety. which ranges from 11/4 to 8. Once the overall response acceleration is found. With one exception. and the modal procedure is required for structures with large periods (essentially this means tall structures) in the higher seismic design categories. The Provisions define the total effect of earthquake actions as a combination of the response to horizontal motions (or forces for the equivalent static force method) with response to vertical ground acceleration. and the resulting story shears and overturning moments. in part. are determined for each mode directly from the procedure. This set of forces will produce. but limits are placed on the results of such calculations. the base shear is obtained by multiplying it by the total effective mass of the building. the level of the design spectrum is set by determining the appropriate values of basic seismic acceleration. Dynamic analysis is encouraged. and if the threshold is exceeded. Once the total lateral force is determined. If two or more of the modes have very 114 . the modal analysis procedure is very similar to the equivalent static force procedure. Equations that require only the height and type of structural system are given to approximate the natural period for various building types. The base shear for each mode is determined from a design spectrum that is essentially the same as that for the static procedure. the torsion must be amplified. These are calculated from a mathematical model of the structure.] The two most common linear methods make use of the same design spectrum. the appropriate soil profile type. (The area and length of shear walls come into play with an optional set of equations. The procedure requires inclusion of enough modes so that the dynamic model represents at least 90 percent of the mass in the structure that can vibrate. Nonlinear analyses are very sensitive to assumptions made in the analysis and a peer review is required. and a part of the R factor accomplishes adjustments in the damping level. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples for the range of periods of interest for the structure in question. an envelope of gross overturning moment that is larger than the dynamic studies indicate is necessary. The specified elastic spectrum is based on a damping level at 5 percent of critical damping. substantial changes were made to the appendix for the nonlinear static procedure based.
A lower limit to the base shear determined from the modal analysis procedure is specified based on the static procedure and the approximate periods specified in the static procedure. Third. Response spectra developed from the history of motion of a point on a structure undergoing ground shaking are called floor spectra and are a useful in understanding the demands upon nonstructural components. When this limit is violated. these procedures must account for coupling in the response of close modes. Some components are rigid with respect to the structure (light weights and small dimensions often lead to fundamental periods of vibration that are very short). the two procedures give very similar results. neither will give a particularly accurate picture of behavior in an earthquake approaching the design event.5 NONSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF BUILDINGS Severe ground shaking often results in considerable damage to the nonstructural elements of buildings. Some buildings. Second.Chapter 1. Yielding of one component leads to redistribution of the forces within the structural system. as in the case of a fire suppression system. yet. Damage to nonstructural elements can pose a hazard to life in and of itself. First. not just their anchorage) to accommodate specific structural deformations or seismic forces is required. therefore. Early recognition of this will avoid considerable problems in later analysis and checking. Fundamentals similar periods. many of their nonstructural elements must remain undamaged. Both of the common methods require consideration of the stability of the building as a whole. however. may not offer enough protection to brittle elements that are rigidly bound by the structure. or it can create a hazard if the nonstructural element ceases to function. such as hospitals and fire stations. more advanced techniques for summing the values are required. the story shears. or masses. The dynamic response of the structure provides the dynamic input to the nonstructural component. need to be functional immediately following an earthquake. The sum of the absolute values for each mode is always conservative. thus. The response of the component is often amplified above the response of the supporting structure. the moment calculated from the story forces will not match the moment from the summation). The technique is based on elastic amplification of horizontal displacements created by the action of gravity on the displaced masses. many components must be anchored for an equivalent static force. The Provisions treats damage to and from nonstructural elements in three ways. This may be very significant. The modal procedure is required for such structures in higher seismic design categories. The modal analysis method is better for buildings having unequal story heights. the limits specified. 115 . all results are scaled up in direct proportion. 1. indirect protection is provided by an overall limit on structural distortion. For structures that are very uniform in a vertical sense. the explicit design of some elements (the elements themselves. as in the case of heavy partitions or facades. A simple factor is calculated and the amplification is provided for in designing member strengths when the amplification exceeds about 10 percent. Both methods are based on purely elastic behavior and. Application of the response spectrum concept would indicate that the time history of motion of a building roof to which mechanical equipment is attached looks like a ground motion to the equipment. More restrictive limits are placed upon those SUGs for which better performance is desired given the occurrence of strong ground shaking. stiffnesses. the results are not statically compatible (that is. none of the linear methods can account for it. The consideration of horizontal torsion is the same as for the static procedure. Because the forces applied at each story. and the overturning moments are separately obtained from the summing procedure. which is common. The technique is referred to as the Pdelta analysis and is only an approximation of stability at inelastic response levels.
and 4. but it is fairly rare.FEMA 451. No comparable proof test exists for horizontal loads. The available ductility of the component or its anchorage. The inertial force demands tend to control the seismic design for isolated or heavy components whereas the imposed deformations are important for the seismic design for elements that are continuous through multiple levels of a structure or across expansion joints between adjacent structures. Furthermore. An estimate of component acceleration that depends on the structural response acceleration for short period structures. 2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The Provisions simplifies the concept greatly. 116 . those individuals who carry out the necessary inspection and testing must be technically qualified and must communicate the results of their work to all concerned parties. and a crude approximation of the flexibility of the component or its anchorage. the relative height of the component within the structure. The force for which components are checked depends on: 1. The quality assurance provisions require a systematic approach with an emphasis on documentation and communication. The component mass. there is no substitute for a sound design. This is coupled with the fact that the design is based on excursions into inelastic straining. such as cladding or piping. mistakes occasionally will pass this test only to cause failure later. 1. Tragically. 3.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE Since strong ground shaking has tended to reveal hidden flaws or weak links in buildings. The function or importance of the component or the building. and experience has shown that flaws in construction show up in a disappointingly large number of buildings as distress and failure due to earthquakes. Loads experienced during construction provide a significant test of the likely performance of ordinary buildings under gravity loads. which is not the case for response to other loads. detailed requirements for assuring quality during construction are contained in the Provisions. Minimum levels of testing and inspection are specified in the Provisions for various types of systems and components. The designer who conceives the systems to resist the effects of earthquake forces must identify the elements that are critical for successful performance as well as specify the testing and inspection necessary to ensure that those elements are actually built to perform as intended. In the final analysis. The Provisions also requires that the contractor and building official be aware of the requirements specified by the designer. Also included in the Provisions is a quantitative measure for the deformation imposed upon nonstructural components. soundly executed.
Chart 2. the seismic provisions of ASCE 7. Order by FEMA Publication number. All of the specific provisions pertaining to nonbuilding structures are collected together on one page (Chart 2. 21 . including the content of all technical chapters.20). being greater where questions of applicability of the Provisions are pertinent and less where a standard process of structural analysis or detailing is all that is required. but they cannot substitute for a careful reading of the Provisions. therefore. see the cross reference table at the end of this chapter. Notes indicate discrepancies and errors in the Provisions.2 GUIDE TO USE OF THE PROVISIONS Michael Valley. The level of detail shown varies. Optional items and modified flow are indicated by dashed lines. The flow charts and table that follow are provided to assist the user of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions and. User decisions are identified by sixsided cells. by extension. Additions to. Although the examples in this volume are based on the 2000 Provisions.1 provides an overall summary of the process which begins with consideration of the Scope of Coverage and ends with Quality Assurance Requirements. The details contained in the many standards referenced in the Provisions are not included. Both editions of the Provisions can be obtained free from the FEMA Publications Distribution Center by calling 18004802520. the International Building Code. On each chart the flow generally is from a heavyweight box at the topleft to a mediumweight box at the bottomright. application for nonbuilding structures requires the use of various portions of the Provisions with appropriate modification. and alterations of existing structures are covered by the NEHRP Recommended Provisions (see Chart 2. P. they have been annotated to reflect changes made to the 2003 Provisions.E. indicate both organizational changes (as a result of a reformat of all of the chapters of the 2003 Provisions) and substantive technical changes to the 2003 Provisions and its primary reference documents. Annotations within brackets. The table that concludes this chapter provides cross references for ASCE 7 and the 2000 and 2000 editions of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions. The flow charts are expected to be of most use to those who are unfamiliar with the scope of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions.3). the 2003 Provisions is available as FEMA 450 in CD form (only a limited number of paper copies are available) and the 2000 Provisions are available as FEMA 368 and 369 (2 volumes and maps). and NFPA 5000. changes of use in. [ ]. but evaluation and rehabilitation of existing structures is not. For those readers coming from ASCE 705. The flow charts provide an overview of the complete process for satisfying the Provisions. the actual flow of information when proportioning structural members for the seismic load effects specified in the Provisions will be considerably more complex. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.
and rehabilitation of earthquakedamaged concrete and masonry wall buildings (FEMA 306. and repair of steel moment frame structures (FEMA 351 and 352). specific recommendations have been developed for the evaluation. 22 . although this document has since been replaced by the ASCE 31 Standard (Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings). and 308) and for the evaluation. rehabilitation. postearthquake assessment. repair. A Handbook for Seismic Evaluation of Buildings (FEMA 310) was developed as an update to the original FEMA 178.FEMA 451. In addition. Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings) based on FEMA 273 has been developed and is in balloting as ASCE 41. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples In recent years FEMA has sponsored several coordinated efforts dealing with seismic safety in existing buildings. A prestandard (FEMA 356. 307. Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA 273) and a corresponding Commentary (FEMA 274) have also been developed.
7 SoilStructure Interaction Chart 2.11 Strength Requirements Chart 2.22 Architectural.10 Seismically Isolated Chart 2.23 Quality Assurance Requirements Chart 2.13 Design and Detailing Requirements Chart 2.12 Deformation Requirements Chart 2.15 Concrete Chart 2.9 Response History Analysis Chart 2.21 Foundations 23 .18 Masonry Chart 2.2 Scope of Coverage Chart 2.6 ELF Analysis Chart 2.3 Application to Existing Structures Chart 2.4 Basic Requirements Chart 2.20 Nonbuilding Structures Chart 2.19 Wood Chart 2.17 Composite Chart 2.5 Structural Design Chart 2.8 Modal Analysis Chart 2.1 Overall Summary of Flow Chart 2. Electrical Requirements Chart 2.16 Precast Chart 2. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2.14 Steel Chart 2.Chapter 2. Mechanical.
Go to Chart 2.4.3.3.2) [Sec.2 [3. Satisfy freeboard requirement (Sec.1. 5.e.3.7. 1.15? No Yes Is it a detached 1.6. this situation is improved considerably as the requirements for Seismic Design Category A all appear in Sec.4. Go to Chart 2. a strict reading of the 2000 Provisions would lead to a substantial list of items that remain within the scope.] 24 .2 Scope of Coverage Determine if structure falls in scope of the Provisions (Sec.2]).2 [1.3]. 14.2.7.04 and S S ≤ 0. 4. B.2.6.1. offshore platform..5.or 2family dwelling? No Yes SDC A. or dam? No Is the use agricultural with only incidental human occupancy? No Determine S S and S1 (Sec.1. nuclear power generation plant. Yes No Tank in SUG III? Satisfy Sec.1 (i. *The Provisions has never defined clearly the scope of application for structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A. 14. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2.5 and 5.1]).5? No Is it an existing structure? No Yes Yes No additional requirements. 12. or C? No Yes Wood frame dwelling designed and constructed in accordance with Sec. Although the framers of the Provisions intended application of only a few simple requirements in Seismic Design Category A.FEMA 451. No Provisions not applicable. 1.5. Is it a selfsupporting structure which carries gravity loads? Yes Is structure a bridge. [As a result of the complete rewrite of the Provisions at the beginning of the 2003 update cycle. S1 ≤ 0. Yes Yes No requirements. consider as Seismic Design Category A)*.
changes of use in. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2.2]). Change to higher Seismic Use Group? Yes No Change from Seismic Use Group I to II and S DS < 0. Does alteration increase seismic forces to or decrease design strength of existing structural elements by more than 5 percent? No Is seismic force on existing structural elements increased beyond their design strength? No Is the design strength of existing structural elements required to resist seismic forces reduced? No Yes Such alteration not permitted. 1.4.2.3]). No Do the affected elements still Yes comply with the Provisions? No Entire structure designed as new structure. 1. Yes Yes New structural elements and new or relocated nonstructural elements must be detailed and connected as required by the Provisions. 25 .1.4. * Change of use (Sec.2.2.2.Chapter 2.4].4) [Sec. 1. * The Provisions applies to existing structures only in the cases of additions to.3? No Yes * Alteration of existing structure (Sec. Is addition structurally independent from existing structure? No Is any element's seismic force increased by more than 5% or its seismic resistance decreased? Yes Yes Only addition or alteration designed as new structure. Go to Chart 2.2.2.2 [1. No requirements. Go to Chart 2.1.3 [1.3 Application to Existing Structures * Addition to existing structure (Sec. 1.1. and alterations of such structures.
3) [Sec.23 for quality assurance requirements.1. determine the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) spectral response acceleration at short periods (S S ) and at 1 second (S1).22 for architectural. 4. 4. S MS . mechanical.3.4.2]) and Occupancy Importance Factor (Sec. Soil properties known in sufficient No detail to determine Site Class? Yes Classify the site (Sec. and S M1 as indicated in Sec.3 [3.1.5.1 [1.2. 3.2. 4.2.5 [3. 3. Detached 1.] Calculate design response spectrum (Sec.FEMA 451.6 [3. 4.5 for structural requirements.4.3. 4. 4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2. Yes Site Class E or F? No S1 > 0.or 2family No Fulfill site limitation dwelling of lightframe (Sec.3.1.2. compute S DS .1.4 [3. S D1 .3]).1 through 4.1.1. and electrical requirements. 1.4 of the 2003 Provisions defines reduced spectral ordinates for periods greater than T L. Calculate design earthquake acceleration parameters S DS and S D1 (Sec.3]). all of the requirements for Seismic Design Category A appear in Sec. Go to Chart 2. Design response spectrum required Yes for the analysis to be used? No Go to Chart 2.2 [1. [As a result of the rewrite of the Provisions during the 2003 update cycle. Using Spectral Acceleration Maps 1 through 24 (or CDROM) [Fig.4.5]. Go to Chart 2.6 and Yes base isolated? No Adjust MCE acceleration parameters for site class (Sec. 1.] Use Site Class D unless authority having jurisdiction determines that Site Class E or F could be present at the site.2. 1. S S ≤ 0.3.4 Basic Requirements Determine Seismic Use Group (Sec.* Determine Seismic Design Category (Sec.] 26 . 3. [For assignment of Seismic Design Category and determination of values needed for other calculations.04? No Yes Assign structure to Seismic Design Category A.2]). construction? Yes No Site Class F or Yes base isolated? Perform sitespecific evaluation to determine design response spectrum (Sec. 4.4]).1]).3 [1.314]. * [Sec.2.2]).31 through 3.4 [1.5 and application is greatly simplified.15 and S1 ≤ 0. 3.2.4]).
Chapter 2. Seismically isolated? Yes Go to Chart 2.1] and Table 5.2. 5. F x = 0. Ω0.2 and 5. Go to Chart 2.5 Structural Design Use load combinations and nonearthquake loads from ASCE 7 (Sec.4.1 [4.2.5 [4.2.2.2.] Classify diaphragm flexibility (Sec.4 [4. and Cd for later use (Sec.2.8 for modal analysis.5 [4.2.2.2]).4]).32 and 4.3]).1 [1. Seismic Design Yes Category B or C? No Requirements for building height.1.3. 4. 5. Seismic Design No Category F? Yes More stringent height limit (Sec.2.2.2. Opt to perform Yes more involved analysis? No Analyze for minimum lateral force.2. 5.4 [4.1 [4.5.2.1]). Calculate reliability factor.6]).31]).3. ρ.1 [4. Go to Chart 2.3.2 [4.3.1]).6 for ELF analysis. Go to Chart 2. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2. Height limits in Table 5. 5.3. Yes [A new "Simplified Design Procedure" that appears in the Appendix to Chapter 4 may be used in lieu of 2003 Provisions Chapters 4 and 5 for certain structures.2. 27 .0 for SDC B and C.2.1. Seismic Design Category A? No Classify the structural framing system and note R. deformational compatibility.31] apply.10. Examine plan and vertical regularity and meet minimum requirements for irregular structures (Tables 5. Go to Chart 2.2. Comply with the stated design basis (Sec.5.3]). 5. 5.3.2 [4.3.3 [4. 5.) Determine required level of seismic force analysis (Sec. 5.33]). 5. and satisfy limitations for special moment frame systems (Sec.3.2. and special moment frame continuity (Sec.01wx (Sec.11.5.2 [4. interaction effects.9 for response history analysis. (Note that ρ = 1.1]).5. 4.2.
2.4.4. Determine fundamental period of vibration for the building (Sec.6. 5.2.4.2]). 5. 5. To determine the internal forces. Go to Chart 2.1]) and the total base shear (Eqn.3 [5.2. 5.4]).21]).3 [5.1 [5.1]).3]).4.4.1 [5. Calculate the overturning moments for all stories and apply the permitted reduction for foundations (Sec. Include appropriately amplified (Sec.2.1]) and accidental torsions (Sec. perform a linear elastic analysis with an appropriate distribution of forces within stories due to the relative lateral stiffnesses of vertical elements and diaphragms (Sec.1]).4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2.2.2. 5. 5. 5.2 [5.22]).4.6 Equivalent Lateral Force (ELF) Analysis Determine total weight.6.4.4.FEMA 451.7 to calculate reduced base shear. 5. Distribute the base shear to the stories of the building (Sec.4.3]) inherent (Sec.4. 5.4 [5. (Sec.2 [5.2. Check the first order deformation for stability and amplify the forces if necessary (Sec. 28 .2]). Carefully note the upper limit placed on periods calculated from analytical models of the structure (Table 5. A reanalysis based upon a period larger than the upper limit is permitted for calculating deformations (Sec. Determine the story drifts.2. 5.4. Determine the seismic response coefficient.5 [5.11.2 [5.6. 5.2]). Consider soilstructureinteraction? (Optional) No Yes Go to Chart 2. W (Sec.2.1 [5.4.2.6. 5.4.1 [5. C s.2 [5.4.4.1.4.4.2.3 [5.5]).
2 [5. 5.21 [5.8.2]) with these modifications (Sec.2]). per Sec.3. Revise deflections to include foundation rotation (Sec. and effective stiffness.7 SoilStructure Interaction (SSI) Modal Analysis: Follow SSI procedure for ELF analysis (Sec.Chapter 2. 5.6.61].3]). 5.2. 5.2. 5. V 1 for V .69]. This SSI procedure applies only to the fundamental mode of vibration (Sec. Return to Chart 2.61]).6. 5. 5.8.2 [5.2. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2.3.8.32] to calculate W 1.3]). which cannot be less than 0. etc.7V 1.3.6. Calculate the foundation stiffnesses K y and K θ (Commentary) at the expected strain level (Table 5. 5.6.1.42 [5.3.1. Use standard modal combination techniques (Sec. Read foundation damping factor from Figure 5. 29 . substitute W 1 for W . 5. Use Eq.2 [5.2 [5.1 [5.7V.3.8.610] to modify foundation damping factor. ELF Analysis: Follow this procedure (Sec.1.1].3. Return to Chart 2.3 [5. Yes Use Eq.8.5.8. 5.8. Therefore.2.2. Calculate effective period using Eq.613] to calculate h.2. Calculate effective gravity load.1]). V 1.8.11 [5. Calculate effective damping using Eq.61]. k.1.8. 5.8. W (as a fraction of W ).12 [5.2]).6.6.3.1.8. effective height.1 [5. Calculate reduced base shear.6. Effective damping need not be less than 5 percent of critical. V . h (as a fraction of h).8.2. Point bearing piles? or Uniform soft soils over a stiff deposit? No Use Eq.1 [5. 5. of the fixed base structure. Calculate reduced base shear for the first mode.24 [5.8.1 [5.8. per Sec. which cannot be less than 0.2. 5.3 [5.63].6.8. T 1 for T.
8 [5.10 [5.5. and model elements as directed (Sec.3.5. 210 .3]) that are not in the dynamic model (Sec. and drifts in each mode (Sec.2 [5.3.3.1]). 5.5. 5.5 [5.4 [5. for each mode (Sec. V m.5]).5.1 [5. C sm. possibly including diaphragm flexibility.5.4.5.9]). To determine the internal forces.7]). and base shear.7 to calculate reduced base shear. use of the CQC technique is required where closely spaced periods in the translational and torsional modes will result in crosscorrelation of the modes. Amplify all quantities if necessary to increase the base shear (Sec. 5.4]).2] with T ≤ CuT a. Use statics to determine story shear and overturning moments in each mode (Sec. 5.3.3.4. 5. 5. Compare base shear to lower limit based upon 85 percent of that computed using Sec. Consider soilstructureinteraction? (Optional) No Yes Go to Chart 2.11. *As indicated in the text. 5. perform a linear elastic analysis.5.3. Determine story forces. 5.3. Determine seismic response coefficient. identify the appropriate degrees of freedom.9 [5.3 [5.6]).3]).4.8]). 5.6 [5. 5. 5. May reduce the overturning moments at the foundationsoil interface by only 10 percent (Sec. Check the first order deformations for stability and amplify the forces if necessary (Sec.5.10]).2]). displacements.4]). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2.3. Combine modal quantities by either the SRSS or CQC technique*.FEMA 451.5.2. 5.4.3. Use linear elastic analysis to determine periods and mode shapes (Sec.4 [5. effective gravity load.8 Modal Analysis Determine whether a threedimensional model is required. Determine the number of modes to consider (Sec. W m.7 [5. Go to Chart 2. Include inherent and accidental torsions (Sec.3. 5. Amplify torsions (Sec.3 [5.4 [5.5.2.
the average is not less than the design spectrum.7 [5.5.4]).3.3. must use the maximum value (Sec.1]). If at least seven ground motions are analyzed. Global modeling requirements are similar to those for modal analysis.1 [5.2 [5.6. 5.2]).6.7.4]). Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2. and story drift limits are increased (Sec.4. 5.3 times the design spectrum. 5.2]). 5. as follows. 5.1 [5.3 [5. For instance.3. An appendix to Chapter 5 contains requirements for the application of nonlinear static (pushover) analysis to the design of new structures.Chapter 2.4.11. Nonlinear Response History Analysis: Follow this procedure (Sec. 5.4 [5.7.5.1]). use average or maximum values depending on number of ground motions analyzed (Sec. 5. 5.5. the average of the SRSS spectra computed for each pair of ground motions is not less than 1.7. Go to Chart 2. member deformations must be considered explicitly (Sec.7. 5. 211 .3. 5.6. Select and scale ground motions based on spectral values in the period range of interest (Sec. Modeling of hysteretic behavior of elements must be consistent with laboratory test results and expected material properties (Sec. may use the average value. Determine response parameters for use in design as follows.7. Scale analysis results so that the maximum base shear is consistent with that from the ELF procedure (Sec.5.3.3 [5.9 Response History Analysis Linear Response History Analysis: Follow this procedure (Sec. typical load combinations and the overstrength factor do not apply (Sec.2 [5. As for linear response history analysis.6 [5.3.3 [5.7. If fewer than seven are analyzed.4. For 2D analysis.5. Select and scale ground motion as for linear response history analysis (Sec.1 [5.5.2 [5. 5.2]).7. For 3D analysis. Analysis results need not be scaled. Model structure as for modal analysis (Sec. Nonlinear analyses must directly include dead loads and not less than 25 percent of required live loads. 5.5.1]).5]).3]).3]). The design must be subjected to independent review (Sec.5. 5. Subsequent steps of the design process change.3 [5.3]).3]).3.
2 [13. 13.5.8) and satisfy the appropriate provisions of Sec.2. item 7? Yes No Yes Opt to perform dynamic analysis? No Yes Opt to perform timehistory analysis? No Perform timehistory analysis as described in Sec.2.3 [13.3. 13. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2.6.2 [13.7]). 13.2.2. Satisfy detailed requirements for isolation system (Sec.4.6) and satisfy the provisions of Sec. [In the 2003 Provisions.FEMA 451. Perform ELF analysis (see Chart 2.6]).5]).9 [13. 13.2.1]? Yes No Site Class A.6.2. B. 13.4. 13.] 212 .5 [13. 13. requirements for structures with damping systems appear in Chapter 15 (rather than in an appendix to Chapter 13).1].5]) and structural system (Sec.4.4.5. or D? and isolation system meets the criteria of Sec.8 [13. 13. 13. Go to Chart 2. Satisfy testing requirements (Sec. Perform design review (Sec.2 [13.6]). Satisfy requirements for elements of structures and nonstructural components (Sec. Perform modal analysis (see Chart 2.2. C.10 Seismically Isolated Structures Do the structure and isolation system satisfy the criteria of Section 13.11.
Minimum forces for anchorage of concrete or masonry walls to flexible diaphragms (Sec.2.2.2. 213 .7]).1]) and anchorage of concrete or masonry walls (Sec. [All requirements for the structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A now appear in Sec.6.6. 5.1 [4.2.11 Strength Requirements Combine gravity loads and seismic forces as indicated in ASCE 7.2.2 [4.7 [4.2]). E.2.4.6.9 [4.2.3]).7. 5. inverted pendulum structures (Sec.5.13. is defined in Provisions Sec.6.5. Go to Chart 2. Special load combinations of Sec.1.2.3.1]).1.2].2.7 [4. 5.1. Special load combinations of Sec.7.1.2.2.1.4.6. 5. 5.6.4.12.6.4.2]).1 [4.2.3 [4.4.6.1.1 [4.2.6.2.2 [4.2. 5.2. bearing walls (Sec.1.6.6.2.2.6.5.3 [4. 5.6.2. Go to Chart 2.2 [4.2] apply to collector elements (Sec. 5.6. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2.3.2.3. 6.1]) and diaphragms that are not flexible (Sec.2 [4. 5.6.2.2. 5.] Seismic Design Yes Category A? No Consideration must be given to Pdelta effects (Sec.6.2.2]). Vertical seismic forces must be considered for some horizontal components (Sec.1.2.2.2.9]).4 [4.6. and anchorage of nonstructural systems (Sec.2.2.3 [4.3. 5. Increased forces for plan or vertical irregularities (Sec. 5.1]) and combinations of framing systems (Sec. where the seismic load. Seismic Design Yes Category B? No Must consider orthogonal effects for some plan irregular structures (Sec.6 [4.5.2.2.6.1 [4. 1.1 [4.3]).2]).6.1.6. 5. 5.6.6.3 [6.1 [5. Must consider critical loading direction for each component (Sec.6. 5.1. 5. Minimum force effects for diaphragms (Sec. 5.2.2]). Special requirements for strength of moment frames in dual systems (Sec.2.2.Chapter 2.2 [4.2.2.3.2.6.6.4]).2]).2.3.2.5]).2.4.2.2.2] apply to columns supporting discontinuous walls or frames (Sec. Minimum force effects for connections (Sec.2.2.6.1.3.8 [4. 5.6.10]). Minimum forces for diaphragms (Sec. 5. 5.2]).2]). Limits on vertical discontinuities (Sec.2 [4.6]).2.10 [4.1.6. Seismic Design Yes Category C? No Orthogonal effects must be considered (Sec.1. 5. 5.
2. These drifts must include the deflection amplification factor. E. Cd . 214 . Go to Chart 2. Compare with the limits established in Table 5. [In the 2003 Provisions the allowable drift is reduced by the redundancy factor for systems with moment frames in Seismic Design Category D.8 [4.2.13.5.] Separations between adjacent buildings (including at seismic joints) must be sufficient to avoid damaging contact.31] (Sec.51].12 Deformation Requirements Enter with story drifts from the analysis of seismic force effects.2 [4. or F. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2.FEMA 451.2. 5. given in Table 5.8 [4.1]).
For nonbuilding structures.5]) and interconnection of wall elements (Sec. 5.2.4]).2. Consider effect of diaphragm displacement on attached elements (Sec.6.6.2.5.17 Composite Masonry Chart 2.2. System redundancy must be considered (Sec.1.18 Wood Chart 2. Limit on subdiaphragm aspect ratio. 5.1 [4.2. 5.2.19 215 . For various materials.15 Concrete Chart 2.2.1]).14 Steel Chart 2.20.2.1.2]).3.6.2. go to Chart 2.6.2.6. 5.2. Seismic Design Yes Category D? No Certain plan and vertical irregularities not permitted (Sec.1.6. 5.4.5.2. go to these charts: Chart 2.5.2 [4.16 Precast Chart 2.6 [4.6.2. Special detailing for wood diaphragms.13 Design and Detailing Requirements Seismic Design Yes Category A? No Openings in shear walls and diaphragms must be detailed (Sec.6.2.3 [4. struts.3]).2. Requirements for diaphragm ties. 5. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2.Chapter 2. 5. Seismic Design Yes Category B? No Continuous diaphragm crossties required.5.6.6.6.7 [4.2.3.1]).2 [4. and embedded straps (Sec.3]).6 [4.1. Seismic Design Yes Category C? No Satisfy requirement for deformational compatibility (Sec. 5.4 [4.1]). metal deck diaphragms. and connections (Sec.
2 [4.4. 8. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2. Sec.6 [8. Sec.4] applies to steel deck diaphragms.4. From Table 5. coldformed steel wall systems. R = 3. 8.6) and special steel plate shear walls (Sec. 8.4.2 [4.3] or Sec. 8.] Go to Chart 2. Sec.21. B.7 [8. [In the 2003 Provisions requirements are added for bucklingrestrained braced frames (Sec.1 [8. 8.31]. 8.31] for the appropriate steel system.14 Steel Structures Yes Seismic Design Category A.2.2] for lightframed. Any of the reference documents in Sec. 8. 216 .7).1] modifies the reference standards for design of coldformed steel members.1.2] may be used for design.8 [8. or C? No No Using a "structural steel system not specifically designed for seismic resistance?" Yes Select an R value from Table 5. The system must be designed and detailed in accordance with the AISC Seismic as modified in Sec. 8.5] applies to steel cables.5 [8.2.4 [8.FEMA 451.
Chapter 2. and plain concrete.5]). shear walls to be "special reinforced. 9. Requirements for anchor bolts in the tops of columns (Sec. Design in accordance with ACI 318 (Sec.5. [Some of these requirements are removed in the 2003 Provisions as they are now in ACI 31802.] Design of anchors (Sec.2.3 [9. Seismic Design Yes Category A? No Limit on use of ordinary moment frames (Sec.] Seismic Design Yes Category C? No Moment frames to be "special". 9.] Seismic Design Yes Category B? No Limits on moment frame and shear wall systems.6 [9. discontinuous members.5. axial strength of columns.] Go to Chart 2.1])." Detailing for deflection compatibility (Sec. diaphragm connectors. 9.5]). 9.7 [9.2. 9.1]).21. 217 .2) [ACI 31802 Appendix D]. permitted reinforcement.1 [9.15 Concrete Structures Modifications to ACI 318 for load combinations and resistance factors.2]). 1. Classification of shear walls (Sec.4]).1 [9. [All requirements for the structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A now appear in Sec. 9. [All of these requirements now appear in ACI 31802 or in the basic requirements of the 2003 Provisions.3.4 [1. 9. structural walls.1. [Many of the requirements in this chapter of the 2003 Provisions are different due to changes made in ACI 31802 and the introduction of new systems. and coupling beams (Sec. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2.
5). System must comply with all applicable requirements of monolithic concrete construction for resisting seismic forces (Sec.12) and connections (either wet or dry) must satisfy the requirements of ACI 318 new Sec. An appendix is provided for untopped precast diaphragms.4). design forces.12).11. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2. 9. 21. 9.3.11. inelastic testing (Sec. No Precast gravity load carrying system? Yes Requirements for layout of seismicforceresisting system: diaphragm strength.11.1.5). Requirements for strong connections (Sec.1.1. columntocolumn and columnface connections (ACI 318 new Sec.1. 9.1. 21. anchorage and splices.FEMA 451.1.1.1.1.1.11. 218 . 9.1 and 9.1 and the additional items in ACI 318 new Sec.21. and number of moment resisting frame bays. 9.4 and 9. Requirements for gravity beamtocolumn connections: design force and connection characteristics (Sec. Diaphragm composed of precast elements? Yes No Topping slabs must satisfy ACI 318. [All of the requirements on this chart now appear in ACI 31802.2) and new sections. aspect ratios. 21. 9.6 (Sec.2.2.1.12): location.2. The 2003 Provisions add some requirements for intermediate and special precast walls (Sec.1. 9.12) as indicated in ACI ITG/T1.16 Precast Concrete Structures General modifications to ACI 318 to include additional notation and definitions (Sec.1.2.4.1. Connections must satisfy ACI 318 new Sec.] Precast seismicforceresisting system? Yes No Emulates monolithic reinforced concrete construction? No Yes Ductile connections? Yes No Must demonstrate suitability of system by analysis and substantiating experimental evidence based on cyclic. Go to Chart 2.1. 21.
2 [4.21. The system must be designed and detailed in accordance with the AISC Seismic Parts I and II. [The 2003 Provisions make extensive modifications to Part II of AISC Seismic.2. or C? No Yes Must provide "substantiating evidence" based on cyclic testing (Sec.2 [10.4]). B. 219 .Chapter 2. 10. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2.31] for the appropriate composite system.] Seismic Design Category A.17 Composite Steel and Concrete Structures Select an R value from Table 5. Go to Chart 2.
220 .7).21. 11. as ACI 53002 is in substantial agreement with the strength design methodology contained in the 2000 Provisions. Ordinary plain masonry and ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls not permitted(Sec.3. Special requirements for beams (Sec. and shear walls (Sec. Reinforcement detailing (Sec. however. 11. Seismic Design Yes Category C? No Limits on materials and rules for wall reinforcement and concrete/masonry interface. Strength and deformation requirements (Sec. 11.3.FEMA 451. section properties (Sec.] Empirical design (per Chapter 9 of ACI 530) may be used. 11.12). columns (Sec. and shear (Sec. limits on certain materials. Seismic Design Yes Category D? No Requirements for grout. Minimum wall thickness. Detailed plain masonry and intermediate reinforced masonry shear walls not permitted (Sec. and column minimum dimensions. Special moment frames of masonry (Sec.12). 11. and rules for wall reinforcement and connection to masonry columns. 11.3. and stack bond (Sec. 11.11).3. column reinforcement. hollow units. 11. 11. The updated chapter. Go to Chart 2.9). [A significant portion of 2003 Provisions Chapter 11 has been replaced by a reference to ACI 53002. 11.6).10). does not result in significant technical changes. Material properties (Sec.8).1 Seismic Design Yes Category A? No Seismic Design Yes Category B? No Special requirements for screen walls and cavity walls. 11. and anchor bolts (Sec.8).4). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2. 11.10). 11. 11.3.18 Masonry Structures Must construct in accordance with ACI 530 and use materials in conformance with ACI 530.3. flexure and axial loads (Sec. Glass unit masonry and masonry veneer (Sec.11).9).5). 11.7).
as the Supplement is in substantial agreement with the 2000 Provisions.2]). Shear wall resistance reduced for structures with concrete or masonry walls(Sec. 1.6.1]? No Seismic Use Yes Group I? No Satisfy the Section 12.2. or D? No Satisfy an exception of Yes Sec. The updated chapter.1.1]? No Design and construct using any applicable materials and procedures in the reference documents. has been replaced by a reference to the AF&PA. 12.1. 12.4).5].2. Conform to requirements for engineered wood construction (Sec. Sheathing applied directly to framing. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2. C. 12.1 [1. 12.2.1 [1.1 [1. If satisfy Sec. Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic. however. Yes Seismic Design Category B. ASD/LRFD Supplement.2.8 [12.2. deemed to comply with Sec.3) and diaphragms and shear walls (Sec.5 requirements for conventional lightframe construction? No Yes Unblocked diaphragms not permitted.21 221 .Chapter 2.5.19 Wood Structures Seismic Design Yes Category A? No Satisfy an exception of Yes Sec.] Go to Chart 2. [A significant portion of 2003 Provisions Chapter 12. 1. does not result in significant technical changes. including the diaphragm and shear wall tables. 5.2.
5.4]. and secondary containment systems (Sec.2 [14. May be exempted from drift limits on the basis of rational analysis (Sec. Classify system. structural towers for tanks and vessels. Determine Importance Factor and Seismic Use Group (Sec.1.20 Nonbuilding Structures Use applicable strength and other design criteria from other sections of the Provisions.3 [14. and piers and wharves (Sec. or Use approved standards.5 [14. (Appendix contains provisions for: electrical transmission.2.2.5]. 14. 14.4]). 14.9]).5. Yes Dynamic response similar to that of building structures? No Structures Similar to Buildings Specific provisions for: pipe racks.2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2. Reduced seismic forces for use with allowable stress standards are defined.FEMA 451. substation.) [In the 2003 Provisions the requirements for electrical structures and telecommunication towers have been removed since the corresponding national standards have been updated appropriately. and buried structures. electrical power generating facilities.6]) and fundamental period (Sec. 14.] Go to Chart 2.2. Nonbuilding structure supported by another structure? No Yes Select R value and calculate design forces per Sec. and distribution structures.1. Calculate seismic weight (Sec.5. tanks and vessels. amusement structures. telecommunication towers. 14.5 [14.21. determine importance factor. 14.7 [14. Structures Not Similar to Buildings Specific provisions for: earth retaining structures.6 [14. 14.11]). and calculate design forces per Sec. 222 .5.4 [14.2.1]). stacks and chimneys. 14. steel storage racks.3]).4 [14. special hydraulic structures.
and reinforcement of piles (Sec.22. 7.Chapter 2. pole type structures.2.5).21 Foundations Strength and detailing of foundation components must satisfy material chapter requirements (Sec. (Sec. Requirement for soil capacity (Sec.2.1).4). 7. [In the 2003 Provisions Chapter 7 includes a strength design method for foundations and guidance for the explicit modeling of foundation loaddeformation characteristics.2). Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2. Seismic Design Category C? No Yes Requirements for: report concerning potential site hazards. Go to Chart 2. 7. ties between piles or piers.] Seismic Design Category A or B? No Yes Requirements for: report of seismic soil investigation. 223 . and reinforcement of piles. Design of piles must consider curvatures due to both freefield soil strains and structure response. 7. ties between spread footings.
41] and component importance factors (Sec.2. Calculate design seismic forces per Sec. and elevator design (Sec.2.1]). 6.1 [6. 6.1.9]). 6.) Note additional requirements for component anchorage (Sec.2. Must consider both flexibility and strength for components and support structures [Sec.1].6 [6. 6. Mechanical and Electrical Components Specific provisions for: component certification. partitions. and steel storage racks (Sec.2. Satisfy requirements for construction documents (Sec. access floors. 6. outofplane bending.2.7 [6.4]. (Don't forget to consider nonseismic horizontal loads.2.3.1. 6. Compute seismic relative displacements (Sec.1.8]).22 Architectural.3.2 and 6.3 and 6.23. boilers and pressure vessels. Go to Chart 2.2.3 [6. 6. utility and service lines.4 [6.6].1. and Electrical Components Seismic Design Yes Category A? No Note component exemptions in Sec. alternative seismic qualification methods.3. Determine the periods of mechanical and electrical components (Sec.3 [6.2 [6. and supports.3]).2]).2 [6. HVAC ductwork.FEMA 451.31 and 6. piping systems.3.3 [6.4]).3]).6].4. storage tanks.7]) and accommodate such displacements (Sec. attachments. mechanical and electrical equipment.2. 6. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chart 2. Calculate vertical load effects per Sec. 224 .2.7 [6. suspended ceilings. Mechanical. Avoid collateral failures by considering functional and physical interrelationship of components (Sec.1.1 and 6.5 [6. Select a p and R p values from Tables 6.4]).2. 6. 6. Architectural Components Specific provisions for: exterior nonstructural wall elements and connections.2. 5.4.1.2.1 [6.5 [6. 6. 6.5]).2 [6. Components require positive attachment to the structure without reliance on gravityinduced friction (Sec.1. 6.
steel connections. 3.6 [2. or F? or Designated seismic system in structure assigned to Seismic Design Category D. welded steel. wood connections. reinforcing steel.6]). 3. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chart 2.2.2 [2.2. 3. mechanical and electrical components and mounting systems (Sec. 8 through 14). or F? Yes No Satisfy exceptions in Sec. isolator units. E. 225 . No Registered design professional must prepare QA plan (Sec.2. and seismic isolation systems (Sec.Chapter 2.2]? Yes QA plan not required. D. selected architectural components. Seismic Design Category C? No Yes Special testing is required for some aspects of the following: reinforcing and prestressing steel. 3. Seismic Use Group II or III? or Height > 75 ft? or Seismic Design Category E or F and more than two stories? Yes Registered design professional must perform structural observations. and energy dissipation devices (Sec. No Reporting and compliance procedures are given (Sec.4]). 3. coldformed steel connections.2. Done.2 [2. concrete.6]).1]) and affected contractors must submit statements of responsibility (Sec. 13.3 [2.2]). selected mechanical and electrical components. 3.23 Quality Assurance Seismicforceresisting system assigned to Seismic Design Category C. Special inspection is required for some aspects of the following: deep foundations.9 [13.4 [2. E.1 [2. Satisfy testing and inspection requirements in the reference standards (Ch.3]). masonry.
1.1 6.2.2 5.1 11.1 12.6 4.1 4.5 3.2. 5.4.2 13. 7. 5 4.2 12.5 5.2 4. 1.10 12.2.1 4.3 1.8 7 5.2 6.1 6.2.2 5.3 11.2 6. Configuration Irregularities and Redundancy Seismic Load Effects and Combinations Direction of Loading Analysis Procedure Selection Modeling Criteria Equivalent Lateral Force Procedures Modal Response Spectrum Analysis Diaphragms.2.4 1.4 5.2.4 11.1.1 13.4 13.7 12.4 8 9 10 11 12 8 9 10 11 12 .6 Chapter 14 14 14.13 12.1.5 13.3.2.4 1.1.1 1.2 6. 7.2.6 5.6 12.14 5.6 11. 5.4 6.6 5.4 4.5 1.6.6.2.1 1.2 4.2.3 12.3 6.5 7 4 Alt.4. 1. 6.2.2 5. 5.2 14.6 5.5 Chapter 12 5 12. 7. 7.3.4.3 13.7.4 14.5 5.1 6.2.6 5.3.3.5 5. SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES Structural Design Basis Structural System Selection Diaphragm Flexibility.4.3 4.3.5 6.1 2.2.7 11. 5.8 NEHRP 2000 NEHRP 2003 Section Section Topic SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA General Definitions Notation Seismic Ground Motion Values Importance Factor and Occupancy Category Seismic Design Category Design Requirements for Seismic Design Category A Geologic hazards and Geotechnical Investigation 1.2.11 12.2 4.2.2 6.2 11.1.4 4.2 5.1 5.2. Chords and Collectors Structural Walls and Their Anchorage Drift and Deformation Foundation Design Simplified Alternative Structural Design Criteria for Simple Bearing Wall of Building Frame System SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS General General Design Requirements Seismic Demands on Nonstructural Components Nonstructural Component Anchorage Architectural Components Mechanical and Electrical Components MATERIAL SPECIFIC SEISMIC DESIGN AND DETAILING REQUIREMENTS Scope Steel Concrete Composite Steel and Concrete Structures Masonry Wood Chapter 13 13.1.4.5 1.2 4.3 14. 1.2 5.4 12.6.6 4.2.5 12.Table 21 Navigating Among the 2000 and 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions and ASCE 7 ASCE 7 Section Chapter 11 11.1 14.1 4.3 6.3 1.2 6.2 2.8 12.9 12.5 11.12 12.2.
4 13A.1 17.7 13A.2 5.4 17.2.3 17.1 5.3 20. 13.1 4.8 13.6 13.8.6 17.7 SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR NONBUILDING STRUCTURES General Reference Documents Nonbuilding Structures Supported by Other Structures Structural Design Requirements Nonbuilding Structures Similar to Buildings General Requirements for Nonbuilding Structures Not Similar to Buildings Tanks and Vessels SEISMIC RESPONSE HISTORY PROCEDURES Linear Response History Analysis Nonlinear Response History Procedure SEISMIC DESDIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR SEISMICALLY ISOLATED STRUCTURES General General design Requirements Ground Motion for Isolated Systems Analysis Procedure Selection Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure Dynamic Analysis Procedures Design Review Testing SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURES WITH DAMPING SYSTEMS General General Design Requirements Nonlinear Procedures Response Spectrum Procedure Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure Damped Response Modification Seismic Load Conditions and Acceptance Design Review Testing SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION FOR SEISMIC DESIGN General Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure Modal Analysis Procedure SITE CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURE FOR SEISMIC DESIGN Site Classification Site Response Analysis for Site Class F Soil Site Class Definitions Definitions of Site Class Parameters Chapter 16 16. 13A.3 13.6 18.6 15.2 5.3 14 14.8 13A.9 13A.1.1 5.5 13.4 5.4 13.7.8.5 18. Guide to Use of the Provisions Chapter 15 14 15.3 18.3 14.7 15.9 Chapter 19 19.1 18.1 15.1 19.8 Chapter 17 13 17.5 3.6.5 15.8 13.1 14.6 14.3 13.8 18.4 13.5 14.7 18.2.2 5.7 14.2 20.2.4 15.1 15.5 17.4.9 Chapter 18 13A 18.2 19.4 13.3 Chapter 20 20.5 13.2 13.3 13.1 4.3 13A.14.3 13A.1 13.2.8 15.2 14.7 16.6.2 18.5 13 13.5 13A.4 15.4 4.6 13A.3 15.8.1.5 227 .5 15.2 14.1 5.1 5.Chapter 2.1 13.2 15.4 14.6 15 15.3 3.3 15.1 14.6.4.2 15.2 17.5 3.2.9 5.5.10 5.6 15.5 14.1 4.7 14.5 3.4 13.1 20.3 14.1 13A.4 18.7 17.4 14.
2.2.1. 3.2 1.3 SITESPECIFIC GROUND MOTION PROCEDURES FOR SEISMIC DESIGN Site Response Analysis Ground Motion Hazard Analysis Design Response Spectrum Design Acceleration Parameters SEISMIC GROUND MOTION AND LONG PERIOD TRANSITION MAPS SEISMIC DESIGN REFERENCE DOCUMENTS Consensus Standards and Other Reference Documents 3 3.5 3.4 3.FEMA 451.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE PROVISIONS Quality Assurance Testing Structural Observations Reporting and Compliance Procedures EXISTING BUILDING PROVISIONS Scope Structurally Independent Additions Structurally Dependent Additions Alterations Change of Use Chapter 22 4.2.2 11B.2.5 1.3 21.1 1.1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Chapter 21 21.1. 3.2 21.2 1.4 3.4 11B.2.4 3.5 2.2.4 4.4 3.2.3 1. 2.1. 2.1 11B.4 1.2.2.2.1 Chapter 23 23.1 4.2.1 4.2 1.2.1 1.3 3.1 11A 11A.3 11B.1 11A.3 11A.4 1.1.3 2.1 21.1 4.4 11B 11B.2 11A.4 2.3 228 .1.1 3.2.6 2 2.1.4 3.2 1.
indicate both organizational changes (as a result of a reformat of all of the chapters of the 2003 Provisions) and substantive technical changes to the 2003 Provisions and its primary reference documents. the structure is modeled in three dimensions..3 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Finley A. Where they affect the design examples in this chapter. special attention is paid to the modeling of the beamcolumn joint regions of the structure. The results from each of the analyses are compared. These include elimination of the minimum base shear equation in areas without nearsource effects. it has been annotated to reflect changes made to the 2003 Provisions. This regular structure is analyzed using both linear and nonlinear techniques. modalresponsespectrum analysis. In addition to the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions (herein. responds reasonably well under the design ground motions. Washington. California – The highly irregular structure is analyzed using three techniques: equivalent lateral force (ELF) analysis. the basic earthquake hazard maps were updated and an approach to defining longperiod ordinates for the design response spectrum was developed. A sixstory steel frame building in Seattle. revision of the redundancy factor. For the nonlinear analysis. and modal timehistory analysis. the design examples and calculations have not been revised to reflect the changes to the 2003 Provisions. the analyses are performed for only two dimensions. Although the Seattle building. a second set of timehistory analyses is presented for the structure augmented with added viscous fluid damping devices. the devices have the desired effect of reducing the deformation demands in the critical regions of the structure.D.E. A 12story steel frame building in Stockton. and the accuracy and relative merits of the different analytical approaches are discussed. The relative merits of pushover analysis versus timehistory analysis are discussed. some minor changes to the 2003 Provisions and the reference documents may not be noted. Ph. Annotations within brackets. Although this volume of design examples is based on the 2000 Provisions. as originally designed. This chapter presents two examples that focus on the dynamic analysis of steel frame structures: 1. two approaches are used: static pushover analysis in association with the capacitydemand spectrum method and direct timehistory analysis. While the general concepts of the changes are described. A number of noteworthy changes were made to the analysis requirements of the 2003 Provisions. However. As shown. the following documents are referenced: 31 . In each case. Charney. P. In addition to changes in analysis requirements. the Provisions). 2. and refinement of the pushover analysis procedure. significant changes to the 2003 Provisions and primary reference documents are noted. In the nonlinear analysis. and only linear elastic response is considered. a change in the treatment of Pdelta effects. Due to limitations of available software. [ ].
College on Engineering. Krawinkler. Helmut. K. University of California. and R. California: Pacific Engineering Research Center. Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. “Shear in BeamColumn Joints in Seismic Design of Frames. R. Berkeley. Goel.” Engineering Journal. K. A Modal Pushover Procedure to Estimate Seismic Demands for Buildings: Theory and Preliminary Evaluation. Chopra.. PEER2001/03. Chopra. Berkeley. PEER1999/02. Applied Technology Council. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples AISC Seismic American Institute of Steel Construction. A. K. Goel. University of California. D. 1997 [2002].” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 31. 2000. College on Engineering. CapacityDemandDiagram Methods for Estimating Seismic Deformation of Inelastic Structures: SDF Systems. Bertero. and V. Berkeley. and R. Bertero. 1999. California: Pacific Engineering Research Center.. 2002. 1978. Third Quarter. Berkeley. 2001.. “Performance Based Seismic Engineering: The Need for a Reliable Comprehensive Approach.FEMA 451. ATC40 Bertero Chopra 1999 Chopra 2001 FEMA 356 Krawinkler 32 . American Society of Civil Engineers. Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings.V. K. 1996. A. 3 (March).
All stories have a height of 12. CALIFORNIA 3. see Chapter 5 of this volume of design examples. shown in Figures 3. modal timehistory analysis using a suite of three different recorded ground motions based on the requirements of Provisions Chapter 5.0 in. STOCKTON. and support heavier live loads than do the upper roofs or typical floors. The slab has an average thickness of 4. 5. modalresponsespectrum analysis based on the requirements of Provisions Chapter 5.11 through 3.1 IRREGULAR 12STORY STEEL FRAME BUILDING. The analysis of the structure. Inc. The structure has a full onestory basement that extends 18.2 Description of Structure The structure is a 12story special moment frame of structural steel. member design. and detailing are not discussed.1. All analyses were performed using the finite element analysis program SAP2000 (developed by Computers and Structures. The slabs on Levels 5 and 9 have an average thickness of 6. 33 .0 in. member stress checks. Threedimensional.13. and seven 25ft bays in the Y direction.Chapter 3.0 ft below grade. The low roofs at Levels 5 and 9 are used as outdoor patios. is performed using three methods: 1. with the walls supported on reinforced concrete tie beams over piles. Interior columns are supported by concrete caps over piles. at all levels except Levels G. and 9. the columns are embedded into pilasters cast into the basement walls.1 Introduction This example presents the analysis of a 12story steel frame building under seismic effects acting alone.0 in. 3. Reinforced 1ftthick concrete walls form the perimeter of the basement. Gravity forces due to live and dead load are not computed. Both the plan and elevation of the structure are irregular with setbacks occurring at Levels 5 and 9. Threedimensional. All tie beams and pile caps are connected by a grid of reinforced concrete grade beams. for more effective shear transfer through the diaphragm. The slab at Level G is 6. For detailed examples of the seismicresistant design of structural steel buildings. Structural Analysis 3. special attention is given to applying the Provisions rules for orthogonal loading and accidental torsion. and to support heavy floor loads. At the perimeter of the base of the building. The total height of the building above grade is 155. and 3. California).. In each case. Berkeley.5 ft. thick to minimize pedestrianinduced vibrations.1. 2. Equivalent lateral force (ELF) procedure based on the requirements of Provisions Chapter 5. For this reason. The building is laid out on a rectangular grid with a maximum of seven 30ftwide bays in the X direction.5 ft except for the first story which is 18 ft high. Gravity loads are resisted by composite beams and girders that support a normal weight concrete slab on metal deck.
FEMA 451.11 Various floor plans of 12story Stockton building (1.0 ft = 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 4 5 '0 " Y X 62'6" (a) L ev e l 1 0 Y X (b ) L e v el 6 B A A Y X O rig in fo r c e n te r o f m ass 7 a t 3 0 '0 " B (c) L ev el 2 Figure 3. 34 .3048 m).
Structural Analysis R 12 11 10 11 at 12'6" 7 at 30'0" 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 All moment connections G B Section AA R 12 11 10 11 at 12'6" 7 at 25'0" Pinned connections Moment connections 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 G B Section BB Figure 3. 2 at 18'0" 2 2 at 18'0" 2 35 . = 0.Chapter 3.0 ft.3048 m).12 Sections through Stockton building (1.
For the frames on Grids C and F. Columns in the momentresisting frame range in size from W24x146 at the roof to W24x229 at Level G. the shortperiod and 1second mapped spectral acceleration parameters are: Ss = 1. Girders in the moment frames vary from W30x108 at the roof to W30x132 at Level G.1. Girders below these levels are simply connected. Due to the fact that the momentresisting girders terminate in Frames C and F. Overturning moments developed in the upper levels of these frames are transferred down to the foundation by outriggering action provided by the columns.] 36 . The lateralloadresisting system consists of special moment frames at the perimeter of the building and along Grids C and F. California. is in San Joaquin County approximately 60 miles east of Oakland. According to Provisions Maps 7 and 8. much of the Ydirection seismic shears below Level 9 are transferred through the diaphragms to the frames on Grids A and H.3 Provisions Analysis Parameters Stockton. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Z Y X Figure 3. 3.FEMA 451. and floor members and interior columns that are sized strictly for gravity forces are 50 ksi. but the lateralloadresisting girders terminate at Level 5 for Grid C and Level 9 for Grid F. the columns extend down to the foundation.13 Threedimensional wireframe model of Stockton building. Members of the moment resisting frames have a yield strength of 36 ksi.25 S1 = 0. and the maps have been added to the body of the 2003 Provisions as figures in Chapter 3 (instead of being issued in a separate map package).40 [The 2003 Provisions have adopted the 2002 USGS probabilistic seismic hazard maps.
41 and 1. Structural Analysis Assuming Site Class C. This may be done two different ways: 1.1 [4. may be modeled as point masses. the importance factor (I) is 1.31].1. the Seismic Design Category (SDC) for this building is D. The floor diaphragms 37 .45 seconds.3 [4.4.1.5.32].2 and 5.52 [3. To perform a threedimensional modal or timehistory analysis.2.3.34].2. it is necessary to compute the mass moment of inertia for floor plates rotating about the vertical axis and to find the location of the center of mass of each level of the structure.1(a) and 4.4 come from Provisions Tables 4.4(a) and 4.1. The ELF procedure would not be allowed for a final design but. These properties include mass.1.31 and 3. the adjusted maximum considered 5percentdamped spectral accelerations are obtained from Provisions Eq.2.4(b) [3. certain aspects of an ELF analysis are needed in the modalresponsespectrum analysis.2.25) = 1. only the translational mass is required. According to Provisions Eq. For this reason.1. as explained later.2.5 seconds where TS = SD1/SDS = 0. and damping. For this type of system. a complete ELF analysis is carried out and described herein. 3.1. According to Provisions Table 5.Chapter 3.31] gives a response modification coefficient (R) of 8 and a deflection amplification coefficient (Cd) of 5.25) = 0.42 [3.41] if the building has certain types of irregularities or if the computed building period exceeds 3.1.1.4 [1.56 where the coefficients Fa = 1.2.33].3.41 and Eq.33 and 3.2.0 and Fv = 1. Note that there is no height limit placed on special moment frames.1 Mass For twodimensional analysis.42]. This requirement is based on apparent plan and vertical irregularities as described in Provisions Tables 5. the Seismic Use Group (SUG) is I and.25 S M1 = Fv S1 = 1. 4.2 [4.51 and 4.2.56) = 0. it is necessary to determine the dynamic properties of the structure.2.373 3 3 As the primary occupancy of the building is business offices.1(b) [1. The lateralloadresisting system of the building is a special momentresisting frame of structural steel.32 and 4.2.2.5. Provisions Table 5.4 Dynamic Properties Before any analysis can be carried out. The mass moments of inertia may be computed “automatically” by SAP2000 by modeling the floor diaphragms as shell elements and entering the proper mass density of the elements.833 3 3 2 2 S M1 = (0.2.4(0.32]: S MS = Fa S S = 1. and for comparison purposes.31 and 3. According to Provisions Tables 4. the minimum level of analysis required for this structure is modalresponsespectrum analysis. according to Provisions Table 1. the design level spectral acceleration parameters are 2/3 of the above values: S DS = S D1 = 2 2 S MS = (1. periods of vibration and their associated mode shapes. 3. Line masses.4) = 0. respectively. such as window walls and exterior cladding. 4. 4.0(1.
12. Displacement constraints are used to represent the inplane rigidity of the diaphragm.14 for mass location. its mass density.kips). and concentrated mass.11 Area Masses on Floor Diaphragms Area Mass Designation Mass Type Slab and Deck (psf) Structure (psf) Ceiling and Mechanical (psf) Partition (psf) Roofing (psf) Special (psf) TOTAL (psf) See Figure 3. when multiplied by angular acceleration (radians/sec2). The floor is assumed to be rigid inplane but is modeled without explicit diaphragm elements. 2. Figure 3. The computation of the floor masses using Approach 2 is described below. rectangular. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples may be modeled as rigid inplane by imposing displacement constraints or as flexible inplane by allowing the shell elements to deform in their own plane. Note that the dimensional units of mass moment of inertia (in. and locations of center of mass are shown in Table 3.0 psf = 47.9 N/m2. and parapets 4. by default. In this case.14 shows where each mass type occurs. floor masses are computed by hand (or an auxiliary program) and entered at the “master node” location of each floor diaphragm. The location of the master node should coincide with the center of mass of the floor plate. but the frequencies and mode shapes obtained from Approach 1 were verified with a separate model using Approach 2.0 ft. (Note that this is the approach traditionally used in programs such as ETABS which. a special purpose computer program was used.kipsec2/radian). this mass is not included in equivalent lateral force computations. the computation of mass properties is not easily carried out by hand.13 includes a mass computed for Level G of the building.) In the analysis performed herein.13. This mass is associated with an extremely stiff story (the basement level) and is not dynamically excited by the earthquake. Final analysis used Approach 1.5 or 18.FEMA 451. both approaches are illustrated. Due to the various sizes and shapes of the floor plates and to the different dead weights associated with areas within the same floor plate. and definitions of auxiliary masses such as line.0 ft high bordering each roof region.0 psf. As shown later. For this reason. story heights of 12. The total computed floor mass. The uniform area and line masses associated with the various floor plates are given in Tables 3. Table 3. The reference point for center of mass location is the intersection of Grids A and 8. Modeling the diaphragms as flexible is not necessary in most cases and may have the disadvantage of increasing solution time because of the additional number of degrees of freedom required to model the diaphragm. mass moment of inertia. The basic input for the program consists of the shape of the floor plate.11 and 3. Table 3. must yield units of torsional moment (in. 1. assumed rigid inplane diaphragms and modeled the diaphragms using constraints. The line masses are based on a cladding weight of 15. A 50 20 15 10 0 0 95 B 75 20 15 10 0 0 120 C 50 20 15 0 15 0 100 D 75 20 15 0 15 60 185 E 75 50 15 10 0 25 175 38 .
8 187.14 for mass location.Chapter 3. 1.0 93. 1 60.0 93.8 4 93.8 5 135.8 0.0 1485.6 N/m.8 135.8 153.14 Key diagram for computation of floor mass.0 1350. Structural Analysis Table 3.8 2 93.0 228.6 3 93.12 Line Masses on Floor Diaphragms Line Mass Designation Mass Type From Story Above (plf) From Story Below (plf) TOTAL (plf) See Figure 3.8 93. 39 .0 plf = 14.0 1 2 2 1 D 1 C 1 2 A 2 2 B 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 Roof 2 1 Levels 1012 2 Level 9 2 A 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 D 3 B 2 2 5 2 2 A 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 Levels 68 4 Level 5 5 Levels 34 A Area mass A 4 4 4 4 4 A 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 B 5 B 5 2 Line mass Level 2 Level G Figure 3.
= 25. 1.017x106 2.017x106 2. drift.2 Period of Vibration 3.8 2330. 5.356x106 6.190 7.4.) 1260 1260 1260 1260 1637 1551 1551 1551 1159 1260 1260 1260 1260 Y Distance to C.703x106 3.8 = 1.85 factor).59 sec.1 Approximate Period of Vibration The formula in Provisions Eq.) 1050 1050 1050 1050 1175 1145 1145 1145 1212 1194 1194 1193 1187 1.028 and x = 0.130 4.032 6.032 11.23 seconds.1 3066.5.4 (from Provisions Table 5.4.8 for a steel moment frame from Provisions Table 5. The use of the Rayleigh method and the eigenvalue method of determining accurate periods of vibration are illustrated in a later part of this example.017x106 5.2 [5.8 3403.503x107 X Distance to C.8 2330.935 8.130 8.309x106 3.0 2330. When the period is computed from a properly substantiated analysis.7 [5. and Center of Mass Locations Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 G Σ Weight (kips) 1656.890 Mass Moment of Inertia (in.59) = 2.26] is used to estimate the building period: x Ta = Cr hn where Cr = 0. Provisions Sec. 1 This requirements seems odd to the writer since the Commentary to the Provisions states that timehistory analysis is superior to responsespectrum analysis.7] requires that the displacements.028(155.4.M.8 1595. (in. 5.3 36918.356x106 6.1 3097. (in. Nevertheless.M.0 in.0 6526.4.8 3066.2.935 7.2.373g).13 Floor Mass. 5.091x106 6. the timehistory analysis performed later will be scaled as required by the Provisions.437x106 1. CuTa = 1.45 kN.8 1595.5 1595.21] using SD1 = 0.3] requires that timehistory analysis results be scaled up to an ELF shear consistent with T = CuTa (without the 0.5)0.4 mm. however. 310 .130 4. Provisions Sec. Mass Moment of Inertia.015 16.6. and member design forces be scaled to a value consistent with 85 percent of the equivalent lateral force base shear computed using the period CuTa = 2.23 sec.032 6. 3.703x106 3. Ta = 0.287 4.1 Note that when the accurately computed period (such as from a Rayleigh analysis) is less than the approximate value shown above. In no case. must a period less than Ta = 1.) 4.2.FEMA 451. the computed period should be used.072x106 2.1.3.5 ft.0 kip = 4.703x106 9. the Provisions requires that the computed period not exceed CuTa where Cu = 1. Using hn = the total building height (above grade) = 155.807 6.6 Mass (kipsec2/in.4(1.22]. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 3.8 4323. For the structure under consideration.kipsec2//radian) 2.3 [5. When a modalresponse spectrum is used.1 [5.1.4.4.59 seconds be used.11 [5.
5.3 Damping When a modalresponsespectrum analysis is performed.1. or 36918. Hence. When recombining the individual modal responses. 311 .1 Base Shear and Vertical Distribution of Force Using Provisions Eq.3.4. Structural Analysis 3. it is assumed that the structure is “fixed” at grade level.7 [5.13) is the total weight minus the grade level weight. the total effective weight of the structure (see Table 3.3 kips. From Provisions Eq. It should be noted that if zero damping is used in CQC. Provisions Sec. the results are the same as those for SRSS. it is often necessary to perform an equivalent lateral force (ELF) analysis of the structure. In anticipation of the “true” computed period of the building being greater than 2.3 = 30392.5. the maximum (constant acceleration region) spectral acceleration is: CSmax = S DS 0.6526. SAP2000 allows an explicit damping ratio to be used in each mode. 3. the structure’s damping is included in the response spectrum.1 [5.23 seconds. the ELF analysis is based on a period of vibration equal to CuTa = 2. This factor must match that used in developing the response spectrum. Florida. see “Economy of Steel Framed Structures Through Identification of Structural Behavior” by F. the analyst must correctly specify a damping factor.23 seconds.2 The virtual force techniques cannot be used for modalresponsespectrum analysis because signs are lost in the CQC combinations.5. 5. Indeed. the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) technique has generally been replaced in practice by the complete quadratic combination (CQC) approach. For timehistory analysis. 5.6 . Proceedings of the 1993 AISC Steel Construction Conference.1.7] requires that the CQC approach be used when the modes are closely spaced. a damping of 5 percent of critical was specified in each mode.Chapter 3. 1993. Charney. the total seismic shear is: V = CS W where W is the total weight of the structure.4. For the ELF analysis. When using CQC. Orlando.1.4. particularly when a virtual force analysis is used for determining member displacement participation factors. ELF analysis is also useful for investigating the behavior of driftcontrolled structures.05 (5 percent of critical) is appropriate for steel structures.11 [5.21]. This is consistent with the level of damping assumed in the development of the mapped spectral acceleration values.104 ( R / I ) (8 /1) 2 For an explanation of the use of the virtual force technique. This analysis typically is used for preliminary design and for assessing the threedimensional response characteristics of the structure. For this structure.5 Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis Prior to performing modal or timehistory analysis.22].1. A damping ratio of 0.833 = = 0. 3.
5 0.16.13 [replaced by 0.23(8 /1) However.06 0.12 Equation 5. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Provisions Eq.1.5 1.4.15 Computed ELF total acceleration response spectrum. The acceleration response spectrum given by the above equations is plotted in Figure 3. This change would also result in removal of the horizontal line in Figure 3.23 sec 0. Using W = 30.13 0.13 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] controls for this building. reducing the design base shear significantly.4.10 Equation 5. 312 .1.5 4.12 0.4.] The value from Eq. 5. 0. 5.124 kips.4.15 and the corresponding segment of Figure 3.1. 5. the result of Eq.1. g T = 2. V = 0.0 3. the acceleration must not be less than that given by Provisions Eq.392) = 1.010 in the 2003 Provisions]: CSmin = 0.037 [With the change of this base shear equation. sec 2.021 T ( R / I ) 2.4.833) = 0.15.23] controls in the constant velocity region: CS = S D1 0.0 1.23 would control. 5.00 3.FEMA 451.12 [5.044 IS DS = 0.5 Period.392 kips.044(1)(0.037(30.0 0.0 2.373 = = 0.02 0.08 Spectral acceleration.0 Figure 3.1.04 0.
The effect of using Eq.0 1. but should not be used for computing drift.4. the new minimum controls for periods larger than 4.0 in.13.4. While it is certainly reasonable to enforce a minimum base shear. in. = 25.13 are not reasonable. 5.4.568).6) has been retained.13 are multiplied by the ratio (0.01).16. 5. 5.4.4.13.1. sec 2. should be used for determining member forces.4. 5. but for the purposes of computing drift.1. For drift calculations.4.] In this example.210 and 5.1.3.4.16 Computed ELF relative displacement response spectrum (1.12 5 Displacement.4. forces computed according to Eq.6. 5.13 6 Equation 5.5 3 2 1 0 0.0 3.5 1.23]should be used.4.0 Period. representing Eq.4. it is very important to note that Provisions Eq.1 has correctly recognized that displacements predicted using Eq.4. the story deflections computed using the forces from Eq.5 4.Chapter 3.12 [5.1.021/0.1.13. 5.2 [5.13 for drift is shown in Figure 3.4 mm).211]: Fx = CvxV and Cvx = wx h k i =1 ∑ wi hi n k 313 . all ELF analysis is performed using the forces obtained from Eq.4.23]. where it can be seen that the fine line. Therefore.66 second. 5.1.1.037 = 0. Structural Analysis 7 Equation 5.5 2. For this combination of SD1 and R.1. Provisions Sec.0 Figure 3. 5. 5. The base shear computed according to Provisions Eq.13 is distributed along the height of the building using Provisions Eq. 5. when it controls. will predict significantly larger displacements than Eq.23 sec 0.1 and 5.12 [5. 5.3.0 3.4.1. [The minimum base shear is 1% of the weight in the 2003 Provisions (CS = 0.4.4. 4 T = 2. The minimum base shear equation for nearsource sites (now triggered in the Provisions by S1 greater than or equal to 0.
1 30. The story forces. 314 . E.6 578. the structure must be loaded with the basic equivalent lateral forces applied at a 5 percent eccentricity.2 998.5 20194253 0.5 1101.1370 154.2 103372 18.0897 100.0 11669128 0.8 12482 1595. E.0 ft = 0. the Provisions allows the analyst to load the structure with 100 percent of the seismic force in one direction (along the X axis. and δavg is the average displacement of the diaphragm.75 + 0.0147 16.8 143.45 kN. a torsional irregularity exists if: δ max ≥ 1.14 Equivalent Lateral Forces for Building Responding in X and Y Directions hx Vx Mx Fx wx wxhxk Cvx (kips) (ft) (kips) (kips) (ftkips) 1656.4.5 1798066 0.5 8352458 0.0500 56. for example) simultaneous with the application of 30 percent of the force acting in the orthogonal direction (the Y axis). as shown in Figure 3.8 865. two effects must be added to the direct lateral forces shown in Table 3.8 130.2.23) = 1.1155 129.14.2 Accidental Torsion and Orthogonal Loading Effects When using the ELF method as the basis for structural design. The other requirement is that the structure be modeled with additional forces to account for uncertainties in the location of center of mass and center of rigidity.9 470.5 120694 3097.8 93. 5.5 14079657 0.5 20266027 0.1. 1.0957 107. For structures in SDC C.8 68.3] requires that the structure be investigated for forces that act in the direction that causes the “critical load effect. given in Provisions Sec.0 105.0 30392.4 19712 3403.6 1118. the torsional irregularity is referred to as “extreme.1656 186. Table 3. and F buildings.0 kip = 4.3 1124.FEMA 451.86.2.5 40090 2330.5 51871 2330.9 186.3048 m. or F.0 3411968 0.0 679242 0.2 [5.5. According to Provisions Table 5. The first of these effects accounts for the fact that the earthquake can produce inertial forces that act in any direction. and the possibility of torsional components of ground motion. can be satisfied for torsionally regular buildings by applying the equivalent lateral force at an eccentricity.8 64356 4323. 5.2.4. story shears.4.5 155.4.0685 77.2.2].8 80.1 43.” In computing the displacements.00 1124. 3.3.14.0 6097272 0.75 + 0.0 10932657 0.” Since this direction is not easily defined.3 [4. uneven yielding of vertical systems.8 118.9 2336 1595. This requirement.3 764. and story overturning moments are summarized in Table 3.5.5(2.8 55.7 91505 3066.0635 71.5 Level x R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Σ 1.4 1070. For SDC D.0 340. D. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples where k = 0.17.5T = 0.7 29271 2330. If the ratio of displacements is greater than 1. Provisions Sec.0280 31.0 16698604 0.5 7744119 0.3 121923430 1.4.9 6597 1595.1662 186. where the eccentricity is equal to 5 percent of the overall dimension of the structure in the direction perpendicular to the line of the application of force. δmax is the maximum displacement at the edge of the floor diaphragm. these accidental eccentricities (and inherent torsion) must be amplified if the structure is classified as torsionally irregular.2 δ avg where.2 77733 3066.2.0 942.0056 6.2.
Additional point masses were used to represent cladding and other concentrated masses. Flexural.17 Amplification of accidental torsion. and modaltimehistory analysis. axial deformation in beams was neglected. shear. modalresponsespectrum. The following approach was used for the mathematical model of the structure: 1.Chapter 3. axial. Shell elements were used to represent the diaphragm mass. Except for those lateralloadresisting columns that terminate at Levels 5 and 9. This is a reasonable assumption in light of the fact that most of the girders are on the perimeter of the building and are under reverse curvature. 315 . 3. 2. Flexural.15 and 3. 5. The same model was used for ELF. the largest ratio of maximum to average floor displacements is 1. The results of the accidental torsion analysis are shown in Tables 3. and torsional deformations were included in all columns.16 at Level 5 of the building under Y direction loading. all columns were assumed to be fixed at their base. Due to the rigid diaphragm assumption. shear. and torsional deformations were included in the beams. Beamcolumn joints were modeled using centerline dimensions. This approximately accounts for deformations in the panel zone. this structure is not torsionally irregular and the story torsions do not need to be amplified. ignoring composite action. As may be observed. 4.16. Section properties for the girders were based on bare steel. The floor diaphragm was modeled as infinitely rigid inplane and infinitely flexible outofplane. Hence. Structural Analysis δ average δ minimum δ maximum θ B Figure 3. The analysis of the structure for accidental torsion was performed on SAP2000.
61 1.23 1.17 and 3.83 1.42 6.52 2. In this section.15 none Tabulated displacements are not amplified by Cd.16 Computation for Torsional Irregularity with ELF Loads Acting in Y Direction Irregularity Level δ1 (in.91 1.71 1. The results of the analysis are shown in Tables 3.30 3.) δavg (in.68 5.07 none 5 1.01 none 9 4.39 1.40 3. These drift values.92 4. = 25.67 4.15 none 3 0.43 1.00 none 11 5.59 1.34 4.40 1.07 1.3 Drift and PDelta Effects Using the basic structural configuration shown in Figure 3. Analysis includes accidental torsion.) R 6.30 1.92 1.96 3.00 none 10 4.52 0.01 none 12 5.4 mm.74 1.17 3.71 0.11 none 8 3.15 none 2 0.67 1.11 none 10 4.11 none 9 4.15 Computation for Torsional Irregularity with ELF Loads Acting in X Direction Irregularity Level δ2 (in.27 1. 1.71 5.91 1.11 none 5 2.65 0.26 5.72 2.17 and 3.) δ2 (in.83 3.73 5.5.88 5.18.04 7.) δavg (in. Table 3.96 1. = 25. the maximum drifts at the extreme edge of the diaphragm would need to be checked.01 none 8 3.10 1.75 7.62 0.14.43 6.14.35 5.) δmax (in.88 1.05 2.) δmax (in) δmax/δavg R 5.73 2. are much less than those that will actually occur because the structure will respond inelastically to the earthquake.10 none 12 5.09 none Tabulated displacements are not amplified by Cd.35 1. 3.90 4. The values in column 2 of Tables 3. In Tables 3.57 3.80 5. the total story deflections were computed as shown in the previous section.10 none 2 0.86 3.29 4.93 1.04 2.71 0.11 none 6 2.16 none 4 1.21 4.30 1. The tabulated drift values are somewhat different from those shown in Table 3.97 6.38 1.10 none 3 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 3.11 none 4 1.17 and 3.18.01 5. The true inelastic story drift.11 none 7 3.FEMA 451. whereas the analysis for torsional irregularity did.11 and the equivalent lateral forces shown in Table 3.23 2.87 4.54 2.19 1.83 1.33 6.52 1.34 1.71 1.39 4.43 7.0 in.61 5.5 316 .34 5.91 1. 1.” If the torsional effect were significant.01 1.34 4.) δmax/δavg δ1 (in.28 2.35 5.74 4.82 6.27 1.10 6.91 2. which by assumption is equal to Cd = 5.03 none 6 2.19 3.92 5. Analysis includes accidental torsion. however.18 are the story drifts as reported by SAP2000.0 in.96 1.92 3.74 7.73 1.01 none 7 3.83 2.11 none 11 5.96 5.15 because the analysis for drift did not include accidental torsion.4 mm.34 1.59 0.88 3.60 3. Average story drifts are used here instead of maximum story drifts because this structure does not have a “significant torsional response. the values in the first numbered column are the average story displacements computed by the SAP2000 program using the lateral forces of Table 3.10 1. story drifts are computed and compared to the allowable drifts specified by the Provisions.1.56 1.
40 0.4 mm.48 1.63 3.28 is shown in column 5.59 3.32 1.00 3.18 that the allowable drift is not exceeded at any level.45 2.13 since that limit does not apply to drift checks.92 4.5.73 0.22 1.) 3. 5.00 3.70 1.55 0.) (in.32 Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Column 4 adjusts for Provisions Eq.75 5.00 3.00 3.17 and 3.90 0.00 3. 317 .00 1. Instead.18 0.00 3.94 1.71 0. = 25.70 1.55 3.568. [Such a modification is not necessary when using the 2003 Provisions because the minimum base shear is different.12 (for drift) vs 5.19 0.56 3. Structural Analysis times the SAP2000 drift.1. the values in column 4 are multiplied by 0.4.00 4.73 0.27 0. [Recall that the minimum base shear is different in the 2003 Provisions.4.00 1.02 5 Allowable Drift (in.95 0.) (in.4.00 3. is shown in Column 3.0 in.00 3.64 3.65 3.41 5. 3.44 1.) 6. would be lower by a factor of 0.) It is clear from Tables 3.00 3. the design forces applied to the model.55 3.65 3.95 2.58 2. (Recall that this building is assigned to Seismic Use Group I.08 1.) (in.00 3.55 2.982 6.] The allowable story drift of 2.1.38 1.0 percent of the story height per Provisions Table 5.39 3.17 ELF Drift for Building Responding in X Direction 1 2 3 4 Total Drift Story Drift from Inelastic Story Inelastic Drift from SAP2000 SAP2000 Drift Times 0.568 to scale the results to the base shear calculated ignoring Provisions Eq.13 (for strength). which produce the drifts in Columns 1 and 2.1.54 2.1.1.52 2.Chapter 3.77 0.67 0.00 3.39 5.] 1.568 (in.83 4.03 2. 5.65 0. As discussed above in Sec. Table 3.
58 3.) (in.) 3.53 1.1.00 3. Instead.49 2.46 2.11 1. This procedure.83 0.00 3.5.43 1. which is usually very accurate.1 Using ELF Forces and Drift to Compute Accurate Period Before continuing with the example.81 2.49 2. this gives: δ T F = ω 2δ T M δ = ω2 ω= g 318 δTF δ TW δ .12 5. 5.568 (in.05 0. If an approximate mode shape δ is used instead of φ.4.49 1.00 3.] 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 3. is a vector containing the components of the mode shape associated with ω.19 1.568.98 0.91 5 Allowable Drift (in. which produce the drifts in Columns 1 and 2. the following is obtained: δ TW δ g where W is a vector containing the story weights and g is the acceleration due to gravity (a scalar).67 1.10 0. and M = (1/g)W.98 1.43 0.22 1.77 3. and φ.57 3.13 (for strength).01 0.3. is found from the following eigenvalue equation: Kφ = ω 2 M φ where K is the structure stiffness matrix. where δ is the deflected shape under the equivalent lateral forces F. in units of radians/second. = 25.FEMA 451.0 in.68 0.00 3.26 0.48 1.53 3.00 3.53 0.66 2.00 3.00 3.32 Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Column 4 adjusts for Provisions Eq.4.61 0. would be lower by a factor of 0.00 3. it is helpful to use the computed drifts to more accurately estimate the fundamental periods of vibration of the building.1.67 3.32 0.36 1.) 6.687 5. noting that F = Kδ.59 0. premultiplying both sides of the above equation by δT (the transpose of the displacement vector).70 1.98 2.12 (for drift) vs 5. is derived as follows: The exact frequency of vibration ω (a scalar).52 1.36 1.45 2. After rearranging terms.41 4.70 1. the design forces applied to the model.79 0. 3. A Rayleigh analysis will be used to estimate the periods.) (in.08 4. M is the (diagonal) mass matrix.) (in. [Such a modification is not necessary when using the 2003 Provisions because the minimum base shear is different.1.64 3.21 0.00 3.4 mm. the frequency ω can be closely approximated. This will serve as a check on the “exact” periods computed by eigenvalue extraction in SAP2000.49 2.00 4. Making the substitution of δ for φ.18 ELF Drift for Building Responding in Y Direction 1 2 3 4 Total Drift Story Drift from Inelastic Story Inelastic Drift from SAP2000 SAP2000 Drift Times 0.61 3.00 3.
4 31.77 4.5 = 2.3 1656 1598 1598 1598 3403 2330 2330 2330 4323 3066 3066 3097 1259.kipssec2) 194. W (kips) δF (in.65 186.0 in.23 seconds.110 for the structure loaded in the X and Y directions.90 2.87 sec. T = 2π/ω = 2.85 51.73 seconds are much greater than the approximate period of Ta = 1.99 147. the Xdirection period of 2.24 3.88 76.73 1. 319 .37 274. 1.87 seconds and the Ydirection period of 2.40 121. δ (in.27 1.19 Rayleigh Analysis for XDirection Period of Vibration Force.69 170.kips) Drift.95 5.40 5. 1.50 583.9 154.0 56.0 129.) 6.91 106.59 seconds and also exceed the upper limit on period of CuTa = 2.18.75 4.5 16.39 4. T = 2π ω . the periods of vibration are computed as shown in Tables 3.55 2. As may be seen from the tables. respectively.42 ω = (5607/1169)0.18 0.0 kip = 4.16 24.24 424.17 and 3.Chapter 3.22 775.19 and 3.19 3.64 δ2W/g (in. Structural Analysis Using the relationship between period and frequency.10 5607.79 54. Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Σ Table 3.8 77.6 6.02 11. Using F from Table 3.41 58.4 mm.6 186.45 kN.81 19.10 162.49 202.2 71.3 100.71 990. = 25.39 1169.9 107.19 894.14 and δ from Column 1 of Tables 3.19 rad/sec. F (kips) Weight.89 164.71 6.
3.36 88.85 4. 5.56 164.60 2. W (kips) Drift.9 1656 1123.68 56.0.61 6.110 Rayleigh Analysis for YDirection Period of Vibration Force.37 1.] The ∆ terms in Table 3.4.3 3403 804.3.2. the Provisions require that where θ > 0.26 0.8 2330 386. larger axial loads (Px) would be permitted where the design shears (Vx) included an importance factor greater than 1. This example constitutes a borderline case as the maximum stability ratio (at Level 3. As previously formulated.103. (If 0. δ (in.05 71. 5.08 43.10 a special analysis be performed in accordance with Sec.43 129.45 64.81 Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Σ ω = (5067/9589)0. then 0.62 2.216]: θ= Px ∆ Vx hsx Cd [In the 2003 Provisions.5.22 places an upper limit on θ: θ max = 0.84 5067. T = 2π/ω = 2. as shown in Table 3.5 3066 50.82 3.1. A5. θmax = 0.36 4.02 2.01 186.2 PDelta Effects Pdelta effects are computed for the Xdirection response in Table 3.66 5.091.111) is 0.98 107.17 because these are consistent with the ELF story shears of Table 3.9 1598 705.6 1598 535. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 3.21 [5.0 2330 251. Hence.80 138.26 77.45 kN.6.06 3.30 rad/sec.4 mm.3.5. Instead. 1.568 factor would cancel out as it would appear in both the numerator and denominator.] Provisions Eq.79 154.6. this upper limit equation has been eliminated.111 below are taken from Column 3 of Table 3.94 102. that effect was unintended.09 1.27 5.) 320 .568 times the story drifts were used. the 0.2 2330 150.FEMA 451.0 in. [In the 2003 Provisions.31 47.73 sec.32 186. Conservatively taking β = 1.02 20.21 δ2W/g 154.59 31. The last column of the table shows the story stability ratio computed according to Provisions Eq.5 = 2.14 and thereby represent the true lateral stiffness of the system.0 kip = 4.6 3066 18.06 9. 1. the equation for the story stability ratio was changed by introducing the importance factor (I) to the numerator. = 25.111.0 1598 891.83 100.98 957. F (kips) Weight.0 and using Cd = 5.568 times the story shears also would need to be used.10 16.) δF 6.4.3 3097 3.5 β Cd where β is the ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story.4 4323 146.64 121.
7 150 3.22 3403.091 at Levels 2 through 4. 11.8 315.1. it may be observed that eight of these combinations – 7.2 1101.18 illustrates the basic possibilities of application of load.5 942.0 3681.9 150 3.083 0. However. 1.0 1910.1 28579. When the 30 percent orthogonal loading rule is applied.) ∆ (in.00 3066. Structural Analysis Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Table 3.5 θX 0. 15. 4. This requires a total of eight possible combinations of direct force plus accidental torsion.8 465. Calculations for the Y direction produced similar results. 5.7 150 2.08 1595.52 2330.8 150 3.0 in.9 150 2.2 150 3.5.8 14367.0 615.0 35972.3 340. 6.5. and 12. Because a more refined analysis would most likely show a lower value of β.7 865.0 1910.1 470.38 1595.94 3066.8 17163.103 0. X.0 3868. 3. 3.0 2795. and 14 – are negatives of one of Combinations 1.3 998. respectively.055 0. for each direct application of load.034 0. there are two possible directions for which the accidental eccentricity can apply (causing positive or negative torsion). +Y.3 1118.45 kN. Orthogonal loads are applied without accidental eccentricity.8 24898.0 11571.0 3712.3 1124. the number of load combinations increases to 16 because.73 1656.1 1070.8 5793.1 615.8 19959. we will proceed assuming that Pdelta effects are not a problem for this structure.55 3097.8 150 3. The stability ratio just exceeds 0.58 2330.8 615.4. The gravity force terms include a 20 psf uniform live load over 100 percent of the floor and roof area. = 25.2 216 3.8 150 3.) PD (kips) PL (kips) PT (kips) PX (kips) VX(kips) 150 1.085 0. for each direction of force. 321 .9 764.1 615. 13.8 465.00 4323. β was very conservatively taken as 1.8 315. Although this figure shows 16 different load combinations.0 465.0 3681.8 465.0.8 7703.0 2795. 16. the proper load cases and combinations of load must be identified such that all critical seismic effects are captured in the analysis. Y) must be considered and. 3.5 1971.071 0.0 4938.1 Orthogonal Loading Effects and Accidental Torsion For a nonsymmetric structure such as the one being analyzed. 9.0 1971.48 1595. Figure 3.Chapter 3.4 150 3. 2.059 0.8 315.094 0.1.5 186. a positive or negative orthogonal loading can exist.0 1910. but are not included herein.1 32260. 10.079 0.44 2330.046 0.9 578.8 3882. 8.111 Computation of PDelta Effects for XDirection Response hsx (in.4 Computation of Member Forces Before member forces may be computed.4 mm.0 2795.5 150 3.096 1. four directions of seismic force (+X.5 315.0 kip = 4.022 0.
2 Load Combinations The basic load combinations for this structure come from ASCE 7 with the earthquake loadings modified according to Provisions Sec.21 and 4.2SDSQD and E = ρQE .FEMA 451. 5.4.1].22]: E = ρQE + 0.5.2.18 Basic load cases used in ELF analysis.1.71 and Eq. 5.72 [4.4D + 1.2.0.7 [4.2L + E + 0.2.2.2. The basic ASCE 7 load conditions that include earthquake are: 1. 3. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 3 7 11 15 4 8 12 16 Figure 3.2S and 0. 5.2SDSQD 322 .9D + E From Provisions Eq.
11 shows that the structure has 18 columns resisting load in the X direction and 18 columns resisting load in the Y direction. ρx may be taken a 1.0.] Based on Provisions Eq. Checks for upper levels will produce an even lower value of ρx.37D + 0.111 and ρ x = 2 − 20 0.0. Structural Analysis where ρ is a redundancy factor (explained later).5L +E and 0. ρ is either 1. as specified by the Provisions. is made for any two adjacent columns: rmaxx = 2 /18 = 0.963 . the redundancy factor (ρ) is the largest value of ρx computed for each story: ρx = 2 − 20 rmaxx Ax In this equation.2. Using SDS = 0. Where the calculated effects fall within permitted limits. If it is assumed that each of these columns equally resists base shear and the check. rmaxx is a ratio of element shear to story shear.] For this structure. 5. the final load conditions to be used for design are: 1. [In the 2003 Provisions. California. Otherwise. in most cases an experienced analyst would be able to identify a few critical elements that would be likely to produce the maximum effects and then explicitly consider only those conditions.3. the redundancy factor is 1. Hence.2 would require that an analysis determine the most severe effect on story strength and torsional response of loss of moment resistance at the beamtocolumn connections at both ends of any single beam. 2003 Provisions Sec. ρ = 1. but it may not be less than 1. QD is the dead load effect. and Ax is the area of the floor diaphragm immediately above the story under consideration. Figure 3.5. therefore. the check is illustrated for the lower level only where the area of the diaphragm is 30. and SDS is the short period spectral design acceleration.11 30750 = 0. QE is the earthquake load effect.73D + ρE [The redundancy requirements have been changed substantially in the 2003 Provisions. or the system is configured so as to satisfy prescriptive requirements in the exception.37D + 0.3. the basic load combinations become: 1. 4.750 ft2.5L + ρE and 0.4.2.Chapter 3. Instead of performing the calculations that follow.73D + E 323 . Although consideration of all possible single beam failures would require substantial effort.3.0 or 1.0 for this structure.833 and assuming the snow load is negligible in Stockton. ρx need not be taken greater than 1.3.
It should be noted that 32 different load combinations are required only if one wants to maintain the signs in the member force output. thereby providing complete design envelopes for all members.112. it is not expected that the nonseismic load combinations will control. The second load condition will produce the maximum positive moments (or minimum negative moment) at the face of the supports of the girders and maximum tension (or minimum compression) in the columns. 324 . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The first load condition will produce the maximum negative moments (tension on the top) at the face of the supports in the girders and maximum compressive forces in columns.4. it is possible to capture the effects of dead load plus live load plusorminus earthquake load in a single SAP2000 run containing only four load combinations.3 Setting up the Load Combinations in SAP2000 The load combinations required for the analysis are shown in Table 3. Due to the relatively short spans in the moment frames. As mentioned later. 3.5. these signs are lost in responsespectrum analysis and.FEMA 451. however. In addition to the above load condition. the gravityonly load combinations as specified in ASCE 7 also must be checked.1. as a result.
5 8 [10] 0. 37 0. 37 0.37 0.0 1 [3] 1.73 0.5 8 [2] 0.1.0 7 [4] 1.0 7 [12] 1.0 3 [12] 1. 37 0.5 2 [9] 0.73 0. 37 0.73 0.73 0.5 6 [3] 0.5 4 [1] 0.0 1 [11] 1.0 * Numbers in brackets [#] represent load conditions shown in Figure 3.73 0.73 0.0 5 [9] 1.5 8 [4] 0.112 Seismic and Gravity Load Combinations as Run on SAP 2000 Lateral* Gravity Combination A B 1 (Dead) 2 (Live) 1 [1] 1.5 2 [11] 0.73 0.5 4 [4] 0. 37 0.5 4 [10] 0.5 2 [1] 0.4.0 7 [10] 1.73 0.0 5 [3] 1.73 0.0 1 [9] 1.0 3 [10] 1. 37 0. A negative sign [#] indicates that all lateral load effects act in the direction opposite that shown in the figure.37 0. The results of the member force analysis are shown in Figure 3. 37 0.19. This analysis considers only 100 percent of the Xdirection forces applied in combination with 30 percent of the (positive or negative) Ydirection forces. The Ydirection forces are applied without eccentricity. In a later part of this example. Structural Analysis Run One Two Three Four Table 3. 37 0. 3.0 5 [11] 1.73 0. the girder shears are compared to those obtained from modalresponsespectrum and modaltimehistory analyses.5 2 [3] 0. The Xdirection forces are applied with a 5 percent accidental eccentricity to produces a clockwise rotation of the floor plates.5.73 0.5 8 [12] 0.0 3 [1] 1.5 6 [11] 0. 37 0.0 5 [2] 1.4 Member Forces For this portion of the analysis.73 0.5 6 [2] 0.0 3 [4] 1.37 0.18.Chapter 3.73 0. 37 0. 37 0.5 4 [12] 0. 325 .5 6 [9] 0.73 0.37 0.73 0.0 7 [2] 1.73 0. the earthquake shears in the girders along Gridline 1 are computed. 37 0.
2 32.2 24. the principal direction of structural response will not coincide with one of the axes used to describe the structure in threedimensional space. the first mode is predominantly X translation.0 in any particular direction would indicate that this mode responds entirely along one of the orthogonal (X.113 shows. and member forces as computed from the true modal properties may have to be scaled up to a value consistent with 85 percent of the ELF base shear using T = CuTa.7 29.9 31.7 31.1 31. is significantly greater than CuTa = 2.2 20.6 ModalResponseSpectrum Analysis The first step in the modalresponsespectrum analysis is the computation of the structural mode shapes and associated periods of vibration.4 32. A direction factor of 100.8 9.2 39.5 37.07 17.9 Figure 3.8 22.1 30.113.6 34.2 33.5 39.9 30. Therefore.1 40.1 22. (1. Note that the longest period. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 8. Y or θZ axes) of the structure.113 is 0. Using the Table 3. The modal direction factors shown in Table 3.3 31.4 12.427 seconds.1 26.31 9. the mode shapes and frequencies are automatically computed by SAP2000.4 34.8 31.0 32.1 38.1 25.3 As Table 3.0 39. 326 .0 kip = 4.7 34.1 30.0 31.9 30.867 seconds. in general.3 31.3 36.54 17.4 20.5 22.1 38.9 36.6 32.2 32. The smallest period shown in Table 3.4 31.45 kn) 3.6 33.0 33.4 R12 1211 1110 109 98 87 76 65 54 43 32 2G 13.1. displacements. Analysis includes orthogonal loading and accidental torsion. and the third mode is largely 3 It should be emphasized that. The computed periods of vibration for the first 10 modes are summarized in Table 3. drift.1 28.4 21.113 are indices that quantify the direction of the mode.0 20.1 31.0 33.FEMA 451.1 22.6 26.4 24.23 seconds. the second mode is primarily Y translation.9 32.7 34.0 16. which also shows values called the modal direction factor for each mode. 2.5 30.14 structural masses and the same mathematical model as used for the ELF and the Rayleigh analyses.19 Seismic shears in girders (kips) as computed using ELF analysis.
327 . the accumulated 80 percent of effective translational mass in Mode 10 actually represents almost 100 percent of the dynamically excitable mass. 14 modes were used in the actual analysis.73 seconds) is very close to second mode predominantly Ydirection period (2. the accumulated effective mass value is approximately 80 percent of the total mass for the translational modes and 72 percent of the total mass for the torsional mode. By Mode 10. In the case of the building modeled as a 13story building with a very stiff first story.3.114 are the accumulated effective masses and should total 100 percent of the total mass when all modes are considered. The closeness of the Rayleigh and eigenvalue periods of this building arises from the fact that the first and seconds modes of vibration act primarily along the orthogonal axes.114 violates this rule. but Modes 6 through 10 have significant lateraltorsional coupling. 38.5.2 [5.114.744 seconds) from the eigenvalue analysis.2] requires that a sufficient number of modes be represented to capture at least 90 percent of the total mass of the structure.Chapter 3. the Provisions requirements are clearly met when using only the first 10 modes in the response spectrum or timehistory analysis.110. In Table 3. Similarly. Structural Analysis torsional. For good measure. the effective mass in Modes 1 through 10 is given as a percentage of total mass. this mass does not show up as an effective mass until Modes 37. Provisions Sec. the Ydirection Rayleigh period (2. approximately 18 percent of the total mass for this structure is located at grade level and. and 39 are considered.87 seconds) is virtually identical to the first mode predominately Xdirection period (2. Had the first and second modes not acted along the orthogonal axes. as this level is extremely stiff. 5. However. the Rayleigh periods (based on loads and displacements in the X and Y directions) would have been somewhat less accurate. In this sense. On first glance.867 seconds) computed from the eigenvalue analysis. Plots showing the first eight mode shapes are given in Figure 3. it would seem that the use of 10 modes as shown in Table 3. The values shown in parentheses in Table 3. It is interesting to note that the Xdirection Rayleigh period (2. Modes 4 and 5 also are nearly unidirectional.
70 sec Mode 8 T = 0.110 Mode shapes as computed using SAP2000.74 sec Y Z X Y Z X Mode 3 T = 1.63 sec Figure 3.72 sec Y Z X Y Z X Mode 7 T = 0.15 sec Y Z X Y Z X Mode 5 T = 1. 328 . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Y Z X Y Z X Mode 1 T = 2.57 sec Mode 4 T = 1.07 sec Mode 6 T = 0.87 sec Mode 2 T = 2.FEMA 451.
7) 0.78 (75.2 0.0 Z Torsion 0. the design response spectrum has reduced ordinates at very long periods as indicated in Sec.9) 8.7 0.4 7.43 (79.4 S DS T0 and for periods greater than TS: 329 . [In the 2003 Provisions.9 91.06 (51.7) 0.46 (0.7 3.34 (64.23 50.15 (77.149 1.3 Y Translation 0.0 7.1. 3.4) 0.8 92.8) 3.00 (79.114 Computed Periods and Effective Mass Factors Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Period (seconds) 2.3 27.6 S DS T + 0.1 Response Spectrum Coordinates and Computation of Modal Forces The coordinates of the response spectrum are based on Provisions Eq.9) 2. 4.51 (64.0 5.12 49. Structural Analysis Table 3.113 Computed Periods and Direction Factors Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Period (seconds) 2.94 (78.96 (59.9) 0.35 and 3.1) 0.2 0.2.1) 1.04 (64.149 1.7 64.6) Y Translation 0.25 (64.1.631 0.631 0.427 Effective Mass Factor X Translation 64.697 0.6) 0.3) 1.7) 0.4.565 1.0) 0.1.434 0.724 0. the value of which is based on the magnitude of the source earthquake that dominates the probabilistic ground motion at the site.01 (78.0) 0.0) 0.1) 51.32 (71.64 (76.7 1.6) 0.23 (75.37 (80.5 47.93 (68.7 2.3 30.46 (51.30 (56.2.7) 10.2 88.6) 5.1 44.02 (0.8) 0.0 9.7 99.4 5.6.0 70.3) 3.03 (59.Chapter 3.427 Modal Direction Factor X Translation 99.01 (79.9) 0.04 (75.0) Z Torsion 0.3) 1.6) 1.434 0.724 0.93 (65.744 1.08 (77.0) 0.745 1.074 0.6 0.15 (72.61 and 4.565 1.7 98.9) 2.8 1.9) 10.38 (79.867 2.867 2.1 0.3.04 (0.07 (65.36].62 [3.] For periods less than T0: S a = 0.5) 64.074 0. The new portion of the spectrum reflects a constant ground displacement at periods greater than TL.697 0.7 Table 3.
T0 = 0. (Recall that if the computed base shear falls below 85 percent of the ELF base shear.104 1.833 and SD1 = 0.833 0.5 4.089 (T0) 0.000 0.000 0.111 Total acceleration response spectrum used in analysis.111.448 (TS) 0.124 0.115 Response Spectrum Coordinates Csm Csm(I/R) Tm (seconds) 0.9 I=1.000 0.0446 1.373 0.0155 I = 1. the computed response must be scaled up such that the computed base shear equals 85 percent of the ELF base shear.0 0. shown with and without the I/R =1/8 modification. sec 2.104 0.2 0.6 0.8 I=1. min = 0.2S DS / S D1 and TS = S D1 / S DS .3 0.7.149 0.448 seconds. is plotted in Figure 3. which controlled the ELF base shear for this structure and which ultimately will control the scaling of the results from the responsespectrum analysis.4 0.5 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Sa = S D1 T where T0 = 0.FEMA 451.5 3.0311 2. R = 8.833 0.0186 3. 0. Using SDS = 0.115 and the response spectrum.5 Period.) Table 3.5 Acceleration.000 0.0 1.0235 2. The computed responsespectrum coordinates for several period values are shown in Table 3.500 0.0 Figure 3. R=8 0.1 0 0.0 2.373.0416 0. g 0.186 0.044ISDS). The spectrum does not include the high period limit on Cs (Cs.089 seconds and TS = 0.7 0.249 0.500 0.0 3. 330 .333 0. R=1 0.
1.4.87 seconds (vs 2. A modal damping ratio of 5 percent of critical was used in the CQC calculations.7 [5.6. the base shears from the modalresponsespectrum analysis must not be less than 85 percent of that computed from the ELF analysis.10 The computed and scaled story shears are as shown in Table 3.1.4.1. Groups were defined such that total shears would be printed for each story of the structure.85 factor). Combinations of these two loadings plus accidental torsion are discussed later. Recall that the ELF base shear was controlled by Provisions Eq. 5.6 kips These values are much lower that the ELF base shear of 1124 kips. Two analyses were carried out.5.115. 5. the required scale factors are: Xdirection scale factor = 0.1 Dynamic Base Shear After specifying member “groups.3. and the second directed the motion along the Y axis. The base shears were printed as follows: Xdirection base shear = 437.13. As mentioned above.111 does not include the minimum base shear limit imposed by Provisions Eq.111 and Table 3.85(1124)/454.116.13. Since the base shears for the ELF and the modal analysis are different (due to the 0.85(1124)/437. The first directed the seismic motion along the X axis of the structure. 3. it is clear that the vertical distribution of forces is somewhat similar when computed by ELF and modalresponse spectrum. the first 14 modes of response were computed and superimposed using complete quadratic combination (CQC). If the response spectrum shears are lower than the ELF shear. However. [Recall that the equation for minimum base shear coefficient does not appear in the 2003 Provisions. direct comparisons cannot be made between Table 3.6 = 2. then the computed shears and displacements must be scaled up such that the response spectrum base shear is 85 percent of that computed from the ELF analysis.7 = 2. The modalresponsespectrum shears are less than the ELF shears because the fundamental period of the structure used in the responsespectrum analysis is 2.18 Ydirection scale factor = 0.] According to Provisions Sec. The response spectrum used in the analysis did include I/R.14.7].Chapter 3. 331 . Hence.7 kips Ydirection base shear = 454. 5.23) and because the response spectrum of Figure 3.” SAP2000 automatically computes and prints the CQC story shears. the responsespectrum analysis was carried out using SAP2000.1. Structural Analysis Using the response spectrum coordinates of Table 3.
2 127. the story displacement from the responsespectrum analysis.6 277.1 326.6 163. The story stability factors are above the limit (θmax = 0.0 in computing the limit.117.5 315.6. In Tables 3.2 358.10) Unscaled Shear (kips) 79.2 454.4 292.116 are used in association with the scaled story drifts (including Cd) from Table 3. the computed displacements and drift (as based on the response spectrum of Figure 3.1.5.2 Drift and PDelta Effects According to Provisions Sec. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 3.5 195.45 kN.7 Scaled Shear (kips) 180 286 358 417 523 586 638 688 783 838 894 956 3.0 371.7]. Note that the scaled story shears from Table 3. it is likely that a refined analysis for β would indicate that Pdelta effects are not of particular concern for this structure. As the β factor was conservatively set at 1.FEMA 451.118.4 437.18 and 2.5).119. the scaled story displacement. respectively. the amplified story drift (as multiplied by Cd = 5. 5.1 239.111) must also be scaled by the base shear factors (SF) of 2.0 163. Pdelta effects are computed for the Xdirection response as shown in Table 3.7 [5. 332 . the allowable drift is not exceeded at any level.0 kip = 4.6 383.18) Story R12 1211 1110 109 98 87 76 65 54 43 32 2G 1.091) only at the bottom two levels of the structure and are only marginally above the limit.6 268.5 131. and the allowable story drift are listed.5 426.7 191. Y Direction (SF = 2.2 302.3.6 Scaled Shear (kips) 167 268 344 410 521 583 635 686 782 843 897 956 Unscaled Shear (kips) 82. As may be observed from the tables.10 for the structure loaded in the X and Y directions.117 and 3.9 409. the scaled story drift.0 247.116 Story Shears from ModalResponseSpectrum Analysis X Direction (SF = 2.8 400.
00 3.09 1.00 3.615 0. Drift Scaled Story Allowable Analysis [Col1 × 2.) (in.958 0.33 0.32 Level Scaled Drift (in.35 0.62 1.) 1.534 0.87 1.39 0.968 0.34 0.97 1.00 3.0 in.20 0.) 3.33 0.27 0.87 2.00 3.36 0.00 3.32 0.14 2.245 4.96 1.09 2.58 1.00 3.00 3.00 0.) 3.53 1.38 0.87 3.65 2.88 1.) (in.60 1.) 0.432 0.34 0.75 3.00 3.31 2.21 2.14 2.09 2. Structural Analysis Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Table 3.65 1.12 0.15 0.98 2.94 2.29 0.32 1.10 0. Analysis (in.37 0.) 0.10 1.36 0.439 0.00 3.26 1.00 3.76 1.18] (in.938 0.00 3.00 3.) (in.91 3.10 3.86 5 Allowable Story Drift (in.4 mm.117 Response Spectrum Drift for Building Responding in X Direction 4 5 1 2 3 Total Drift Scaled Total from R.00 3.47 1.30 0.28 1.605 0.51 2.69 1.00 3.4 mm.18] Drift × Cd Story Drift Scaled Drift (in. Table 3.72 1.Chapter 3.247 2 Scaled Total Drift [Col1 × 2.26 0.82 1.32 1.43 1.52 R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.118 Spectrum Response Drift for Building Responding in Y Direction 1 Total Drift from R.24 0. 333 .38 0.00 3.00 3.39 0.11 1. = 25.0 in.31 2.789 0.20 2.00 3.S.79 1.00 4.59 1.) (in.00 3.54 3.S.82 1.518 3 4 Scaled Story Drift × Cd (in.84 1.18 4.32 2.00 3.40 0.38 0.42 0.908 0.) 3.32 1.93 2.04 1.66 1.55 3.00 2. = 25.00 4.40 1.76 2.757 0.99 0.84 3.
092 1.FEMA 451.8 17163. the first approach may be preferred because the dynamic analysis will automatically amplify the torsional effects.0 2795.1 358 150 1.1 615. the second approach has been used because the structure has essentially rigid diaphragms and high torsional rigidity and amplification of accidental torsion is not required.1 783 150 2.3 894 216 2.0 2795.2 838 150 2.3 956 Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2X 0.9 523 150 1. When including accidental torsion in modalresponsespectrum analysis.3 286 150 1.101 0.119 Computation of PDelta Effects for XDirection Response hsx (in.99 1656.31 3066. In the analysis that follows. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 3.8 24898.013 0. Compute the effects of accidental torsion by creating a load condition with the story torques applied as static forces.8 315.8 465. 3. Since the sign of member forces in the responsespectrum analysis is lost as a result of SRSS or CQC combinations.5 638 150 2. the absolute value of the member forces resulting from accidental torsion should be used.5 1971.050 0.1 615.09 4323.0 1910.0 3868.14 2330.8 7703.43 1595.) ∆ (in.8 5793.0 465.8 315.8 465.0 3681. For torsionally flexible structures.9 417 150 1.086 0.0 1910.0 1971. the static torsional forces should be based on 85 percent of the ELF forces.8 14367. it is necessary to add the effects of accidental torsion and orthogonal loading into the analysis.91 3097.059 0. Orthogonal Loading.072 0.8 315.20 2330. and Load Combinations To determine member design forces.0 615. this will require four separate modal analyses for torsion with each analysis using a different set of mode shapes and frequencies.8 19959.65 1595.3 Torsion.0 in.3 688 150 2.82 1595.0 2795. Displace the center of mass of the floor plate plus or minus 5 percent of the plate dimension perpendicular to the direction of the applied response spectrum. The primary disadvantage of the first approach is a practical one: most computer programs do not allow for the extraction of member force maxima from more than one run when the different runs incorporate a different set of mode shapes and frequencies.5 315.98 2330.1 28579. the second approach is preferred. there are generally two approaches that can be taken: 1. 334 . = 25.0 35972.0 4938.5 180 150 1.0 11571. Member forces created by the accidental torsion are then added directly to the results of the responsespectrum analysis. Each of the above approaches has advantages and disadvantages.) PD (kips) PL (kips) PT (kips) PX (kips) VX (kips) 150 0.0 3681. As there are four possible mass locations. As with the displaced mass method.1.0 kip = 4.041 0.8 3882.8 615.1 32260.7 586 150 2.032 0. Because of the required scaling.09 3066. there are four possible ways to apply the accidental torsion: plus and minus torsion for primary loads in the X or Y directions.6.024 0. For structures that are torsionally regular and will not require amplification of torsion.081 0. 2.0 1910.87 3403.075 0.45 kN.8 465.4 mm.0 3712. 1.
112 Load combinations from responsespectrum analysis.1] are included. one in the X direction and one in the Y direction. Accidental torsion is then added to the combined spectral loading. combine 100 percent of the scaled Xdirection results with 100 percent of the scaled Ydirection results. In addition. one in the X direction and one in the Ydirection.113 for the X direction of response. 3. These forces include 100 percent of the scaled Xdirection spectrum added to the 30 percent of the scaled Ydirection spectrum.1. with CQC being used for modal combinations in each analysis. 0.2. including the effect of accidental torsion. Use CQC for combining modal maxima.113) was computed as follows: This method has been forwarded in the unpublished paper A Seismic Analysis Method Which Satisfies the 1988 UBC Lateral Force Requirements. 4 335 . 3.2. where the scale factor is based on the total base shear developed along the principal axes of the structure.112. Run the responsespectrum analysis with 100 percent of the scaled X spectrum acting in one direction. combine 100 percent of the scaled Xdirection results with 30 percent of the scaled Ydirection results. Perform a similar analysis for the larger seismic forces acting in the Y direction. Perform a similar analysis for the larger loads acting in the Y direction. the major advantage of the method is that one set of dynamic design forces. These are shown in Figure 3. the total number of load combinations will double to four.3RS Y RS Y Figure 3.4 All seismic effects can be considered in only two load cases by using Approach 2 for accidental torsion and Approach 2 for orthogonal loading. Run two separate responsespectrum analyses. The paper also suggests the use of a single scale factor. The design force for the Level 12 beam in Bay 3 (shown in bold type in Figure 3. Suharwardy. written in 1989 by Wilson.2. the resulting structural design has equal resistance to seismic motions in all possible directions. Using a direct sum.7 [4.Chapter 3. 2. Using SRSS. Run two separate responsespectrum analyses.4 Member Design Forces Earthquake shear forces in the beams of Frame 1 are given in Figure 3. When the load combinations required by Provisions Sec. with CQC being used for modal combinations in each analysis. is produced in one computer run. and Habibullah. 5. As stated in the paper.3RS X T RS X T 0. concurrent with the application of 30 percent of the scaled Y spectrum acting in the orthogonal direction.6. Structural Analysis There are three possible methods for applying the orthogonal loading rule: 1.
0 28. the modal responses are transformed to the structural coordinate system.85 × 1. Analysis includes orthogonal loading and accidental torsion (1.1 Figure 3. The displacement and member forces for each time step in the analysis or minimum and maximum quantities (response envelopes) may be printed.1 26.9 17. Force from 100 percent Ydirection spectrum = 1.5 26.1 20.8 27.0 30.2 26.18.9 32.45 kN).1 10.7 17.94 kips (as based on CQC combination for structure loaded with X spectrum only).0 24.1.4 20. Scale factor for Xdirection response = 2. and then used to compute structural displacements and member forces.113 Seismic shears in girders (kips) as computed using responsespectrum analysis.25) = 17.0 19. linearly superimposed.1 19.4 22.0 28.0 25.6 9.10.94) + (2.8 30.7 26.1 R12 1211 1110 109 98 87 76 65 54 43 32 2G 11.30 × 1.0 29.7 28.0 kips 9. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Force from 100 percent Xdirection spectrum = 6. the response in each mode is computed using stepbystep integration of the equations of motion.2 20.7 24.2 18.1 27.6 27.0 20.8 30.8 24.4 9.4 30.6 18.0 31.8 29. The same mathematical model of the structure used for the ELF and responsespectrum analysis is used for the timehistory analysis.5 31.0 30.9 27.6 [5.7 28.7 27.26) + (0.1 18.2 30.9 28. 5.8 29.0 25.5 28.4].10 × 0. Force from accidental torsion = 1. Scale factor for Ydirection response = 2.7 ModalTimeHistory Analysis In modaltimehistory analysis.9 27.3 26.8 26.5 17.FEMA 451.4 27.18 × 6.1 29.6 28.25 kips. Requirements for timehistory analysis are provided in Provisions Sec.0 kip = 4.4 28.6 20.26 kips (as based on CQC combination for structure loaded with Y spectrum only).7 31. 3.8 25. 336 . Earthquake shear force = (2.
Compute the SRSS of the spectra for the two components.2.5 T1 is not less than 1.005 seconds 4096 @ 0.005 seconds 0. they must be scaled using the procedure described in Provisions Sec. 3.6. Scale the SRSS using the factor from (a) above. B.2 is also used for the present example. b. The use of the Seattle motions for a Stockton building analysis is.6.3.120 below.443 Lucern (Landers) EW 8192 @ 0. The motions should be characteristic of the site and should be from real (or simulated) ground motions that have a magnitude.435 0.4. Refer to Figures 3.240 through 3. of course. For the purposes of this example. The development of a proper suite of ground motions is one of the most critical and difficult aspects of timehistory approaches.242 for additional information.005 seconds 1024 @ 0. response spectrum. and timehistory approaches.Chapter 3. and SC) such that the average of the three scaled SRSS spectra over the period range 0. 2. Table 3. The scale factors for record sets A. respectively. SB. 5.2T1 to 1. One scale factor will be determined for each pair of ground motions. For this reason.1.2 [5. Iran) Dayhook (Tabas. including plots of the ground motion time histories and 5percentdamped response spectra for each motion.02 seconds 0. the motion suite developed for Example 3. Iran) Record Name Record A00 Record A90 Record B00 Record B90 Record C00 Record C90 Before the ground motions may be used in the timehistory analysis. Structural Analysis As allowed by Provisions Sec. a realistic comparison may still be made between the ELF. and uses three pairs of motions developed specifically for the site. 5. Compute the 5percentdamped elastic response spectrum for each component in the pair. SB.4.2 of this volume of design examples for a detailed discussion of the selected ground motions.1 The Seattle Ground Motion Suite It is beneficial to provide some basic information on the Seattle motion suites in Table 3.4].1. distance. not strictly consistent with the requirements of the Provisions.7. and d.6 [3.005 seconds 0. SB. B.3 times the 5percentdamped spectrum determined in accordance with Provisions Sec. and C will be called SA. 3.407 USC Lick (Loma Prieta) USC Lick (Loma Prieta) Dayhook (Tabas.6.2]. For each pair of motions (A. the structure will be analyzed using three different pairs of ground motion timehistories. c. However.454 Lucern (Landers) NS EW NS EW 4096 @ 0. Washington.2.5 The structure for Example 3. and SC.460 0.460 0.2]. however.2.120 Seattle Ground Motion Parameters (Unscaled) Number of Points and Peak Ground Orientation Source Motion Time Increment Acceleration (g) NS 8192 @ 0. SC).2 [5. 337 . T1 is the fundamental mode period of vibration of 5 See Sec. Adjust scale factors (SA.2 is situated in Seattle.02 seconds 1024 @ 0. and source mechanism consistent with those that control the maximum considered earthquake. 4. The scaling process proceeds as follows: 1.2. the emphasis is on the implementation of the timehistory approach rather than on selection of realistic ground motions. and C): a Assume an initial scale factor (SA.
Figure 3.0 in.87 sec .57 sec 100 0 0 1 2 Period.3 over the target period range is to have a relatively higher scale factor at all other periods if those periods significantly contribute to the response.FEMA 451. = 25. Given the 5percentdamped spectra of the ground motions.115 shows the ratio of the average SRSS spectrum to the Provisions spectrum over the period range 0. developed by Finley Charney. the minimum ratio of 1. at the structure’s fundamental mode. At all other periods. hence. where a scale factor SA = SB = SC = 0.38. the same scale factor will be used for each motion.6 Because the original ground motions are similar in terms of peak ground acceleration.fema. 7 NONLIN.30./sec2) and SD1 = 0. not 1.5 T 1 = 4. may be downloaded at no cost at www.114 shows the average of the SRSS of the unscaled spectra together with the Provisions response spectrum using SDS = 0. the effect is even more pronounced. At the higher modes.2T 1 = 0. Figure 3. 338 T1 = 2. at the second translational X mode.gov/emi. An infinite number of different scale factors will satisfy the above requirements. sec 3 4 5 Figure 3.573 seconds to 4. the ratio of the scaled average SRSS to the Provisions spectrum is 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples the structure.373g (144 in.922 scale factor to provide a minimum ratio of 1.4 mm). this process is best carried out using an Excel spreadsheet./sec2).833g (322 in. and it is up to the engineer to make sure that the selected scale factors are reasonable. This equality in scale factors would not necessarily be appropriate for other suites of motions. do a search for NONLIN.3 more than compensates for the fact that taking the SRSS of the two components of a ground motion effectively increases their magnitude by a factor of 1.115./sec 2 1. (The factor of 1.7 The results of the analysis are shown in Figures 3.922 has been applied to each original spectrum.3 occurs at a period of approximately 3. To find the latest version.114 and 3. 600 Average of SRSS 500 NEHRP Spectrum 400 Acceleration. T = 1. with T = 2.149 6 The “degree of freedom” in selecting the scaling factors may be used to reduce the effect of a particularly demanding motion. SA = SB = SC.414. As can be seen. the effect of using the 0.30 sec 300 200 0. in.867 sec.8 seconds. For example.114 Unscaled SRSS of spectra of ground motion pairs together with Provisions spectrum (1. For example.) Note that the scale factors so determined are not unique.30 seconds. The spectra themselves were computed using the program NONLIN.
3 Target 0. In this case. 339 . all forces and displacements8 computed from the timehistory analysis must again be scaled such that peak base shear from the timehistory analysis is equal to the minimum shear computed from Eq. explicitly states that forces and displacements should be scaled. 5. 5. The first paragraph of Sec.5.13 is 1124 kips in each direction.6.115. See Sec.4 1.4 Ratio of average SRSS to NEHRP 0.2 1.Chapter 3.0 0 1 2 Period. [In the 2003 Provisions base shear scaling is still required.1.6. in Provisions Sec.6 1.6 0.3 [5. When performing lineartimehistory analysis.62.922(1/8) = 0. Structural Analysis seconds and the computed ratio is 1.8 0. 5.7. is an inherent difficulty of using a single scale factor to scale ground motion spectra to a target code spectrum.6. but displacements are not mentioned. I = 1 and R = 8. In this example. The second paragraph states that member forces and displacements should be scaled. The Provisions is not particularly clear regarding the scaling of displacements in timehistory analysis.3] states that if fewer than seven ground motion pairs are used in the analysis. of course.1.4. so the actual scale factor applied to each ground motion will be 0. 5. 5.3 states that member forces should be scaled. but recall that the minimum base shear has been revised.4.1.4.0 Ratio 0.044ISDS).2 1.8 1.115 Ratio of average scaled SRSS spectrum to Provisions spectrum.1. This.4. sec 3 4 5 Figure 3. 3.13. the design of the structure should be based on the maximum scaled quantity among all analyses.4. 5. the displacements will be scaled. If the maximum base shear from any of the analyses is less than that computed from Provisions Eq. mainly to be consistent with the response spectrum procedure which. 5. the ground motions also should be scaled by the factor I/R. Recall that the base shear controlled by Eq.13 (Cs = 0. This is stated in Provisions Sec.8 of this volume of design examples for more discussion of this apparent inconsistency in the Provisions. 1.3].] The second paragraph of Provisions Sec.3 [5.
0 kip = 4.28 11.005 seconds.115) V = 1124 kips Displacement (kips) (in.) (sec) 394.37 4.36 15.97 27.02 381.38 388.1 14.85 19. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Twelve individual timehistory analyses were carried out using SAP2000: one for each NS ground motion acting in the X direction.95 5.91 10.16 3.02 519.67 20.84 2.0 kip = 4.13.1 2.4 mm.121 Result Maxima from TimeHistory Analysis (Unscaled) Maximum Base Maximum Roof Time of Shear Time of Maximum Displacement Maximum (S.4 mm.38 1.43 399.0 in.F.5 12.1 6.7 398.35 2.) (SF = 0. Analysis A00X A00Y A90X A90Y B00X B00Y B90X B90Y C00X C00Y C90X C90Y Scaled base shear = 1124 kips for all cases.45 kN.9 399. and one for each EW motion acting in the Y direction. 1.51 35.39 398.2 475.5 19.5 19.121 and 3.19 28.2 12.2 2.9 15.83 1.45 kN.4 Analysis A00X A00Y A90X A90Y B00X B00Y B90X B90Y C00X C00Y C90X C90Y 1.81 4.) 394. The required scale factors are shown in Table 3.90 393. The integration timestep used in all analyses was 0.1 2.5 2.12 1.F. 5. Hence. The results from the analyses are summarized Tables 3.77 473.73 2.30 Table 3. each of the analyses will need to be scaled up.5.95 19.75 31.122.9 2. 340 .85 6.79 5.27 454. Table 3.80 403.82 5.5 2. = 25.96 1.11 22.42 2.2 11.121.37 5. × Cd (in.122 Result Maxima from TimeHistory Analysis (Scaled) Maximum Base Required Additional Adjusted Adjusted Max Shear Scale Factor for Maximum Roof Roof Disp.05 27. This is expected because the ELF base shear was controlled by Provisions Eq.0 in.2 2.5 519. Also shown in that table are the scaled maximum deflections with and without Cd = 5.86 7.29 1.48 4.2 381.2 6. = 0.86 6.91 19.40 1.4 454.68 12.5 2.1.53 24.89 5.6 388. one for each NS motion acting in the Y direction.115) Displacement (kips) (sec) (in. the maximum scaled base shears computed from the timehistory analysis are significantly less than the ELF minimum of 1124 kips.11 14.31 1. one for each EW motion acting in the X direction.03 33.4.6 393. 1. 1.11 11.70 7.17 22.17 475.9 403.13 12. As with the responsespectrum analysis.96 1.8 523. As may be observed from Table 3.6 13.6 2.15 4.122.95 32.7 473.FEMA 451.2 2.5 15.8 523. Five percent of critical damping was used in each mode.8 2. = 0.77 16.5 2.115) Shear (S.35 29. = 25. 14 modes were used in the analysis.
as the maximum allowable stability ratio for the structure is 0. it would be necessary to compute the scaled drifts histories from each analysis and then find the maximum drift among all analyses.5.42 0.00 4. These shears. Table 3. are shown in the first two columns of Table 3.88 3.) 6. at Level 11. this analysis produced the largest roof displacement.89 2.) 0.32 Computations are at time of maximum roof displacement from analysis A00X.Chapter 3.27 2.124 also shows the story shears and inertial forces that occur at the time of peak base shear.75 0.122. As may be observed from Table 3.3 of this example). it is necessary to determine the story shears that exist at the time of maximum displacement. = 25.7. the fact that the limit has been exceeded is probably of no concern because the factor β was conservatively taken as 1.54 0. Table 3.0.00 3. compared to the limit of 3.00 3. significantly less that the peak base shear of 1124 kips.00 3.63 3.00 3.9 kips.66 0.39 4.) 3. 3.63 4.00 3.39 0.) 2. Before computing Pdelta effects.1.00 3. but not necessarily the maximum story drift.39 3 Inelastic Story Drift (in.00 3.00 3.58 0. the Pdelta effects are marginally exceeded at the lower three levels of the structure.123.12 0. As mentioned earlier. 1.20 2.57 3.0 in.1.14 4. the computed drift is 4. Structural Analysis 3. The maximum base shear at the time of maximum displacement is only 668.00 3.74 0.34 0.00 3.2 Drift and PDelta Effects In this section.14 in.12 3. For example. the allowable drift has been exceeded at several levels.08 1.95 2.123 TimeHistory Drift for Building Responding in X Direction to Motion A00X Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Elastic Total Drift (in.75 0.39 2 Elastic Story Drift (in.47 0.54 1. As can be seen from Table 3.05 5.62 0.51 6. For comparison purposes.091 (see Sec. To be sure that the maximum drift has been determined.12 1.32 2. 341 .4 mm. drift and Pdelta effects are checked only for the structure subjected to Motion A00 acting in the X direction of the building.125.66 2. together with the inertial story forces.40 3. As may be seen from Table 3.00 inches.34 3.13 4 Allowable Drift (in.61 0.124.
1.020 0.1 32260.7 150 2.8 615.6 47.13 3097.0 in.32 4323.8 465.6 319.1 828.2 307.0 615.9 Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Table 3.5 1971. 3.5 843.8 465.4 mm.0 2795.1 28579.1 91.0 465.0 3681.7.083 0.85 is not used.3 668.8 315.0 kip = 4.0 3681.8 315.0 4938.044 0.7 785.1 615.73 sec) Story Shear (kips) 40.39 sec) Story Shear (kips) R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.57 1656.9 730.1.FEMA 451.4 222.084 0.3 Inertial Force (kips) 307.7 150 4.8 186.3 66.20 2330.053 0.5 787.5 315.096 Computations are at time of maximum roof displacement from analysis A00X.5 150 3.0 3712.0 1910.032 0.3 45.0 1910.8 315.0 2795. Orthogonal loading is automatically accounted for by concurrently running one ground motion in one principal direction with 342 .3 855.2 596.89 3066.0 2795.1 664.4 149.3 135.5 307.0 35972.) PD (kips) PL (kips) PT (kips) PX (kips) VX(kips) 150 2.2 4.9 150 4.8 855.6 26.4 29.8 5793.1 615.061 0.5 843.7 716. Accidental torsion is applied in exactly the same manner as done for the response spectrum approach.4 529.2 778.0 11571.7 1124.9 730. except that the factor 0.2 148.8 17163.8 150 2.6 57.1 668.45 kN.124 Scaled Inertial Force and Story Shear Envelopes from Analysis A00X Level At Time of Maximum Roof Displacement (T = 11.) ∆ (in.103 0.3 716.3 50. Orthogonal Loading.0 1910.14 1595.9 817.079 0.2 44.2 122.7 664.0 468. it is necessary to add the effects of accidental torsion and orthogonal loading into the analysis.8 7703.4 150 3.12 3066.1 216 2.34 2330.9 2X 0.7 817.8 465.8 3882.40 3403.3 Torsion.0 150 2.7 778.5 150 3.8 19959.0 828.5 662.094 0.0 62.125 Computation of PDelta Effects for XDirection Response hsx (in. and Load Combinations As with ELF or responsespectrum analysis.63 1595.2 26.0 kip = 4.45 kN. 1.8 14367.9 223.8 24898.4 49.071 0.0 1971.3 529.2 65.7 95. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 3.9 150 3.1 1.0 3868.12 1595.1 559.95 2330.1 37.9 787. = 25.0 Inertial Force (kips) 40.5 971.7 150 1. At Time of Maximum Base Shear (T = 12.3 11.
3 C90Y + Torsion C90X + 0.5 32.9 27.45 kN).8 24. Six dynamic load combinations result: Combination 1: Combination 2: Combination 3: Combination 4: Combination 5: Combination 6: A00X + 0.3 42.5 50.4 41.1 40.4 33.6 52.0 35.9 23.3 A00Y + Torsion B00X + 0.8 44.3 A90Y + Torsion A90X + 0.4 R12 1211 1110 109 98 87 76 65 54 43 32 2G 13. 16.1 32.0 43.7.Chapter 3.2 32.6 36.6 35. Because the signs of the ground motions are arbitrary.4 Member Design Forces Using the method outlined above.0 44.8 16.0 34.6 35.7 34. it is appropriate to add the absolute values of the responses from the two directions.6 49. Note that some of the other combinations (Combinations 3 through 8) control the member shears at the lower levels of the building. Envelope values from all combinations are shown in Figure 3.4 45.7 23. The envelope values from only the first two combinations are shown in Figure 3.2 34.4 32.6 35.116 For Combinations 1 and 2.0 22.2 30.3 B00Y + Torsion C00X + 0.2 23. These forces are compared to the forces obtained using ELF and modalresponsespectrum analysis in the following discussion.1.3 C00Y + Torsion 3.3 31.0 kip = 4.3 45. analysis includes orthogonal loading and accidental torsion (1.5 32.3 28.116.2 33.3 17.3 B90Y + Torsion B90X + 0.1 Figure 3.6 32. 343 .9 44.8 40.4 45.4 35.9 39.1 30.117.9 34.4 37. the individual beam shear maxima developed in Fame 1 were computed for each load combination.9 33.9 43.6 42. Structural Analysis 30 percent of the companion motion being applied in the orthogonal direction.4 43.2 17.3 44. beam shears (kips) as computed using timehistory analysis.4 28.3 35.9 42.3 47.0 23.7 23.
3 38.2 25.1 37.4 37.3 43.4 33.6 36. the shears computed at the time of maximum displacement and time of maximum base shear (from analysis A00X only) are provided.9 46.1.2 34.6 29.7 43.5 35.1.6 32.117 For all combinations.45 kN). ELF does.128.8 35.3 47.3 36.3 24.9 37.4 35.2 37.2 17. As may be observed. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 16.1 36.5 50. analysis includes orthogonal loading and accidental torsion (1.6 49.126. One reason for the difference is that the scaling of the ground motions has greatly increased the contribution of the higher modes of response.9 25. Also shown from the timehistory analysis is the envelope of story shears computed among all analyses.6 45.8 17. The difference between ELF shears and timehistory envelope shears is much more pronounced.85 used in scaling the response spectrum results.3 29. For the timehistory analysis.8 46.5 45.6 36.3 45. particularly at the upper levels where timehistory analysis gives larger forces.FEMA 451.6 41.5 45.5 43. 3.4 42.3 24.5 32.2 30.1 Comparison of Base Shear and Story Shear The maximum story shears are shown In Table 3.7 35.9 36.6 34.0 kip = 4.8 41.6 32. beam shears (kips) as computed using timehistory analysis. particularly for the upper levels.3 44. The timehistory analysis also gives shears larger than those computed using the response spectrum procedure.126 through 3.6 28. the shears from ELF and responsespectrum analysis seem to differ primarily on the basis of the factor 0. 3.6 R12 1211 1110 109 98 87 76 65 54 43 32 2G 14.1 38.7 44.4 45.9 Figure 3.8 36.0 44.8.3 17.6 52.7 41. 344 . produce relatively larger forces at Levels 6 through 10.0 37.8 Comparison of Results from Various Methods of Analysis A summary of the results from all of the analyses is provided in Tables 3.2 24. however.9 24.5 24.
it is not clear why the timehistory drifts are as high as they are.1.85 factor is not applied to timehistory response.127 summarizes the drifts computed from each of the analyses. Aside from the fact that the 0. it is also possible that the effect of scaling has been to artificially enhance the higher mode response.2 44. particularly in the upper levels of the building.7 95. Table 3.1.Chapter 3. Structural Analysis 3. As mentioned above.45 kN. The timehistory approach produced larger beam shears than the ELF and response spectrum (RS) approaches. As with shear. One possible explanation is that the drifts are dominated by one particular pulse in one particular ground motion. 3. The shears from the timehistory (TH) analysis are envelope values among all analyses.6 319 468 559 596 663 786 972 1124 TH.8.126 Summary of Results from Various Methods of Analysis: Story Shear Story Shear (kips) Level ELF RS TH at Time of Maximum Displacement 307 530 664 731 788 818 844 856 829 779 718 669 TH at Time of Maximum Base Shear 40. envelope values would be somewhat greater.3 Comparison Member Forces The shears developed in Bay DE of Frame 1 are compared in Table 3. The effect of higher modes on the response is again the likely explanation for the noted differences.128. 187 341 471 578 765 866 943 999 1070 1102 1118 1124 180 286 358 417 523 586 638 688 783 838 894 956 325 551 683 743 930 975 964 957 1083 1091 1045 1124 345 . The timehistory drifts are from a single analysis. including torsion and orthogonal load effects.8.3 45. A00X. the ELF and modalresponsespectrum approaches appear to produce similar results. but the drifts from timehistory analysis are significantly greater.0 kip = 4. at Envelope R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.2 Comparison of Drift Table 3.
0 kip = 4.65 1.6 49.9 36. 5.95 1.67 2. 5.8.8 30.20 2.7 24.3 31.1 38.42 [5.43 1.70 1. however.8 RS 9.7 31. Beam Shear Force in Bay DE of Frame 1 (kips) ELF 9.5 45.0 32.5 32.20 2.127 Summary of Results from Various Methods of Analysis: Story Drift Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. the Provisions allows displacements to be computed using base shears consistent with Eq.63 4.02 RS 0. and modaltimehistory analyses: 1.7 34.43 (CS = 0.8 30.83 2.4 34.1. In ELF analysis.75 1.23] (Cs = SD1/T(R/I) when Eq.14 4.89 2.0 28.4.3 36. For both modalresponsespectrum analysis and modal timehistory analysis.9 27. XDirection Drift (in.32 2.98 2.70 1.13 Table 3.0 in.1 37. modalresponsespectrum.3 45. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 3.57 3.40 3.00 2.87 1.7 28.3 31.3 3.6 TH 17.6 26. = 25.3 44.31 2.128 Summary of Results from Various Methods of Analysis: Beam Shear Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.03 1. there are two principal inconsistencies between the requirements for ELF.14 2.34 3.70 17.12 3.FEMA 451. the computed 346 .09 2.1.5 26.4 35.044ISDS) controls for strength.) ELF 0.09 2.4 42.1.982 1.4.99 1.91 TH 2.4 mm.0 31.4 A Commentary on the Provisions Requirements for Analysis From the writer’s perspective.12 1.4 27.95 2.5 43.54 17.45 kN.7 27.41 1.1 38.82 1.92 1.7 26.
Also.Chapter 3. the analysis only has to be “good enough for design. [Because the minimum base shear has been revised in the 2003 Provisions. when computer programs (e. The minimum base shear has been revised. the structure will likely survive an earthquake consistent with the maximum considered ground motion. each analysis has significant shortcomings with respect to providing a reliable prediction of the actual response of the structure during an earthquake.” However. the irregularities were probably not so extreme such that the ELF procedure would produce a “bad design.13.128 and should be addressed prior to finalizing the 2003 edition of the Provisions. Hence. SAP2000 and ETABS) that can perform modalresponsespectrum analysis with only marginally increased effort over that required for ELF are available. the stiffness requirements are met and the elements and connections of the structure are detailed for inelastic response according to the requirements of the Provisions.. but not when scaling timehistory results. modalresponsespectrum. Fortunately. As mentioned in the example. The purpose of analysis. 5. perform the timehistory analysis. For the structure analyzed in this example. but timehistory analysis results are still scaled to a higher base shear than are modal response spectrum analysis results. the elements are properly designed for strength. This might change in the future when “standard” suites of ground motions are developed and are made available to the earthquake engineering community. is not to predict response but rather to provide information that an engineer can use to proportion members and to estimate whether or not the structure has sufficient stiffness to limit deformations and avoid overall instability. significant improvement is 347 .] 2.126 through 3. however. this inconsistency would not affect this example.g. The factor of 0. and determine envelope values for use in design is simply not warranted when compared to the effort required for modalresponsespectrum analysis. 3. [In the 2003 Provisions these inconsistencies are partially resolved. The use of timehistory analysis is limited when applied to a linear elastic model of the structure.] The effect of these inconsistencies is evident in the results shown in Tables 3. on the basis of any of the above analyses. this does not negate the need or importance of ELF analysis because such an analysis is useful for preliminary design and components of the ELF analysis are necessary for application of accidental torsion.85 is allowed when scaling modalresponsespectrum analysis.8.1. The exception would be if a highly irregular structure were analyzed using the ELF procedure.1.” If. the Provisions safeguards against this by requiring threedimensional dynamic analysis for highly irregular structures. Structural Analysis shears and displacements must be scaled if the computed base shear falls below the ELF shear computed using Eq. The amount of additional effort required to select and scale the ground motions. an analysis of an irregular steel moment frame was performed using three different techniques: equivalentlateralforce. and modaltimehistory analyses.1.5 Which Method Is Best? In this example. scale the results. This penalty for timehistory analysis is in addition to the penalty imposed by selecting a scale factor that is controlled by the response at one particular period (and thus exceeding the target at other periods). the modal analysis should always be used for final design in lieu of ELF (even if ELF is allowed by the Provisions). In short. Each analysis was performed using a linear elastic model of the structure even though it is recognized that the structure will repeatedly yield during the earthquake.
and source mechanism of a maximum considered earthquake expected at the site. distance. Scaling these two earthquakes to the Provisions spectrum seems to eliminate some of the most important characteristics of the ground motions. Scaling ground motions used for timehistory analysis is also an issue. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples needed in the software available for the preprocessing and particularly. The fact that there is a degree of freedom in the Provisions scaling requirements compensates for this effect. If the ground motions satisfy this criteria. then why scale at all? Distant earthquakes may have a lower peak acceleration but contain a frequency content that is more significant. This type of analysis is the subject of Example 3. Nearsource earthquakes may display single damaging pulses. 348 . for the postprocessing of the huge amounts of information that arise from the analysis.FEMA 451. The Provisions requires that the selected motions be consistent with the magnitude.2. The main benefit of timehistory analysis is in the nonlinear dynamic analysis of structures or in the analysis of nonproportionally damped linear systems. but only for very knowledgeable users.
Linear static analysis.21 and 3. hence. the building is assigned to Seismic Use Group I.2. nonlinear dynamic analysis is covered in Sec. There are five bays at 28 ft on center in the NS direction and six bays at 30 ft on center in the EW direction. the behavior of a simple.1 Description of Structure The structure analyzed for this example is a 6story office building in Seattle. According to the descriptions in Provisions Sec. All interior columns are gravity columns and are not intended to resist lateral loads.22. Structural Analysis 3. The analysis will show that the structure falls short of several performance expectations. Nonlinear static (pushover) analysis. it is assumed that the columns of the momentresisting frames are embedded into pilasters formed into the basement wall. The lateralloadresisting system consists of steel momentresisting frames on the perimeter of the building. 1. From Provisions Table 1.3 [1. and Nonlinear dynamic analysis. For the momentresisting frames in the NS direction (Frames A and G). and analysis of structures with added damping is prescribed in the Appendix to Chapter 13 [new Chapter 15]. For the frames in the EW direction (Frames 1 and 6). Analysis associated with the added dampers is performed in a very preliminary manner. which has a height of 15 ft. the occupancy importance factor (I) is 1.4 [1. Only the demand side of the required behavior of these connections is addressed in this example. At the exterior bays. more detail is provided on the last three analytical techniques. 4. 3.31]. Nonlinear static analysis is covered in the Appendix to Chapter 5. Linear dynamic analysis. 5.7 [5. The structure was initially proportioned using a preliminary analysis. respectively. Plastic strength analysis (using virtual work). The typical story height is 12 ft6 in. The primary purpose of this example is to highlight some of the more advanced analytical techniques.2]. all of the columns bend about their strong axes. the EW girders are connected to the weak axis of the exterior (corner) columns using nonmomentresisting connections. 5.Chapter 3.2 SIXSTORY STEEL FRAME BUILDING. For this example. In an attempt to improve performance. 2. viscous fluid dampers are considered for use in the structural system. The following analytical techniques are employed: 1. momentresisting connections are used only at the interior columns. There are a 5fttall perimeter parapet at the roof and one basement level that extends 15 ft below grade. A plan and elevation of the building are shown in Figures 3. and the girders are attached with fully welded momentresisting connections. and it is this preliminary design that is investigated.0. The Provisions provides some guidance and requirements for the advanced analysis techniques. WASHINGTON In this example. SEATTLE. Washington.5]. A few of these 349 . It is assumed that these and all other fully welded connections are constructed and inspected according to postNorthridge protocol. 3. sixstory structural steel momentresisting frame is investigated using a variety of analytical techniques. with the exception of the first story.
all of the analyses in this example will be for lateral loads acting in the NS direction. With minor exceptions. however.21 Plan of structural system. 350 28'0" W E 28'0" 28'0" 28'0" 28'0" . Analysis for lateral loads acting in the EW direction would be performed in a similar manner. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples columns. 1'6" (typical) 30'0" 30'0" 30'0" 30'0" 30'0" 30'0" Moment connection (typical) N S Figure 3.FEMA 451. would be engaged as part of the added damping system described in the last part of this example.
875 The term Level is used in this example to designate a horizontal plane at the same elevation as the centerline of a girder. is at the roof elevation. The top level. a preliminary design was performed in accordance with the AISC Seismic. All members.) R W21x122 W24x84 1.00 3 W21x201 W27x94 0.00 4 W21x147 W27x94 1.1 Table 3. 1 351 . Level R. Detailed calculations for the design are beyond the scope of this example. Prior to analyzing the structure. including miscellaneous plates.00 5 W21x147 W27x94 1.00 6 W21x122 W24x84 1.21 Member Sizes Used in NS Moment Frames Member Supporting Column Girder Doubler Plate Thickness Level (in. Structural Analysis 5 at 12'6" = 62'6" 5'0" 15'0" 15'0" Basement wall 5 at 28'0" = 140'0" Figure 3. Table 3.22 Elevation of structural system.875 2 W21x201 W27x94 0.21 summarizes the members selected for the preliminary design. A Story represents the distance between adjacent levels. and Level 1 is at grade. Level 2 is the first level above grade. Hence. Story 1 is the lowest story (between Levels 2 and 1) and Story 6 is the uppermost story between Levels R and 6. were designed using steel with a nominal yield stress of 50 ksi. The story designation is the same as the designation of the level at the bottom of the story.Chapter 3.
25(50) = 12.573 15. A basic live load of 50 psf is used over the full floor. is assumed to act concurrent with seismic forces.870 2. thick plates are used at the interior columns at Levels 4. These forces are used in a preliminary static analysis to determine whether the structure. as designed.549 2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The sections shown in Table 3.894 17.5 psf. live load.561 7. the total dead load.FEMA 451. These are based on a total dead load of 95 psf.5 psf. and 10 psf for roofing at Level R.882 11.398 2.23. Doubler plates 0.792 321 1.549 321 321 2. Table 3.1 Gravity Loads It is assumed that the floor system of the building consists of a normal weight composite concrete slab on formed metal deck.605 2.926 Level R 6 5 4 3 2 Total Load (kips) Story Accumulated 2. Washington. or 12.232 321 1.110 321 642 2. 3.634 2.284 2.561 12.882 5. Doubler plates were not used in the exterior columns. and 1.561 10.671 321 963 2.2 Earthquake Loads Although the main analysis in this example is nonlinear. Based on these loads. and R.2. thick are used at each of the interior columns at Levels 2 and 3. 10 psf for partitions at Levels 2 through 6.22 Gravity Loads on Seattle Building Dead Load (kips) Reduced Live Load (kips) Story Accumulated Story Accumulated 2. The slight difference in loads at Levels R and 2 is due to the parapet and the tall first story. Adding 15 psf for ceiling and mechanical.875 in.2.752 2. A similar reduced live load is used for the roof. and dead plus live load applied to each level are given in Table 3. equivalent static forces are computed in accordance with the Provisions. a cladding weight of 15 psf.22.366 321 1. These floor beams have a span of 28 ft and are spaced 10 ft on center. and the size of the column relative to the girders should ensure that plastic hinges will form in the girders.00 in. The short period and the 1second mapped spectral 352 . The cladding system is assumed to weigh 15 psf.2 Loads 3.21 meet the widthtothickness requirements for special moment frames. 6. 5.2. the total dead load at each level is 95 psf.516 2. The dead weight of the structural floor system is estimated at 70 psf.882 8. conforms to the drift requirements of the Provisions.870 2. and a live load of 0. Tributary areas for columns and girders as well as individual element gravity loads used in the analysis are illustrated in Figure 3. respectively.882 14.561 5. Twentyfive percent of this load.292 3.2.2. The structure is situated in Seattle. The slab is supported by floor beams that span in the NS direction.
1.63 = 1.32]. Cd = 5.2.1.63) = 1.31 and 3.00 Fv = 1.52 [3.2.33 and 3. which.1. 4.51 and Eq.1a and 4. the maximum considered spectral acceleration parameters are: SMS = FaSS = 1. For the purpose of analysis.32]: Fa = 1.1.2. and Ω0 = 3.41 and 1.2.0.4(b) [Tables 3.1. From Provisions Tables 4. the structure is assigned to Seismic Design Category D.30 From Provisions Eq.63 SM1 = FvS1 = 1.2.1.Chapter 3.41 and 4.00(1. 4.57 The structure is situated on Site Class C materials.494 Based on the above coefficients and on Provisions Tables 4. Structural Analysis acceleration parameters for the site are: SS = 1.57) = 0.4(a) and 4.741 And from Provisions Eq. it is assumed that the structure complies with the requirements for a special moment frame.2.34]. has R = 8.31].5.42 [3.2.30(0.09 SD1 = (2/3)SM1 = (2/3)0.2 [4.1b [1. the design acceleration parameters are: SDS = (2/3)SM1 = (2/3)1. 4.31 and 3.741 = 0.42]. 353 .2. according to Provisions Table 5.63 S1 = 0.2.
FEMA 451.2R C R 6 5 (c) Element and nodal loads Figure 3. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 1'6" 1'6" 28'0" 28'0" 15'0" A B 30'0" (a) Tributary area for columns 1'6" 28'0" 28'0" 5'0" C C (b) Tributary area for girders P .2R C PB .RC A PB .23 Element loads used in analysis. 354 .
91) = 1.2 Computation of Base Shear Using Provisions Eq. 5.09 = = 0.4.1 [5.1 [5. from Provisions Table 5. CuTa = 1.4. The results of this example problem would not be affected by the change.Chapter 3.27 sec. Structural Analysis 3.2.0480 . 355 .13 [revised for the 2003 Provisions]: CSmin = 0.2.23] controls in the constant velocity region: CS = S D1 0.4.0485(15.26] is used to estimate the building period: x Ta = Cr hn where.12 [5. When the period is determined from a properly substantiated analysis. 5. the Provisions requires that the period used for computing base shear not exceed CuTa where. Cu = 1. V = 0.494).4.494 = = 0.27(8 /1) The seismic response coefficient.028(77.2.2. 5.4.2.028 and x = 0. 3. the total seismic shear is: V = CS W where W is the total weight of the structure.21] (using SD1 = 0. however.11 [5.2 [5.5 ft.12 [5.0485 T ( R / I ) 1.2. For the structure under consideration.2. Using W = 15. the value from Eq.21].366) = 745 kips. 5.1 Approximate Period of Vibration Provisions Eq. [In the 2003 Provisions. Using hn (the total building height above grade) = 77.91 sec.52].8 for a steel moment frame. from Provisions Table 5.1.1.] Thus.136 ( R / I ) (8 /1) Provisions Eq.1. From Provisions Eq.5)0.22].09) = 0. Cr = 0.044(1)(1.366 kips. 5.4.4.23] controls for this building.4.4.044 IS DS = 0.2. Ta = 0. this equation for minimum base shear coefficient has been revised.11 [5. 5. must not be less than that given by Eq.1. the maximum (constant acceleration region) seismic response coefficient is: CSmax = S DS 1.4(0.8 = 0.
356 .5(1.1.3.133 1.306.2.2 2.561 15. Table 3.0 426.6 Σ 3.3.5T = 0.2 239.5 1.549 77.1 567. If more than one type of nonlinear behavior is expected to be of significance.5 253.321 239. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 3.077 0.735 15.23] base shear is distributed along the height of the building using Provisions Eq.408 0.210 and 5. For analysis of a single frame.8 32.0 109.663 0.385.1 The Computer Program DRAIN2Dx The computer program DRAIN2Dx (henceforth called DRAIN) was used for all of the analyses described in this example.8 745.009 0.12 [5.4.129 96.5 8.75 + 0. This is the approach employed in this example.1 663.990 R 6 2.5 621.27) = 1.1 and 5.429 4 2.919 2 2.094 0.2.7 23.211]: Fx = CvxV and Cvx = wx h k i =1 ∑ wi hi n k where k = 0.3.253 188. onehalf of the tabulated values are used.2. The analyst should first perform a linear analysis to obtain some basic information on expected behavior and to serve later as a form of verification for the more advanced analysis.882 0.3 Preliminaries to Main Structural Analysis Performing a nonlinear analysis of a structure is an incremental process.077 57.1 720.23 Equivalent Lateral Forces for Seattle Building Responding in NS Direction Fx hx Vx Mx wx Level x wxhxk Cvx (kips) (ft) (kips) (kips) (ftkips) 2.561 27.6 15.561 65.23.188 140.2 [5. The lateral forces acting at each level and the story shears and story overturning moments acting at the bottom of the story below the indicated level are summarized in Table 3.2.75 + 0.725 3 2.4.3 427. 5.561 40. DRAIN allows linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of twodimensional (planar) structures only.060.6 43.334 5 2.366 3. These are the forces acting on the whole building.FEMA 451.2. 5. it is advisable to perform a preliminary analysis with each nonlinearity considered separately and then to perform the final analysis with all nonlinearities considered. Once the linear behavior is understood (and extrapolated to expected nonlinear behavior).000 745.4.3 Vertical Distribution of Forces The Provisions Eq. the anticipated nonlinearities are introduced.0 835.561 52. 3.033 24.
4. 5. Only a single frame was modeled. A complete description of the implementation of these elements is provided later. flexural. Pdelta effects were modeled using the leaner column shown in Figure 3. deformations to occur in the beamcolumn joint region. only three element types were used: Type 1. While a variety of element types is available. flexural and shear deformations were included but.2 Description of Preliminary Model and Summary of Preliminary Results The preliminary DRAIN model is shown in Figure 3. Plastic behavior in girders and in the panel zone region of the structure was considered through the use of Type 4 connection elements. used for preliminary analysis and for verification of the second (more advanced) model.22 and 3. Important characteristics of the model are as follows: 1. beamcolumn element Type 4. Type 1 elements were used for modeling Pdelta effects. This allows. axial. Plastic hinges were allowed to form in all columns. consisted only of Type 2 elements for the main structure and Type 1 elements for modeling Pdelta effects. and the dampers in the damped system. the braces in the damped system. It was assumed that these elements would remain linear elastic throughout the response.23 were applied. Note that this model does not provide any increase in beamcolumn joint stiffness due to the presence of doubler plates. 3. DRAIN models the structure as an assembly of nodes and elements. The first model. Pdelta effects were activated for this column only (Pdelta effects were turned off for the columns of the main frame). 2. connection element Two models of the structure were prepared for DRAIN.3. For the girders. 3. because of diaphragm slaving. inelastic bar (truss) element Type 2. Structural Analysis As with any finite element analysis program. in an approximate but reasonably accurate manner. axial deformation was not included. For the second more detailed model.24. Columns were fixed at their base. and shear deformations were included. For the columns. Hence onehalf of the loads shown in Tables 3. The column hinges form through the mechanism provided in DRAIN's Type 2 element. This column was modeled with an axially rigid Type 1 (truss) element.2. Composite action in the floor slab was ignored for all analysis.Chapter 3. Each beam or column element was modeled using a Type 2 element. Type 2 elements were used to model the beams and columns as well as the rigid links associated with the panel zones. Members were modeled using centerline dimensions without rigid end offsets. The lateral degree of freedom at each level of the Pdelta column was slaved to the floor diaphragm at 357 . Girder yielding was forced to occur in the Type 4 elements (in lieu of the main span represented by the Type 2 elements) to provide more control in hinge location and modeling. All analyses carried out using this model were linear.24 at the right of the main frame.
45 in.2 [5.24 Simple wire frame model used for preliminary analysis.2.3. This special load case consisted of a vertical force equal to onehalf of the total story weight (dead load plus fully reduced live load) applied to the appropriate node of the Pdelta column. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples the matching elevation.4.5.2. This is in accordance with Provisions Sec.3] which allows such an increase in drift when a nonlinear analysis is performed.2. respectively. including Cd = 5. the deflection amplification factor (Cd) equals 5. is 3.6. For this example. story stability coefficients (θ) were computed in accordance with Provisions Sec. the stability coefficient equation has been revised to include the importance factor in the numerator and the calculated result is used simply to determine whether a special 358 .25 for the computations excluding and including Pdelta effects.2. a special initial load case was created and executed. however.2]. If the 1. in Story 2.5.2 [5. Provisions Sec. When Pdelta effects are not included. Pdelta effects were modeled in this manner to avoid the inconsistency of needing true column axial forces for assessing strength and requiring total story forces for assessing stability. 5. At Story 2. The largest magnified story drift.5. and the acceptable story drift (story drift limit) is taken as 1.3 [5.3. When Pdelta effects were included in the analysis.2] allows Pdelta effects to be ignored when the stability coefficient is less than 0. the computed story drift is less than the allowable story drift at each level of the structure. Frame A or G R 6 5 4 3 2 Y X P∆ column Figure 3. 5.4.. [In the 2003 Provisions.00 in. 5.25 multiplier were not used.8.3. the allowable story drift would reduce to 3.FEMA 451.6.0839. This increased limit is used here for consistency with the results from the following nonlinear timehistory analysis. analyses are performed with and without Pdelta effects.7. As a preliminary estimate of the importance of Pdelta effects.1 Results of Preliminary Analysis: Drift and Period of Vibration The results of the preliminary analysis for drift are shown in Tables 3. the stability coefficient is 0. In each table. and the computed story drift at Levels 3 and 4 would exceed the limit.2.24 and 3.25 times the limit provided by Provisions Table 5. 3.6.10.6.
57 3.) 6 3.50 The computed periods for the first three natural modes of vibration are shown in Table 3.31 0.68 3.26.53 2. the stability ratios provide a useful check.75 3. As expected. (Hence.2. 5. where θ is the stability coefficient for the story.] When Pdelta effects are included. the period will decrease slightly.57 3.91 0.4.63 3.14 0.) (in.63 3. and the upper limit on computed period CuTa is 1.74 3.25 0.66 3.16 0.75 0.) Ratio 3.82 3.45 3.0683 Story 6 5 4 3 2 1 Table 3.24 Results of Preliminary Analysis Excluding Pdelta Effects Total Drift Story Drift Magnified Drift Limit Story Stability (in.50 2.75 3 1. 359 .0706 1.75 4 2.4(0.97 3.) (in.35 0.75 1 0.75 0.54 2.75 0.81 0.01 0.0264 2. When doubler plate effects are included in the analysis.11 [5.27 seconds.) (in.25 Results of Preliminary Analysis Including Pdelta Effects Total Drift Story Drift Magnified Drift Limit Story (in.77 0.26]. the drifts at the lower stories increase by about 10 percent as expected from the previously computed stability ratios. Recall from previous calculations that this period (Ta) is 0.91 4.3) is required. Structural Analysis analysis (in accordance with Sec.34 1.) (in.) Story Drift (in.75 0.36 3.50 0.75 0.15 3.53 0.91 3. A5.91 seconds.57 0.75 5 3. 2 The story drifts including Pdelta effects can be estimated as the drifts without Pdelta times the quantity 1/(1θ) . Table 3.53 2. More significant is the fact that the first mode period is considerably longer than that predicted from Provisions Eq.91) = 1.48 0.61 3.75 2 1.0548 1.33 1. but it remains obvious that the structure is quite flexible.87 3. the period including Pdelta effects is slightly larger than that produced by the analysis without such effects.0448 2.14 4.0839 0.) Story Drift (in.2.2) Recall that this analysis ignored the stiffening effect of doubler plates.Chapter 3.
NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 3.394 0.164 0.277 0.280 0.175 0.282 0.424 0.133 Level 4 0.26 Periods of Vibration From Preliminary Analysis (sec) Mode Pdelta Excluded Pdelta Included 1 1.344 0. the ratio is similar except that the plastic flexural capacity is estimated to be Zcol(Fy .169 0.435 0.211 0.487 0.23. the demandtocapacity ratio is simply the maximum moment in the member divided by the member’s plastic moment capacity where the plastic capacity is ZgirderFy.2. For this analysis.257 0.223 0.430 0. This results in slightly conservative ratios.425 0.253 0.269 0.492 Figure 3.407 0.148 Level 5 0.308 0.333 0.177 0.394 0.344 0.3.165 Level 3 0.2. 360 . For columns. The results are shown in Figure 3.664 0.177 0.182 0.177 0.492 0.281 0. The ratios were computed at the end of the member.25.333 0.314 0. Pdelta effects were included. the structure was subjected to full dead load plus 25 percent of live load followed by the equivalent lateral forces of Table 3.679 3 0.452 0.485 0.135 0.474 0.985 2.269 0.055 2 0.309 0.255 0.255 0.176 0.2 Results of Preliminary Analysis: DemandtoCapacity Ratios To determine the likelihood of and possible order of yielding.25 Demandtocapacity ratios for elements from analysis with Pdelta effects included.420 0.FEMA 451.413 0.162 Level 2 0.470 0.354 0. particularly for the columns. For girders. Level R 0.434 0.282 0.189 0.333 0.308 0.394 0.333 0.172 0.485 0.066 Level 6 0.333 0.340 0. demandtocapacity ratios were computed for each element.435 0. not at the face of the column or girder.269 0.274 0. because the columns have a smaller ratio of clear span to total span than do the girders.367 3.361 0.170 0.451 0.Pu/Acol) where Pu is the total axial force in the column.
multiply all the values listed in Table 3.Pu/Acol). all the hinges in the girders in a level will form almost simultaneously. The closeness of the Provisions and triangular load strengths is due to the fact that the verticalloaddistributing parameter (k) was 1. a value less than 1. and a ratio greater than 1.0 means the element is still elastic.0. The inset to the figure shows how the angle modification term σ was computed. particularly at the upper levels. While not shown in the table. which is close to 1. it is assumed that plastic hinges are perfectly plastic. As expected.26 for nomenclature): Internal Work = External Work Internal Work = 2[20σθMPA + 40σθMPB + θ(MPC + 4MPD + MPE)] nLevels External Work = V θ ⎡ ∑ Fi H i ⎤ where ∑ Fi = 1. With the possible exception of the first level.3 Several observations are made regarding the likely inelastic behavior of the frame: 1. The column on the leeward (right) side of the building will yield first because of the additional axial compressive force arising from the seismic effects.3.385. 3. It is usually very difficult to prevent yielding of the base of the first story columns in moment frames.3 Results of Preliminary Analysis: Overall System Strength The last step in the preliminary analysis was to estimate the total lateral strength (collapse load) of the frame using virtual work.0 ⎢ i =1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ i =1 nLevels Three lateral force patterns were used: uniform. the girders should yield before the columns. upper triangular. and Provisions where the Provisions pattern is consistent with the vertical force distribution of Table 3. Because of the uniform demandtocapacity ratios in the girders of each level. The strength (V) for the total structure is computed from the following relationships (see Figure 3. Hence. The fully plastic mechanism for the system is illustrated in Figure 3.2. from the face of the column. The difference between the uniform and the triangular or Provisions patterns is an 3 To determine the demandtocapacity ratio on the basis of an elastic analysis. a ratio of 1. Structural Analysis It is very important to note that the ratios shown in Figure 3. the strength under uniform load is significantly greater than under triangular or Provisions load. the ratios are an approximation of the ductility demand for the individual elements. 361 .0 means that the element is just at yield.25 are based on the inelastic seismic forces (using R = 8).0 indicates yielding. and the plastic moment capacity is assumed to be Zcol(Fy . and this frame is no exception. Girders hinge at a value ZgirderFy and the hinges form 5. 3.27.26.26 by R = 8. With this modification. it should be noted that the demandtocapacity ratios for the lower story columns were controlled by the moment at the base of the column.Chapter 3. The sequence of yielding will progress from the lower level girders to the upper level girders.0 in. The structure has considerable overstrength. In the analysis.23 in this volume of design examples. Columns hinge only at the base. 2.2. The results of the analysis are shown in Table 3.
27 Lateral Strength on Basis of RigidPlastic Mechanism Lateral Strength (kips) Lateral Strength (kips) Lateral Load Pattern Entire Structure Single Frame Uniform 3.046 1. The rigidplastic analysis did not consider the true behavior of the panel zone region of the beamcolumn joint. is 0. which is an additional source of overstrength.4 Description of Model Used for Detailed Structural Analysis Nonlinearstatic and dynamic analyses require a much more detailed model than was used in the linear analysis. The primary reason for the difference is the need to explicitly represent yielding in the girders.23).925 Upper Triangular 3.27. Table 3. 362 .523 Provisions 2.26.25. 746 kips (see Table 3. 3. 2886 kips.FEMA 451.886 1. The rigidplastic analysis did not include strain hardening.2.850 1. three important points should be made: 1. when divided by the Provisions pattern capacity. The detail illustrates the two main features of the model: an explicit representation of the panel zone region and the use of concentrated (Type 4 element) plastic hinges in the girders. Before proceeding. columns.28. The DRAIN model used for the nonlinear analysis is shown in Figure 3. the “error” in total strength is less than 1 percent. The equivalentlateralforce (ELF) base shear. A detail of a girder and its connection to two interior columns is shown in Figure 3. 2. Yielding in this area can have a significant effect on system strength.443 3. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples indicator that the results of a capacityspectrum analysis of the system will be quite sensitive to the lateral force pattern applied to the structure when performing the pushover analysis. This is reasonably consistent with the demand to capacity ratios shown in Figure 3. Slightly more than 10 percent of the system strength comes from plastic hinges that form in the columns. If the strength of the column is taken simply as Mp (without the influence of axial force). and panel zone region of the beamcolumn joints.
Structural Analysis M PA M PA M PB M PB M PB M PB Y M PC X (a) M PD M PD M PD M PD M PE (c) e = 0.27. 3.2.2 of this example for details. See Sec.26 Plastic mechanism for computing lateral strength.3. 363 .Chapter 3. In Figure 3.5 (d c )+ 5" e db θ dc (b) (c) σθ σθ eθ e θ' L2e (d) θ 2e θ e Figure 3. the column shown to the right of the structure is used to represent Pdelta effects.
27 Detailed analytical model of 6story frame. For this reason. the following theoretical development is provided before proceeding with the example.1 Plastic Hinge Modeling and Compound Nodes In the analysis described below. 364 15'0" 5 at 12'6" .2. Panel zone panel spring (Typical) Girder plastic hinge Panel zone flange spring (Typical) Figure 3.28 28'0" Typical Figure 3. The development of the numerical properties used for panel zone and girder hinge modeling is not straightforward. deformations in the panel zone region of beamcolumn joints.28 Model of girder and panel zone region.FEMA 451. much use is made of compound nodes. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples See Figure 3.4. These nodes are used to model plastic hinges in girders and. 3. through a simple transformation process.
Hence. and these springs develop bending moment in resistance to the relative rotation between the two single nodes. one or more rotational spring connection elements (DRAIN element Type 4) are placed between the two single nodes of the compound node. Master θ Master Slave Rotational spring Rotational spring θ Slave Master node Slave node (a) dθ = θ Master . the compound node has four degrees of freedom: an X displacement. respectively. The X and Y degrees of freedom of the first node of the pair (the slave node) are constrained to be equal to the X and Y degrees of freedom of the second node of the pair (the master node). the compound node acts as a momentfree hinge.Chapter 3. inelastic momentrotation behavior for the spring. In most cases. If no spring elements are placed between the two single nodes. 365 . a Y displacement.29. and two independent rotations. Structural Analysis A compound node typically consists of a pair of single nodes with each node sharing the same point in space. A typical compound node with a single rotational spring is shown in Figure 3. The figure also shows the assumed bilinear.θSlave (b) My 1 Κ 1 dθ αΚ My (c) Figure 3.29 A compound node and attached spring.
illustrated in Figure 3. panel zones are modeled using an approach developed by Krawinkler (1978). This model. often referred to as the scissors model. including doubler plates and 2. which is used for determining panel zone shear strength: The author of this example is completing research at Virginia Tech to determine whether the scissors model is adequate to model steel moment frames. The scissors model has the advantage of using fewer degrees of freedom.4 For this reason. In this example. it is generally considered to inadequately represent the kinematics of the problem. also has been developed to represent panel zone behavior. yet robust.210. The Krawinkler model assumes that the panel zone area has two resistance mechanisms acting in parallel: 1. A simpler model. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Figure 3.2 Modeling of BeamColumn Joint Regions A very significant portion of the total story drift of a momentresisting frame may be due to deformations that occur in the panel zone region of the beamcolumn joint. the scissors model is not used here. Shear resistance of the web of the column. Flexural resistance of the flanges of the column.210 Krawinkler beamcolumn joint model.FEMA 451.4. These two resistance mechanisms are apparent in AISC Seismic Eq.2. due to its simplicity. The disadvantage of the approach is that the number of degrees of freedom required to model a structure is significantly increased. has the advantage of being conceptually simple. Preliminary results indicate that the kinematics error is not significant and that very good results may be obtained by a properly formulated scissors model. 4 366 . (91). 3. However.
8 2 Fy bcf tcf db ≡ VPanel + 1. width of column flange. total depth of column.8VFlanges where the first term is the panel shear resistance and the second term is the plastic flexural resistance of the column flange. Additional terms used in the subsequent discussion are: tbf = girder flange thickness and G = shear modulus of steel.Chapter 3. thickness of panel zone region = column web thickness plus doubler plate thickness.6 Fy d c t p + 1. thickness of column flange. The terms in the equations are defined as follows: Fy dc tp bcf tcf db = = = = = = yield strength of the column and the doubler plate. 367 .6 Fy d c t p ⎢1 + ⎥. Structural Analysis 2 ⎡ 3bcf tcf ⎤ Rv = 0. and total depth of girder. ⎢ db d c t p ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The equation can be rewritten as: Rv = 0.
assumed as 0.) The second term.211 Column flange component of panel zone resistance. The panel zone shear resistance (VPanel) is simply the effective shear area of the panel dctp multiplied by the yield stress in shear. (The 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Yielding of column flange (a) VFlanges 4M pθ = VFlanges d b θ db θ Mp V (b) VFlanges = 4M p db Figure 3. Testing of simple beamcolumn subassemblies show that a “kink” forms in the column flanges as shown in Figure 3. it follows from virtual work (see Figure 3.577 times the strength in tension.211(a). 1.6 factor is a simplification of the Von Mises yield criterion that gives the yield stress in shear as 1/ 3 = 0.FEMA 451. If it can be assumed that the kink is represented by a plastic hinge with a plastic moment capacity of Mp = FyZ = Fybcftcf2/4.8VFlanges.6Fy.211b) that the equivalent shear strength of the column flanges is: 368 . is based on experimental observation.
It should be noted that the flange component of strength is small compared to the panel component unless the column has very thick flanges.212: K Panel . Gt p d c V Panel ⎛ V Panel d b ⎞ 1 ⎜ ⎜ Gt d ⎟ d ⎟ ⎝ p c ⎠ b = Gt p d c K Panel . This multiplier is based on experimental results. The shear stiffness of the panel is derived as shown in Figure 3.Chapter 3.212 Column web component of panel zone resistance.8 multiplier that appears in the AISC equation. 369 . γ = V Panel γ = V Panel δ db noting that the displacement δ can be written as: δ= V Panel d b . γ = δ VPanel Thickness = t p db γ=θ dc Figure 3. Structural Analysis VFlanges = 4M p db and by simple substitution for Mp: VFlanges = 2 Fy bcf tcf db This value does not include the 1.
Using this transformation.210.213. the properties of the rotational spring representing the panel shear component of resistance are: 370 . column below only).FEMA 451. flanges γy Shear strain. The finite element model of the joint requires 12 individual nodes: one node each at Points I through L. The columns and girders frame into the links at right angles at Points I through L.213 Forcedeformation behavior of panel zone region. and corner joints (girder on one side only. This figure is applicable also to exterior joints (girder on one side only). The upper right and lower left corners (points B and C) do not have rotational springs and thereby act as real hinges. as shown in Figure 3. The actual Krawinkler model is shown in Figure 3. From the figure it may be seen that the moment in the rotational spring is equal to the applied shear times the beam depth. and two nodes (compound node pairs) at Points A through D.γ Gd c t p G At this deformation. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Krawinkler assumes that the column flange component yields at four times the yield deformation of the panel component. The rotational spring properties are related to the panel shear resistance mechanisms by a simple transformation. the panel zone strength is VPanel + 0. K Panel . These are momentresisting connections. connected at the corners by compound nodes. This model consists of four rigid links.6 Fy d c t p 0.214. These springs are used to represent the panel resistance mechanisms described earlier. column below only). at four times this deformation. It is left to the reader to verify that the total number of degrees of freedom in the model is 28 (if the only constraints are associated with the corner compound nodes). panel γ Κ γ. roof joints (girders on both sides. the strength is VPanel + VFlanges. The inelastic forcedeformation behavior of the panel is illustrated in Figure 3.6 Fy VPanel = = . Shear Total resistance Panel V Panel Shear Κ 1 V Flanges Flanges γ. γ 4γy Figure 3. Rotational springs are used at the upper left (point A) and lower right (point D) compound nodes.25 Vflanges. where the panel yield deformation is: γy = 0.
and the shear stiffness in terms of the rotational spring is equal to G times the panel volume.8Fy bcf tcf 371 .214 Transforming shear deformation to rotational deformation in the Krawinkler model.8VFlanges d b = 1.θ = K Panel . Structural Analysis M Panel = VPanel db = 0.6 Fy d c db t p K Panel .γ db = Gd c db t p δ Shear = V δ V db γ θ Moment = Vd b (a) Note θ = γ (b) Panel spring Web spring (c) Figure 3. The flange component of strength in terms of the rotational spring is determined in a similar manner: 2 M Flanges = 1.6Fy times the volume of the panel.Chapter 3. It is interesting to note that the shear strength in terms of the rotation spring is simply 0.
213. K Panel . strainhardening may be added to the system. 372 . the distance between the center of the flanges was used as the effective depth. it is assumed that this spring yields at four times the yield deformation of the panel spring. the yield rotation of the panel is the same as the yield strain in shear: θy = γ y = M Panel 0. In this analysis.nom − tcf where the nom part of the subscript indicates the property listed as the total depth in the AISC Manual of Steel Construction. is shown in Figure 3. Hence: d c ≡ d c .FEMA 451. the strain.hardening component was simply added to both the panel and the flange components: K SH . This trilinear behavior is represented by two elasticperfectly plastic springs at the opposing corners of the joint assemblage. K Flanges . A summary of the properties used for all connections is shown in Table 3. Krawinkler suggests using a strainhardening stiffness equal to 3 percent of the initial stiffness of the joint.θ = M Flanges 4θ y 2 = 0. If desired.28.6 Fy = . in terms of rotational spring properties. one minor adjustment is made to the above derivations. Before continuing. The complete resistance mechanism.75Gbcf tcf .θ ) .θ G To determine the initial stiffness of the flange spring.θ = 0.θ + K Flanges . Instead of using the nominal total beam and girder depths in the calculations. Hence.03( K Panel . The Krawinkler properties are now computed for a typical interior subassembly of the 6story frame. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Because of the equivalence of rotation and shear deformation.
k/rad) (in.06 in.72 in.000 3.117.51 in.6 Fy d c t p = 0.θ Mflanges.00 in.θ Connection Girder Column (in.28.600 Example calculations shown for row in bold type.q Doubler Plate Mpanel.822 4.079 kips VFlanges = 1.000 1.nom tw tcf dc bcf 26.900 E W27x94 W21x201 – 15.72 + 1.028 102.489 148.000 3.72) = 1.8 2 Fy bcf tcf db = 1. 20.292 6.00 28.900 D W27x94 W21x147 1.900 11.92 in.203 9.745 in.248 11.θ Kflanges.0 ksi (girder. Total panel zone thickness = tp = 0.18 in.000 1.51)(1. Doubler plate: 1.8 50(12. Material Properties: Fy = 50.701 3.298. 1.489 148.000 1.000 ksi Girder: W27x94 db.600 F W27x94 W21x201 0.800 C W27x94 W21x147 – 11.800 B W24x84 W21x122 1. Structural Analysis Table 3. 26.6(50)(20.150 in.Chapter 3.028 102.9 kips 26.281.) A W24x84 W21x122 – 8.nom tf db Column: W21x147 dc. The sample calculations below are for Connection D in Table 3.k) (in.18 373 .480.91 in.152 ) = 56. column.00 23.91)(1. 12.28 Properties for the Krawinkler BeamColumn Joint Model Kpanel.72 in.875 29.729. VPanel = 0.00 = 1. 22. 0.000 1. 0. and doubler plate) G = 12.006 300.006 300.998.k/rad) (in.k/rad) (in.
kips/radian M Flanges = VFlanges db = 56. there is no effective way to represent a changing hinge length in DRAIN. 3.000 in.kips K Flanges . particularly the location of the hinge.000 M Panel = VPanel db = 1. The following information is required to model each plastic hinge: 1.18) = 1. The secondary stiffness. the behavior of the structure is relatively insensitive to the location of the hinges. it is anticipated that the girders will yield in flexure.4.FEMA 451.9(26.6(50.28. The program represents each element as a straight line. more control over behavior is obtained through the use of the Type 4 connection element.582(26.582 kips/unit shear strain γ y =θy = 0.000) = 0. Unfortunately. Fortunately.0025 12. Determination of the above properties.900 in.3 Modeling Girders Because this structure is designed in accordance with the strongcolumn/weakbeam principle. together with the panel zones at the ends. A graphic postprocessor was used to display the deflected shape of the structure.079(26.θ = K Panel .kips K Panel . 489 = 148.6 Fy G = 0. 4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples K Panel . The modeling of a typical girder is shown in Figure 3. 489 in.5 The compound nodes are used to represent inelastic behavior in the hinging region. 2.18) = 28. The midspan node is used to enhance the deflected shape of the structure. This figure shows an interior girder. The portion of the girder between the panel zones is modeled as four segments with one simple node at mid span and one compound node near each end. 5 374 . 298. 248 in. is complicated by the fact that the plastic hinge grows in length during increasing story drift.2.γ = Gt p d c = 12.91) = 431.kips/radian 4(0. The effective yield moment.θ = M Flanges 4γ y = 1. so one must make do with a fixed hinge length and location.000(1. The initial stiffness (moment per unit rotation). Although the computational results are unaffected.0025) 3. Although DRAIN provides special yielding beam elements (Type 2 elements).γ db = 431. and The location of the hinge with respect to the face of the column.18) = 11. a better graphical representation is obtained by subdividing the member.72)(20.
Fiber stress was obtained from the stressstrain law and stresses were multiplied by fiber area to determine fiber force. a relatively simple stressstrain curve is used to represent the 50 ksi steel in the girders. and 5 percent of the initial stiffness. Residual stresses due to section rolling were ignored. with 10 slices in each flange and 30 slices in the web. the girder cross section was divided into 50 horizontal slices. Structural Analysis To determine the hinge properties. The fiber contributions were summed to determine the total resisting moment. Curves were computed for an assumed strain hardening ratio of 1.006 Figure 3. The girder cross section was then subjected to gradually increasing rotation.002 1 Eo 1 ESH 0.Chapter 3. it is necessary to perform a momentcurvature analysis of the cross section. Analysis was performed using a Microsoft Excel worksheet. 375 . in turn. ksi 30 20 10 0 0 0. 3. The idealized stressstrain curve is shown in Figure 3.216. To compute the momentcurvature relationship. The forces were then multiplied by the distance to the neutral axis to determine that fiber’s contribution to the section’s resisting moment. Because of the assumed bilinear stressstrain curve. In this example. and this. strain compatibility (plane sections remain plane) was used to determine fiber strain.215.004 Strain 0. and it was assumed that local buckling of the flanges or the web would not occur. which is consistent with the assumption that the section has yielded in previous cycles. 50 40 Stress. is a function of the stressstrain curve of the material. This curve does not display a yield plateau. the momentcurvature relationships are essentially bilinear. For each value of rotation.215 Assumed stressstrain curve for modeling girders. The resulting momentcurvature relationship is shown for the W27x94 girder in Figure 3. with the Baushinger effect erasing any trace of the yield plateau.
217(a). radians/in.000 3 percent strain hardening 1 percent strain hardening 0 0 0. The first of these is rigidperfectly plastic and the second is bilinear.000 15. a separate analysis was performed on the structure shown in Figure 3.0025 C urvature. ksi 10.217(a).217(b). To determine the parameters for the plastic hinge in the DRAIN model.0015 0.217(c).216 Moment curvature diagram for W27x94 girder. This structure represents half of the clear span of the girder supported as a cantilever. The girder is loaded to some moment M. which is greater than the yield moment. The resulting behavior is illustrated in Figure 3. which consists of a cantilever with a compound node used to represent the inelastic rotation in the plastic hinge.218.001 0. If the momentcurvature relationship is idealized as bilinear. The method is developed in Figure 3.0005 0. The moment diagram for the member is shown in Figure 3.218(a) is a bilinear momentcurvature diagram.FEMA 451. At some distance x the moment is equal to the yield moment: x= M yL M 376 . Figure 3. The purpose of the special analysis was to determine a momentdeflection relationship for the cantilever loaded at the tip with a vertical force V. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 25. Two Type4 DRAIN elements were used at each compound node. Figure 3.002 0.000 20.218(b).000 Stress. it is a straightforward matter to compute the deflections of the structure of Figure 3. A similar momentdeflection relationship was determined for the structure shown in Figure 3.000 5 percent strain hardening 5.
The curvature along the length of the member is shown in Figure 3.d c )/2 Combined End moment (c) Component 1 Component 2 Tip deflection Figure 3. the curvature ( φM) is the curvature corresponding to the Point M on the momentcurvature diagram. At the distance x. and at the support.218(c). the curvature is the yield curvature (φy). The deflection is computed using the momentarea method. and consists of three parts: ∆1 = φ y x 2x 2 ⋅ 3 = φ y x2 3 ∆ 2 = φ y ( L′ − x ) L′ + x φ y ( L′ − x)( L′ + x) = 2 2 377 . Structural Analysis dc V (a) L/2 V Component 1 (b) Component 2 e L' = (L .Chapter 3.217 Developing momentdeflection diagrams for a typical girder.
) 378 . the simple DRAIN cantilever model of Figure 3. The inelastic part is represented by the two Type4 elements at the compound node of the structure. The inelastic part of the deflection (∆3 only) is shown separately in Figure 3.kips. where the total deflection (∆1+∆2+∆3) is indicated. The compound node has arbitrarily been placed a distance e = 5 in.217(b) is analyzed. Displacements were computed for 11 points on the structure. Part (a) of the figure is the idealized bilinear momentcurvature relationship for 3 percent strain hardening. The development of the momentdeflection relationship for the W27x94 girder is illustrated in Figure 3.219(c).000 in. The elastic part of the deflection is handled by the Type2 elements in Figure 3.217(b). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples ∆3 = = (φ M − φ y )( L ′ − x) ⋅ ⎡ x + 2( L ′ − x) ⎤ (φ M ⎢ 3 ⎢ ⎣ − φ y ( L ′ − x )(2 L ′ + x ) 2 ) ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 6 The first two parts of the deflection are for elastic response and the third is for inelastic response.219. (The analysis is relatively insensitive to the assumed hinge location. from the face of the support. where the moment axis has been truncated below 12. Finally. The resulting momentdeflection diagram is shown in Figure 3.219(b).FEMA 451.
Structural Analysis (a) φ y φ M Curvature M My (b) x L' φM 3 φy (c) 2 1 x L' Figure 3.Moment M My Chapter 3. 379 .218 Development of equations for deflection of momentdeflection curves.
220(b).FEMA 451.220(a) for the model subjected to a load producing a support moment. the moment is: MH = MS ( L′ − e ) L′ and all inelastic curvature is concentrated into a plastic hinge with rotation θH. The tip deflection of the structure of Figure 3. The corresponding curvature diagram is shown in Figure 3. greater than the yield moment. MS.220(c) consists of two parts: ∆E = M Support L′2 3EI 380 . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The moment diagram is shown in Figure 3. At the location of the plastic hinge.
0 0 0 5 .kips 1 5 . Structural Analysis 2 5 . in .0 0 2 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 T o tal tip d eflec tio n . 2 5 .0 0 0 2 0 .0 0 0 1 9 . in.0 0 0 1 6 . in.0 0 0 End moment.0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 0 1 5 .0 0 0 0 0 . 2 0 .0 0 0 5 0 .0 0 0 1 8 .0 0 0 (b ) 1 0 .0 0 0 Moment.0 0 0 1 4 .0 0 2 5 C u rv a tu re.0 0 0 0 0 . 381 . in.0 0 0 (a) 1 0 .Chapter 3.219 Momentdeflection curve for W27x94 girder with 3 percent strain hardening.0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 0 2 0 .0 0 0 End moment.0 0 0 5 .0 0 0 1 3 .kips 1 7 . ra d ian s/in .0 0 0 12 000 F ro m ca n tilev er a n a ly sis Id e aliz ed fo r d rain (c) Figure 3.kips 1 5 .
As ∆E is simply the elastic displacement of a simple cantilever beam. with the second component being bilinear. However.29. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples ∆ I = θ H ( L′ − e ) . however. 382 . The properties for the W24x84 girder are also shown in the table. the development of the hinge properties is greatly facilitated by the fact that one component of the hinge must be rigidplastic. The resulting “fit” for the W27x94 girder is shown in Figure 3.219. The resulting properties for the model are shown in Table 3. The first part is the elastic deflection and the second part is the inelastic deflection. there is little error in assuming that the two deflections are equal. The challenge is to determine the properties of the two Type4 elements such that the deflections predicted using ∆I are close to those produced using ∆3. it is possible to model the main portion of the girder using its nominal moment of inertia.FEMA 451. Note that the first yield of the model will be the yield moment from Component 1. which is difficult to reproduce in this example. and that this moment is roughly equal to the fully plastic moment of the section. Note that ∆E and (∆1 + ∆2) are not quite equal because the shapes of the curvature diagram used to generate the deflections are not the same. For the small values of strain hardening assumed in this analysis. This is a trialanderror procedure.
to input a strain hardening value of 1020 to prevent this from happening.Chapter 3.0 Inelastic Component 2 Yield Moment (in. ) 2.494 450.kip) 11.0 1.H. Structural Analysis Table 3.kip) 1.001) if a zero value is entered in the appropriate data field.200 Plastic Moment = ZxFy W27x94 3. This may cause very large artificial strain hardening moments to develop in the hinge after it yields.284 Comparative Property Yield Moment = SxFy 9.025 (see note below) Initial Stiffness (in.H. It is recommended. 0.3 Inelastic Component 1 Yield Moment (in.295 12.2 13.kip/radian) 10E10 S.g.150 13.370 Shear Area (in.270 13. therefore.538 10E10 0.kip/radian) 326.192 0.800 11. Ratio 0.29 Girder Properties as Modeled in DRAIN Section Property W24x84 4 Elastic Properties Moment of Inertia (in.900 In some versions of DRAIN the strain hardening stiffness of the Type4 springs is set to some small value (e.196 Initial Stiffness (in.2) 11. Ratio 0.000 S. 383 .
FEMA 451. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples M My (a) L' Plastic part φH = θ H 1" Elastic part (b) e L' Moment Elastic Inelastic (c) Deflection Figure 3. 384 .220 Development of plastic hinge properties for the W27x97 girder.
The rules employed by DRAIN to model column yielding are adequate for eventtoevent nonlinear static pushover analysis.000 W21x147 W21x122 10. kips 0 10.000 4. column yielding had to be activated in all of the Type2 column elements.000 2. in. 3.5 Static Pushover Analysis Nonlinear static analysis is covered for the first time in the Appendix to Chapter 5 of the 2000 Provisions. Preliminary analysis indicated that columns should not yield. 30.000 Moment.” For this reason.000 0 1.kips Figure 3.000 W21x201 20.000 1. wherein the yield moment is a function of the axial force in the column.000 4. Subsequent analysis showed that the columns will yield in the upper portion of the structure as well.000 20. The columns were modeled using the builtin yielding functionality of the DRAIN program.2.000 30.221. however. but leave much to be desired when dynamic analysis is performed. the example follows the appendix.2.000 2. For this reason.000 Axial force.4. for the most part.4 Modeling Columns All columns in the analysis were modeled as Type2 elements. The yield surface used by DRAIN is shown in Figure 3.Chapter 3. [In the 2003 385 . some liberties are taken in this example. Inclusion of these requirements in an appendix rather than the main body indicates that pushover analysis is in the developmental stage and may not be “ready for prime time.000 3. Structural Analysis 3. An assessment of the effect of these potential problems is beyond the scope of this example. except at the base of the first story.221 Yield surface used for modeling columns.000 3. The greatest difficulty in the dynamic analysis is adequate treatment of the column when unloading and reloading.
the structure was first subjected to the full dead load plus reduced live load followed by the lateral loads. In the analysis reported herein.24. Because of the similarity between the TL and ML distributions. possibly reflecting the newness of the approach. 5A1.” In this analysis the influence was taken as inclusion of the storylevel Pdelta effect. If such fracture is likely. Additional analysis is required to estimate the amount of inelastic deformation that may occur during an earthquake.1 [A5. Evaluation and Improvement of Inelastic Seismic Analysis Procedures). The loads have been normalized to a value of 15 kips at Level 2.23) Relative values of these load patterns are summarized in Table 3. it is felt that the model of the structure described earlier in this example is consistent with the spirit of the Provisions. DRAIN analyses were run with Pdelta effects included and. The Provisions requires “the influence of axial loads” to be considered when the axial load in the column exceeds 15 percent of the buckling load but presents no guidance on exactly how the buckling load is to be determined nor on what is meant by “influence. as the method is still very popular and is incorporated in several commercial computer programs. 1999). This method is described in some detail in ATC 40 (Applied Technology Council. However. the results from the TL distribution are not presented.210. However. which is the basis of the outrigger column shown in Figure 3. 386 . These inelastic deformations may then be compared to the deformations that have been deemed acceptable under the ground motion parameters that have been selected. Consistent 6 The mathematical model does not represent strength loss due to premature fracture of welded connections. 5A. four different load patterns were initially considered: UL TL ML BL = uniform load (equal force at each level) = triangular (loads proportional to height) = modal load (lateral loads proportional to first mode shape) = Provisions load distribution (using the forces indicated in Table 3. with such effects excluded. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Provisions.2. in some cases may produce unreliable results (Chopra and Goel. This effect may be easily represented through linearized geometric stiffness. Provisions Sec.3 [Appendix to Chapter 5] provides a simple methodology for estimating the inelastic deformations but does not provide specific acceptance criteria.1. it will be utilized here. The Provisions states that the lateral load pattern should follow the shape of the first mode.6 The pushover curve obtained from a nonlinear static analysis is a function of the way the structure is both modeled and loaded. provides the location and sequence of expected yielding in a structure. In this example.1] discusses modeling requirements for the pushover analysis in relatively vague terms. largely as a result of work performed by the Applied Technology Council in Project 55. for comparison purposes. 1996). Provisions Sec. a number of substantive technical changes have been made to the appendix.FEMA 451. in itself. and the results obtained will be compared to those computed using the simple approach. the mathematical model must be adjusted accordingly. The capacity spectrum method is somewhat controversial and. Another wellknown method for determining maximum inelastic displacement is based on the capacity spectrum approach.] Nonlinear static pushover analysis.
Under a dynamic loading. These structures are referred to as the strong panel (SP) and weak panel (WP) structures.” Under load control.0 As described later. the true base shear in the system consists of two parts: 7 If Pdelta effects have been included. When performing a displacement controlled pushover analysis in DRAIN with PDelta effects included.0 15. Table 3.0 BSSC Load BL (kips) 150.8 50. structures can display strength loss and be incrementally stable.5 65.210 Lateral Load Patterns Used in Nonlinear Static Pushover Analysis Level R 6 5 4 3 2 Uniform Load UL (kips) 15. It is for this reason that the poststrengthloss realm of the pushover response is of interest. Structural Analysis geometric stiffness. may not be used directly in DRAIN. the ML analysis was repeated for a structure with thinner doubler plates and without doubler plates. this procedure needs to be used when recovering base shear from column shear forces. Panel zone hinging did not occur. respectively. which may be used to represent the influence of axial forces on the flexural flexibility of individual columns. however. one must be careful to recover the baseshear forces properly. That approach was not used here.5 15. Using DRAIN.0 60. If. the tangent stiffness matrix of the structure has a negative on the diagonal.0 Triangular Load TL (kips) 77.0 52. the structure can display loss of strength because the displacement control algorithm adds artificial stiffness along the diagonal to overcome the stability problem. at any load step. the structure is subjected to gradually increasing lateral loads. the computed response of the structure after strength loss is completely fictitious in the context of a static loading environment.0 15.0 Modal Load ML (kips) 88. the pushover analysis indicated all yielding in the structure occurred in the clear span of the girders and columns. The analyses were carried out using the DRAIN2Dx computer program.Chapter 3.0 15.0 118. 387 . Such effects may be approximated in DRAIN by subdividing columns into several segments and activating the linearized geometric stiffness on a columnbycolumn basis. In this type of analysis.7 At any displacement step in the analysis. loss of strength due to Pdelta effects cannot be tracked.0 15. an analysis may be performed under “load control” or under “displacement control. Because the behavior of the structure with thin doubler plates was not significantly different from the behavior with the thicker plates. For this reason. Of course.4 80.0 36.3 32. Using displacement control.4 67. and dynamic timehistory analysis.5 40. force controlled static analysis. Consequently.0 15.0 88.0 15. the only comparison made here will be between the structures with and without doubler plates.0 27.0 15. one particular point of the structure (the control point) is forced to undergo a monotonically increasing lateral displacement and the lateral forces are constrained to follow the desired pattern. This is true for displacement controlled static analysis. the analysis is terminated.
5. kips 1000 Total Base Shear Column Shear Forces PDelta Forces 0 500 500 1000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Roof displacement. 5A.2. For all of the pushover analyses reported for this example. The Pdelta effects for this structure were included through the use of the outrigger column shown at the right of Figure 3. will not generally be proportional to the roof displacement.3.25 factor is taken from Provisions Sec.25 times 2 percent of the total height.224 shows the response curves if Pdelta effects are included.225. Also shown is the total response.24. in. In each case.5 in.3. The drift limit is taken from Provisions Table 5. the Appendix to Chapter 5 of the Provisions requires only that the pushover analysis be run to a maximum displacement of 1.2. 3. Sec.85R/Cd rather than by 1.2.5 times the expected inelastic displacement.5.25.222 plots two base shear components of the pushover response for the SP structure subjected to the ML loading. In Figure 3.i − i =1 n P ∆1 1 h1 where the first term represents the sum of all the column shears in the first story and the second term represents the destabilizing Pdelta shear in the first story.51] and the 1. This value is slightly greater than 1. 2000 1500 Shear.] As discussed below in Sec.2.6 requires multiplication by 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples V = ∑VC . the pushover analysis of this structure would only be run to a total displacement of about 13. [In the 2003 Provisions.223 shows the pushover response of the SP structure to all three lateral load patterns when Pdelta effects are excluded. Figure 3.222 Two base shear components of pushover response. Figure 3.5 times the total drift limit for the structure where the total drift limit is taken as 1.8 [4. gravity loads were applied first and then the lateral loads were applied using the displacement control algorithm. the maximum displacement at the roof is 42.4.1. Figure 3. If this limit were used.0 in. 3. The kink in the line representing Pdelta forces results because these forces are based on firststory displacement. which. for an inelastic system.FEMA 451.1 Pushover Response of Strong Panel Structure Figure 3. the response of the structure under ML loading with and without 388 . A5.
2.2 [5. While the Provisions allow the analyst to exclude Pdelta effects in an elastic analysis.0901. 5. Clearly. and the influence grows in significance after yielding. Where the calculated θ is greater than 0.3.] 2. Sec.6.600 1.000 1. which ignore Pdelta effects in elastic analysis if the maximum stability ratio is less than 0.2.1 requires that Pdelta effects be considered for all pushover analyses. kips 1. 30 40 50 BL Loading Figure 3.4.0. A5.2]).0839 (see Table 3.400 Base shear. The upper limit is computed according to Provisions Eq.2. 5.4. 389 . excluding Pdelta effects.24).22 and is based on the very conservative assumption that β = 1.800 1.223 Response of strong panel model to three load pattern. in. which is less than 0. [In the 2003 Provisions.10 (see Provisions Sec.200 1. Structural Analysis Pdelta effects is illustrated.10 and is also less than the upper limit of 0. For this structure.6.10 a special analysis must be performed in accordance with Sec.000 800 600 UL Loading 400 ML Loading 200 0 0 10 20 Roof displacement. this clearly should not be done in the pushover analysis (or in timehistory analysis). the upper limit for the stability ratio is eliminated.Chapter 3. Pdelta effects are an extremely important aspect of the response of this structure. A5.6. the maximum computed stability ratio was 0. This is particularly interesting in the light of the Provisions.
225 Response of strong panel model to ML loads.600 Base shear. Figure 3. 2. with and wthout Pdelta effects. Figure 3.000 Excluding PDelta Including PDelta 1. in. 390 .400 1.200 1.200 800 400 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Roof displacement.600 1. in.224 Response of strong panel model to three load patterns. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 1.FEMA 451. kips 800 600 UL Loading 400 ML Loading BL Loading 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Roof displacement.000 Base shear. kips 1. including Pdelta effects.
140 120 100 "Tangent stiffness".Chapter 3. 391 . Structural Analysis In Figure 3.075 times the initial stiffness. in. compared to an original value of 133 kips/in.0 percent) strain hardening ratio used in the development of the model because the entire structure does not yield simultaneously.03 (3.227. the final stiffness is 1.6 kips per in. with and without Pdelta effects. 3.2. the first significant yield occurs at a roof displacement of approximately 6. the final stiffness shown in Figure 3. is more effective than the pushover plot in determining when yielding occurs.226 illustrates. This is somewhat greater than the 0. Hence. the strainhardening stiffness of the structure is 0.226 Tangent stiffness history for structure under ML loads. When Pdelta effects are included. These events correspond to numbers shown in part (a) of the figure..1. As Figure 3. The structure attains this negative residual stiffness at a displacement of approximately 23 in. Including PDelta Figure 3. The pushover curve only shows selected events because an illustration showing all events would be difficult to read.226. a plot of the tangent stiffness versus roof displacement is shown for the SP structure with ML loading. and with Pdelta effects excluded or included. For example. This plot.1 Sequence and Pattern of Plastic Hinging The sequence of yielding in the structure with ML loading and with Pdelta effects included is shown in Figure 3. kips/in. For the case with Pdelta effects excluded. which represents the slope of the pushover curve at each displacement value. Part (a) of the figure shows an elevation of the structure with numbers that indicate the sequence of plastic hinge formation. Part (b) of the figure shows a pushover curve with several hinge formation events indicated. 80 Excluding PDelta 60 40 20 0 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Roof displacement.5 in.5.226 is approximately 10 kips/in. and that most of the structure’s original stiffness is exhausted by the time the roof drift reaches 10 in. the numeral “1” indicates that this was the first hinge to form.
There was no hinging in Levels 6 and R. This design philosophy.). Even though the pattern of hinging is interesting and useful as an evaluation tool. and a complete story mechanism was avoided.FEMA 451. 392 . 3. It appears the structure is somewhat weak in the middle two stories and is too strong at the upper stories. All columns on Story 3 and all the interior columns on Story 4 formed plastic hinges. hinges did not form at the top of these columns. 4. and Both ends of all the girders at Levels 2 through 5 yielded. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Several important observations are made from Figure 3. 2. While hinges did form at the bottom of each column in the third story. however.227: 1. not to prevent individual column hinging. the performance of the structure in the context of various acceptance criteria cannot be assessed until the expected inelastic displacement can be determined. The doubler plates added to the interior columns prevented panel zone yielding (even at the extreme roof displacement of 42 in. There was no hinging in any of the panel zones. The presence of column hinging at Levels 3 and 4 is a bit troublesome because the structure was designed as a strongcolumn/weakbeam system.3. 5.5. is intended to prevent the formation of complete story mechanisms. This is done below in Sec. Hinges formed at the base of all the firststory columns. 3.2.
227 Patterns of plastic hinge formation: SP model under ML load. (b) 25 30 35 40 45 Figure 3. including Pdelta effects. 393 .Chapter 3. kips 800 4 1 10 17 19 20 23 24 26 600 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 Drift. Structural Analysis 20 19 22 18 24 16 10 11 21 7 2 3 22 18 24 16 11 21 7 3 22 18 24 16 11 21 7 3 22 17 24 15 9 21 7 1 25 12 26 4 6 4 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 3 14 12 12 (a) 12 12 13 1. in.200 16 1.000 8 Total shear.
5. For this exercise. In both cases Pdelta effects have been included. which represent approximately 2.231 it may be seen that the doubler plates. only the modal load pattern d is considered but the analysis is performed with and without Pdelta effects. Figure 3. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 3. The pushover curves for the structure under modal loading and with weak panels are shown in Figure 3.2.2.5.FEMA 451. increase the strength by approximately 12 percent and increase the initial stiffness by about 10 percent. Consistent with the upper bound theorem of plastic analysis. From Figures 3. compared to that assumed in the rigidplastic analysis. Curves for the analyses run with and without Pdelta effects are included.211. The reason for the difference in predicted strengths is related to the pattern of yielding that actually formed in the structure.223 and is taken as the strength at the principal bend in the curve (the estimated yield from a bilinear representation of the pushover curve).2 Comparison with Strength from Plastic Analysis It is interesting to compare the strength of the structure from pushover analysis with that obtained from the rigidcollapse analysis performed using virtual work.229 and 3. the strength from virtual work is significantly greater than that from pushover analysis.228 through 3.0 percent of the volume of the structure. the structure should be reanalyzed without panel zone reinforcing and the behavior compared with that determined from the analysis described above.228.231 shows the tangent stiffness history comparison for the structures with and without doubler plates. These values are summarized in Table 3.1. Table 3.2 Pushover Response of Weak Panel Structure Before continuing.230 are more informative because they compare the response of the structures with and without panel zone reinforcement.211 Strength Comparisons: Pushover vs Rigid Plastic Lateral Strength (kips) Pattern Pdelta Excluded Uniform Modal (Triangular) BSSC 1220 1137 1108 Pdelta Included 1223 1101 1069 RigidPlastic 1925 1523 1443 3. The strength from the case with Pdelta excluded was estimated from the curves shown in Figure 3. Figures 3. 394 .
800 1.800 1. kips 1. Weak Panels Figure 3.000 1.000 800 600 400 Strong Panels 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Roof displacement. 395 .400 1.400 1. Excluding PDelta Including PDelta Figure 3.200 Base shear.600 1. excluding Pdelta effects.000 800 600 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Roof displacement. kips 1. 1. Structural Analysis 2. in. in.200 Base shear.600 1.229 Comparison of weak panel zone model with strong panel zone model.228 Weak panel zone model under ML load.Chapter 3.
396 . including Pdelta effects.000 Base shear.FEMA 451. in. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 1. kips/in.200 1.230 Comparison of weak panel zone model with strong panel zone model. Figure 3. strong versus weak panels. in. 80 60 40 20 0 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Roof displacement.231 Tangent stiffness history for structure under ML loads. Strong Panels Weak Panels Figure 3. kips 800 600 400 Strong Panels Weak Panels 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Roof displacement. 120 110 100 "Tangent stiffness". including Pdelta effects.
200 37 39 44 47 49 56 59 1.000 11 Total shear. including Pdelta effects.232 Patterns of plastic hinge formation: weak panel zone model under ML load. 397 . in.Chapter 3. (b) 25 30 35 40 45 Figure 3. kips 800 1 600 22 31 36 61 65 69 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 Drift. Structural Analysis 65 41 62 44 64 31 9 49 66 17 3 37 6 1 10 8 6 11 32 50 60 23 22 30 29 33 4 47 2 12 7 15 17 39 54 10 36 51 57 29 21 31 27 34 7 14 18 43 56 10 67 4 46 2 35 51 58 28 21 31 28 34 2 52 1 13 6 18 41 69 18 42 55 9 41 69 16 39 54 33 48 51 52 24 19 30 26 33 5 1 68 23 61 12 40 63 38 60 59 26 21 21 (a) 21 20 25 1.
The expected roof displacement will be equal to the displacement computed from the 5percentdamped response spectrum multiplied by the modal participation factor which is multiplied by the first mode displacement at the roof level of the structure. 5A. (Panel zone yielding is indicated by a numeric sequence label in the corner of the panel zone. the only loading pattern considered is the modal load pattern discussed earlier. Aside from the relatively marginal loss in stiffness and strength due to removal of the doubler plates. 3.1 Expected Inelastic Displacements Computed According to the Provisions The expected inelastic displacement was computed using the procedures of Provisions Sec. In the Provisions. Girder and column hinging also occurs.2].232. The relevant modal quantities and the expected inelastic displacements are provided in Table 3. This is consistent with the requirements of Provisions Sec. It should be noted that under very large displacements.1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The difference between the behavior of the structures with and without doubler plates is attributed to the yielding of the panel zones in the structure without panel zone reinforcement. and separate analyses are performed including and excluding Pdelta effects. It is also significant that the upper two levels of the structure display yielding in several of the panel zones. Part (a) of this figure indicates that panel zone yielding occurs early.0.2. The sequence of hinging is illustrated in Figure 3.2 [A5. it appears that the structure without panel zone reinforcement is behaving adequately.3 Predictions of Total Displacement and Story Drift from Pushover Analysis In the following discussion. actual performance cannot be evaluated without predicting the maximum inelastic panel shear strain and assessing the stability of the panel zones under these strains.2.5 [5. 5.3].5. Of course.212. Note that only those values associated with the ML lateral load pattern were used. the first yielding in the structure is due to yielding of a panel zone at the second level of the structure. In the present analysis.) In fact. The structure with both strong and weak panel zones is analyzed. 398 . the displacement is computed using responsespectrum analysis with only the first mode included.2. but the column hinging appears relatively late in the response.3. 3.5. the flange component of the panel zone yields. the roof level first mode displacement is 1. Details of the calculations are not provided herein.FEMA 451.
5.10 2.) 4th Story Drift (in.305 82. If the values on the vertical axis are multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity.23 Weak Panel w/o PDelta 2.56 2. The horizontal axis of the capacity curve measures the first mode displacement of the simplified system.84 2.02 1. the pushover curve is transformed to a capacity curve that represents the first mode inelastic response of the full structure. This displacement is often called the target displacement. Thus.) 5th Story Drift (in.223 through 3. It should be noted that FEMA 356.78 1099 1. 399 . The maximum inelastic displacements are in the range of 12.73 2. Point E on the horizontal axis is the value of interest.3.2 13.232 indicates that at a target displacement of.0 in. This value is the same as the square of the circular frequency of the simplified system.09 1.2 to 13.233 shows a bilinear capacity curve. 13.74 2.31 1168 1.3. provides a simplified methodology for computing the target displacement that is similar to but somewhat more detailed than the approach illustrated above.73 2.2 of FEMA 356 for details. the modal quantities are only slightly influenced by Pdelta effects and the inclusion or exclusion of doubler plates.33 987 1.8 12. Figure 3.015 1.74 2.12 1. When multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity (g).028 1. (in.34 2.) Base Shear Demand (kips) 6th Story Drift (in.18 Strong Panel with PDelta 2.54 2. The information provided in Figures 3.90 2. the slope of the line passing through the small circle is equal to the acceleration divided by the displacement.6 12.212 Modal Properties and Expected Inelastic Displacements for the Strong and Weak Panel Models Subjected to the Modal Load Pattern Computed Quantity Period (seconds) Modal Participation Factor Effective Modal Mass (%) Expected Inelastic Disp. and the line passing from the origin through this point represents the secant stiffness of the simplified system.70 1051 1.2 Inelastic Displacements Computed According to the Capacity Spectrum Method In the capacity spectrum method.102 1.) Strong Panel w/o PDelta 1.315 82.88 2. Structural Analysis Table 3.1 12. the vertical axis represents the acceleration of the mass of the simple system.71 2. The point on the capacity curve directly above Point E is marked with a small circle.950 1.77 2.28 2.) 2nd Story Drift (in. As will be shown later.2. some yielding has occurred but the displacements are not of such a magnitude that the slope of the pushover curve is negative when Pdelta effects are included.3 in.3.308 82. The vertical axis is a measure of simplified system strength to system weight. an equivalent viscous damping value (ξE) can be computed for the simple structure deformed to Point E.Chapter 3.53 2.) 3rd Story Drift (in.3. 3.18 As the table indicates. 3..09 Weak Panel with PDelta 2.311 82.) 1st Story Drift (in. See Sec. Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.11 1. the sloped line is also a measure of the secant period of the simplified structure.44 2. for example. the expected inelastic displacement of the simplified system.
two different methods will be demonstrated: an iterative approach and a semigraphical approach. The demand spectrum is drawn for a damping value exactly equal to ξE. called a demand spectrum.234 shows a response spectrum with the vertical axis representing spectral acceleration as a ratio of the acceleration due to gravity and the horizontal axis representing displacement. In this example. but ξE is not known a priori and must be determined by the analyst.FEMA 451. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Figure 3. 3100 . This spectrum. the displacement of a SDOF system may be determined if its period of vibration is known and the system’s damping matches the damping used in the development of the demand spectrum. g ξ E 2 ωE 1 E Spectral displacement. Using the demand spectrum.233.235. in. If the system’s damping is equal to ξE. Spectral pseudoacceleration. There are several ways to determine ξE. is somewhat different from the traditional spectrum that uses period of vibration as the horizontal axis. Figure 3. The demand spectrum is drawn for a particular damping value (ξ). The capacity spectrum and demand spectrum are shown together in Figure 3. the displacement computed from the demand spectrum will be the same as the expected inelastic displacement shown in Figure 3. and its stiffness is the same as that represented by the sloped line in Figure 3.233 A simple capacity spectrum.233.
Chapter 3. g Capacity spectrum for damping ξ E ξ E 2 ωE 1 E Spectral displacement. Structural Analysis Demand spectrum for damping ξ E Spectral pseudoacceleration. Figure 3. 3101 . Figure 3.235 Capacity and demand spectra plotted together. g 2 ωE 1 E Spectral displacement.234 A simple demand spectrum. in. in. Demand Spectrum for damping ξ E Spectral pseudoacceleration.
This is done using the following two transformations:8 1. One must be particularly careful when using DRAIN because the printed mode shapes and the printed modal participation factors use inconsistent normalizations – the mode shapes are normalized to a maximum value of 1. 2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The first step in either approach is to convert the pushover curve into a capacity spectrum curve. For most frametype structures.236 shows a typical capacity spectrum in which the yield point is represented by points aY and dY. The two slopes of the demand spectrum are K1 and K2. To obtain spectral displacement. respectively.85. To obtain spectral pseudoacceleration.3 to 1. but the results are typically insensitive to different values that could be assumed for the yield point. The displacement and acceleration at the expected inelastic displacement are dE and aE.0 and the modal participation factors are based on a normalization that produces a unit generalized mass matrix. Figure 3.1 is the value of the first mode shape at the top level of the structure. Note that α1 is not a function of mode shape normalization.8 to 0.1 where PF1 is the modal participation factor for the fundamental mode and φRoof.FEMA 451. and the intercept on the vertical axis is aI. The modal participation factor and the modal displacement must be computed using a consistent normalization of the mode shapes.4 if the mode shapes are normalized for a maximum value of 1. divide each force value in the pushover curve by the total weight of the structure. α1 will be in the range of 0. 3102 . For frame structures. 8 Expressions in this section are taken from ATC40 but have been modified to conform to the nomenclature used herein. After performing the transformation. the first mode participation factor will be in the range of 1.0. and then multiply by the quantity: 1 α1 where α1 is the ratio of the effective mass in the first mode to the total mass in the structure. convert the smooth capacity curve into a simple bilinear capacity curve. This step is somewhat subjective in terms of defining the effective yield point. multiply each displacement value in the original pushover curve by the quantity: 1 PF1φ Roof .
dE Figure 3. 63. Structural Analysis a E Spectral pseudoacceleration. in. Compute the equivalent viscous damping value at the above displacement. ξE = 5 + I3. Guess the expected inelastic displacement dE. At this point the iterative method and the direct method diverge somewhat. the iterative approach is as follows: I1. followed by the direct method. Given the capacity spectrum. This damping value.7(aY d E − dY aE ) aE d E Compute the secant period of vibration: TE = 2π g × aE dE where g is the acceleration due to gravity. The displacement computed from the simplified procedure of the Provisions is a good starting point. The iterative method will be presented first. may be estimated as: I2.236 Capacity spectrum showing control points.Chapter 3. g a a Y I 1 K2 K 1 1 dY Spectral displacement. 3103 . in terms of percent critical.
the modification factors are shown as multiplying factors instead of dividing factors as is done in the Provisions.667 30 0. which is reproduced in a somewhat different form as Table 3.213 Damping Modification Factors Effective Damping (% critical) Damping Modification Factor 5 1.213 are intended for use only for ductile systems without significant strength loss.588 40 0. For the example presented here. The use of the table can be explained by a simple example: the spectral ordinate for a system with 10 percent of critical damping is obtained by multiplying the 5percentdamped value by 0.500 3104 .6 [3. Table 3.3.833 20 0.2. See ATC 40 for conditions where the structure does have strength loss or where the period of vibration is such that the constant acceleration region of the spectrum controls.31].213.526 50 or greater 0. A damping value of ξE will be assumed in the development of the spectrum. The demand spectrum at this damping value is adapted from the response spectrum given by Provisions Sec.213 below. During iteration it may be more convenient to use the information from Table 3. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples I4. They are also to be used only in the longer period constant velocity region of the response spectrum.FEMA 451.833. An estimated displacement must now be determined from the demand spectrum. the modification factors for systems with higher damping values are obtained from Provisions Table 13. 4. The values in Table 3.3. therefore.4].000 10 0. In Table 3.0 seconds.237.3.213 in graphic form as shown in Figure 3.1. This will be adequate for our needs because the initial period of vibration of our structure is in the neighborhood of 2. This spectrum is based on 5 percent of critical damping. it must be modified for the higher equivalent damping represented by ξE.1 [13.
The procedure will now be demonstrated for the strong panel structure subjected to the ML load pattern. I5.Chapter 3.8 0. Using the period of vibration computed in Step 3 and the damping computed in Step 4. Continue iterating until the desired level Convert the displacement for the simple system to the expected inelastic displacement for the complete structure by multiplying by the product of the modal participation factor and the first mode roof displacement. I6. set the displacement in Step 1 to d E of accuracy is achieved. compute the updated estimate of spectral acceleration aE expression: new dE = new g × aE new and convert to displacement using the following [ 2π / TE ]2 new If this displacement is the same as that estimated in Step 1.2 1. If not.0 Spectral modification factor 0. Structural Analysis 1.0 0 10 20 30 Damping. the modal participation factor and effective modal mass factor for the first mode are: 3105 . For this structure.6 0. the iteration is complete. Pdelta effects are excluded.4 0. % critical 40 50 60 Figure 3. and perform another cycle.237 Damping modification factors.2 0.
10 0.20 0. 0.FEMA 451.826 The original pushover curve is shown in Figure 3.592 in. Figure 3. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples φ1 = 1.05 6.308 and α1 = 0. The initial period of the structure (from DRAIN) is 1.1544 g K1 = 0.238 as is a bilinear representation of the capacity curve.175 0.00311 g/in. The capacity spectrum version of the curve is shown in Figure 3.15 0.59 Actual Simplified 0. The same period may be recovered from the demand curve as follows: 3106 . in. K2 = 0.1750 g aI = 0. g 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Spectral displacement. The control values for the bilinear curve are: dY = 6.95 sec.0265 g/in.30 0. aY = 0.25 Spectral pseudoacceleration.223.238 Capacity spectrum used in iterative solution.
659 ≅ 1.1808 8.Chapter 3. Assume an initial displacement dE of 8.82 in.160 [ 2π / 2.175 × 8.2.2).4 × 0.1 × 0. For higher damping values.308) = 10. the updated acceleration is: new aE = 0. The 5percentdamped demand spectrum for this example is based on Provisions Figure 4.1544 + 0.214.1808) =5+ = 17. From Table 3.494 (see Sec. where the final displacement from the iteration is 7. At this point the iteration may commence.1808 g .175 6.308. 3107 .5 = 2.2 in.82(1.71. At this acceleration and displacement.6 [3.7(0.5) = 0. At this displacement. the updated displacement for the next iteration is: new dE = new g × aE [ 2π / TE ] 2 = 386.494/T where a is in terms of the acceleration due to gravity.19 = 0.7( aY d E − dY aE ) 63.2.592 × 0. 3. the equivalent damping is: 63. The complete iteration is summarized in Table 3.52 in.1808 × 8. the only pertinent part of the spectrum is the part that is inversely proportional to period.0 seconds.4 × 0. predicted from the simplified method of the Provisions.95 sec.19]2 = 7. This is the value computed earlier (see Table 3.213 of this example. Using this acceleration. the acceleration aE is: aE = aI + K 2 d E = 0. Since the initial period is nearly 2. This value is 7.494) / 2. Therefore. and is somewhat greater than the value of 8. the spectral acceleration as a function of period T is a = 0.2.5 in.19 sec. Structural Analysis T= 2π g × aY dY = 2π 386. 0.2 percent is 0.2% critical . the acceleration will be multiplied by the appropriate value from Table 3.212) from the simplified procedure in the Provisions.213 (or Figure 3.5 − 6. to obtain the actual roof displacement.160 g . Using a value of SD1 of 0. 1.1. This must be multiplied by the modal participation factor.315].5 in.00311(8.237).5 aE d E The updated secant period of vibration is: ξE = 5 + T= 2π g × aE dE = 2π 386.71(0. the damping modification factor for ξE = 17.
This particular example predicts displacements very close to the yield displacement dY. In the direct approach.161 0.76 0. D8.19 2. Draw the demand spectra on the same plot as the capacity spectrum. 10.179 0. Draw a curve connecting the points found in Step 6. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples This example converged even though some of the accelerations from the demand spectrum were less than the yield value in the development of the capacity spectrum (e.7 12. 15.0 13.77 0.71 0. 20. 10. Find the point where the curve from Step 7 intersects the capacity spectrum.FEMA 451.179 dE (in.4 13.6 Damping Mod.161 in iteration 1 is less than 0.5 13.10 2. one for each damping value listed above.84 7.178 0. and 30 percent damping. The steps in the procedure are as follows: D1. 20. D2. Table 3.11 2.78 0.) 8. Find the points on the capacity spectrum that represent 5.179 0.7 13.179 0.6 13.176 0.52 8.01 7.179 0.179 0. Find the points where the secant stiffness lines (from Step 3) for each damping value cross the demand spectrum line for the same damping value.77 7. 25.180 0. This is the target displacement.181 0. a family of demand spectra are plotted together with the capacity spectrum and the desired displacement is found graphically.178 0.179 0..214 Results of Iteration for Maximum Expected Displacement Iteration 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 a* (g) 0.70 7.2 11.81 7.189 0.12 2.80 0.179 0.14 2.9 14. consequently. Develop a bilinear capacity spectrum for the structure.11 2. D9.76 0.11 Note: a* is from demand spectrum at period TE. Convert the target displacement to structural space.) 2. there may be some influence of the choice of aY and dY on the computed displacement. 15.77 0. D3.178 0.183 0.08 2.g. 0.50 7.82 aE (g) 0.11 2. and 30 percent of critical.173 0. D7.8 14.76 0.75 0.175).12 2.88 7.179 Damping (%) 17.82 7. 3108 . Draw a series of secant stiffness lines.12 2. Factor 0.179 0. D4. 25. Develop demand spectra for damping values of 5. D5.80 7. D6.76 0.6 13. but it is still in SDOF spectrum space.76 TE (sec.179 0.
1 0.177 15 8. The resulting capacity curve and its bilinear equivalent are shown in Figure 3. The original pushover curve for this structure is shown in Figure 3.0263g/in. 25.175g.59 0.0. and the first mode participation factor is 1.175 10 7. as required. Table 3.2 (rad/sec)2. For this example. The points on the capacity curve representing βeff values of 5.195 3109 .180 20 9. The effective mass in the first mode is 0. The points are also shown as small diamonds on the capacity spectrum of Figure 3.07 0.7 0. and 30 percent critical damping are shown in Table 3. 1.) 23.223.) (g) 5 6. Half of the dead weight of the structure was used in the conversion because the pushover curve represents the response of one of the two frames. Note that the secant stiffness through this point is mathematically equivalent to the circular frequency squared of the structure.238. or 10. Structural Analysis This procedure is now illustrated for the strong panel structure subjected to the modal load pattern. This period.215 Points on Capacity Spectrum Corresponding to Chosen Damping Values Effective Damping Displacement dpi Spectral Acceleration api (% critical) (in.96 seconds. The secant stiffness through the yield point is 0.Chapter 3.188 30 13. the frequency is 3. (The main purpose of computing the period from the initial stiffness of the capacity spectrum is to perform an intermediate check on the analysis.826 times the total mass. 15. and the corresponding yield strength (ay) is 0.59 in. therefore. the yield displacement (dy) is taken as 6. For this example. 10.25 0.19 rad/sec and the period is 1.239. Pdelta effects are excluded.308. is the same as that obtained from DRAIN. The secant lines through the points are also shown.15 0. 20.183 25 10.215. The first mode displacement at the roof of the building is 1.
60 5% 0.10 0.20 0.50 10% 15% 20% 0.FEMA 451.40 Spectral pseudoacceleration. 3110 . g 25% 0.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 Spectral displacement. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 0. Figure 3.239 Capacity spectrum with equivalent viscous damping points and secant stiffnesses. in.30 0.
308(7.213. 9. The final steps of the analysis are facilitated by Figure 3.494.2.80 Spectral pseudoacceleration. This is 20 percent greater than the value of 8. 3. 3111 . 45. The expected inelastic roof displacement for the actual structure is 1.2. Structural Analysis 1. The demand spectra are shown on the same plot as the capacity spectrum in Figure 3. g 20% 25% 0.60 0.40 0. 68.8) or 10. These values are SDS = 1. still in spectral space. The demand spectra are based on the short period and 1second period accelerations obtained in Sec.242.5 in. is approximately 7.09 and SD1 = 0. which is a closeup of the relevant portion of Figure 3.00 10% 15% 0.8 in. 15 20 25 Figure 3. in. The expected inelastic roof displacement. The damping modification factors used to obtain the curves were taken directly or by interpolation from Table 3.240 Demand spectra for several equivalent viscous damping values.241.20 0.00 0 5 10 Spectral displacement.Chapter 3. This is the same as that found from the iterative solution. Plots for these spectra are shown individually in Figure 3.241. obtained from the first mode elastic responsespectrum analysis.2 in.2e.237.20 5% 1.
in. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 1.20 5% 1.00 0 5 10 Spectral displacement.FEMA 451.60 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 0. 15 20 25 Figure 3.20 0.241 Capacity and demand spectra on single plot. g 20% 25% 0.00 10% 15% 0.40 0.80 Spectral pseudoacceleration. 3112 .
25 15% Chapter 5% 10% 3. g 25% 20% 25% 0. Figure 3.0 9.0 8.30 5% 10% 0.20 Spectral pseudoacceleration.05 0.10 0. in.0 Spectral displacement.0 7.0.242 Closeup view of portion of capacity and demand spectra.0 10. 3113 .00 5.0 6. Structural Analysis 15% 20% 0.15 0.
) 2nd Story Drift (in.00 2.00524 0.FEMA 451. All drifts and rotations are consistent with the expected inelastic roof displacement shown at the top of the table.35 1.14 1. A timehistory analysis.27 1. (rad) Max panel zone hinge rot.216 Summary of Results from Pushover Analysis Computed Quantity Expected Inelastic Disp.0 0. (rad) Strong Panel w/o PDelta 10.3 1031 0. Conclusions cannot be drawn from this comparison.29 2.) 4th Story Drift (in.55 1. The structure without panel zone reinforcement appears to perform as well as the structure with such reinforcement.81 1. 3. Pdelta effects had a small but significant effect on the response of the system.68 0.00421 Weak Panel with PDelta 10.0 Strong Panel with PDelta 10.82 2. it is reasonable to consider the use of timehistory analysis for the computation of global and local deformation demands.06 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Results for all the strong and weak panel structures under modal load are summarized in Table 3.00522 0.00564 0. the differences between response with and without Pdelta effects would have been much more significant.83 0. In particular. (rad) Max column plastic hinge rot.00437 3.90 0.23 2.84 1.4 953 0.2. as only one structure has been analyzed.87 1. Table 3.0 0. This is again attributed to the overstrength provided.) 5th Story Drift (in. 2.) 1st Story Drift (in.) Max beam plastic hinge rot.19 2. base shears for the structure with Pdelta effects included were about 8 percent lower than for the structure without Pdelta effects. The small inelastic deformations are attributed to the considerable overstrength provided when preliminary member sizes were adjusted to satisfy story drift limits.2 1033 0.) 3rd Story Drift (in.0 Weak Panel w/o PDelta 10.0 0. while by no means perfect.6 TimeHistory Analysis Because of the many assumptions and uncertainties inherent in the capacity spectrum method.96 2. 3. does eliminate two of the main problems with static pushover analysis: selection of the appropriate lateral load pattern and use of equivalent linear 3114 .64 0.21 2.81 2.78 1.0 0.5. The simplified approach from the Provisions predicts maximum expected displacements about 8 to 10 percent lower than the much more complicated capacity spectrum method.45 2. The inelastic deformation demands in the hinging regions of the beams and in the panel zones of the beamcolumn joints were small and are certainly within acceptable limits. 4. If the maximum expected displacement was larger.31 1.) Base Shear Demand (kips) 6th Story Drift (in.216. (in.2.4 Summary and Observations from Pushover Analysis 1.2 1125 0. however.20 1.00511 0.
1 Modeling and Analysis Procedure The DRAIN2Dx program was used for each of the timehistory analyses. to compensate for the fact that bilinear hysteretic models tend to overestimate energy dissipation in plastic hinges. Second order effects were included through the use of the outrigger element shown to the right of the actual frame in Figure 3. most particularly selection and scaling of ground motions. Fortunately.6. conducted only for the structure with panel zone reinforcement. for this reason.22. the proportionality factors may be computed from the following expression:9 ⎧α ⎫ 2ξ ⎧ω1ω 3 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬= ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ β ⎭ ω1 + ω 3 ⎩ 1 ⎭ 9 See Ray W. This model exhibits neither a loss of stiffness nor a loss of strength and.) At inelastic rotations greater than 0. Clough and Joseph Penzien. 3115 . and inclusion of inherent (viscous) damping.5 percent. 2nd Edition. it will generally have the effect of overestimating the hysteretic energy dissipation in the yielding elements. This was done primarily for consistency with the pushover analysis. The timehistory analysis of Example 2 is used to estimate the deformation demands for the structure shown in Figures 3. is carried out for a suite of three ground motions specifically prepared for the site. In Rayleigh proportional damping.02 radians. choice of hysteretic model. say 2. timehistory analysis does introduce its own problems. The analysis.02 radians it is possible for local inelastic buckling to reduce the apparent strength and stiffness. Dynamics of Structures. which use a baseline damping of 5 percent of critical.2. The mass and stiffness proportional damping factors were set to produce 5 percent damping in the first and third modes. Some analysts would use a lower damping. the error produced by such a model will not be of great concern for this structure because the hysteretic behavior of panel zones and flexural plastic hinges should be very robust for this structure when inelastic rotations are less than about 0.Chapter 3.02 radians. (Previous analysis has indicated a low likelihood of rotations significantly greater than 0. are known. Inelastic hysteretic behavior was represented through the use of a bilinear model. respectively. If the first and third mode frequencies. However. The structural model was identical to that used in the static pushover analysis.24. ω1 and ω3. Structural Analysis viscous damping in the demand spectrum to represent inelastic hysteretic energy dissipation. the damping matrix (D) is a linear combination of the mass matrix M and the initial stiffness matrix K: D =αM + β K where α and β are mass and stiffness proportionality factors. Rayleigh proportional damping was used to represent viscous energy dissipation in the structure.21 and 3. 3. Analyses included and excluded Pdelta effects.
00025 seconds.0.223 ω3 (Hz. the initial rotational stiffness of the hinge. the viscous moment may even exceed the intended plastic capacity of the hinge. followed by ground acceleration. The structure was subjected to dead load and full reduced live load. The use of stiffness proportional damping in discrete plastic hinges can produce a totally inaccurate analysis result.118 3.217 for the models analyzed by the timehistory method. Later analyses used time steps as large as 0.00459 0. the plastic moment and the viscous moments are additive.65 18. These large moments transfer to the rest of the structure.120 and is repeated as Table 3.2 Development of Ground Motion Records The ground motion time histories used in the analysis were developed specifically for the site. This artificial viscous moment – the product of the rotational velocity.267 0. The incremental differential equations of motion were solved in a stepbystep manner using the Newmark constant average acceleration approach. Basic information for the records was shown previously in Table 3.00451 It is very important to note that the stiffness proportional damping factor must not be included in the Type4 elements used to represent rotational plastic hinges in the structure. 3. These hinges. To increase ξ from 5 percent to 10 percent of critical requires only that α and β be increased by a factor of 2. (Damping Factors that Produce 5 Percent Damping in Modes 1 and 3) Model/Damping Parameters Strong Panel with PDelta Strong Panel without PDelta ω1 (Hz. a viscous moment will develop in the hinge.218. 3116 . The minium time step used for analysis was 0. After yielding. hence.275 β 0.2. Time steps and other integration parameters were carefully controlled to minimize errors. The structural frequencies and damping proportionality factors are shown in Table 3. particularly those in the girders. and produce artificially high base shears.92 α 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Note that α and β are directly proportional to ξ. and the stiffness proportional damping factor – can be quite large. Table 3.217 Structural Frequencies and Damping Factors Used in TimeHistory Analysis. If a stiffness proportional damping factor is used for the hinge.6.001 seconds. In fact. have a very high initial stiffness.FEMA 451.) 18.) 3. These viscous moments occur in phase with the plastic rotation. the rotational velocity is significant. Before the hinge yields there is virtually no rotational velocity in the hinge. effecting the sequence of hinging in the rest of the structure.
005 seconds 0.005 seconds 0. Iran) Dayhook (Tabas.218 Seattle Ground Motion Parameters (Unscaled) Number of Points and Peak Ground Source Motion Orientation Time Increment Acceleration (g) NS 8192 @ 0.02 seconds 1024 @ 0.245.460 0.407 USC Lick (Loma Prieta) USC Lick (Loma Prieta) Dayhook (Tabas.Chapter 3. 3117 .460 0.443 Lucern (Landers) EW 8192 @ 0. Iran) Time histories and 5percentdamped response spectra for each of the motions are shown in Figures 3.005 seconds 4096 @ 0.243 through 3.02 seconds 0.435 0.005 seconds 1024 @ 0.454 Lucern (Landers) Record Name Record A00 Record A90 Record B00 Record B90 Record C00 Record C90 NS EW NS EW 4096 @ 0. Structural Analysis Table 3.
g 0.40 Acceleration.60 1.243 Time histories and response spectra for Record A.60 0. sec Record A00 1. g Pseudoacceleration.00 10.00 10.20 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.FEMA 451.01 Record A90 0.40 0.01 0.00 1.60 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Time.40 0. g 1.60 0.00 Figure 3.10 Period.00 0. 3118 .60 0.60 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Time.60 1.40 Acceleration.80 0.40 1.00 0.20 0. sec 1.20 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Record A00 0. g 0. sec Record A90 0.40 0.60 0.20 0.10 Period.20 1. sec 1.80 0.40 1.40 0.20 Pseudoacceleration.00 0.
Structural Analysis 3119 .Chapter 3.
00 0.00 10.FEMA 451.00 0.00 10.40 1.60 1.60 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.40 0.60 1.20 0. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Record B00 1.244 Time histories and response spectra for Record B.60 0. g 0. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Record B90 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Record B00 0.40 0.80 0.00 Figure 3.60 0.40 Acceleration.20 0.00 0.20 0. sec 1.20 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.10 Period.60 0.40 0.00 1.20 Pseudoacceleration. g 1.40 Acceleration.00 0.60 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.01 Record B90 0.40 0.40 1. 3120 .20 0. g 0.20 1.20 0.01 0.10 Period. sec 1.80 0.
00 1.60 1. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Record C00 1. g 1.00 0. sec 1.60 0.00 0.01 Record C90 0.60 1.00 10.10 Period.20 0.00 0.10 Period.40 0.40 Acceleration. 3121 .60 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.20 Pseudoacceleration.80 0.40 1.60 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.00 Figure 3. Structural Analysis Record C00 0.40 0. g 0.40 0.20 0.01 0.Chapter 3.80 0.00 10.00 0.20 0.40 0. g 0. sec 1.20 0.00 0.20 1.245 Time histories and response spectra for Record C.40 Acceleration. g Pseudoacceleration.60 0. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Record C90 0.00 0.60 0.60 0.20 0.40 1.20 0.
1.2(2. and SC such that the average of the scaled response spectra over the period range 0.212. 5. it will be assumed that the scale factors for the three earthquakes are to be the same. Compute the 5percentdamped elastic response spectrum for each component in the pair. 3.10 The scale factor of 1.00 seconds is approximately the average of the period of the strong panel model with and without Pdelta effects. 3122 .2. 4.2T1 to 1. As with the threedimensional timehistory analysis for the first example in this chapter. See Table 3.2.1 Response of Structure with 5 Percent of Critical Damping 10 2. For each pair of motions: a.6.1] gives the following instructions for scaling: 1.0 seconds.2. Assume an initial scale factor for each motion pair (for example.51 is used. Analysis was run with 2. SB.FEMA 451. and 20 percent damping (Ground Motion A00. b.25T instead of the (somewhat arbitrary) value of 0.5 T1 is not less than the 5percentdamped spectrum determined in accordance with Provisions Sec.40 sec to 1. 5.5(2.26. only the NS (00) records of each ground motion were utilized. If the Provisions had called for a cutoff of 0. SA for ground motion A00). only a single component of ground motion is applied at one time.1 [5. For the analyses reported herein. 2.00) = 3. Adjust scale factors SA. 10. Figure 3. A complete analysis would require consideration of both sets of ground motions. The 20second cutoff was based on a series of preliminary analyses that used the full duration.6.6.51 is probably conservative because it is controlled by the period at 0. the required scale factor would be reduced to 1.3.3 Results of TimeHistory Analysis Timehistory analyses were performed for the structure subjected to the first 20 seconds of the three different ground motions described earlier. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Because only a twodimensional analysis of the structure is performed using DRAIN.3. which will clearly be in the higher modes of response of the structure.5.47 seconds.00) = 0. If a scale factor of 1. 3. T1 is the fundamental mode period of vibration of the structure. including Pdelta effects). When analyzing structures in two dimensions. These analyses were performed to assess the potential benefit of added viscous fluid damping devices. 2. Provisions Sec. Analysis was run with and without Pdelta effects for all three ground motions.2T.4. The following parameters were varied to determine the sensitivity of the response to the particular variation: 1.246 indicates that the criteria specified by the Provisions have been met for all periods in the range 0.2.
The tables of story shear also provide two values for each ground motion.4 2.0 0.8 Period.0 1. For a system with damping.6 0.2 0.6 1.6 2.2 1. are summarized in Tables 3.0 1.Chapter 3.247 through 3. sec 2. The first value is the maximum total elastic column story shear. the base shear obtained from column forces generally will be less than the shear from inertial forces because the 3123 .8 3. Structural Analysis The results from the first series of analyses. Energy time histories are included for each analysis.F. Selected timehistory traces are shown in Figures 3.0 (b) Ratio of Average of Scaled Spectra to NEHRP Spectrum (S.0 2.219 through 3.4 0.2 2. including Pdelta effects if applicable.6 1.F.=1./sec 2 600 Average of scaled EQ Windows 500 400 300 200 100 0 0.8 0.51) 1.4 0.264.4 1. The tabulated shears in Tables 3.8 3.0 2.8 Ratio.6 2. in. The inertial base shear.2 2.8 1.4 0.4 1.246 Ground motion scaling parameters.6 0. scaled average/NEHRP 1. all run with 5 percent of critical damping.0 NEHRP Spectrum (a) Comparison of Average of Scaled Spectra and NEHRP Spectrum (S.51) Figure 3.4 1.=1.2 1.6 1. was obtained as sum of the products of the total horizontal accelerations and nodal mass of each joint.8 1. sec 2. the story shears obtained from the two methods should be identical. For a system with no damping.2 1.222.6 0. The second value represents the maximum total inertial force for the structure.8 Period.0 0. which is not necessarily concurrent with the column shears. 700 Pseudoacceleration.4 2.219 and 3.221 are for the single frame analyzed and should be doubled to obtain the total shear in the structure.
75 4.75 3. Table 3. and panel zone regions for each of the ground motions. Including PDelta Effects Level Column Forces Inertial Forces Motion A00 1426 1282 Motion B00 1449 1354 Motion C00 1474 1441 3124 .219 and 3.13 Limit NA 3. Local quantification of such effects is provided later for the structure responding to Ground Motion A00.75 2. Timehistory traces are shown in Figures 3. Strong Panels.220 summarize the global response of the structure with excluding Pdelta effects.88 3.33 2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples viscous component of column shear is not included.4 1.51 3. Significant yielding occurred in the girders.219 Maximum Base Shear (kips) in Frame Analyzed with 5 Percent Damping. Strong Panels.15 3.75 3.75 3.60 2.67 2.78 3.81 Motion B00 13.220 and 3.37 3.98 4.75 3.) from TimeHistory Analysis with 5 percent Damping.65 2.50 Table 3.04 Motion C00 11.7 1.247 through 3.82 2.220 Maximum Story Drifts (in. The total roof drift and the peak story drifts listed in Tables 3. Strong Panels.41 3.221 Maximum Base Shear (kips) in Frame Analyzed with 5 Percent Damping.255. Tables 3.222 are peak (envelope) values at each story and are not necessarily concurrent. Excluding PDelta Effects Level Column Forces Inertial Forces Motion A00 1559 1307 Motion B00 1567 1370 Motion C00 1636 1464 Table 3.0 1.63 2. Excluding PDelta Effects Level Total Roof R6 65 54 43 32 2G Motion A00 16. columns.52 2.FEMA 451. Additionally. the force absorbed by the mass proportional component of damping will be lost (as this is not directly recoverable in DRAIN).
This shear is somewhat less than the shear of 1464 kips which occurs under the same ground motion when Pdelta effects are excluded.78 3.265 and 3. The reason for the differences in response to the three ground motions is not evident from their ground acceleration timehistory traces (see Figures 3. which are history traces of roof displacement and base shear. There is.81 in.Chapter 3.243 through 3.90 3.222. Pdelta effects have a significant influence on the response of the structure to each of the ground motions.253 do not have a significant residual displacement.75 3. however.5 in.249. Recall that the allowable drift includes a factor of 1. in response to Ground Motion A00.89 3.47 2.266.48 3. exceeds the allowable drift of 4. taken from the sum of column forces. for Levels 2 through 6. Table 3.221 summarizes the base shear response and indicates that the maximum base shear from the column forces.59 2. occurring during ground motion A00.50 The peak base shears (for a single frame). 1441 kips.222 Maximum Story Drifts (in.264.) from TimeHistory Analysis with 5 Percent Damping. Table 3.84 in. For Ground Motion A00. The sharp increase in energy at this time is evident in Figure 3.11 Motion C00 10.5 seconds into the earthquake. while the peak roof displacement from Ground Motion C00 was only 11. As shown in Figure 3. The firststory drift of 4. Responses for the other two ground motions shown in Figures 3.221 and 3. Strong Panels. are very similar for each of the ground motions and range from 1307 kips to 1464 kips. A reduction in base shear is to be expected for yielding structures when Pdelta effects are included.31 3.08 3.75 3.4 in.256 through 3.2 1.256. the larger displacements observed in Ground Motion A00 are due to a permanent inelastic displacement offset that occurs at about 10.84 Motion B00 14.7 in.222 shows that inclusion of Pdelta effects led to a general increase in displacements with the peak roof displacement of 17.75 Limit NA 3. a pronounced difference in the recorded peak displacements. For Ground Motion A00 the roof displacement reached a maximum value of 16.61 2. Including PDelta Effects Level Total Roof R6 65 54 43 32 2G Motion A00 17..4 in.98 in.75 4. The Pdelta effect is most evident after the structure has yielded. This may be seen clearly in the timehistory trace of roof and firststory displacement shown in Figure 3. The larger drifts recorded during Ground Motion A00 are again associated with residual inelastic deformations. respectively. This is illustrated in Figures 3. when Pdelta effects are included and this exceeds the limit of 4. Responses for analysis with and without Pdelta effects are shown in the same figure.50 in.9 1. The response of the structure including Pdelta effects is summarized in Tables 3. Timehistory traces are shown in Figures 3. 3125 . occurs during Ground Motion C00.08 4. The story drift at the lower level of the structure is 4.78 2.48 2.25 that is permitted when nonlinear analysis is performed.60 4.75 3.250 and 3. Similar differences occurred for the firststory displacement.247.4 1. for Level 1 and 3.75 3. Structural Analysis Table 3. the maximum story drift was 4.66 2.31 2.245).81 in.
10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 3.FEMA 451. 3126 . sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total (Roof) First Story Figure 3. excluding Pdelta effects. excluding Pdelta effects.248 Time history of total base shear. in. 2000 1500 1000 Base shear.247 Time history of roof and firststory displacement. kips 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tim sec e. Ground Motion A00. Ground Motion A00. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 20 15 Displacement.
InchKips 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 4 8 Tim e. Ground MotionA00. Ground Motion B00. Structural Analysis 45000 S train + Hysteretic 40000 35000 30000 Energy.Chapter 3. in. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total (Roof) First Story Figure 3. 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. excluding Pdelta effects. Se conds 12 16 20 S train + Hysteretic + Viscous Total Figure 3. 3127 .249 Energy time history.250 Time history of roof and firststory displacement. 20 15 Displacement. excluding Pdelta effects.
000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.000 Energy. 3128 . excluding Pdelta effects. in.000 40. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total Strain + Hysteretic + Viscous Strain + Hysteretic Figure 3.kips 30. kips 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.FEMA 451.000 20.000 35. Ground Motion B00. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 2000 1500 Base shear. 45.000 15.000 25.000 5.251 Time history of total base shear. Ground Motion B00. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 3.252 Energy time history.000 10. excluding Pdelta effects.
254 Time history of total base shear.Chapter 3. 3129 . excluding Pdelta effects. in.253 Time history of roof and firststory displacement. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total (Roof) First Story Figure 3. kips 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. Ground Motion C00. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 3. Ground Motion C00. Structural Analysis 20 15 Displacement. 2000 1500 Base shear. excluding Pdelta effects.
255 Energy time history. Se conds 12 16 20 S train + Hysteretic + Viscous Total Figure 3. Ground Motion C00. including Pdelta effects. excluding Pdelta effects.FEMA 451. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 45000 S train + Hysteretic 40000 35000 30000 Energy. Ground Motion A00. in. 20 15 Displacement. 3130 . 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.256 Time history of roof and firststory displacement. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total (Roof) First Story Figure 3. InchKips 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 4 8 Tim e.
Chapter 3.000 25. 3131 . Structural Analysis 2000 1500 Base shear.000 40.000 20. including Pdelta effects.257 Time history of total base shear.000 15.000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.kips 30.000 10. 45.000 35. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total Strain + Hysteretic + Viscous Strain + Hysteretic Figure 3.000 Energy. Ground Motion A00. including Pdelta effects. kips 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.000 5. in. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 3. Ground Motion A00.258 Energy time history.
sec 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 3. 3132 . sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total (Roof) First Story Figure 3. kips 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. in. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 20 15 Displacement. including Pdelta effects. Ground Motion B00. Ground Motion B00.260 Time history of total base shear.FEMA 451.259 Time history of roof and firststory displacement. including Pdelta effects. 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. 2000 1500 Base shear.
sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total (Roof) First Story Figure 3. 20 15 Displacement.000 5. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total Strain + Hysteretic + Viscous Strain + Hysteretic Figure 3.000 35. Ground Motion B00.261 Energy time history.000 25.000 15. including Pdelta effects.000 20. 3133 .000 Energy. in.000 40. including Pdelta effects.Chapter 3.262 Time history of roof and firststory displacement.000 10. Ground Motion C00. in. 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.kips 30.000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. Structural Analysis 45.
FEMA 451.0 5.0 0.0 10.0 5. 45.0 20.0 Displacem ent.000 20.000 5.263 Time history of total base shear.000 25.000 Energy.000 15. Ground Motion C00.0 15. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 20. 3134 . Seconds 12 14 16 18 20 Roof Level 1 Figure 3.264 Energy time history.000 40. including Pdelta effects. including Pdelta effects. Inches 10. Ground Motion C00.kips 30.0 15.000 35.000 10. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total Strain + Hysteretic + Viscous Strain + Hysteretic Figure 3.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time.000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. in.
sec 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 3.265 Timehistory of roof displacement. Ground Motion A00. with and without Pdelta effects. kips 500 0 500 Including PDelta Excluding PDelta 1000 1500 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. Structural Analysis 20 Including PDelta 15 10 Displacement. 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. with and without Pdelta effect. 3135 .Chapter 3. Ground Motion A00.266 Time history of base shear. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Excluding PDelta Figure 3. 2000 1500 1000 Base shear. in.
Yielding patterns for the other ground motions and for analyses run with and without Pdelta effects were similar but are not shown here. Figure 3.223 compares the results obtained from the timehistory analysis with those obtained from the ELF and the nonlinear static pushover analyses. The differences shown in the results are quite striking: 1. 5. It is also very interesting to note that 3136 .2 Comparison with Results from Other Analyses Table 3. 4. The base shear from nonlinear dynamic analysis is more than four times the value computed from the ELF analysis. Recall that the model analyzed incorporated panel zone reinforcement at the interior beamcolumn joints.0246 rad Figure 3.267 Yielding locations for structure with strong panels subjected to Ground Motion A00.267 shows the pattern of yielding in the structure subjected to Gound Motion A00 including Pdelta effects.00121 rad Column. 3. girders. 2. The circles on the figure represent yielding at any time during the response.223.2. max = 0. The maximum plastic hinge rotations are shown at the locations they occur for the columns. but the predicted displacements and story drifts are similar.0102 rad Girder.FEMA 451.6. Figure 3. The maximum plastic shear strain in the web of the panel zone is identical to the computed hinge rotation in the panel zone spring. The panels zones at the exterior joints of Levels 2 and 6 also yielded. The ELF method also has no mechanism to include the overstrength that will occur in the structure although it is represented explicitly in the static and dynamic nonlinear analyses. and 6. consequently. and in the columns at Stories 1 and 5. Recall that the base shears in the table represent half of the total shear in the building. The nonlinear static pushover analysis predicts base shears and story displacements that are significantly less than those obtained from timehistory analysis. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Panel zone. yielding does not necessarily occur at all locations simultaneously. Tabulated values are shown in Table 3. Circles at the lower right corner of the panel zone represent yielding of the flange component. Circles shown at the upper left corner of the beamcolumn joint region indicate yielding in the rotational spring that represents the web component of panel zone behavior. max = 0.267 shows that yielding occurred at both ends of each of the girders at Levels 2.3. including Pdelta effects. Due to the highly empirical nature of the ELF approach. it is difficult to explain these differences. max = 0. 3. and panel zones.
(in. 3137 .63 3. Including PDelta Effects Analysis Method Response Quantity Equivalent Lateral Forces 373 18.4 1. the most significant reason for the difference is the use of the firstmode lateral loading pattern in the nonlinear static pushover response.224.7 1.81 2. Figure 3. The differences are quite remarkable.) Table 3.78 1.74 3.51 that was required for the timehistory analysis.31 3.00130 No Yielding No Yielding Static Pushover CapacitySpectrum 1031 10. (rad) Panel Hinge Rot.0192 0.) Girder Hinge Rot.90 0. (rad) Column Hinge Rot.) Drift 21 (in.34 2. Structural Analysis the pushover analysis indicates no yielding in the panel zones.268 are the likely cause of the different hinging patterns and are certainly the reason for the very high base shear developed in the timehistory analysis. (If the inertial forces were constrained to follow the first mode response.23 2.15 3. (rad) Panel Plastic Shear Strain Note: Shears are for half of total structure.) Drift 65 (in.268 illustrates this by plotting the inertial forces that occur in the structure at the time of peak base shear and comparing this pattern to the force system applied for nonlinear static analysis.73 2.3 0.) Drift 54 (in.00624 Base Shear (kips) Roof Disp.91 3.00732 0.00624 0.60 4.73 2.23 0.48 3.84 0. for example. the maximum base shear that could be developed in the system would be in the range of 1100 kips. Figure 3.02 1.87 2.08 4.77 2.14 NA NA NA NA Static Pushover Provisions Method 1051 12.Chapter 3.0065 0.0140 0.27 1.) Drift 43 (in.31 1. See. even at an applied roof displacement of 42 in.) Drift R6 (in. While part of the difference in the pushover and timehistory response is due to the scale factor of 1.223 Summary of All Analyses for Strong Panel Structure.) Drift 32 (in.4 1.00131 No Yielding No Yielding Nonlinear Dynamic 1474 17. The higher mode effects shown in the Figure 3.90 3.
preliminary analysis was performed by simply increasing the damping ratio from 5 percent to 20 percent of critical in 5percent increments.3 Effect of Increased Damping on Response The timehistory analysis of the structure with panel zone reinforcement indicates that excessive drift may occur in the first story.FEMA 451.6. In each case. Including PDelta Effects Damping Ratio Item 2. To determine the effect of added damping on the behavior of the structure. A summary of the results is shown in Tables 3. In is interesting to note. The most cost effective measure to enhance the performance of the structure would probably be to provide additional strength and/or stiffness at this story. 3. an additional analysis was performed for a system with only 2. which is the true shear in the system. an increase in damping from 5 to 10 percent of critical eliminates the drift problem. Strong Panels. However.5 percent damping.268 Comparison of inertial force patterns. that an increase in damping had little effect on the inertial base shear. Table 3.225.3. As may be seen. and Pdelta effects were included. For comparison purposes. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 19k 209k 75k 640k 590k 288k Time History Analysis First Mode Pattern Figure 3.224 and 3. the structure was subjected to Ground Motion A00. Even greater improvement is obtained by increasing damping to 20 percent of critical.2.5% Column Forces Inertial Forces 1354 1440 5% 1284 1426 10% 1250 1520 20% 1150 1421 28% 1132 1872 3138 . added damping is also a viable approach. however.224 Maximum Base Shear (kips) in Frame Analyzed Ground Motion A00. the panel zones were reinforced.
71 3.18 If added damping were a viable option.70 4.33 3.42 2.001 kips/in. Including PDelta Effects Damping Ratio Level 2. The elastic stiffness of the damper element is simply: kdevice = Adevice Edevice Ldevice As stiffness proportional damping is used.43 2.225 Maximum Story Drifts (in.21 1.21 20% 12. Strong Panels.86 2. and modulus of elasticity Edevice.Chapter 3.00 3.9 1. 3139 .40 2. it would be obtained as follows: Let the length of the Type1 damper element be Ldevice.001 and Adevice = the damper length Ldevice. additional analysis that treats the individual dampers explicitly would be required. Structural Analysis Table 3.5% Total Roof R6 65 54 43 32 2G 18. only linear damping is possible in DRAIN.48 3. the damping constant for the element is: Cdevice = β device kdevice The damper elastic stiffness should be negligible so set kD = 0.31 3.4 1.8 1. the cross sectional area Adevice.37 2. the author typically sets Edevice = 0.08 4.08 2. In practice.60 4.) from TimeHistory Analysis Ground Motion A00. Thus: β device = Cdevice = 1000 Cdevice 0.72 3.1 1. If a damping constant Cdevice were required.90 28% 11. however.90 3.87 3. If a linear viscous fluid damping device (Figure 3.74 2.269) were to be used in a particular story.13 2. added damping systems usually employ devices with a “softening” nonlinear relationship between the deformational velocity in the device and the force in the device.77 2.81 3. This is easily accomplished in DRAIN by use of the stiffness proportional component of Rayleigh damping.93 5% 17. it could be modeled through the use of a Type1 (truss bar) element.4 1.001 When modeling added dampers in this manner.79 2.84 10% 15.11 4.69 4.
dampers were added in a chevron configuration along column lines C and D. the trend of decreased displacements and increased inertial shears with higher damping is continued. a different (global) value of β will be required to model the stiffness proportional component of damping in the remaining nondamper elements.FEMA 451. between Bays 3 and 4 (see Figure 3. and has Pdelta effects included. there is a dramatic 3140 . L j i D am per Brace Brace Figure 3. Different dampers may require different values. has strong panels. Also. Using the modal strain energy approach.270 shows the time history of roof displacements for the structure without added damping. These modal damping values are approximate and may be poor estimates of actual modal damping. devices with C = 70 kipsec/in. were added at Stories 5 and 6. an equivalent viscous damping of approximately 28 percent of critical was obtained in the first mode.269 Modeling a simple damper. The analysis was repeated using Rayleigh damping wherein the above stated modal damping ratios were approximately obtained. The peak shears and displacements obtained from the analysis with Rayleigh damping are shown at the extreme right of Tables 3. and dampers with C = 60 kipsec/in. the structure is subjected to Ground Motion A00..21). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples This value of βdevice is for the added damper element only. Using these devices. Devices with a damping constant (C) of 80 kipsec/in. Modeling the dynamic response using Type1 elements is exact within the typical limitations of finite element analysis. particularly when there is excessive flexibility in the mechanism that connects the damper to the structure. were added in Stories 1 and 2. and with equivalent Rayleigh damping. In order to compare the response of the structure with fictitiously high Rayleigh damping to the response with actual discrete dampers. with true viscous dampers. were added in Stories 3 and 4. As may be seen. and in excess of 70 percent of critical damping was obtained in modes three through six. Figure 3. 55 percent of critical damping was obtained in the second mode. The chevron braces used to connect the devices to the main structure had sufficient stiffness to eliminate any loss of efficiency of the devices. As may be observed. DRAIN will report a damping value in each mode.224 and 3. As before.225.
4 mm). in. = 25. 2000 1500 1000 Base shear.0 kip = 4. with discrete dampers.Chapter 3. kips 500 0 500 No added damping With discrete added damping With Rayleigh added damping 1000 1500 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. It is also clear that the discrete dampers and the equivalent Rayleigh damping produce very similar results. and with equivalent viscous damping. 3141 . 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. For the discrete damper case. These base shears were obtained from the summation of column forces. Figure 3.271 Base shear time histories obtained from column forces (1.271 shows the time history of base shears for the structure without added damping. sec 12 14 16 18 20 No added damping With discrete added damping With Rayleigh added damping Figure 3. The base shears for the discretely damped system are greater than the shears for the system without added damping. Structural Analysis decrease in roof displacement. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 1Figure 3.45 kN). including Pdelta effects.0 in. the base shears include the horizontal component of the forces in the chevron braces. The peak base shear for the system with equivalent viscous damping is less than the shear in the system without added damping.270 Response of structure with discrete dampers and with equivalent viscous damping (1. 20 15 Roof displacement.
The reduction in hysteretic energy demand for the system with added damping will reduce the damage in the structure.FEMA 451. As may be observed. the use of added discrete damping reduces the hysteretic energy demand on the structure.272. kips 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. As might be expected. which is the energy history for the structure without added damping.258.272 Base shear time histories as obtained from inertial forces (1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 2000 1500 1000 Base shear. 3142 . This effect is shown in Figure 3. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Discrete damping Rayleigh damping Figure 3. and should always be used in lieu of the sum of column forces.273. The inertial base shears in the system with discrete damping and with equivalent viscous damping are shown in Figure 3.45 kN). This figure should be compared to Figure 3. The inertial forces represent the true base shear in the structure. which is an energy time history for the structure with added discrete damping (which yields equivalent viscous damping of 28 percent of critical). the responses are almost identical.0 kip = 4.
In modeling the structure.000 15.kip = 0.000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time. a number of substantive technical changes have been made to the appendix. The results obtained from the three different analytical approaches were quite dissimilar. Structural Analysis 45. for example. and 5 were carried to a point that allowed comparison of results. sec 12 14 16 18 20 Total Strain + Hysteretic + Viscous Strain + Hysteretic Figure 3.000 10. five different analytical approaches were used to estimate the deformation demands in a simple unbraced steel frame structure: 1.113 kNm).000 5. 3. particular attention was paid to representing possible inelastic behavior in the panelzone regions of the beamcolumn joints.0 in.000 Energy.11 [In the 2003 Provisions.000 40. 3143 .Chapter 3. in.kips 25. 5. Because of the influence of the higher mode effects on the response. 4.000 30. is inadequate. Linear static analysis (the equivalent lateral force method) Plastic strength analysis (using virtual work) Nonlinear static pushover analysis Linear dynamic analysis Nonlinear dynamic timehistory analysis Approaches 1. 2. 3. pushover analysis.273 Energy timehistory for structure with discrete added damping (1. 11 Improved methods are becoming available for pushover analysis (see. 3.7 Summary and Conclusions In this example.000 20. when used alone.000 35.2. Chopra and Goel 2001).
it may be possible to develop standard suites of ground motions that could be published together with tools and scaling methodologies to make the motions represent the site. improved methods for assessing the effect of inelastic response and acceptance criteria based on such measures need to be developed. the ELF approach should not be used in explicit performance evaluation as it has no mechanism for determining location and extent of yielding in the structure. the author believes that deterministic methods should not be abandoned entirely. Among the most pressing problems is the need for a suitable suite of ground motions.] Except for preliminary design. What is still lacking is a comprehensive approach for seismicresistant design based on these principles. significant shortcomings. limitations. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples largely as a result of work performed in the development of ATC 55.FEMA 451. However. This leaves timehistory analysis as the most viable approach. where applicable. and uncertainties in timehistory analysis still exist. While probabilistic methods for dealing with such uncertainties seem like a natural extension of the analytical approach. In the context of performancebased design. Bertero and Bertero (2002) have presented valuable discussions in these regards. Systematic methods need to be developed for identifying uncertainties in the modeling of the structure and for quantifying the effect of such uncertainties on the response. Methods based on explicit quantification of damage should be seriously considered. The ideas presented above are certainly not original. That report outlines numerous other technical modifications that could be considered in application of nonlinear static analysis methods. The scaling techniques that are currently recommended in the Provisions are a start but need improving. All ground motions must adequately reflect site conditions and. Given the speed and memory capacity of personal computers. it is expected that timehistory analysis will eventually play a more dominant role in the seismic analysis of buildings. Through future research and the efforts of code writing bodies. They have been presented by many academics and practicing engineers. the suite must include nearfield effects. 3144 .
Foundation elements are most commonly constructed of reinforced concrete. Where they affect the design examples in this chapter. an understanding of how such elements should be detailed to produce ductile response. In both cases. The most significant change to the foundation chapter in the 2003 Provisions is the addition of a strength design method for foundations.2 illustrates the analysis and design of deep foundations for a building similar to the one highlighted in Chapter 6 of this volume of design examples. Control of settlement is generally the most important aspect of soil response to gravity loads. the ability to proportion concrete elements correctly. Annotations within brackets. The forcedisplacement response of soil to loading is highly nonlinear and strongly time dependent. other significant changes to the 2003 Provisions and primary reference documents are noted. and even the possibility of unintentional mixing with soil. additional consideration must be given to concrete foundation elements due to permanent exposure to potentially deleterious materials. less precise construction tolerances.2. Example 4. As compared to design of concrete elements that form the superstructure of a building. This chapter illustrates application of the 2000 Edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions to the design of foundation elements. Although this chapter is based on the 2000 Provisions. some minor changes to the 2003 Provisions and the reference documents may not be noted. 41 .4 FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Michael Valley. such as those occurring during an earthquake. the design examples and calculations have not been revised to reflect the changes to the 2003 Provisions. are anticipated. P. indicate both organizational changes (as a result of a reformat of all of the chapters of the 2003 Provisions) and substantive technical changes to the 2003 Provisions and its primary reference documents. Another change was made to introduce guidance for the explicit modeling of foundation loaddeformation characteristics. However. only those portions of the designs necessary to illustrate specific points are included.E. [ ]. the strength of the soil may control foundation design where large amplitude transient loads.1 completes the analysis and design of shallow foundations for two of the alternate framing arrangements considered for the building featured in Example 5. analysis should not be the primary focus of foundation design. While the general concepts of the changes are described. Good foundation design for seismic resistance requires familiarity with basic soil behavior and common geotechnical parameters. However. Example 4. Although the application of advanced analysis techniques to foundation design is becoming increasingly common (and is illustrated in this chapter). and careful attention to practical considerations of construction. it has been annotated to reflect changes made to the 2003 Provisions.
and S. Vol..” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering.K. 11. D. Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. R. ASCE. 1993. C. L. “Seismic Design of Pile Foundations: Structural and Geotechnical Issues. A. MCEER980018. Wang. T. Salmon.” Proceedings: Third International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics. L. O’Neill.. J. 1997..” Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering. Chaudhuri. 1 (March). PoLam. M. L. 1998 [2002]. ASCE. the following documents are either referenced directly or provide useful information for the analysis and design of foundations for seismic resistance: ACI 318 American Concrete Institute. 2000. 113. prepared by the American Society of Civil Engineers for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. “Lateral Load Behavior of Pile Group in Sand. A. and D. C. I. Morrison. ASCE 7 Bowles Brown 1987 Brown 1988 CRSI FEMA 356 GROUP Kramer LPILE Martin Pender PoLam Wang & Salmon 42 . No. CRSI Design Handbook. J.0 for Windows. 1992.0 for Windows. Prentice Hall. M. PoLam. HarperCollins. Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. 1988. 1998. Ensoft. American Society of Civil Engineers. Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute. “Aseismic Pile Foundation Design Analysis. Kramer. Building Code Requirements and Commentary for Structural Concrete. C. ASCE. Manual for GROUP 4. and M. 1996. No. Vol 114. 1995. 1987. 1996.. Martin. Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute. W. Wang. “Cyclic Lateral Loading of a LargeScale Pile Group.FEMA 451. L. Reese. 1999 [2002]. and S. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples In addition to the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions and Commentary (referred to herein as Provisions and Commentary). Reinforced Concrete Design .. No. 11 (November). 1988. C. G. Foundation Analysis and Design. Brown. Technical Manual for LPILE Plus 3. and I. Pender. 1996. Brown. G. and L. Reese. Wang. C. E. Ensoft. McGrawHill.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. Bowles.. 26. Vol. S. D. Kapuskar. Reese. Modeling of Pile Footings and Drilled Shafts for Seismic Design.. Reese. FEMA 356. (November). and C. T. C.
I. Foundation Analysis and Design Youd Youd. T. L. M. Idriss. in the analysis of laterally loaded single piles.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering (October). and PCACOL. Several commercially available programs were used to perform the calculations described in this chapter. “Liquefaction Resistance of Soils: Summary Report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF Workshops on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils.. 43 .. 2001. to determine concrete pile section capacities. LPILE. ASCE.Chapter 4. RISA: 3D is used to determine the shears and moments in a concrete mat foundation. and et al.
11 Typical framing plan.11 shows the gravityloadresisting system for a representative level of the building. The values identified as bearing capacity are related to gross failure of the soil mass in the vicinity of loading. Refer to that example for more detailed building information and for the design of the superstructure. are suitable for shallow foundations. 5. 177'4" 1'2" 1'2" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 1'2" 127'4" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" N 1'2" Figure 4.FEMA 451. so the bearing pressure limits are a function of the size of the loaded area. Settlements are more pronounced where large areas are loaded.1 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS FOR A SEVENSTORY OFFICE BUILDING. servicelevel loads applied to foundations do not exceed the noted bearing pressure.1.1.1 Basic Information 4. The site soils. Note the distinction made between bearing pressure and bearing capacity. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 4. Table 4. because Chapter 4 was completed after Chapter 5. If the longterm.11 shows the design parameters provided by a geotechnical consultant.1 Description The framing plan in Figure 4. Where loads are applied over smaller areas. differential and total settlements are expected to be within acceptable limits. CALIFORNIA This example features the analysis and design of shallow foundations for two of the three framing arrangements for the sevenstory steel office building described in Sec.1.2 of this volume of design examples. LOS ANGELES. 44 . 4. some values may differ slightly between the two chapters. punching into the soil is more likely. consisting of medium dense sands.
2. K0 = 0. and rocking resistance. the φ factor for cohesionless soil is explicitly defined.000 psi 4.000 psi fy = 60.0 45 .2. KP = 3. 7. lateral. The recommended values are consistent with these expectations.Chapter 4.7 for vertical. φ = 0.1 of this volume of design examples.2.11 Geotechnical Parameters Parameter Basic soil properties Value Medium dense sand (SPT) N = 20 γ = 125 pcf angle of internal friction = 33 deg # 4000 psf for B # 20 ft # 2000 psf for B $ 40 ft (may interpolate for intermediate dimensions) 2000 B psf for concentrically loaded square footings 3000 B' psf for eccentrically loaded footings where B and B' are in feet. The following parameters.1. and rocking resistance. the value is set at 0. Resistance factor. lateral. which are used during foundation design. Site Class = D SDS = 1. φ = 0.46 Passive.] Earth pressure coefficients Active.2.2 Provisions Parameters The complete set of parameters used in applying the Provisions to design of the superstructure is described in Sec.7 for vertical.3 Atrest. the φ factor for cohesionless soil is explicitly defined.8 [In the 2003 Provisions.2 using slightly different nomenclature.] Table 4. [The 2003 Provisions discuss the settlement and strength limit states in Sec.1. Foundation Analysis and Design Because bearing capacities are generally expressed as a function of the minimum dimension of the loaded area and are applied as limits on the maximum pressure.6 [In the 2003 Provisions. 5.3 “Ultimate” friction coefficient at base of footing = 0. B is the footing width and B' is an average width for the compressed area. are duplicated here. foundations with significantly nonsquare loaded areas (tending toward strip footings) and those with significant differences between average pressure and maximum pressure (as for eccentrically loaded footings) have higher calculated bearing capacities. the value is set at 0. KA = 0.65 Resistance factor.] Net bearing pressure (to control settlement due to sustained loads) Bearing capacity (for plastic equilibrium strength checks with factored loads) Lateral properties The structural material properties assumed for this example are: f'c = 4.
NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Seismic Design Category = D 4. 10. Section capacities are calculated in accordance with Chapters 10 (for flexure) and 11 (for shear). E.12 illustrates the critical sections (dashed lines) and areas (hatched) over which loads are tributary to the critical sections.4 defines how flexural reinforcement is to be distributed for footings of various shapes. and F. consideration of bearing capacity may become important.1.5. However. thus preventing sudden. The common design approach is to increase footing thickness as necessary to avoid the need for shear reinforcement. Figure 4.. Once service loads have been calculated.4 relaxes the minimum reinforcement requirement for footings of uniform thickness. Provision of the minimum reinforcement assures that the strength of the cracked section is not less than that of the corresponding unreinforced concrete section. Settlement control should be addressed first. 15.4 also imposes limits on the maximum spacing of bars. 7. ACI 318 Sec.5 of ACI 318 prescribes the minimum reinforcement for flexural members where tensile reinforcement is required by analysis. bearing capacity can be checked. foundation plan dimensions should be selected to limit bearing pressures to those that are expected to provide adequate settlement performance. reinforcement is designed to satisfy flexural demands.3.3. Where foundations will be subjected to shortterm loads and inelastic 46 . Design requirements for concrete footings are found in Chapters 15 and 21 of ACI 318.1. For elements that are very thick with respect to the plan dimensions (as at the pile caps).” Sec.g. brittle failures. Chapter 15 provides direction for the calculation of demands and includes detailing requirements. In recognition of this fact.1. where large transient loads are anticipated. Chapter 21 provides the minimum requirements for concrete foundations in Seismic Design Categories D. 10. Sec.5. Such elements need only satisfy the shrinkage reinforcement requirements of Sec.2 Additional Considerations for Eccentric Loads The design of eccentrically loaded footings follows the approach outlined above with one significant addition – consideration of overturning stability. If the structure is expected to remain elastic when subjected to shortterm eccentric loads (as for wind loading). these critical section definitions become less meaningful and other approaches (e. which is uncommon in shallow foundations. For shallow foundations. strutandtie modeling) should be employed. Maintaining a reasonably consistent level of service load bearing pressures for all of the individual footings is encouraged as it will tend to reduce differential settlements.3 Design Approach 4. 4.1. For sustained eccentric loads a linear distribution of elastic soil stresses is generally assumed and uplift is usually avoided. It would be rare for bearing capacity to govern the size of footings subjected to sustained loads. uplift over a portion of the footing is acceptable to most designers. 10. The thickness of footings is selected for ease of construction and to provide adequate shear capacity for the concrete section.1 Selecting Footing Size and Reinforcement Most foundation failures are related to excessive movement rather than loss of loadcarrying capacity. Less reinforcement may be used as long as “the area of tensile reinforcement provided is at least onethird greater than that required by analysis. which are usually of more concern than are total settlements.12. which are similar to those provided in prior editions of the Provisions. Stability calculations are sensitive to the characterization of soil behavior.FEMA 451. Sec. settlement control should be the first issue addressed.1.1. When a preliminary footing size that satisfies serviceability criteria has been selected.
13 illustrates the distribution of soil stresses for the various assumptions. Foundation Analysis and Design response is acceptable (as for earthquake loading). after uplift d (e) Some plastification (c) Critical section for twoway shear (f) Plastic limit d/2 (all sides) Figure 4. at uplift (b) Critical section for oneway shear (d) Elastic.13 Soil pressure distributions. and other advanced considerations. (All of the discussion in this section focuses on the common case in which foundation elements may be assumed to be rigid with respect to the supporting soil. plastic soil stresses may be considered. Simple hand calculations can be performed for the case shown in part f. 4. Figure 4. Figure 4.2 Design for Gravity Loads 47 . c.) Outside face of concrete column or line midway between face of steel column and edge of steel base plate (typical) P M (a) Loading (a) Critical section for flexure (b) Elastic. finite element models of those conditions are easy to develop.12 Critical sections for isolated footings. For the interested reader. and d of the figure. that approach simplifies the calculations at the expense of increased conservatism.Chapter 4. Most textbooks on foundation design provide simple equations to describe the conditions shown in parts b. Practical consideration of the case shown in part e would require modeling with inelastic elements.1. no uplift extent of footing (typical) (c) Elastic. rocking. but offers no advantage over direct consideration of the plastic limit. Chapter 4 of FEMA 356 provides a useful discussion of foundation compliance. It is most common to consider stability effects on the basis of statically applied loads even where the loading is actually dynamic.
4. the foundations are lumped into three groups (interior. most of the calculation procedures used in designing shallow foundations for seismic loads are identical to those used for gravity design. 2.2 of this volume of design examples.5. Detailed calculations are shown for a typical interior footing.1. 5. 4.000 lb = 484 kips . the controlling gravity load combination is 1.3.2.2D + 1. Second.2 of ASCE 7. This change would affect slightly the results of the example calculations in this chapter . a complete gravity design is needed to make the cost comparisons shown in Sec.1.25 ft2. Considering the load combinations for strength design defined in Sec. it is provided in this section for two reasons. the bearing capacity (qc) is 2000 B = 2000 × 11 = 22000 psf = 22 ksf. These new resistance factors (not those found in the ACI 318 Appendix) are used for seismic design.000 lb/4000 psf = 121. perimeter.2.11. as follows: Interior: D = 387 kips L = 98 kips Perimeter: D = 206 kips L = 45 kips Corner: D = 104 kips L = 23 kips The service load combination for consideration of settlement is D + L. OK 48 .11) is 4000 psf.2 Footing Size The preliminary size of the footing is determined considering settlement.6(98 kips) = 621 kips. in which the basic resistance factors have been revised to be consistent with the load combinations in ASCE 7.1. Therefore. Since the footing dimensions will be less than 20 ft.1 Demands Dead and live load reactions are determined as part of the threedimensional analysis described in Sec. The service load on a typical interior footing is calculated as: P = D + L = 387 kips + 98 kips = 485 kips.2(387 kips) + 1. the required footing area is 487.FEMA 451. the alternate strength reduction factors found in ACI 318 Appendix C must be used. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Although most of the examples in the volume do not provide detailed design for gravity loads. Because ASCE 7 load combinations are employed. the allowable bearing pressure (see Table 4. The strength demand is: Pu = 1.2.1. First. Although there are slight variations in the calculated reactions. 485 kips (demand).6L. Check a footing that is 11'0" by 11'0": Pallow = 11 ft(11 ft)(4000 psf) = 484.5 below meaningful. and corner) for gravity load design and the maximum computed reactions are applied to all members of the group. 4. The results for all three footing types are summarized in Sec. [The 2003 Provisions refer to ACI 31802. As indicated in Table 4.] 4.
5 − 1. 12 ⎠ ⎝ 2 1 φVn = φVc = ( 0.5 ) ( 5.5 ) ( 1000 ) = 269 kips > 172 kips. the thickness is determined such that the section satisfies the oneway and twoway shear demands without the addition of shear reinforcement. T = As fy = 10(0. 1 φ M n = φ T ( d − a ) = 0.(3 + 1. thick: For the W14 columns used in this building.4 Footing Reinforcement Footing reinforcement is selected considering both flexural demands and minimum reinforcement requirements. d = t .3 .5 ) ⎤ ( 21.13) = 172kips . ⎣ ⎦ OK 4. OK Twoway shear: Vu = 621 − ( 16 + 21.79)(60) = 474 kips.75 ) 4 4000 ⎡ 4 × (16 + 21. 2 2 2 OK 49 .12) that depend on the footing thickness. d = 26 . Accounting for cover and expected bar sizes.13 ksf. Oneway shear: ⎛ 11 − 16 21.5 in.5 in. Because the demands are calculated at critical sections (see Figure 4.06 in.5(1)) = 21.2. The distance from the extreme compression fiber to the center of the top layer of reinforcement. Check a footing that is 26 in.85 f'c b a for a produces a = 1. the side dimensions of the loaded area (taken halfway between the face of the column and the edge of the base plate) are about 16 in. the factored bearing pressure qu = 621 kips/(11 ft)2 = 5. For use in subsequent calculations.5db = 26 .75 ) 2 4000 (11 × 12 )( 21. iteration is required.1.cover .5(1) = 21.2.5 ⎞ 12 Vu = 11⎜ − ⎟ ( 5. 4. 12 2 1 φVn = φVc = ( 0. The following calculations treat flexure first because it usually controls: ⎛ 11 − 16 ⎞ 1 12 M u = (11) ⎜ ⎟ ( 5.Chapter 4.1.80 ( 474 ) ( 21.06 ) ( 12 ) = 663ftkips > 659 ftkips.5 ) ( 1000 ) = 612 kips > 571 kips.6(22 ksf)(11 ft)2 = 1597 kips o 621 kips.1.1. Foundation Analysis and Design The design capacity for the foundation is: φPn = φqcB2 = 0.13) = 571kips .13) = 659 ftkips . 2 2 ⎠ ⎝ Try 10 #8 bars each way. Noting that C = T and solving the expression C = 0.3 Footing Thickness OK Once the plan dimensions of the footing are selected.
According to ACI 318 Sec.9 in. 7. The distance between bars spaced uniformly across the width of the footing s = [(11)(12)2(3+0.4 are repeated for typical perimeter and corner footings.2.9 in.0018 < 0. Figure 4.00278. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The ratio of reinforcement provided ρ = 10(0.] 410 .1.12 Footing Design for Gravity Loads Location Interior Loads D = 387 kip L = 98 kip P = 485 kip Pu = 621 kip Perimeter D = 206 kip L = 45 kip P = 251 kip Pu = 319 kip Corner D = 104 kip L = 23 kip P = 127 kip Pu = 162 kip Footing Size and Reinforcement.3 ftkip Vu = 141 kip Vu = 41.2.2 ftkip Mu = 73.12.5 kip [Use of the new resistance factors in ACI 31802 would change these results.FEMA 451.2 through 4. > 13.2. the minimum reinforcement ratio = 0.5)] = 0.1 kip Vu = 289 kip φVn = 302 kip Mu = 222 ftkip φMn = 230 ftkip φVn = 64.9 kip φVn = 184 kip φMn = 80.5 Design Results The calculations performed in Sec. 4. Soil Capacity 11'0" × 11'0" × 2'2" deep 10#8 bars each way Pallow = 484 kip φPn = 1597 kip 8'0" × 8'0" × 1'6" deep 10#6 bars each way Pallow = 256 kip φPn = 614 kip 6'0" × 6'0" × 1'2" deep 7#5 bars each way Pallow = 144 kip φPn = 259 kip Critical Section Demands and Design Strengths Oneway shear: Twoway shear: Flexure: Oneway shear: Twoway shear: Flexure: Oneway shear: Twoway shear: Flexure: OK OK φVn = 269 kip Vu = 571 kip φVn = 612 kip Mu = 659 ftkip φMn = 663 ftkip Vu = 172 kip φVn = 123 kip Vu = 88.5)]/(101) = 13. 4.1.14 depicts the resulting foundation plan. or 18 = 18 in. The footing design for gravity loads is summarized in Table 4.1. Table 4.12.79)/[(11)(12)(21. and the maximum spacing is the lesser of 3 × 26 in.00278.
Foundation Analysis and Design Corner: 6'x6'x1'2" thick Perimeter: 8'x8'x1'6" thick Interior: 11'x11'x2'2" thick Figure 4. Detailed calculations are provided in this section for a combined footing at the corner and focus on overturning and sliding checks for the eccentrically loaded footing. settlement checks and design of concrete sections would be similar to the calculations shown in Sec. 4.4. 5. 4. 411 .15.3 Design for MomentResisting Frame System Framing Alternate A in Sec.3.14 Foundation plan for gravityloadresisting system.1.2. The results for all footing types are summarized in Sec. A framing plan for the system is shown in Figure 4.Chapter 4.1.1.2 of this volume of design examples includes a perimeter moment resisting frame as the seismicforceresisting system. 4.
Considering two senses of accidental torsion for loading in each direction and including orthogonal effects results in a large number of load cases.15 Framing plan for moment resisting frame system. Load Ex is for loads applied toward the east.11Ey) and the upward case 412 . Foundation reactions at selected grids are reported in Table 4.7 51.5 L 22.6 Ey 0.FEMA 451.9 13.6 3.5 85. both for a combined foundation for columns at Grids A5 and A6: the downward case (1.13 Demands from MomentResisting Frame System Load Rx Ry Rz Mxx D 203.8 47. which include the redundancy factor as appropriate.8 4.3 1011.5 D 103. 4.2.3 Ex 14. is performed using the RAMFRAME program.0 Location A5 Myy 243. in accordance with the requirements for the equivalent lateral force (ELF) procedure.1 8. including appropriately amplified clockwise accidental torsion.3.4D + 0.1 A6 246. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 7 at 25'0" 5 at 25'0" N Figure 4.8 L 43.8 68. Load Ey is for loads applied toward the north.2 281.13. 5.1 Demands A threedimensional analysis of the superstructure. Sec.7 Ey 0.1 21. Table 4.1.3.1 3.4 Note: Units are kips and feet.8 Ex 13.8 53. The detailed calculations presented here are limited to two primary conditions.32Ex + 1.5 of this volume of design examples outlines the design load combinations.5L + 0.0 891. including appropriately amplified counterclockwise accidental torsion.
75(1. = 0. Therefore.32(243.4.8 + 51. Check overturning for a footing that is 10 ft wide by 40 ft long by 5 ft thick. this issue makes a significant difference in design.11Ey).32(3.7D + 0.5 + 0.32(13.8) + 0. (In these calculations the 0.3 + 281)] .4(203. = direct moments + moment due to eccentricity of applied axial loads Mxx = 0.8) + 1.3) +0.4(103.8) + 0.3. judgment must be used in determining which design actions may be reduced. This larger axial load does not control the design because the moment is so much less that the resultant is within the kern and no uplift occurs.11)(21.6 + 3.2SDSD modifier for vertical accelerations is used for the dead loads applied to the foundation but not for the weight of the foundation and soil.32Ex + 1.) Combining the loads from columns at Grids A5 and A6 and including the weight of the foundation and overlying soil produces the following loads at the foundationsoil interface: P = applied loads + weight of foundation and soil = 1.11(1011. Furthermore.11(0.7) + 1.1 + 13.75(0. . in this example column axial loads (Rz) from load cases Ex and Ey will be multiplied by 0.6 + 47.] Before loads can be computed.1 68.8) = 7. Reversing the direction of the seismic load results in P = 1173 kips and Mxx = 3490 ftkips.103.8 .5) = 7258 ftkips. Note that the above load combination does not yield the maximum downward load.1 .5].246.11(85.5(43.891. 4.8 .8 .15) + 10(40)(2)(0. Further.32)(3.4) Myy = 133 ftkips.11Ey) In order to perform the overturning checks a footing size must be assumed.1) + 1. attention must be given to Provisions Sec.4(203. This is the author’s interpretation of the Provisions.7) + 1.5 [5.75(1.5L + 0.” Because the overturning moment in question is the global overturning moment for the system. the factors in these load combinations would change.11)(281)](12.11(8. .8) + 0.125)] = 714 kips.75 and all other load effects will remain unreduced.3)](12.5) + 0. Mf. If the seismicforceresisting system consists of isolated shear walls.5) + [1.) Vx = 0.14. (The resulting eccentricity is small enough to neglect here.75(0.5(22.5 .22. to be designed for threefourths of the foundation overturning design moment. most of the global overturning resistance is related to axial loads in columns. and it is not common practice to include the vertical acceleration on the weight of the footing and the overburden. assume that the top of the footing is 2 ft below grade (the overlying soil contributes to the resisting moment).5) + 0.1. 5. Preliminary checks (not shown here) confirmed that isolated footings under single columns were untenable. Foundation Analysis and Design (0.32(4. [Because the redundancy factor is changed substantially in the 2003 Provisions.32)(51.Chapter 4. The footing and soil overburden are not subject to the same potential for dynamic amplification as the dead load of the superstructure.32(53. the shear wall overturning moment at the base best fits that description. That section permits “foundations of structures .49 kips.4D + 0.3) + 0.9) + 1. Vy = 0.5(43. for footings that resist significant overturning.2. 413 .2) = 167. For a perimeter momentresisting frame.75[0.2 Downward Case (1.32Ex + 1.1.5 kips.0) + [1.2[10(40)(5)(0.8) + 0.11(21. which simplifies the problem considerably.
67 ft. 4.0 ⎟ = 6.84ksf ⎛L ⎞ ⎛ 40 ⎞ 3B ⎜ − e ⎟ 3(10) ⎜ − 10.7D + 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The soil calculations that follow use a different sign convention than that in the analysis results noted above.17 ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ and the length of the footing in contact with the soil is: ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ 40 ⎞ L′ = 3 ⎜ − e ⎟ = 3⎜ − 10.5ft . which follows.6(30 ksf) = 18 ksf > 4. compression is positive for the soil calculations. The eccentricity is: e = M/P = 7258/714 = 10. as e approaches L/2. The upward case. a solution to the overturning problem exists.3 Upward Case (0.5 kips Vy = 167 kips The eccentricity is: e = M/P = 6240/346 = 18.84 ksf. ⎝2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ The bearing capacity qc = 3000 B' = 3000 × min(B.32Ex + 1. will control the sliding check. OK The foundation satisfies overturning and bearing capacity checks.) The design bearing capacity φqc = 0. 29.17 ⎟ = 29.17 ft. Since e is greater than L/6 = 40/6 = 6. the bearing pressures increase without bound. Where e is less than L/2.000 psf = 30 ksf.1. however.FEMA 451. so uplift occurs and the maximum bearing pressure is: qmax = 2(346) = 11. uplift occurs and the maximum bearing pressure is: qmax = 2P 2(714) = = 4.3.0 ft. Again. ⎝ 2 ⎠ 414 . L'/2) = 3000 × min(10.0ft .11Ey) For the upward case the loads are: P = 346 kips Mxx = 6240 ftkips Myy = 133 ftkips (negligible) Vx = 7.5/2) = 30.5ksf ⎛ 40 ⎞ 3(10) ⎜ − 18.0 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ and the length of the footing in contact with the soil is: ⎛ 40 ⎞ L′ = 3 ⎜ − 18. e is greater than L/6. (L'/2 is used as an adjustment to account for the gradient in the bearing pressure in that dimension.
8(0. The design bearing capacity φqc = 0.0 ksf) = 5.3 are repeated for combined footings at middle and side locations.4 ksf < 11.1. 4. the contact area times the design bearing capacity must equal the applied vertical load P.000 psf = 9.92)(4. The design sliding resistance is: φVc = φ × friction coefficient × P = 0.39)(10) = 348 kips .16 shows the results. the length of contact area L' = 4.2 below illustrates passive pressure calculations for a pile cap. resistance due to passive pressure on the leading face could be included.92 ksf.49) 2 + (−167) 2 = 167. the difference is rounded off.39 ft.5 ksf. The sliding demand is: V = Vx2 + Vy2 = (−7. Using a plastic distribution of soil stresses defines the upper limit of static loads for which the foundation remains stable. The bearing capacity qc = 3000 × min(10. The resisting moment.39) = 13. Figure 4. By iteration. the foundation satisfies overturning and bearing capacity checks. It should be noted that the foundation may remain stable for larger loads if they are applied dynamically.4 Design Results The calculations performed in Sec.6(9.2 kips .3. OK Therefore. the total compression force at the bottom of the foundation is 346 kips.) The design bearing capacity φqc = 0. 6240 ftkip.4. but the extreme concentration of soil bearing tends to drive up shear and flexural demands on the concrete section.1. For the sliding check. (7. the most convenient calculation is iterative. (No adjustment to L' is needed as the pressure is uniform. 4.39/2) = 6160 ftkip . Sec. Because the bearing capacity used in this example is a function of the contact area and the value of P changes with the size.1. the bearing pressure over the entire contact area is assumed to be equal to the design bearing capacity. 6/2) = 9. 4.170 psf = 13. 346 kips. NG Using an elastic distribution of soil pressures.2. Foundation Analysis and Design The bearing capacity qc = 3000 × min(10. Try the plastic distribution. 4.Chapter 4.2 ksf. Using this approach. OK If base traction alone had been insufficient. even in that case.2 and 4.6(13.2 ksf) = 7. the strength demands on the concrete section will not exceed those computed on the basis of the plastic distribution.65)(346 kips) = 180 kips > 167. the foundation fails the bearing capacity check (although stability is satisfied). 415 .3.2.3. The calculation of demands on concrete sections for strength checks should use the same soil stress distribution as the overturning check. so equilibrium is satisfied. In order to satisfy vertical equilibrium.2 kips. initially consider base traction only. MR = P (L/2L'/2) = 346 (40/2 . As calculated previously.0 ksf. using a plastic distribution of soil pressures.
Using an effective moment of inertia of 50 percent of the gross moment of inertia and also using the distance between columns as the effective span. One last check of interest is to compare the flexural stiffness of the footing with that of the steel column.FEMA 451. which is needed because the steel frame design was based upon flexural restraint at the base of the columns. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Corner: 10'x40'x5'0" w/ top of footing 2'0" below grade Middle: 5'x30'x4'0" Side: 8'x32'x4'0" Figure 4.16 Foundation plan for momentresisting frame system.4 Design for Concentrically Braced Frame System 416 . 4. the ratio of EI/L for the smallest of the combined footings is more than five times the EI/h for the steel column.17 Framing plan for concentrically braced frame system.1. Figure 4. This is satisfactory for the design assumption.
1 Check Mat Size for Overturning Uplift demands at individual columns are so large that the only practical shallow foundation is one that ties together the entire core. primary overturning effects (Mxx) due to loads applied parallel to the short side of the core.6(16.1 ft and the maximum soil pressure is 16.1/2) = 16. Foundation Analysis and Design Framing Alternate B in Sec. 11.9 ksf.544 ftkips Vx = 765 kips Vy = 2. The bearing capacity qc = 3000 × min(95.9 ksf. For the elastic solution the average width of the contact area is 11. Assume mat dimensions of 45 ft by 95 ft by 7 ft thick with the top of the mat 3'6" below grade.650 psf = 16. depending on the soil distribution assumed. 4. 5.7 ksf) = 10. In both cases the computed uplift is significant.2 of this volume of design examples employs a concentrically braced frame system at a central core to provide resistance to seismic loads. A framing plan for the system is shown in Figure 4.18 shows the soil pressures that result from application in this controlling case.439 ftkips Myy = 42. The design bearing capacity φqc = 0.4.7 ksf. The elastic solution shown in Part b was computed by modeling the mat in RISA 3D with compression only soil springs (with the stiffness of edge springs doubled as recommended by Bowles).0 ksf < 16. NG 417 .17. Combining the factored loads applied to the mat by all eight columns and including the weight of the foundation and overlying soil produces the following loads at the foundationsoil interface: P = 7.849 kips Mxx = 148. The controlling load combination for overturning has minimum vertical loads (which help to resist overturning). In Part a of the figure the contact area is shaded.Chapter 4.1.670 kips Figure 4. and smaller moments about a perpendicular axis (Myy) due to orthogonal effects.
FEMA 451.2 ksf.3. for use in determining the bearing capacity.2)(6. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 12.542 ftkips .10 ft at the right side. confirming equilibrium for offaxis moment. The present solution has an additional complication as the offaxis moment is not negligible. The resisting moment.3 ksf. is (4. In order to satisfy vertical equilibrium. the checks of stability and bearing capacity are satisfied. The mat dimensions are shown in Figure 4.849)(5. The length of the contact area is 4. 6. 4. As was done in Sec.42 ft y = 18. (12. The shape of the contact area is determined by satisfying equilibrium for the offaxis moment. 418 OK .849 kips.340 psf = 20.3 above. Given the above constraints. 42. try the plastic distribution.2 ksf ~ (a) Plastic solution 16 12 8 4 0 (b) Elastic solution pressures (ksf) Figure 4.98) = 148. The distances from the center of the mat to the centroid of the contact area are x = 5. The average contact length.78 ft.18 is determined.98 ft The bearing capacity qc = 3000 × min(95.46 + 9. xx = P y = 7849(18. M R .78)(95) = 7. 7. The design bearing capacity φqc = 0.6(20. So.42) = 42. the contact area shown in Figure 4. The bearing pressure over the entire contact area is assumed to be equal to the design bearing capacity. the contact area times the design bearing capacity must equal the applied vertical load P.78) = 20. (7.858 kips .3 ksf) = 12. Again the calculations are iterative.439 ftkips.10)/2 = 6.19.1.18 Soil pressures for controlling bidirectional case. confirming equilibrium for vertical loads.974ftkips >148.46 ft at the left side and 9.544 ftkips.
[Note that Sec. This is conservative for the demand on the concrete for the same reason that it was unsatisfactory for the soil: the edge soil pressures are high (that is.1.2. Using a bar spacing of 10 in. for this 7ftthick mat and assuming one or two layers of bars.12 of ACI 318 may be provided near one face.3 of the 2003 Provisions requires consideration of parametric variation for soil properties where foundations are modeled explicitly. for thick mats it is best to compute and provide the amount of required reinforcement separately for the top and bottom halves of the section. the computation of strength demands for the concrete section should use the same soil pressure distribution as was used to satisfy stability and bearing capacity.] Concrete mats often have multiple layers of reinforcement in each direction at the top and bottom of their thickness. design of the concrete section will proceed using the results of the elastic analysis.2 ksf). The same analysis used to determine elastic bearing pressures yields the corresponding section demands directly. 7. Rather than provide such calculations here. 10.2 Design Mat for Strength Demands As was previously discussed.3 above. even though the plastic solution gives 12. Although all of the reinforcement provided to satisfy Sec. Use of a uniform spacing for the reinforcement provided in a given direction greatly increases the ease of construction. we are designing the concrete for a peak soil pressure of 16. The minimum reinforcement requirements defined in Sec. Foundation Analysis and Design Mat: 45'x95'x7'0" with top of mat 3'6" below grade Figure 4.19 Foundation plan for concentrically braced frame system.1. 4. The amount of 419 . 7.Chapter 4.9 ksf. Because dozens of load combinations were considered and “hand calculations” were used for the plastic distribution checks. the effort required would be considerable. This example does not illustrate such calculations.1.5 of ACI 318 were discussed in Sec.14 (presented in order of decreasing strength) may be precomputed for use in design. the section capacities indicate in Table 4. 4. One approach to this dilemma would be to compute an additional factor that must be applied to selected elastic cases to produce section demands that are consistent with the plastic solution.4.
05 2. o.c.2 per ft) 3. First.95 φMn (ftkip/ft) 899 not used not used not used 3/4φMn (ftkip/ft) not used 534 424 215 Note: Where the area of steel provided is less than the minimum reinforcement for flexural members as indicated in ACI 318 Sec.1.90 0.14.c. 7. C.3.5. As (in.14 Mat Foundation Section Capacities Mark A B C D Reinforcement 2 layers of #10 bars at 10 in.40 1. o.110) using contours that correspond to the capacities shown for the reinforcement patterns noted in Table 4. 2 layers of #9 bars at 10 in. To facilitate rapid design the analysis results are processed in two additional ways. o. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples reinforcement provided for marks B. and D are less than the basic minimum for flexural members. 2 layers of #8 bars at 10 in.5. The amount of steel provided for Mark D is the minimum that satisfies ACI 318 Sec. Table 4. o. 10. #8 bars at 10 in.c. 420 . so the demands should not exceed threequarters of the design strength where those reinforcement patterns are used.FEMA 451. demands are compared to 3/4 of φMn as permitted in Sec.12.c. Then the enveloped results are presented (see Figure 4. the flexural and shear demands computed for the various load combinations are enveloped. 10.
Foundation Analysis and Design C L C L B C D C D B B C D B C C D B C C B + 669 + 881 B (a) M x positive (b) M x negative C L C L D C + 884 B B C C B B D D (c) M y positive D 444 + D D (d) M y negative Figure 4.110 Envelope of mat foundation flexural demands. For instance. In Figure 4. Using the noted contours permits direct selection of reinforcement. Note that the reinforcement provided will be symmetric about the centerline of the mat in both directions. all areas within Contour B must have two layers of #10 bars. Figure 4. averaging of demands over short areas is appropriate. Where the results of finite element analysis are used in the design of reinforced concrete elements.111. the selected reinforcement is superimposed on the demand contours.Chapter 4.112 shows a section of the mat along Gridline C. The reinforcement provided within a contour for a given mark must be that indicated for the next higher mark. 421 .
FEMA 451.111 Mat foundation flexural reinforcement. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples C L B C L 4'2" 7'6" 2'6" C L C D 4'2" 4'2" A B 4'2" A A B (a) EW bottom reinforcement (b) EW top reinforcement 8'4" 10'0" 3'4" C L 5'0" A B A B C D (c) NS bottom reinforcement (d) NS top reinforcement Figure 4. 422 .
The only areas that need more careful attention (to determine whether they require shear reinforcement) are those where the hatched or shaded areas are outside the critical sections.113 presents the envelope of shear demands. Note that the high shear stresses are not produced by loads that create high bearing pressures at the edge. 4. 423 . If shear reinforcement cannot be avoided.3 also are shown. bars may be used both to chair the upper decks of reinforcement and provide resistance to shear in which case they may be bent thus: .112 Section of mat foundation. The critical sections for twoway shear (as discussed in Sec. In the hatched areas the shear stress exceeds φ 4 f c′ and in the shaded areas it exceeds φ 2 f c′ . At the columns on Gridline D. However. when the shears are averaged over a width equal to the effective depth (d). Rather they are produced by loads that created large bending stresses parallel to the edge. so closer inspection is needed. the hatched area falls outside the critical section. The distribution of bending moments and shears is not uniform across the width (or breadth) of the mat. Oneway shears at the edges of the mat exceed the φ 2 f c′ criterion. the design requirements of ACI 318 are satisfied. reinforcement for punching or beam shear is not required. Foundation Analysis and Design 8" 3" clear (typical) 8" Figure 4. Figure 4. primarily due to the torsion in the seismic loads and the orthogonal combination. In this design. the demands are less than the design strength.1.1. The contours used correspond to the design strengths computed assuming Vs = 0 for oneway and twoway shear.Chapter 4. Because the perimeter of the hatched area is substantially smaller than the perimeter of the critical section for punching shear. It is also influenced by the doubled spring stiffnesses used to model the soil condition.
First.15 provides a summary of the material quantities used for all of the foundations required for the various conditions considered. braced frame systems tend to concentrate spatially the demands on the 424 . Corresponding preliminary costs are assigned.113 Critical sections for shear and envelope of mat foundation shear demands.5 COST COMPARISON Table 4. However.1. which produces shorter periods and higher design forces. It is obvious that design for lateral loads adds cost as compared to a design that neglects such loads. braced frame systems are stiffer. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples (a) V x Critical section (typical) (b) Vy Figure 4. The gravityonly condition does not represent a realistic case because design for wind loads would require changes to the foundations. This condition occurs for two reasons. it is provided here for discussion. 4. Second.FEMA 451. it is also worth noting that braced frame systems usually have substantially more expensive foundation systems than do moment frame systems.
000 1895 cy at $15/cy = $28. Foundation Analysis and Design foundations.425 Total Cost $ 51.16) = $34.815 425 .440 800 cy at $15/cy = $12.650 537 cy at $180/cy = $96.Chapter 4. which is an increase of perhaps 4 or 5 percent to the cost of the structural system.150 Gravity only 310 cy at $150/cy (see Figure 4.15 Summary of Material Quantities and Cost Comparison Design Condition Concrete at Gravity Foundations Concrete at Lateral Foundations Total Excavation 310 cy at $15/cy = $4.660 1108 cy at $180/cy = $199.80/ft2.500 Moment frame 233 cy at $150/cy (see Figure 4. Table 4.19) = $34.950 $143.950 Braced frame 233 cy at $150/cy (see Figure 4.610 $262.14) = $46. In this case the added cost amounts to about $0.
426 . SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D This example features the analysis and design of deep foundations for a 12tory reinforced concrete momentresisting frame building similar to that described in Chapter 6 of this volume of design examples.1. Figure 4.2 DEEP FOUNDATIONS FOR A 12STORY BUILDING.1 Description Figure 4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 4.2.2.21 Design condition: column of concrete moment resisting frame supported by pile cap and castinplace piles.1 Basic Information 4. 4. Geotechnical parameters for the two sites are given in Table 4.21. A 2×2 pile group is designed for four conditions: for loads delivered by a corner and a side column of a momentresisting frame system for Site Classes C and E.21 shows the basic design condition considered in this example.FEMA 451.
2.3 neglect end bearing 30 to 100 ft Medium dense sand skin friction (ksf)* = 0.75.025/ft # 2 end bearing (ksf)* = 40 + 0.) The structural material properties assumed for this example are as follows: f'c = 3. k = 50 pci skin friction (ksf)* = 0.03/ft # 2 end bearing (ksf)* = 65 + 0.5/ft # 100 Pile cap resistance 300 pcf.8 for the clay layer and 0. k = 50 pci neglect skin friction neglect end bearing Dense sand (one layer: 3 to 100 ft depth) γ = 110 pcf undrained shear strength = 430 psf soil modulus parameter.9 + 0. φ factors for cohesive and cohesionless soils are explicitly defined.7 for the sand layers.3 + 0. for vertical.2 Provisions Parameters Site Class = C and E (both conditions considered in this example) SDS = 0. k = 25 pci neglect skin friction neglect end bearing 3 to 30 ft Soft clay γ = 110 pcf angle of internal friction = 30 deg soil modulus parameter. k = 125 pci γ = 120 pcf angle of internal friction = 36 deg soil modulus parameter.1.6/ft # 150 γ = 130 pcf angle of internal friction = 42 deg soil modulus parameter.9 Seismic Design Category = D (for both conditions) 427 .] Resistance factor for capacity checks (φ) = 0.000 psi fy = 60. Foundation Analysis and Design Table 4. ultimate passive pressure [In the 2003 Provisions. *Skin friction and end bearing values increase (up to the maximum value noted) for each additional foot of depth below the top of the layer. the values would be 0.Chapter 4.21 Geotechnical Parameters Depth 0 to 3 ft Loose sand/fill Class E Site Loose sand/fill Class C Site γ = 110 pcf angle of internal friction = 28 deg soil modulus parameter. ε50 = 0. (The values noted assume a minimum pile length of 20 ft. Safety factor for settlement checks = 2. k = 25 pci strain at 50 percent of maximum stress. lateral and rocking resistance.5.000 psi 4. ultimate passive pressure 575 pcf.01 skin friction (ksf) = 0.
8 276.2] (with 0.0 12. [Although the redundancy factor is changed substantially in the 2003 Provisions. Load Vx is for loads applied toward the east.1.38D + 0.1.38D + 0.6 80. Although the behavior of foundation and superstructure are closely related.9 702.0 72. it is expected that this system would still satisfy the conditions needed for ρ = 1.7 [4. or both.72D ± 0. so these load combinations would not change.0ATx.7 0. E as defined in Provisions Sec.2. 0.0ATy) 4.3ATx.5 567.3 3.5 1.0Vx ± 0.0 27.2.0 36.8 1.22. the following 32 load conditions must be considered.0. 1.5L ± 1.FEMA 451. they typically are modeled independently.0 Mxx Myy Note: Units are kips and feet.3Vy ± max(1.3 Demands The unfactored demands from the moment frame system are shown in Table 4. Load Vy is for loads applied toward the north. ATx is the corresponding accidental torsion case.0 163. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 4. Figure 4.4 Design Approach For typical deep foundation systems resistance to lateral loads is provided by both piles and pile cap.3 8. 0.6 6.22 shows a simple idealization of this condition.3ATx.8 489.6 12.3Vx ± 1. and including accidental torsion.1 0.3ATy) 0.0 7. ATy is the corresponding accidental torsion case. whereby the behavior of pile cap and piles are considered separately.4 4.4 0.18D and taking ρ = 1.2.72D ± 1. Earthquake loads are applied to a model of the superstructure.5 59. A similar substructure technique is usually applied to the foundation system itself.3Vy ± max(1. 1.9 2.2 3.2SDSD = 0.7 22.1 0.3 3.2 439. This section describes that typical approach.1 0.0ATx.0Vx ± 0.0Vy ± max(0. 428 .0).7 Rx Ry Rz 351. skin friction.0Vy ± max(0.2 3.5 305.6 6. Then the support reactions are seen as demands on the foundation system.4 31.0 142.5L ± 0.4 18. Table 4.22 Gravity and Seismic Demands Location Corner Load D L Vx Vy ATx ATy Side D L Vx Vy ATx ATy 29. which is assumed to have fixed supports.9 33. The relative contributions of these piles and pile cap depend on the particular design conditions.9 8. but often both effects are significant. Resistance to vertical loads is assumed to be provided by the piles alone regardless of whether their axial capacity is primarily due to end bearing.6 46.8 0.] 1. considering orthogonal effects as required for Seismic Design Category D.0ATy) 0. Using ASCE 7 Load Combinations 5 and 7.3Vx ± 1.3ATy) 1.2.4 70.4 40. 5.0 31.
22 Schematic model of deep foundation system. 4. V= Vgroup − V passive Pot = Vgroup h + M group + 4 M − h pV passive Pp = Pgroup 4 and P = Pot + Pp Pgroup M group Vgroup M group Vgroup Pgroup = Pp Pp + V M Pot Vpassive O M Pot Figure 4.23. 429 . where s is the pile spacing. demands on individual piles as a result of loads applied to the group may be determined as follows: and M = V × R.1 Pile Group Mechanics With reference to the free body diagram (of a 2×2 pile group) shown in Figure 4.23 Pile cap free body diagram.2.4. Foundation Analysis and Design Pile cap Passive resistance (see Figure 4.25) Pile py springs (see Figure 4. . where R is a characteristic length determined from analysis of a 4 laterally loaded single pile. h is the height of the pile cap. 2s and hp is the height of Vpassive above Point O.1.24) Figure 4.Chapter 4.
430 . the passive pressure resistance of the cap is nonlinear. Pile response to lateral loads.000 Soil resistance.FEMA 451.6 0. diameter pile) are shown in Figure 4.2. Representative py curves (computed for a 22 in.1.4 Pile deflection. soil type and properties.4. depth = 30 ft Site Class E.4. In recent years it has become increasingly common to consider that nonlinearity directly.9 1. in the case of sands.5 0.3 Contribution of Pile Cap Pile caps contribute to the lateral resistance of a pile group in two important ways: directly as a result of passive pressure on the face of the cap that is being pushed into the soil mass and indirectly by producing a fixed head condition for the piles. and. 4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 4.) 1.24 Representative py curves (note that a logarithmic scale is used on the vertical axis).0 0.2 0. is usually computed using computer programs like LPILE.000 100 10 Site Class C.25 shows how the passive pressure resistance (expressed as a fraction of the ultimate passive pressure) is related to the imposed displacement (expressed as a fraction of the minimum dimension of the face being pushed into the soil mass). y (in.1 0. depth = 10 ft Site Class E. The py response is sensitive to pile size (an effect not apparent is the figure which is based on a single pile size). depth = 10 ft 1 0. p (lb/in. researchers have developed empirical relationships for the nonlinear py response of piles that are suitable for use in design. Like the py response of piles. Based on extensive testing of fullscale specimens and smallscale models for a wide variety of soil conditions.1.2 Contribution of Piles The response of individual piles to lateral loads is highly nonlinear. like the py curves on which the calculations are based.000 10.3 0.0 Figure 4. 100. The stiffness of the soil changes by an order of magnitude for the expected range of displacements (the vertical axis uses a logarithmic scale).2.24.) 0. Figure 4.8 0.7 0. vertical stress. which increases with depth. depth = 30 ft Site Class C. which can significantly reduce displacements for a given applied lateral load.
middle and back row piles. . . (Group effect factors for axial loading of very closely spaced piles may also be developed.06 Figure 4.5 0.1. All referenced researchers recommended to modify the single pile py curves by adjusting the resistance value on the single pile py curves (i.85. Brown 1988.) A useful discussion of this “group effect” may be found in PoLam Sec. (2) The observed group effects appeared to be associated with shadowing effects and the various researchers found relatively consistent pile group behavior in that the leading piles would be loaded more heavily than the trailing piles when all piles are loaded to the same deflection. At present.4. [The experimental research reported in Brown 1987.8 0.02 0.4 Group Effect Factors The response of a group of piles to lateral loading will differ from that of a single pile due to pilesoilpile interaction. the group stiffness efficiency would be about 95% and group effects would be practically negligible. . For such multipliers.0. there is no common consensus on the approach for group effects. .. .7 0. Foundation Analysis and Design 1.2 0.25 Passive pressure mobilization curve (after FEMA 356). . Fullsize and model tests by a number of authors show that in general.6 P/Pult 0..Chapter 4.0 0. 431 . . from which the following observations are taken: The pile group effect has been a popular research topic within the geotechnical community for almost 50 years.1 0.0 0 0. .2. and 0. The experiments reported by McVay also included data for pile centertocenter spacing of 5D which showed pmultipliers of 1. and other publications] . 4. .3 0.4 0. respectively.03 δ/H 0.e.4. 0.05 0. but are beyond the scope of the present discussion.9 0.6. 2. the lateral capacity of a pile in a pile group versus that of a single pile (termed “efficiency”) is reduced as the pile spacing is reduced. yielded information that largely corroborated each other on the following aspects: (1) Most of these experiments first used the single pile data to verify the validity of the widely used Reese’s and Matlock’s benchmark py criteria and all concluded that the Reese and Matlock py criteria provide reasonable solutions.7 for the front. pmultiplier).01 0.04 0.
5791⎜ ⎟ ⎝D⎠ 0. the preduction factor for any given pile i is f mi = ∏ β ji .0. In that case. may be calculated as: ⎛s⎞ β a = 0. 432 . where s/D equals or exceeds the noted upper limit.0 when j = i (as this is a single pile condition). a factor to reflect the reduction in efficiency (βb) may be calculated as follows: ⎛s⎞ Leading piles: β bL = 0. the corresponding value of β is 1. βa. D ⎛s⎞ = 0.7309 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝D⎠ Trailing piles: β bT 0. In these expressions. If the effect of pile j on pile i is called βji and it is noted that βji = 1. a factor to reflect the reduction in efficiency (βs) may be calculated as: 2 β s = β a cos 2 θ + β b2 sin 2 θ where βa and βb are calculated as defined above using s equal to the centertocenter distance along the skew and setting θ equal to the angle between the direction of loading and a line connecting the two piles.37 . In the equation for each efficiency factor. D For piles that are inline with respect to the applied load.5292 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝D⎠ 0. the average efficiency factor is commonly used for all members of a group in the analysis of any given member. n i =1 j =1 3 1 For a 2×2 pile group thus 4 2 with s = 3D.FEMA 451. the effect of each pile on each other pile must be considered. D For piles that are skewed (neither in line nor side by side) with respect to the applied load. a factor to reflect the reduction in efficiency. For piles that are side by side with respect to the applied load.28 .5659 for 1 ≤ s < 3.3251 for 1 ≤ s < 5.0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The basis of the calculation procedure for group effect factors that is shown below is described in Chapter 6 of GROUP. If a group contains more than two piles. the average preduction factor is: fm = 1 n n ∑∏ β ji . D is the pile diameter and s is the centertocenter spacing between the piles in question.2579 for 1 ≤ s < 3. the group effect factor is calculated as: β11 = 1.37 . j =1 n Because the direction of loading varies during an earthquake and the overall efficiency of the group is the primary point of interest.
and β41 = βa βb = (1. fm2 = 0. 0. 22in.00) = 0.diameter.0)(1.2579 ⎛3⎞ β 31 = β a β b = 1.7309 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝1⎠ = 0. And finally. and fm4 = 0.96 + 0.6 s=2D 0.24). The computer program LPILE Plus 3. 4.0 1 2 3 Group size (piles per side) 4 5 Figure 4.970)(1. and Detailing 4.96. Thus. 0.96 + 0. Foundation Analysis and Design ⎛ 3⎞ β 21 = β a β b = 0.8 Group effect factor 0. Design.79 = 0.5659 × 1.2.0 s=4D s=3D 0. 4 Figure 4.985)(0. f m = 0.21 assuming a 433 .2.0) = 1.00)(0.0 (because s/D = 4.0 is used to analyze single piles for both soil conditions shown in Table 4.5 D 0.79 + 0.1 Pile Analysis For this design example it is assumed that all piles will be fixedhead. fm3 = 0.970 .2 Pile Analysis.96.Chapter 4.79.79.0 = 0.955 . fm1 = β11 × β21 × β31 × β41 = (1.2 0.26 Calculated group effect factors.0 × 0. 1.985 . By similar calculations. castinplace piles arranged in 2×2 pile groups with piles spaced at 66 inches centertocenter.87 .26 shows the group effect factors that are calculated for square pile groups of various sizes with piles at several different spacings.2.5292 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝1⎠ 0.4 s = 1.
0 0 5 5 10 Depth (ft) Depth (ft) 10 15 15 20 20 25 Site Class C Site Class E 30 5 0 5 Shear. 4. A pmultiplier of 0.29 show the variation of shear. moment.87 for group effects (as computed at the end of Sec. It is apparent that the extension of piles to depths beyond 30 ft for the Class E site (or about 25 ft for the Class C site) does not provide additional resistance to lateral loading. Figures 4. and shears were not strongly affected. Because a fixedhead condition is assumed. piles shorter than those lengths would have reduced lateral resistance. Figure 4.2. The response to lateral loads is affected to some degree by the coincident axial load. the plots in this section are for zero axial load.27. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples length of 50 ft.FEMA 451. moments.28. 434 . 4.kips) Figure 4. and displacement with depth (within the top 30 ft) for an applied lateral load of 15 kips on a single pile with the group reduction factor.4) is used in all cases. V (kip) 10 15 25 Site Class C Site Class E 30 1000 500 0 500 Moment. but in this case the lateral displacements. The trends in the figures are those that should be expected.27 Results of pile analysis – shear versus depth (applied lateral load is 15 kips). and 4. Moments and displacements are larger for the soft soil condition than for the firm soil condition. M (in. Pile flexural stiffness is modeled using onehalf of the gross moment of inertia because of expected flexural cracking. The shear and displacement are maxima at the pile head.1. The full range of expected axial loads was considered in developing this example.28 Results of pile analysis – moment versus depth (applied lateral load is 15 kips). moments are also largest at the top of the pile.
210 and 4.27 through 4.3 Figure 4. the slope of the line may be taken as a characteristic length that relates head moment to applied load. this is a key observation. for the Class E site 435 .29 are repeated for different levels of applied lateral load.1 Displacement (in. for the Class C site R = 70 in. Figures 4.210 that the head moment is related to the applied lateral load in a nearly linear manner.1 0.0 0. Based on the results shown.29 Results of pile analysis – displacement versus depth (applied lateral load is 15 kips) The analyses performed to develop Figures 4.2 0. It may be seen from Figure 4.211 show how the moment and displacement at the head of the pile are related to the applied lateral load.Chapter 4.) 0. Doing so produces the following: R = 46 in. Foundation Analysis and Design 0 5 10 Depth (ft) 15 20 25 Site Class C Site Class E 30 0.
0 kips ⎝ 12 2(12) ⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎠⎝ 12 ⎠ and ⎛ 18 48 ⎞ ⎛ 48 ⎞⎛ 110 ⎞ 1 V passive. respectively.2.4 0. the effective stiffness of each individual pile is: k = 175 kip/in.210 Results of pile analysis – applied lateral load versus head moment. for the Class E site 4.30(575) ⎜ + ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ( 1000 ) = 22. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 30 1600 Head moment.211 leads to another meaningful insight. Check the Maximum Compression Case under a Side Column in Site Class C Using the sign convention shown in Figure 4. Thus. ∆ (inch) 0. assume that the displacements in the x and y directions are sufficient to mobilize 15 percent and 30 percent. 4.1. for the Class C site k = 40 kip/in.2. A similar examination of Figure 4.2 Pile Group Analysis The combined response of the piles and pile cap and the resulting strength demands for piles are computed using the procedure outlined in Sec.1.211 Results of pile analysis – head displacement versus applied lateral load. Assume that each 2×2 pile group has a 9'2" × 9'2" × 4'0" thick pile cap that is placed 1'6" below grade.3.2 0. of the ultimate passive pressure: ⎛ 18 48 ⎞ ⎛ 48 ⎞⎛ 110 ⎞ 1 V passive.23. V (kip) 0 0.2. x = 0. but for most of the range of response a linear approximation is reasonable (and useful).1kips ⎝ 12 2(12) ⎠ ⎝ 12 ⎠⎝ 12 ⎠ 436 .FEMA 451. The loaddisplacement response of the pile in Site Class C soil is essentially linear.6 Head displacement. The response of the pile in Site Class E soil is somewhat nonlinear.15(575) ⎜ + ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ( 1000 ) = 11. V (kip) Site Class C Site Class E 25 20 800 15 10 Site Class C Site Class E 400 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Applied lateral load. y = 0. 4.4 for each of the 32 load combinations discussed in Sec. M (inkip) 1200 Applied lateral load. the demands on the group are: P = 1097 kip Myy = 93 ftkips Vx = 10 kips Myy = 659 ftkips Vy = 69 kips From preliminary checks. Figure 4.8 Figure 4.2.0 0.
Foundation Analysis and Design and conservatively take hp = h/3 = 16 in. Since Vpassive. Also plotted are the φPφM design strengths for the 22in.2 are repeated for each of the 32 load combinations under each of the four design conditions.5 kips to each pile in the x direction.7 + 98. The expected displacement in the y direction is computed as: δ = V/k = 11. The appropriate reinforcement pattern for each design condition may be selected by noting the innermost capacity curve that envelops the corresponding demand points.1 = 11. circles indicate demands on piles under side columns and squares indicate demands on piles under corner columns. in order to illustrate the full complexity of the calculations.7/175 = 0.x > Vx.0014.2. which is 0.5(46) = 69 in. In these figures.x to 4 kips and assign a shear of 1. reduce Vpassive. following calculation of the required pile length. 0.213. The required reinforcement is summarized in Table 4. However.24. Reading Figure 4.kips .7(46) = 538 in. P/Pult . 4 The corresponding pile moments are: M = 1.2. so the assumption that 30 percent of Pult would be mobilized was reasonable.7 kips .Chapter 4.34.7 kips 2(66) and for ydirection loading (determined similarly) Pot = 98.diameter pile sections with various amounts of reinforcement (as noted in the legends).3 Design of Pile Section The calculations shown in Sec.kips for xdirection loading and M = 11. 4.6 kips.14% of the pile cap height (h). 437 .2. The axial load due to direct loading is Pp = 1097/4 = 274 kips. The results are shown in Figures 4. 4.25 with δ/H = 0. The maximum axial load due to overturning for xdirection loading is: Pot = 10(48) + 93(12) + 4(69) − 16(4) = 13.067 in. In the y direction the shear in each pile is: V= 69 − 22..2.kips for ydirection loading. Therefore the maximum load effects on the most heavily loaded pile are: Pu = 13.212 and 4. passive resistance alone is sufficient for this case in the x direction.6 + 274 = 386 kips M u = (69) 2 + (538) 2 = 542in.
213 PM interaction diagram for Site Class E.212 PM interaction diagram for Site Class C. M (inkip) 8#6 6#6 6#5 Side Corner Figure 4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 800 8#7 700 600 500 400 Axial load. P (kip) 2500 Moment. 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 500 1000 1500 2000 8#7 8#6 6#6 6#5 Side Corner Axial Load.FEMA 451. P (kip) 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Moment. M (inkip) Figure 4. 438 .
5[0. Pallow = (126 + 123)/2.2 Length for Compression Capacity All of the strengthlevel load combinations (discussed in Sec.3 + 47(0. 4. Pskin = 0.112.03)]π(22/12)(47) = 272 kips.F. recall that skin friction and end bearing are neglected for the top three feet in this example. Pskin = average friction capacity × pile perimeter × pile length for friction = 0. Pallow = (Pskin + Pend)/S. OK 439 . Check pile group under corner column in Site Class E. Pend = [65 + 47(0. Check pile group under side column in Site Class C. assuming L = 47 ft: P = (702 + 72)/4 = 194 kips. assuming L = 64 ft: As seen in Figure 4. Pend = [40 + 13(0. Foundation Analysis and Design 4.2. assuming L = 50 ft: As seen in Figure 4.Chapter 4.5)](π/4)(22/12)2 = 123 kips.5 = 100 kips > 97 kips. (In these calculations. Pend = end bearing capacity at depth × end bearing area = [65 + 44(0. the results are slightly conservative.025])]π(22/12) = 126 kips. Pskin = [friction capacity in first layer + average friction capacity in second layer] × pile perimeter = [27(0.213.3 + 44(0. 390 kips. Check pile group under side column in Site Class C. assuming L = 43 ft: P = (351 + 36)/4 = 97 kips. Because the soil capacity increases with depth and the resulting pile lengths are applied below the bottom of the pile cap. the maximum compression demand for this condition is Pu = 390 kips.6)](π/4)(22/12)2 = 241 kips. the pile cap depth is ignored – effectively assuming that piles begin at the ground surface.2.5 = 194 kips = 194 kips (demand).1 Length for Settlement Service loads per pile are calculated as P = (PD + PL)/4.3 + 0.4.75(272 + 246) = 389 kips .4. the maximum compression demand for this condition is Pu = 340 kips.5[0.9 + 13[0.4 Pile Length for Axial Loads For the calculations that follow. 4.2.) 4.2.2.3 + 0. OK OK φPn = φ(Pskin + Pend) = 0.3) must be considered.2.6)](π/4)(22/12)2 = 246 kips.1.2. = (243 + 241)/2. Check pile group under corner column in Site Class E.9 + 0.3) + (13/2)(0.03)]π(22/12)(44) = 243 kips.
75(306 + 150) = 342 kips > 340 kips.3 + 2(0. It would be possible to generate mathematical expressions of pile capacity as a function of pile length and then solve such expressions for the demand conditions.4.75(196) = 147 kips > 144 kips. all of the strengthlevel load combinations (discussed in Sec. This method lends itself to graphical expression as shown in Figures 4.3) + (22/2)(0.9 kips.2.215. Check pile group under side column in Site Class C. the adequacy of the soilpile interface to resist applied loads is checked once a pile length is assumed. However. Pskin = [27(0.2. OK φPn = φ(Pskin) = 0. 4.03)]π(22/12)(2) = 3. Pend = [40 + 34(0. assuming L = 52 ft.1.3) + (34/2)(0. 440 .2.9 kips.4.213.75(3.2.3 + 0.212.9 + 22[0.8 kips.3 Length for Uplift Capacity Again.9 + 0.025])]π(22/12) = 196 kips. the maximum tension demand for this condition is Pu = 144 kips. OK φPn = φ(Pskin) = 0.2.8) = 2.5)](π/4)(22/12)2 = 150 kips. φPn = φ(Pskin + Pend) = 0.9 + 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Pskin = [27(0. assuming L = 5 ft: As seen in Figure 4. Pskin = 0. 4. Check pile group under corner column in Site Class E.9 + 34[0.4 Graphical Method of Selecting Pile Length OK In the calculations shown above.025])]π(22/12) = 306 kips. 4. the maximum tension demand for this condition is Pu = 1.FEMA 451.3) must be considered. a more practical design approach is to precalculate the capacity for piles for the full range of practical lengths and then select the length needed to satisfy the demands. As seen in Figure 4.214 and 4.9 kips > 1.5[0.
2.4.5 Results of Pile Length Calculations 441 . 4.2.214 Pile axial capacity as a function of length for Site Class C. 0 Compression 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Tension Pile depth (ft) Design resistance (kip) Figure 4. Foundation Analysis and Design 0 Compression 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Tension Pile depth (ft) Design resistance (kip) Figure 4.215 Pile axial capacity as a function of length for Site Class E.Chapter 4.
2.4). respectively.2. In this section.24. contain special pile requirements for structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C or higher and D or higher. 442 .23 summarizes the lengths required to satisfy strength and serviceability requirements for all four design conditions. Although the specifics are affected by the soil properties and assigned site class. Table 4. 7. Table 4.7 kip 194 kip Min Length 50 ft 5 ft 47 ft 71 ft 14 ft 67 ft 4.4. longitudinal and transverse reinforcement must satisfy specific requirements related to minimum amount and maximum spacing.4. Continuous longitudinal reinforcement must be provided over the entire length resisting design tension forces (ACI 318 Sec.2]).8. All pile reinforcement must be developed in the pile cap (Provisions Sec. diameter by 71 ft long 6#6 bars 4. 3.24 Summary of Pile Size. diameter by 50 ft long 6#5 bars 22 in. and Longitudinal Reinforcement Piles Under Corner Column Site Class C Site Class E 22 in.4 and 7.4.4. Table 4.4.9 kip 194 kip 400 kip 14. In areas of the pile where yielding might be expected or demands are large.2 [21. diameter by 43 ft long 8#6 bars 22 in. The amount of longitudinal reinforcement indicated in the table is that required at the pilepile cap interface and may be reduced at depth as discussed in the following section.2. diameter by 64 ft long 8#7 bars Piles Under Side Column 22 in. the detailing of the piles designed in this example focuses on consideration of the following fundamental items: 1.23 Pile Lengths Required for Axial Loads Piles Under Corner Column Condition Compression Site Class C Uplift Settlement Compression Site Class E Uplift Settlement Load 331 kip 133 kip 97 kip 340 kip 144 kip 97 kip Min Length 43 ft 40 ft 19 ft 64 ft 52 ft 43 ft Piles Under Side Column Condition Compression Uplift Settlement Compression Uplift Settlement Load 390 kip 1. 7.5 Design Results The design results for all four pile conditions are shown in Table 4. 21. Length.FEMA 451.10.5.6 Pile Detailing Provisions Sec. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Detailed calculations for the required pile lengths are provided above for two of the design conditions.2.2. those general requirements and the specific requirements for uncased concrete piles that apply to this example are discussed.
For both site classes considered in this example.Chapter 4. 4. while it may require a thicker pile cap.1 Development at the Pile Cap Where neither uplift nor flexural restraint are required. more desirable inelastic performance would be expected. By avoiding lap splices to fieldplaced dowels where yielding is expected near the pile head (although such would be permitted by Provisions Sec. Straight development. 7. 443 .6.4.4. Note that embedment of the entire pile in the pile cap facilitates direct transfer of shear from pile cap to pile. Foundation Analysis and Design The discussion that follows refers to the detailing shown in Figures 4.5. the development length is the full development length for compression (Provisions Sec. but is not a requirement of the Provisions.2.217. 7.4).216 and 4. this approach offers two advantages. In addition to satisfying the requirements of the Provisions. pile reinforcement must be fully developed in tension unless the section satisfies the overstrength load condition or demands are limited by the uplift capacity of the soilpile interface (Provisions Sec. permits easier placement of the pile cap’s bottom reinforcement followed by the addition of the spiral reinforcement within the pile cap.4).2.4). the pile longitudinal reinforcement is extended straight into the pile cap a distance that is sufficient to fully develop the tensile capacity of the bars. 7. Where the design relies on head fixity or where resistance to uplift forces is required (both of which are true in this example).
FEMA 451.5 inch pitch 6'4" Section A A (6) #5 23'0" #4 spiral at 9 inch pitch Section B B (4) #5 #4 spiral at 9 inch pitch 21'0" Section C C Figure 4.216 Pile detailing for Site Class C (under side column). 444 . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 4" pile embedment (6) #5 #4 spiral at 4.
217 Pile detailing for Site Class E (under corner column).Chapter 4. Foundation Analysis and Design 4" pile embedment (8) #7 #5 spiral at 3.5 inch pitch 20'0" Section B B (4) #7 #4 spiral at 9 inch pitch 32'0" Section C C Figure 4.5 inch pitch 12'4" Section A A (6) #7 #5 spiral at 3. 445 .
which often will govern.5 in. In order to provide a reinforcement ratio of 0. The maximum spacing permitted by Sec. 21.4.216 and 4.75 in. Bar development and cutoff are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6 of this volume of design examples. 4. [A change made in Sec.] For the piles used in this example. diameter.4.5.2. The author interprets “within seven diameters of .4. a #4 spiral must have a pitch of no more than 4..21 and the pile cap depth and thickness. 22/2 = 11 in. in diameter.5 in.7 in.2.4.6. the minimum volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement is onehalf that determined using ACI 318 Eq. Because the site is Class E.4.4..2. the full amount of reinforcement indicated in ACI 318 Sec.4.23 shows the pile lengths required for resistance to uplift demands. 21. 21.3 Continuous Longitudinal Reinforcement for Tension Table 4.005) must be provided over the largest region defined as follows: the top onehalf of the pile length. 446 . In this case.1(a) refers to Eq. Note that Sec. longitudinal reinforcement must resist tension for at least the top 52 ft (being developed at that point).5. Extending four longitudinal bars for the full length and providing widely spaced spirals at such bars reflect the designer’s judgment (not specific requirements of the Provisions).. the tightly spaced transverse reinforcement shown in Figure 4. 7. (Note that “providing” a given reinforcement ratio means that the reinforcement in question must be developed at that point.217 is provided within 7D of the bottom of pile cap and top of firm soil and is extended a little more than 3D into the firm soil.75 in. the top 10 ft below the ground.4. pitch is used.5 in.4. or liquefiable) and the requirements of Sec. For the piles shown in Figures 4. 21. For uncased concrete piles in Seismic Design Category D at least four longitudinal bars (with a minimum reinforcement ratio of 0.) Transverse reinforcement must be provided over the same length for which minimum longitudinal reinforcement requirements apply.2 is 22/4 = 5. a design with Section C of Figure 4. Spiral reinforcement in that region must not be less than onehalf of that required in ASCE 318 Sec. yielding can be expected within three diameters of the bottom of the pile cap (3D = 3 × 22 = 66 in. 21.5 in.2 Longitudinal and Transverse Reinforcement Where Demands Are Large Requirements for longitudinal and transverse reinforcement apply over the entire length of pile where demands are large.5 in.3) exceeds the calculated flexural demand at that point. so a #4 spiral at 3. For the Class E site. Where yielding may be expected.2 is 22/4 = 5. Using that interpretation. even more stringent detailing is required.4.4.1 must be provided. (106) [105]. F.FEMA 451. which is consistent with the expected location of yielding. (106) [105].4.. design tension due to uplift extends only about 5 ft below the bottom of the pile cap.1(a) of ACI 318 (since the site is not Class E.216 being unreinforced would satisfy the Provisions requirements.4. 7. Because the piles designed in this example are larger than 20 in. Therefore.3 must be satisfied.4 times the concrete section cracking moment (see ACI 318 Sec. so a #5 spiral at 3.01 for this pile section.1 of the 2003 Provisions makes it clear that the longitudinal reinforcement must be developed beyond this point.4. For the Class C site. .8 in. or the flexural length of the pile. for #7 longitudinal bars). or 6db = 5. The flexural length is taken as the length of pile from the cap to the lowest point where 0.2. the Provisions does not indicate the extent of such detailing into the firmer material. a #5 spiral must have a pitch of no more than 3.4. the transverse reinforcement may not be smaller than 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 4.4). for #5 longitudinal bars and 10. In order to provide a reinforcement ratio of 0. Taking into account the soil layering shown in Table 4.5 in. the more stringent detailing must be provided “within seven diameters of the pile cap and of the interfaces between strata that are hard or stiff and strata that are liquefiable or are composed of soft to mediumstiff clay” (Provisions Sec. For the Site Class C condition under a side column (Figure 4.217 the spacing of the transverse reinforcement in the top half of the pile length may not exceed the least of: 12db (7. onehalf of the pile length governs. but the maximum spacing permitted by Sec. For the Site Class E condition under a corner column (Figure 4.25 in. but the author has decided to extend very light longitudinal and nominal transverse reinforcement for the full length of the pile.).216).217). 21. 9. or 6db = 3.02 for this pile section.2. or 12 in. pitch is used.6.2 and 21.4. the interface” as applying in the direction into the softer material. .
Chapter 4.8(0.8.2. or C) provide equivalent restraint.85f'c(Ag . 7.3 requires that individual pile caps be connected by ties.5.3.3. 21. 7. deep.5. [In the 2003 Provisions.2] further require that the geotechnical report describe the likelihood and potential consequences of liquefaction and soil strength loss (including estimates of differential settlement.1 and 7. 7. the tie is designed as follows.3.2] further indicates that closed ties must be provided at a spacing of not more than onehalf the minimum dimension = 14/2 = 7 in.1 and 7. E and F. OK According to ACI 318 Sec. and given Pgroup = 1121 kips under a side column and Pgroup = 812 kips under a corner column. a tie beam between the pile caps under a corner column and a side column will be designed.44)(60) = 106 kips > 101 kips.8. Foundation Analysis and Design 4. For Seismic Design Categories D.218. E and F. Use a tie beam that is 14 in.5. As indicated in Provisions Sec. ACI 318 Sec. the minimum tie force in tension or compression equals the product of the larger column load times SDS divided by 10 = 1121(0.3. but the Provisions would permit use of a slab (thickened or not) or calculations that demonstrate that the site soils (assigned to Site Class A. wide and 16 in.3. For this example. 21. 4. The resulting section is shown in Figure 4.4.9'2")/20 = 13.Ast) + fyAst] = 0. the design strength of the tie beam concentrically loaded in compression is: φPn = 0.90)/10 = 101 kips.10.4.218 Foundation tie section. Assuming that the surrounding soil provides restraint against buckling.2 Liquefaction For Seismic Design Categories C. Such ties are often grade beams.2]. B.4. (3) #6 bottom bars 3" clear at top and bottom Figure 4.85(3)(16)(14) + 60(5)(0. increases in lateral pressures on retaining walls. the smallest crosssectional dimension of the tie beam must not be less than the clear spacing between pile caps divided by 20 = (32'0" .7 in.2.1 Foundation Tie Design and Detailing Provisions Sec. and reduction in foundation soilbearing capacity) and discuss mitigation measures. D. 7. 7. The design strength for five # 6 bars is φAs fy = 0.10. For pile caps with an assumed centertocenter spacing of 32 ft in each direction.2.c.3 Other Considerations 4.5.8φ[0. Provisions Sec. Sec. Provisions Sec.1 requires that the geotechnical report address potential hazards due to liquefaction.65)[0.2 [21.5. OK 2" clear at sides (2) #6 top bars #4 ties at 7" o.3.8(5)(0. lateral movement.2 also requires that the geotechnical report describe lateral loads on foundations.44)] = 366 kips > 101 kips.2 [21. and flotation of embedded 447 .3 [7.3.
” One approach that would satisfy the requirements of the Provisions would be as follows: 1. 7.4. and demonstrates “that the solution to the entire soilstructure interaction problem is equal to the sum of the solutions of the kinematic and inertial interaction analyses.1 of the 2003 Commentary has been updated to reflect Youd and other recent references.4. 7.] 4. The geotechnical consultant performs appropriate kinematic interaction analyses considering freefield ground motions and the stiffness of the piles to be used in design. In other words. The resulting pile demands. Consideration of kinematic interaction by the structural engineer is usually focused on assessing the strength and ductility demands imposed directly on piles by movement of the soil. Kramer discusses kinematic and inertial interaction and the methods of analysis employed in consideration of those effects. helps to make an argument for general application of this practical approach.] During the design of the structure.2. The structural engineer designs piles for the sum of the demands imposed by the vibrating superstructure and the demands imposed by soil movement. The term inertial interaction is used to describe the coupled response of the soilfoundationstructure system that arises as a consequence of the mass properties of those components of the overall system. approach would be to provide appropriate detailing in regions of the pile where curvature demands imposed directly by earthquake ground motions are expected to be significant. The third sentence of Provisions Sec.4 Design of Pile Cap Design of pile caps for large pile loads is a very specialized topic for which detailed treatment is beyond the scope of this volume of design examples.5. The term kinematic interaction is used to describe the manner in which the stiffness of the foundation system impedes development of freefield ground motion. but less rigorous. 2. The structural engineer’s consideration of inertial interaction is usually focused on how the structure loads the foundation and how such loads are transmitted to the soil (as shown in the pile design calculations that are the subject of most of this example) but also includes assessment of the resulting foundation movement. or F. such measures (which can include ground stabilization.5.FEMA 451.4. one must decide whether to provide only additional transverse reinforcement in areas of concern to improve ductility or whether additional longitudinal reinforcement should also be provided to increase strength. and selection of appropriate structural systems to accommodate anticipated displacements [and forces in the 2003 Provisions]) must be considered. Although it is rarely done in practice. [Sec.3 Kinematic Interaction Piles are subjected to curvature demands as a result of two different types of behavior: inertial interaction and kinematic interaction. selection of appropriate foundation type and depths.1 contains a calculation procedure that can be used to evaluate the liquefaction hazard.3.4 require consideration of kinematic interaction for foundations of structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D. but readers should refer to Youd for an update of the methods described in the Commentary. the first two sentences of Provisions Sec. which defines a specific instance in which this second method is to be employed to define areas requiring additional transverse reinforcement.2. A more practical. which generally are greatest at the interface between stiff and soft strata. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples structures.3. Where such a judgmentbased approach is used. 4. 3. CRSI notes that “most pile caps are designed in practice by various shortcut ruleofthumb procedures using what are hoped to be conservative allowable stresses. E. are reported to the structural engineer.” Wang & Salmon indicates that “pile caps frequently must be designed for shear considering the member as a deep beam. 7. when piles are located inside the critical sections d (for oneway action) 448 . Commentary Section 7.
5. but the use of such spectra is required only for Class F sites. For sites with a fairly long predominant period. the result is spectral accelerations that increase as the structural period approaches the site period. In that document (Sec. as in the 1985 Mexico City earthquake) and excessive damage or even instability due to increased displacement response. Explicit consideration of performance measures also tends to increase engineering effort substantially. perhaps in some cases.1]indicates that structural stability was considered in arriving at the “consensus judgment” reflected in the drift limits. CRSI provides a detailed outline of a design procedure and tabulated solutions. accelerations remain the same or decrease with increasing period. increased system period (as a result of foundation flexibility) always leads to lower design forces where the general design spectrum is used.2. Larger design forces and more stringent drift limits are applied to structures assigned to Seismic Use Group II or III in the hope that those measures will improve performance without requiring explicit consideration of such performance. There are two obvious exceptions to that assumption: soft soil siteresonance conditions (e. Site resonance can result in significant amplification of ground motion in the period range of interest.1 Discussion Most engineers routinely use fixedbase models. application of the Provisions is intended to satisfy performance objectives related to life safety and collapse prevention. While Commentary Sec. 5. The engineering framework established in FEMA 356 is more conducive to explicit use of performance measures.g. The analysis and acceptance criteria in the Provisions are not adequate to the task of predicting real stability problems.5.” Direct application of the special provisions for deep flexural members as found in ACI 318 is not possible as the design conditions are somewhat different. Although foundation flexibility can affect structural performance significantly. but their application to elements with important threedimensional characteristics (such as pile caps for groups larger than 2×1) is so involved as to preclude hand calculations. calculations based on linear. 4. 5. Nothing in the Provisions prohibits that common practice. In point of fact.1). Strutandtie models (as described in Appendix A of the 2002 edition of ACI 318) may be employed. Therefore. the shear cannot be neglected. Such fixedbase models can lead to erroneous results.2.4. such considerations were qualitative.Chapter 4.” They go on to note that “there is no agreement about the proper procedure to use.3.8 [4. the fact that all consideration of performance in the context of the Provisions is approximate and judgmentbased has made it difficult to define how such changes in performance should be characterized. However. static behavior cannot be used to predict instability of an inelastic system subjected to dynamic loading. For most buildings.3. Sitespecific spectra may reflect longperiod siteresonance effects. the shape of the general design spectrum used in the Provisions does not capture that effect. Foundation Analysis and Design or d/2 (for twoway action) from the face of column. does change the performance of a structure and its contents – raising concerns regarding both stability and damage.2.5 Foundation Flexibility and Its Impact on Performance 4. the consideration of soilstructure interaction effects (Provisions Sec. 4.3. Clearly. an increase in displacements.. caused by foundation flexibility.3. but the procedure is developed for pile caps subjected to concentric vertical loads only (without applied overturning moments or pile head moments). for periods larger than T0. but engineers have long assumed that the errors are usually conservative.1 and 4. control of structural ductility demands). so mandatory performance checks are often resisted by the user community.8 [5. not damage control or postearthquake occupancy.2. Earthquakeinduced instability of buildings has been exceedingly rare. the use of fixedbased structural models is prohibited for “buildings being rehabilitated for the Immediate Occupancy Performance Level that are 449 .4. the values selected for the drift limits were selected considering damage to nonstructural systems (and.3.6]) is “permitted” but not required.
Calculations of the effect of foundation flexibility on the dynamic response of a structure should reflect the overall stiffness of the structure (e..1) = = 478 kip/in. 4. 6.0)(4000)] 441 386.2.” In this case the focus is on damage control rather than structural stability.2.2. The period of the combined system is T = 2π M = 2π K [(0.462 kips. Therefore. rather than the stiffness of any particular story. use the Site Class E pile design results from Sec.3. period elongation is expected to be minimal. The effects of foundation flexibility become more pronounced as foundation period and structural period approach the same value.1 = 2. Neglecting both the stiffness contribution from passive pressure resistance and the flexibility of the beamslab system that ties the pile caps.2 Example Calculations To assess the significance of foundation flexibility. that associated with the fundamental mode of vibration). Stiffness of the Structure. those differences are not significant.2. In the context of earthquake engineering. Effect of Foundation Flexibility.2) as representative for this building. 4.802)36. As shown in Sec.g. 450 . As seen in Figure 61 there are 36 moment frame columns.FEMA 451. T2 2. The total stiffness for the system (springs in series) is: K combined = 1 1 K structure + 1 K fdn = 1 1 1 + 478 5760 = 441 kip/in. Table 62 shows that the total weight of the structure is 36. For systems responding in the constantvelocity portion of the spectrum. Table 65 shows that the calculated period of the fixedbase structure is 2. 4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples sensitive to base rotations or other types of foundation movement.502 Foundation Stiffness. 462 386. For this portion of the example. accelerations (and thus forces) are a function of 1/T and relative displacements are a function of T.802)(36. one may compare the dynamic characteristics of a fixedbase model to those of a model in which foundation effects are included. the stiffness of each pile group is 4 × 40 = 160 kip/in. the stiffness of each pile is 40 kip/in.5. Assume that a 2×2 pile group supports each column.78 sec which is an 11percent increase over that predicted by the fixedbase model. Because the foundation stiffness is more than 10 times the structural stiffness. 462) + (1.2.50 seconds. the combined system would have forces that are 10 percent smaller and displacements that are 11 percent larger. Assume that the weight of the foundation system is 4000 kips and that 100 percent of the corresponding mass participates in the new fundamental mode of vibration. To confirm this expectation the period of the combined system is computed. the effective stiffness of the structure is: K= 2 4π 2 M 4π ( (0. with respect to the fixedbased model.1 and consider the northsouth response of the concrete moment frame building located in Berkeley (Sec. and the stiffness of the entire foundation system is 36 × 160 = 5760 kip/in. Using the equation for the undamped period of vibration of a singledegreeoffreedom oscillator. and Table 64 indicates that 80.1.2 percent of the mass participates in that mode.
D. is used throughout.D. Intermediate moment frames. 2. and they are presented to illustrate only specific aspects of seismic analysis and design such as. v..1. 2. Ph. 1997) is used in Example 5.11..D. the requirements of the 1997 [2002] AISC Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings are followed where applicable. 5. A lowrise hospital facility in the San Francisco Bay area of California.E.3. A multistory office building in Los Angeles. In addition to the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions. Ph. An industrial warehouse structure in Astoria. and 3. Special moment frames. lateral force analysis.. and Teymour Manzouri. design of moment resisting frames.2 and 5. The three examples include: 1. and detailing. All structures are analyzed using threedimensional static or dynamic methods.E. Frederick R. 1999. and Eccentrically braced frames. Oregon. California.5 STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN James R. v. California. the following documents are referenced: AISC LRFD American Institute of Steel Construction. California. 1997 ) is used in Examples 5. Carlsbad. Rutz. 4. A dual system consisting of moment frames and concentrically braced frames. Inc. member proportioning. Berkeley. P.E.. Ph. P.. published by the American Institute of Steel Construction. In addition. 5. The examples only cover design for seismic forces in combination with gravity. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. the 1993 [1999] Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. The SAP2000 Building Analysis Program (Computers & Structures. Concentrically braced frames. The discussion examines the following types of structural framing for resisting horizontal forces: 1. This chapter illustrates how the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions (hereafter the Provisions) is applied to the design of steel framed buildings. For determining the strength of steel members and connections. drift calculations. P. 3. design of concentric and eccentric bracing.04.6. and the RAMFRAME Analysis Program (RAM International. Harris. 51 ..
units are used. and equations in this chapter have not been annotated. Other changes are generally related to maintaining compatibility between the Provisions and the 2002 edition of AISC Seismic. [ ]. Although the these design examples are based on the 2000 Provisions. due to the difficulty in crossreferencing. 1990. Luttrell. or are as defined in the text. However. changes to Seismic Design Category classification for short period structures and revisions to the redundancy requirements. Steel Deck Institute Diaphragm Design Manual. SAC Joint Venture. Manual of Steel Construction. in particular AISC Seismic. Annotations within brackets. Steel Deck Institute. indicate both organizational changes (as a result of a reformat of all of the chapters of the 2003 Provisions) and substantive technical changes to the 2003 Provisions and its primary reference documents. Load and Resistance Factor Design. 2000. Customary U. neither of which are covered in this set of design examples. new Simplified Design Procedure would not be applicable to the examples in this chapter. Updates to the reference documents. 3rd Edition. some minor changes to the 2003 Provisions and the reference documents may not be noted. Some general technical changes in the 2003 Provisions that relate to the calculations and/or design in this chapter include updated seismic hazard maps.FEMA 451. other significant changes to the 2003 Provisions and primary reference documents are noted. AISC Seismic IBC FEMA 350 AISC SDGS4 SDI The symbols used in this chapter are from Chapter 2 of the Provisions. it is annotated to reflect changes made to the 2003 Provisions. The design professional is encouraged to review AISC Seismic for updated moment frame design provisions related to the examples in this chapter. the design examples and calculations have not been revised to reflect the changes to the 2003 Provisions. It is worth noting that the 2002 edition of AISC Seismic has incorporated many of the design provisions for steel moment frames contained in FEMA 350. 2000. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples AISC Manual American Institute of Steel Construction. Inc. Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel MomentFrame Buildings. AISC Steel Design Guide Series 4. 52 . The most significant change to the steel chapter in the 2003 Provisions is the addition of two new lateral systems. 1990. 2001. While the general concepts of the changes are described. 2. have some effects on the calculations illustrated herein. [2002] Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. but the organization and format are significantly different. including Supplement No. Where they affect the design examples in this chapter. the references to FEMA 350 sections. 2000. the above referenced documents. Therefore. 1997. International Code Council.S. American Institute of Steel Construction. The design provisions incorporated into AISC Seismic are similar in substance to FEMA 350. 2000 International Building Code. Extended EndPlate Moment Connections. tables. buckling restrained braced frames and steel plate shear walls. Larry D. 1981.
and lateral sway due to wind was limited to 2 in. therefore. the serviceability limits do affect the seismic design.5 in. The structure consists of 10 gable frames spanning 90 ft in the transverse (NS) direction. Because the frames resist lateral loading at each frame position. Longitudinal struts at the eaves and the mezzanine level run the full length of the building and. It includes a 12fthigh. Columns are supported on spread footings. 3. Its structural system is composed of a concrete slab over steel decking supported by floor beams spaced 10 ft o. 5. Structural Steel Design 5. 6. 4. 7. Check of compactness and brace spacing for moment frame. Equivalent lateral force analysis.12.11. The building is enclosed by nonstructural insulated concrete wall panels and is roofed with steel decking covered with insulation and roofing. Threedimension (3D) modal analysis. The framing consists of a steel roof deck supported by joists between transverse gable frames. These serviceability limits are not considered to control any aspect of the seismicresistant design. The member sizes in the main frame are controlled by serviceability considerations. 2.Chapter 5. However. Spaced at 20 ft o. The floor beams are supported on girders continuous over two intermediate columns spaced approximately 30 ft apart and are attached to the gable frames at each end.1 INDUSTRIAL HIGHCLEARANCE BUILDING. Moment frame connection design. the steel deck functions as a diaphragm for distribution of the effects of eccentric loading caused by the mezzanine floor when the building is subjected to loads acting in the transverse direction. and Proportioning of concentric diagonal bracing. 53 . act as collectors for the distribution of forces resisted by the diagonally braced bays and as weakaxis stability bracing for the moment frame columns. The elevation and transverse sections of the structure are shown in Figure 5.c. ASTORIA. Seismic design parameters. The roof and mezzanine framing plans are shown in Figure 5. OREGON This example features a transverse steel moment frame and a longitudinal steel braced frame. these frames are braced in the longitudinal (EW) direction in two bays at the east end. The mezzanine floor at the east end of the building is designed to accommodate a live load of 125 psf. in that sense.1 Building Description This industrial building has plan dimensions of 180 ft by 90 ft and a clear height of approximately 30 ft. Drift check. 5. 40ftwide mezzanine area at the east end of the building.1. (which did not control).. many aspects of seismic design are driven by actual capacities so. Vertical deflections due to snow were limited to 3.c. The following features of seismic design of steel buildings are illustrated: 1.
NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples West Ridge Braces East Collector Siding: 6" concrete insulated sandwich panels. The foundation plan is shown in Figure 5. Earthquake rather than wind governs the lateral design due to the mass of the insulated concrete panels. 54 9'0" 32'0" 34'3" 3'0" 35'0" Eave strut Eave . Grade beams carrying the enclosing panels serve as ties in the longitudinal direction as well as across the end walls. = 25. thus. (a) 3'9" Concrete slab on grade (b) 30'6" Momentresisting steel frame.3048 m). The panels are attached with long pins perpendicular to the concrete surface. This was done to cause the steel frame to resist lateral forces and. Transverse ties are placed between the footings of the two columns of each moment frame to provide restraint against horizontal thrust from the moment frames.11 Framing elevation and sections (1.4 mm. More likely. 1.e.0 ft = 0. (This building arrangement has been intentionally contrived to illustrate what can happen to a taperedmoment frame building if high seismic demands are placed on it.FEMA 451. the connections have been arranged to permit the steel frame to move at the point of attachment in the inplane direction of the concrete panels. flexible pins avoid shear resistance by the panels. Mezzanine Ceiling (c) Figure 5. medium dense sands). if this were a real building. The design of foundations is not included here.) The building is supported on spread footings based on moderately deep alluvial deposits (i. shearwall action of the panels does not influence the frames.13. These slender. the concrete panels would be connected directly to the steel frame. and the building would tend to act as a shear wall building.0 in.. The design of footings and columns in the braced bays requires consideration of combined seismic loadings. But for this example.
1.3048 m). Structural Steel Design 182'0" Mezzanine 3" embossed 20 gage deck 11 2" type "B" 22 gage metal deck W12x62 1200 MJ12 Cjoist at 4'0" o.Chapter 5.0 ft = 0. 1. 90'0" W14x43 N Figure 5.3048 m). 9 bays at 20'0"=180'0" 20'0" (typical) 40'0" Mezzanine 90'0" 6" concrete slab with 6x6W1.4 mm.c. Embed in thickened slab 30'0" Mezzanine 6'6"x6'8"x 1'4" footings Mezzanine 5'6"x5'6"x 1'4" footings N Figure 5. = 25. 55 .12 Roof framing and mezzanine framing plan (1.0 ft = 0.4x W1.4 mm.0 in.4 wwf over 6" gravel Typical 3'4"x 3'4"x1'0" footings 30'0" 30'0" Building is symmetrical about center line 11 4" dia. tie rod (or equal) at each frame.13 Foundation plan (1. = 25.0 in.
6 (Provisions Eq.1.2].1.31]) = 4.41 [3.1.1.2. 4.2 [4.] NS direction: Momentresisting frame system R = intermediate steel moment frame = 4.2.1. and the maps have been added to the body of the 2003 Provisions as figures in Chapter 3 (instead of the previously used separate map package).2.31] permits an ordinary momentresisting steel frame for buildings that do not exceed one story and 60 feet tall with a roof dead load not exceeding 15 psf.9 (Provisions Eq.2.1 Provisions Parameters Site Class = D (Provisions Sec.1[3.31]) = 4 (Provisions Table 5.32]) SM1 = FvS1 = 1. 4. due to Provisions Sec.2 [4.2 [4. The same singlestory height and weight limits apply.5 (Provisions Table 5. these frames are permitted only in singlestory structures up to 65 feet in height.1. this R factor would change to 3.5 (Provisions Table 5.2.32]) S1 = 1. Refer to 2003 Provisions Table 4.0 (Provisions Table 4. In Seismic Design Category D.2 [4. If the ordinary steel moment frame were chosen for the NS direction.6 (Provisions Map 10 [Figure 3.2. 4.2.2. footnote h.31]) SS = 0.2.51 [3.5.2. This building would fall within that restriction.5 (Provisions Map 9 [Figure 3.4a [3.2.FEMA 451.32]) Fv = 1.31. 4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 5.0 (Provisions Eq.31]) = 3 (Provisions Table 5.31])1 = 2 (Provisions Table 5.2 Design Parameters 5.1 [1. 4.1. which states that if the value of R in either direction is less than 5.5 in this direction.1. Similarly.2. 1.1. with fieldbolted end plate moment connections.2. but the intermediate steel moment frame with stiffened bolted end plates is chosen to illustrate the connection design issues.2.42 [3.3.2 [4. the limitations on intermediate momentresisting frames in Seismic Design Category D have been revised. 1 56 .5 (Provisions Eq.5 (Provisions Table 4.2.2.1.2 [4.] Note that Provisions Table 5. but the type of connection is not limited.31]) Cd Ω0 R must be taken as 4. and roof dead load not exceeding 20 psf.31]) SMS = FaSS = 0.4]) [The 2003 Provisions have adopted the 2002 USGS probabilistic seismic hazard maps. 4.2.1 [4.2]) Seismic Design Category = D (Provisions Sec. The building in this example seems to fit these criteria. 5.4b [3. but the presence of the mezzanine could be questionable.33]) SDS = 2/3 SMS = 0. [The height and tributary weight limitations for ordinary momentresisting frames have been revised in the 2003 Provisions. the smaller value of R must be used in both directions.34]) SD1 = 2/3 SM1 Seismic Use Group = I (Provisions Sec.31]) Fa = 1.3 [1.2 [4.2 [4.52 [3.2.5]) = 1.31]) = 5 (Provisions Table 5.31]) Cd Ω0 EW direction: Braced frame system R = ordinary steel concentrically braced frame (Provisions Table 5.2.2.
3.0 ksi ASTM A615.00. purlins.2.3. Grade 50 ASTM A36 ASTM A325 5. To checking ρ in an approximate manner. mechanical and electrical equipment. 57 .3]). the weight of the mezzanine will include the dead load plus 25 percent of the storage load (125 psf) in accordance with Provisions Sec.3.1.2. insulation. 5.5 ksi fc' = 4.3 Structural Design Criteria 5.1]. the upper level is a roof.1. In the NS (transverse) direction. 5.2 [4.00 .1 Building Configuration Because there is a mezzanine at one end. Provisions Eq.2]).3 Materials Concrete for footings Slabsongrade Mezzanine concreteon metal deck Reinforcing bars Structural steel (wide flange sections) Plates Bolts fc' = 2.1.5 ksi fc' = 3.1. For determination of the seismic weights. there are (2 adjacent columns)/(2 x 9 bays) so: rmaxx = 0. the building might be considered vertically irregular (Provisions Sec.2 Loads Roof live load (L).11 and ρ =0.2.200 sq ft. However.2 Redundancy For a structure in Seismic Design Category D.2. 5.Chapter 5. 5.2. and the Provisions exempts roofs from weight irregularities. Grade 60 ASTM A992.3.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] defines the reliability factor (ρ) as: ρ = 2− 20 rmax x Ax where the roof area (Ax) = 16. storage Mezzanine slab and deck dead load Weight of wall panels = 25 psf = 15 psf = 125 psf = 69 psf = 75 psf Roof dead load includes roofing. 5. snow Roof dead load (D) Mezzanine live load. use ρ = 1.2. metal roof deck. There also are plan irregularities in this building in the transverse direction. Structural Steel Design 5.3 [4.57 < 1.) Therefore.1. and that portion of the main frames that is tributary to the roof under lateral load. again because of the mezzanine (Provisions Sec.3.2.2.3 [5.25(125) = 100 psf.4.3. the mezzanine seismic weight is 69 + 0. Therefore. 5.
Therefore. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples In the EW (longitudinal) direction.2. ρ = 1. [The redundancy requirements have been substantially changed in the 2003 Provisions.3 and 5. the coefficient on L is 0. At the mezzanine floor.2.2.2.3 and 4.8 [4.72 [4. See Sec. The reliability factor applies only to the determination of forces. The main frame of the building can be considered to be a onestory 58 .2S +ρQE. Note 1.3.1.37 .3 Orthogonal Load Effects A combination of 100 percent seismic forces in one direction plus 30 percent seismic forces in the orthogonal direction must be applied to the structures in Seismic Design Category D (Provisions Sec.37 in the longitudinal direction.2.22.3.2 [4.2SDSD.2S + E = 1. footnote c] permits unlimited drift for singlestory buildings with interior walls. At the hip (columnroof intersection).5 for many common live loads: 0.2.51.4. 5. hsx = 34 ft3 in.7D + ρQE.0L + 0. etc. the allowable story drift (Provisions 5. For a building assigned to Seismic Design Category D.2.] 5. 5.9D + ρQE 0.1. respectively]) is: E = ρQE ± 0. The seismic load is combined with the gravity loads as follows: 1. not to deflection calculations.9D + E = 0. the redundancy factor would have to be investigated in both directions based on the new criteria in the 2003 Provisions.3.2.2D + 1.15 in. the reliability multiplier is 1. hsx = 12 ft and ∆a = 3.25 and ρ = 1. respectively]).0 as long as it can be shown that failure of beamtocolumn connections at both ends of a single beam (moment frame system) or failure of an individual brace (braced frame system) would not result in more than a 33 percent reduction in story strength or create an extreme torsional irregularity.60 in.0L +ρQE + 0.4 Structural Component Load Effects The effect of seismic load (Provisions Eq.8 [4. 5.2. partitions.025 hsx. At the roof ridge.5 Drift Limits For a building in Seismic Use Group I.2D +1. the braces are equally loaded (ignoring accidental torsion).FEMA 451. Footnote b in Provisions Table 5.28 in.0L + 0.2.4. that have been designed to accommodate the story drifts.4..4D + 1.71 and 5.21 and 4.3 for further discussion.00 in the transverse direction and 1. hsx = 30 ft6 in.1. 5. and ∆α = 10.1.0 for this example.5.0L is for the storage load on the mezzanine. and ∆a = 9. Recall that SDS = 1. x Thus.2D = 1.2.2D = 0. 5.51]) is: ∆a = 0. so there is (1 brace)/(4 braces) so rmax = 0.5.
Chapter 5. 5.66 sec. 5. (The definition of a story in building codes generally does not require that a mezzanine be considered a story unless its area exceeds onethird the area of the room or space in which it is placed.1 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure In the longitudinal direction where stiffness is provided only by the diagonal bracing.2. In the transverse direction where stiffness is provided by momentresisting frames (Provisions Eq.11 [5. 5.2. 5.028)(34.3.102 kips The weight associated with the main frames accounts for only the main columns.28) = 0.54 seconds.4.39 sec.75) = 0.4.26]): Ta = Crhnx = (0.4.47 sec and Tmax = CuTa = (1.015)(90)(180) = Panels at sides = (2)(0.1. The subsequent 3D modal analysis finds the computed period to be 0.5.47) = 0.6 Seismic Weight The weights that contribute to seismic forces are: Roof D and L = (0.250.4)(0.075)(35)(90)/2 = Mezzanine slab = (0. because the weight associated with the remainder of the main frames is included in roof dead load above.8) = 0.4 Analysis Base shear will be determined using an equivalent lateral force (ELF) analysis.2 [5. this mezzanine is less than onethird the footprint of the building. given that there are no interior partitions except below the mezzanine.) 5. 59 .4)(0.28 sec In accordance with Provisions Sec.26]: Ta = Crhnx = (0.1.1.7 [5.7]).2].2. The base shear as computed by the ELF analysis will be needed later when evaluating the base shear as computed by the modal analysis (see Provisions Sec. the approximate period is computed using Provisions Eq.4.075)(32)(180)/2 = Panels at ends = (2)(0. Structural Steel Design building for this purpose. 5.3. the computed period of the structure must not exceed: Tmax = CuTa = (1.11 [5. 5. a modal analysis then will examine the torsional irregularity of the building.02)(34. The computed seismic weight is based on the assumption that the wall panels offer no shear resistance for the structure but are selfsupporting when the load is parallel to the wall of which the panels are a part.250.100)(90)(40) = Mezzanine framing = Main frames = Seismic weight = EW direction 243 kips 0 kips 224 kips 360 kips 35 kips 27 kips 889 kips NS direction 243 kips 437 kips 0 kips 360 kips 35 kips 27 kips 1.
222 for the longitudinal direction. use Cs = 0.202)(1.6 Cs = D1 = = 0.] The seismic base shear in the longitudinal direction (Provisions Eq.0 = = 0. the seismic base shear in the longitudinal direction would be increased by ρ now: V = ρ (197) V = (1.11 and 5.102 kips) = 223 kips.202 T ( R / I ) (0.03 seconds.13 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]) computed as: Cs = 0.1]. respectively]): Cs = SDS 1.2.23.22 and 5.1.222)889 kips) = 197 kips.4.4.66)(4.044I SDS = (0. 5.4. The seismic base shear in the transverse direction is: V = CsW = (0.222 R I 4. In both directions the value of Cs exceeds the minimum value (Provisions Eq.1.37)(197) = 270 kips 510 .12 [5.342 T (R / I ) (0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Also note that the dynamic analysis found a computed period of 1. In the longitudinal direction: Cs = SDS 1.1. Although this is not applicable to the determination of deflections.0 = = 0. 5.5/1) Therefore.202 for the transverse direction. 5. it is applicable in the determination of required strengths. 5.21]) is: V = CsW = (0. The seismic force must be increased by the reliability factor as indicated previously.1 [5.1 [5.4. If the ELF method was used exclusively.044 [This minimum Cs value has been removed in the 2003 Provisions.5/1) Therefore.0) = 0.6 = = 0.4. In the transverse direction (Provisions Eq. use Cs = 0.222 R I 4.044)(1)(1. The reliability multiplier ( ρ) will enter the calculation later as the modal analysis is developed. In its place is a minimum Cs value for longperiod structures.5 1 but need not exceed S 0.1.39)(4. which is not applicable to this example. The seismic response coefficient (Cs) is computed in accordance with Provisions Sec.1.FEMA 451.5 1 but need not exceed Cs = SD1 0.
3 kips Mezzanine frame at mezzanine = 38 kips/3 frames = 12.08 for the period of 0. 5. Using the data in Sec. it would be necessary to compute the stiffness for each of the two types of frames and for the braced frames.3.3. the moment frames supporting the mezzanine. a 3D model was created in SAP 2000. the following forces would be applied to the frames: Typical frame at roof (tributary basis) = 185 kips / 9 bays = 20. If one were to assume that the roof were a flexible diaphragm while the mezzanine were rigid. the tension bracing. The forces at the roof are distributed to each frame line in a fashion that offsets the center of force 5 percent of 180 ft (9 ft) to the west of the center of the roof.11. SDI’s Diaphragm Design Manual is used for guidance in assessing the stiffness of the roof deck. 5. but their inplane rigidity is based on a reduced thickness that accounts for compression buckling phenomena and for the fact that the edges of the roof diaphragm panels are not connected to the wall panels. Structural Steel Design [See Sec.1.17 Fx 185 kips 38 kips 223 kips It is not immediately clear as to whether the roof (a 22gauge steel deck with conventional roofing over it) will behave as a flexible or rigid diaphragm.3] prescribes the vertical distribution of lateral force in a multilevel structure.2.3 [5.4. The analytical model includes elements with onetenth the stiffness of a plane plate of 22 gauge steel.2 ThreeDimension Static and Modal Response Spectrum Analyses The 3D analysis is performed for this example to account for: 1. Even though the building is considered to be one story for some purposes.1. and The significance of braced frames in controlling torsion due to NS ground motions. 12 ft.2 for discussion of the changes to the redundancy requirements in the 2003 Provisions. The forces at the mezzanine are similarly distributed to offset the center of the mezzanine force 5 percent of 40 ft to the west of the 511 . and the diaphragm chord members are explicitly modeled using 3D beamcolumn elements. wxhxk 28340 5780 34120 Cvx 0. The roof diaphragm also is modeled using planar shell elements. The significance of differing stiffness of the gable frames with and without the mezzanine level.1. 5. The ELF analysis of the 3D model in the transverse direction yields two important results: the roof diaphragm behaves as a rigid diaphragm and the displacements result in the building being classified as torsionally irregular.4. 4. For this example. the distribution of forces for the NS analysis is shown in Table 5. The collector at the hip level is included as are those at the mezzanine level in the two east bays.] Provisions Sec. 5. 3. The mezzanine diaphragm is modeled using planar shell elements with their inplane rigidity being based on actual properties and dimensions of the slab.66 sec. Table 5.11 ELF Vertical Distribution for NS Analysis Level Roof Mezzanine Total Weight (wx) 707 kips 395 kips 1102 kips Height (hx) 30. The relative stiffness of the roof deck with respect to the gable frames.7 kips If one were to assume the roof were rigid.6 of this example and interpolating the exponent k as 1. The gabled moment frames.6/2 = 10.Chapter 5. 2.83 0.5 ft. The significance of the different centers of mass for the roof and the mezzanine. it is clearly a twolevel structure.6 kips End frame at roof = 20.
2.2.53 3.24 19. the applied forces and the resulting displacements are shown in Table 5. The ratio of maximum to average displacement is 1.14.57 12. the behavior is as a rigid diaphragm. Table 5.36 184.41] then requires that the seismic force analysis be any one of several types of dynamic analysis. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples center of the mezzanine.45 4. 4. Clearly then.99 14. the design response spectrum has been changed for long periods in the 2003 Provisions.4] and is shown in Figure 5. A 3D dynamic design response spectrum analysis is performed per Provisions Sec. kips 13. The simplest of these is the modal response spectrum (MRS) analysis.35 23.19 25.42 The average of the extreme displacements is 3.32] and places the structure in the category “torsionally irregular.31.18 in.2.61 21. the deviation of the diaphragm from a straight line is 0. Using grid locations numbered from west to east.82 3. See the discussion in Chapter 3 of this volume of design examples.67 in.98 22.1. 4.77 38. which exceeds the 1.FEMA 451.76 7. whereas the average frame displacement is about 20 times that. in.6 [3.13 15.3.08 3.12 ELF Analysis in NS Direction Grid 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Totals Roof Force.21 2.2 limit given in Provisions Table 5.56 4.49 in.01 Mezzanine Force. [Although it has no affect on this example.3] using the SAP 2000 program. Thus. The MRS is an easy next step once the 3D model has been assembled. kips Roof Displacement. The design response spectrum is based on Provisions Sec.5.3.” Provisions Table 5.50 17.86 2.1 [4.5 [5.12.87 18. 5.60 2.29 4.2 [4. The displacement at the centroid of the roof is 3.67 10.] 512 .
155 6.5 0.0 1.155 7.2 0. The modal seismic response coefficient (Provisions Eq. Sa (g) S DS= 1.0 1.766 4.121 0. T (sec.6 0.8 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.03 seconds with predominantly transverse participation.4 0. The design response spectra expressed in units of g and ft/sec2 are shown in Table 5.0 0.43 [5.4 1. the first 24 periods of vibration and mode shapes of the structure were computed using the SAP2000 program.190 0.) Figure 5. Table 5.857 0. With this model.4 0.111 0.299 3.13 Design Response Spectra T (sec) 0.54 seconds with a predominantly longitudinal participation.461 0.578 3.8 1.167 0.14 Design response spectrum.500 0.4 Sa (g) Sam = Sa (g) 0. Structural Steel Design Spectral response acceleration. The first 24 modes accounted for approximately 98 percent of the total mass of the 513 .222 0.Chapter 5.148 0.2 1.222 0.070 1.9 1.33]) is Csm = Sam R I .5.367 4.1 1.12 S a= S D1 T 0. The first mode had a period of vibration of 1.3048 m.900 3.133 0.600 0.2 1.0 ft = 0.545 0.7 0.13.0 0.8 2.12 0.750 0.6 0.666 0.293 3.6 1.089 0.0 0.095 Csm (ft/sec2) 2.8 SD1= 0.0 Period.3 1. 5.9 1.132 5.102 0.429 Csm = S am (R / I ) R = 4.862 7.6 0. The third mode period was 0.
4.7 [5.84 in.38)(1. at the first frame in from the west end where δxe and δye are deflections determined by the elastic modal analysis.7.38)(1. The SAP 2000 program uses the complete quadratic combination (CQC) of the modal values. The maximum lateral displacements at the ridge due to seismic loads (i. and floor deflections.3)(EW direction spectrum) + (1.1 [5.5. Base shears thus obtained are: Longitudinal Vt = 159. moments.3]: EW NS (1.5 kips Transverse Vt = 137. the design response spectra for the 3D modal analysis is again revised by increasing the EW direction response by the reliability factor. 5.2a [4.38)(ydirection spectrum) The model is then run again. both of which are is greater than the 90 percent requirement of Provisions Sec.99 in.2.05 NS modification factor = 0.5 kips) = 1.00)(NS direction spectrum) 514 . 5.4. which accounts for coupling of closely spaced modes.05)(1.3)(1. 5.0)(1. ρ = 1.85(V/Vt) = (0. Those frames closer to the mezzanine had smaller NS lateral deflections in much the same fashion as was shown for the ELF analysis.2]. Note that ρ is equal to unity in the NS direction. The design value for modal base shear (Vt) is determined by combining the modal values for base shear.00)(NS direction spectrum) (0.1.0)(1.85(V/Vt) = (0. The response spectra for the 3D modal analysis are combined to meet the orthogonality requirement of Provisions Sec.5..85)(197 kips/159.7].85)(223 kips/137.3. 5.37)(EW direction spectrum) + (1. the factors on the basic spectrum for the load combinations become: EW NS (1.5.FEMA 451.05)(1. If the design value for modal base shear is less than 85 percent of the ELF base shear calculated using a period of CuTa.2 [5.2.0)(NS direction spectrum) Finally.5.0)(EW direction spectrum) + (0. In the absence of damping. δye = 2. the CQC is simply the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of each modal value.37. design response spectra as increased by the modification factors above) from the second analysis are: EW deflection NS deflection δxe = 0.3.0)(1. a factor to bring the modal base shear up to this comparison ELF value must be applied to the modal story shears.05)(xdirection spectrum) (1. drifts.310]: Modification factor = 0.2 kips In accordance with Provisions Sec. Thus.2 kips) = 1.3)(1.0)(1.37)(EW direction spectrum) + (0. Before going further.e.2.38 The response spectra for the 3D modal analysis is then revised by the above modification factors: EW NS (1.3 below. 5.3)(NS direction spectrum) (0. the deflections should be checked as discussed in Sec. compare the design values of modal base shear to the base shear determined by the ELF method.85 (V/Vt) EW modification factor = 0. According to Provisions Eq. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples structure in the transverse direction and approximately 93 percent in the longitudinal direction.
However. say one with higher mass at the roof. This value must be multiplied by a Cd factor to find the transverse drift.13. The load combination is 1.5 kips to 230 kips. such as refrigerated warehouses.2S + ρ QE.5 of this chapter.1. computed previously. The moments are given in Table 5. there is no story drift limit for singlestory structures with interior wall. The frames are symmetrical about their ridge and the loads are either symmetrical or can be applied on either side on the frame because the forces are given for only half of the frame extending from the ridge to the ground. Applying the ρ factor (1.1.) 5.1 [4.Chapter 5. (Pdelta may be significant for a different structure. which is used throughout the remainder of calculations in this section. (The heavy wall panels were selected to make an interesting example problem.0(2.3 Drift The lateral deflection cited previously must be multiplied by Cd = 4 to find the transverse drift: δx = Cdδ xe 4. The authors suggest adjusting by a ratio of R factors. partitions. Forces in and design of the braces are discussed in Sec.99) = = 12. 5.15.4D + L + 0.5 Force Summary The maximum moments and axial forces caused by dead.) In the longitudinal direction. Recall that the deflection computations do not consider the reliability factor.37) is equivalent to increasing the EW base shear from (0.1.0 I This exceeds the limit of 10. unless specifically noted otherwise. As such.1. the lateral deflection was much smaller and obviously is within the limits. The design of connections will be controlled by the seismic loads. which determined that secondary Pdelta effect on the frame in the transverse direction was less than 1 percent of the primary demand. Special attention to detailing the connections of such features is necessary.0 in.85 x 197 kips) = 167. ceilings.2. Pdelta should always be investigated for unbraced frames. shears. not seismic loads. The tabulated value of Cd is 4.4 Pdelta The AISC LRFD Specification requires Pdelta analyses for frames.5. 515 . the final design base shears are obtained. and moments. 5.15. live. Pdelta was considered to be insignificant and was not investigated further. have heavy wall panels and would be expected to have high seismic drifts.3.2.28 in. Structural Steel Design and the model is run once again to obtain the final result for design forces.4. 5. and exterior wall systems that have been designed to accommodate the story drifts. This was investigated by a 3D Pdelta analysis.12 and 5. but this is for use when design is based upon R = 5. The moment diagram for the combined load condition is shown in Figure 5. From this third analysis. and earthquake loads on the gable frames are listed in Tables 5. Some real buildings. 1.2].14 and the axial forces are given in Table 5. The Provisions does not give guidance for Cd when the system R factor is overridden by the limitation of Provisions Sec.1.5.4. and the high transverse drift is a consequence of this. 5.4. The size of the members is controlled by gravity loads. for this example.
1. Table 5.14 Moments in Gable Frame Members Location 1. 1.0 26 26 Combined* (ftkips) 39 37 127 127 * Combined Load = 1.Knee 3.Ridge 2.kips  40 ft .kips 104 ft .0 ft = 0.4D + L + 0.Mezzanine 4.0 kip = 1.15 Moment diagram for seismic load combinations (1.3048 m. combined load values are maximum for any frame. 447 ft .Ridge 2.Knee 3.36 kNm.36 kNm.0 ft = 0. 1.Base D (ftkips) 61 161 95 0 L (ftkips) 0 0 83 0 S (ftkips) 128 333 92 0 QE (ftkips) 0 162 137 0 Combined* (ftkips) 112 (279) 447 (726) 79 0 * Combined Load = 1.kips 53 ft . Individual maximums are not necessarily on the same frame.0 kip = 1. 5.4D + 0.5 Proportioning and Details 516 .Mezzanine 4.Base D (ftkips) 14 16 39 39 L (ftkips) 3.FEMA 451.8 7. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 5.36 kNm).7D .25 + ρ Q E 0.kips 1.2S + ρQE. 1. Individual maximums are not necessarily on the same frame.1.3048 m.6S).0 ftkip = 1.4D + L + 0.kips 53 ft .2S + ρQE (or 1.ρ Q E Figure 5. combined load values are maximum for any frame.5 4.15 Axial Forces in Gable Frames Members Location 1.2D + 1.kips 447 ft .5 39 39 S (ftkips) 25 27 23 23 ρQE (ftkips) 0.
AISC Seismic Part I.2]. Tapered roof beam Tapered column 30'6" Mezzanine (2 end bays) Figure 5. steel structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D.1.1 Frame Compactness and Brace Spacing According to Provisions Sec.0 in. at base to 36 in.” stipulates that those requirements are to be applied in conjunction with AISC LRFD. also shown in Figure 5. 8.11.3. Table 5. “Scope.11 at the east end of the building.1.12 and 5.16 is intended to assist the reader in keeping track of the terminology.4 [8. Section 1. Structural Steel Design The gable frame is shown schematically in Figure 5.4+ mm). = 25. 5. is proportioned using tension forces determined from the 3D modal analysis. Section 10 of AISC Seismic itemizes a few exceptions from AISC LRFD for intermediate moment frames. Using load combinations presented in Sec. was proportioned similarly. E.4 and the loads from Tables 5. and F must be designed and detailed (with a few exceptions) per AISC Seismic.13. shown in Figure 5. but otherwise the intermediate moment frames are to be designed per the AISC LRFD Specification.16. For an intermediate moment frame (IMF). at ridge. The diagonal bracing.2.Chapter 5. 5. 12'0" 517 . roof beam tapers from 36 in. plate sizes are given in Figure 5.5. Terminology for momentresisting frames varies among the several standards. Part I. at knee. the proportions of the frame are checked at the roof beams and the variabledepth columns (at the knee). at knee to 18 in.16 Gable frame schematic: Column tapers from 12 in.18 (1. The mezzanine framing.
1. This is based on proper spacing of lateral bracing. The spacing of lateral bracing is illustrated for the high moment area of the tapered beam near the knee.000 ⎞ ⎟⎥ ⎜ ⎟ (1. then AISC Seismic would impose more restrictive requirements.076 ⎜ ⎣ ⎡ ⎛ M 1 ⎞⎤ ⎛ E ⎞ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ry ⎝ M 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ Fy ⎠ Lpd ⎢0.02 Not defined Plastic Rotation 0.FEMA 451. > 48 in. will be used for our IMF example.04 0. the widththickness ratios of AISC LRFD. the terminology is unchanged from the 2000 Provisions. 2) SMF Not used IMF OMF Provisions SMF Not used IMF OMF *This is called “limited inelastic deformations” in AISC Seismic. Table B5. F117): Lpd = ⎢0. [The terminology in the 2002 edition of AISC Seismic is the same as Supplement No. SMF = special moment frame.16.) The tapered members are approximated as short prismatic segments. IMF = intermediate moment frame. (If the frame were an SMF.35) = 49.0 ft away the moment is 427 ft. All widththickness ratios are less than the limiting λp from AISC LRFD Table B5.03 0.076 ⎜ ⎣ ⎡ ⎛ −488 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ 29. At that point the moment gradient will be higher than under the design load combinations (the shear will be higher).1. IMF per the Provisions corresponds to IMF per AISC Seismic. The maximum moment at the face of the column under factored load combinations is less than the plastic moment. OMF = ordinary moment frame.kip. Therefore. so the moment gradient at design conditions will be used to compute the maximum spacing of bracing.12 + 0. All PM ratios (combined compression and flexure) were less than 1.01* Minimal AISC Seismic (1997) SMF IMF OMF Not used FEMA 350 SMF Not used OMF Not used AISC Seismic (Supplement No. ⎝ 659 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 50 ⎠ OK 518 . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 5.] Because AISC Seismic does not impose more restrictive widththickness ratios for IMF.02 0. For this example. but under the design seismic ground motion the plastic moment will be reached.16 Comparison of Standards Total Rotation (story drift angle) 0. and 4.9 in. Lateral bracing is provided by the roof joists and wall girts. The moment at the face of the column is 659 ft.03 0. The member is in single curvature here. so the sign on the ratio in the design equation is negative (AISC LRFD Eq.kip. 2 to the 1997 edition as listed in Table 5.00.12 + 0. the adjustments of AISC LRFD Specification for webtapered members will not affect the results of the 3D SAP 2000 analysis. thus.
17 Arrangement at knee (1. A325 (typical) L3 x3 Gusset plate Section "A" 2x2 Xbrace MC8 girt Elevation Filler pad L3x3 Section "B" Figure 5. > 48 in.4 mm).Chapter 5. = 25. OK At the negative moment regions near the knee. per AISC LRFD Eq. Structural Steel Design Also. F14: L p = 300ry / Fyf Lp = (300)(1.35) / 50 = 57 in. 519 .0 in. lateral bracing is necessary on the bottom flange of the beams and inside the flanges of the columns (Figure 5.17). 118" dia.
0 in. 1.FEMA 451. which has a tapered column and a tapered beam is not one of the specific details per FEMA 350. (FEMA 350 has design criteria for specific connection details.1. stiffened end plate connections is used for a design guide here.17 and 5. The beam to column connection requires special consideration. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 5. FEMA 350 is used as a guide for this example because it is the closest design method developed to date for such a connection.18. The connection for our moment frame.25" d 1= 30.5. Plate: 2"x7x1'05 8" t p= 2" bp = 9" Plate: 30° 1 p f = 1 2" 3'0" p b= 3" 1" 1 5 2"x7x1'0 8" t s = 1 2" 2" 1 1" 1 2" L st d b= 36" 7 d 0= 37. The method of FEMA 350 for bolted.) Refer to Figure 5. Highlights from this method are shown for this portion of the example Refer to FEMA 350 for a discussion of the entire procedure.18 for configuration.17 is a gusset providing connection for Xbracing in the longitudinal direction.3048 m). 520 18" to 36" .18 Bolted stiffened connection at knee (1. = 25. However. AISC SDGS4 is also useful.2 Knee of the Frame The knee detail is shown in Figures 5.75" 1 2" Tapered beam Bolts: 1" dia. The vertical plate shown near the upper left corner in Figure 5.4 mm.0 ft = 0.1 Detail "1" 3 4" Detail "1" 3 4" Figure 5.5 Varies 12" to 36" Weld per AWS D1. A490 g = 4" t p= 1 2" 8" Typical 2" Varies 1 3 4" 16" 2" 3 4" 2" 2" Tapered column 8" 1 2.
3 at d/2 from the end plate (the plastic hinge location) Fy = 50 ksi Therefore. AISC Seismic Table I61 indicates: Ry = 1.1 Ze = 267 in. The steps in FEMA 350 for bolted stiffened end plates follow: Step 1. one near each column. That is not the circumstance for this frame. Mf . The location of the plastic hinge is distance x from the face of the column.kips. = 1.15)(1. Mpr = (1.5) = 1491 ftkips In a like manner. The moment at the column flange. forcing the plastic hinge to occur away from the welds at the end of beam/face of column. Where the gravity moments are a large fraction of the section capacity.1)(267)(50) = 16.8)(1. The end plate stiffeners at the top and bottom flanges increase the local moment of inertia of the beam. Structural Steel Design The FEMA 350 method for bolted stiffened end plate connection requires the determination of the maximum moment that can be developed by the beam. which will reduce l and usually increase Vp. is determined from FEMA 350 Figure 34 as: Mf = Mpr + Vpx where Vp = Shear at location of plastic hinge. Per FEMA 350 Eq. Mf = 1407 + (55.5 ft Thus.888 in. 32: Cpr = Fy + Fu (50+ 65) = = 1. the depth will be slightly less than 36 inches at the location of the hinge.15 2Fu (2)(50) . which will be in positive moment. may be away from the column face. the moment at the column centerline is found: 521 . assuming the frame has formed two hinges. less the column depth and distance to the hinge at each end. The probable maximum moment (Mpr) at the plastic hinge is computed (FEMA 350 Eq.8 kips ⎟+ 2 l 81ft ⎝ 2 ⎠ l = 81 ft comes from the 90 ft outtoout dimension of the frame. With the taper of the section. x = db /2 = 18 in.Chapter 5. the second hinge to form. but that reduction will be ignored here. Vp = wg l Mpr1 + Mpr 2 ⎛ 81 ft ⎞ 1407 + 1407 ftk + = (0.52 klf) ⎜ = 55. The stiffeners should be long enough to force the plastic hinge to at least d/2 away from the end of the beam. 31) as follows: Mpr = CprRyZeFy.407 ftkips. which drives the connection design. = 1.
7 OK tp ≥ 2 in.1 (9)0.909 t s 0.895 d bt1. Step 4.38 < Tub 77. > 1.685 in.5)0. Diameter A490 bolts. tp = end plate thickness = 2 in.9 (1)0.75 in. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples dc ⎞ = 1407 + 55.44)0.583 + 64 (2)0. Find bolt size for end plates.5 + 1.1b p 0. Step 3.895 (1)1.25 in. 331 indicates: Mc = Mpr + Vp ⎜ x + ⎛ Mf < 3.7 kips Tub ≥ (0.5) = 1574 ftkips 2⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Step 2. (Trial tp) dbt = bolt diameter = 1 in.5 kips Therefore. Determine the minimum end plate thickness necessary to preclude flexural yielding by comparing the thickness determined above against FEMA 350 Eq.9 g 0.9 dbt 0. Now confirm that Tub satisfies FEMA 350 Eq.00609)(1. For a connection with two rows of two bolts inside and outside the flange. 522 .44)0.1 Tub = 113 Ab = (113)(0.583 t p 0.4 Tub(do + di) (1491)(12) < 3.965 + Tb where: pf = dimension from top of flange to top of first bolt = 1.5)0.5 in.6 F fu 0.00002305)(1.00609 p f 0.909 (0. 334: tp ≥ 0.7 (0.6 (504)0. + 30.327 (9)0.785) = 88.8(1.4 Tub(37.38 < 113 Ab (for A490 bolts) 0. 332: Tub ≥ 0.thick end plate is acceptable. This step is skipped here because 16 bolts will obviously carry the shear for our example.9 (0. Check the bolt size to preclude shear failure.44 in.591 (504) 2. FEMA 350 Eq.9ts 0. a 2in. bp = width of end plate = 9 in.327 b p 0.FEMA 451.) 77.965 OK Tub = 88.2 < Ab Use 1 in.9 (4)0.7 kips > 87. ts = thickness of stiffener plate = 0.27 in.00002305 p f 0. Tb = bolt pretension per AISC LRFD Table J3.591 F fu 2.
the necessary thickness of the continuity plate is 0. (db − t fb )(6k + 2t p + t fb )Fyc (36 − 0.7 ts 0.75 in.66 in.5)0. See FEMA 350 Sec.75) + (2)(2) + (0.15b p 0.3 OK tp ≥ 2 in. Therefore. k1 is taken to be the thickness of the column web. the 2in. > 1.44 in. 335: tp ≥ 0. Step 7. 340: twc = Mf (1491)(12) = = 1. Determine the minimum column flange thickness required to resist beam flange tension using FEMA 350 Eq.15 (9)0.3.).3. a continuity plate is needed at the compression flange.thick end plate. (0. and an assumed 0.00413)(1.00 in.15 (504) (1)0. but this will be revised in Step 7.15 F fu dbt 0. For onesided connections.95 in.1 for continuity plate sizing. 3.5 in.25 ⎝ Aw ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ( d bt ) 4 (1.5 in.25 (4)0. 338: ⎛ A f ⎞ 3 C 3 = (1. > 0.00) = 0.5 pb + c) g 4 1 C3 = − dbt − k1 = − − 0. This is a check on web crippling using FEMA 350 Eq.7 (0.5)] 1 1 tcf > Minimum tcf = 0. fillet weld for a total of 0. Using FEMA 350 Eq.5(tbf + tbf) = 0.44) ⎟ (1) 0.thick flange does not need to be full height but must continue well away from the region of beam flange compression and the high moment 523 . Step 6.9)(50)[(3. tcf = 2 in. Structural Steel Design and against FEMA 350 Eq.5)(3) + (3.75 = 1.44 in. 0. For this column. = twc OK Therefore. use a 2in.25 g 0.3 (0. Step 5. Therefore.25 in.5)](50) twc reqd = 1.95 in.48) ⎛ (2)(8)(0.5 in. tcf must be at least as thick as the end plate thickness tp. 2 2 4 (For purposes of this example. 337: tcf > where α m F fu C3 0. Because continuity plates are required.9 Fyc (3.19 α m = Ca ⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎜ (35)(0.00413 p f 0.Chapter 5.5)[(6)(0.5) ⎞ 3 1 = 1. Check column web thickness for adequacy for beam flange compression.44)0.19)(504)(1.
Sec.1. according to FEMA 350 Eq.6Fy )Rycdc (db − t fb ) where. down from the bottom of the beam. Step 8.3. An unstiffened bolted connection plate is selected. This weld needs to be carefully detailed.5 ⎞ 366 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ = 0.5. the 2in.31 in. OK 1 12 Tappered roof beam Unstiffened bolted end plate Figure 5.71)(1574 x 12) ⎜ ⎛ 366 − 41.5 + 3 + 1.1)(36)(36 − 0. flange is continued 36 in.5 = 41.71 Zbe ⎛ 267 ⎞ Cpr 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples portion of the column knee area. < 0. 37: Cy M c ⎜ ⎛ h − db ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ h ⎠ t≥ (0. 34: Cy = 1 1 = = 0. where it is welded to the 0. Some judgment is necessary here.19 End plate connection at ridge. use db = 35. Lateral seismic force produces no moment at the ridge until yielding takes place at one of the knees.5) tcw required = 0.3 Frame at the Ridge The ridge joint detail is shown in Figure 5. tcw ≥ (0.5 + 1.9)(0. 3.6)(50)(1.75in.5 in. not a FEMA 350 designed connection because there should not be a plastic hinge forming in this vicinity..19. = tcw 5.FEMA 451.9)(0.50 in.31 in. For this case. For purposes of this check.2.thick flange. Per FEMA 350 Eq. Vertical accelerations on the dead load do produce a 524 . Check the panel zone shear in accordance with FEMA 350. This is an AISC LRFD designed connection.3.15⎜ ⎟ Sb ⎝ 218 ⎠ (0.
If one uses 1. The design of the end plate connection is similar to that at the knee. The girder spans are approximately 30 ft each. Those lateral forces that are received by the mezzanine are distributed to the frames and diagonal bracing via the floor diaphragm. deck W14x43 Split W27x84 W21x62 MC8x18.5.12). the moment at the ridge will simply be the static moment from the gravity loads less the horizontal thrust times the rise from knee to ridge. Structural Steel Design moment at this point.110.110 Mezzanine framing (1. further lateral displacement produces some positive moment at the ridge. = 25. Once lateral seismic loads produce yielding at one knee.2S as the load for this scenario. The steel beams rest on threespan girders connected at each end to the portal frames and supported on two intermediate columns (Figure 5. leaving a net positive moment of 278 ftkip.5 Braced Frame Diagonal Bracing 525 .0 in.7 (b) Figure 5. Under the condition on which the FEMA 350 design is based (a full plastic moment is produced at each knee).4 mm). however. the value is small compared to all other moments and does not appear to be a concern. the static moment is 406 ftkip and the reduction for the thrust is 128 ftkip.1.Chapter 5. The concrete filled 3in. coincidentally close to the design moment for the factored gravity loads. 5. but simpler because the beam is horizontal and not tapered.4 Design of Mezzanine Framing The design of the framing for the mezzanine floor at the east end of the building is controlled by gravity loads. 5.2D + 0.. The design of the mezzanine framing is largely conventional as seismic loads do not predominate.1.5. L3x3 strut 3" concrete slab 3" embossed 20 ga. A typical beamcolumn connection at the mezzanine level is provided in Figure 5. 20gauge steel deck of the mezzanine floor is supported on steel beams spaced at 10 ft and spanning 20 ft (Figure 5.11).
the maximum axial force in the X brace located at the east end of the building is 66 kips computed from the combined orthogonal earthquake loads (longitudinal direction predominates). including the columns in this area but excluding the brace connections.5L + 0. shall be based on AISC Seismic Eq. 5. Provisions Sec.9)(36) Try (2) L4 ×3 × 3/8: Ag = (2)(2. Eq. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Although the force in the diagonal X braces can be either tension or compression.2.07 in.2S + Ω0QE [The special load combinations have been removed from the 2002 edition of AISC Seismic to eliminate inconsistencies with other building codes and standards but the design of ordinary braced frames is not really changed because there is a reference to the load combinations including “simplified seismic loads. the “tension only” brace does not carry any live load so the load factor does not matter.98 in.23 and 4.2. The strength of the members and connections.2S + Ω0QE Recall that a 1. 14.5L + 0.11 and 2 [4.2D + 0. With the Ω0 factor.49) = 4. the AISC Seismic equation will be used but E will be substituted for QE. All braces will have the same design. Thus. The eave strut.2SDSD Given that the Provisions is being following. 5.1).2 (November 2000 Supplement) for requirements on braces for OCBFs.] From analysis using this load combination. part of the braced frame. 14. respectively] requires that the design seismic force on components sensitive to overstrength shall be defined by: E = Ω0QE ± 0.2 φ Fy (0.1. The kl/r requirement of AISC Seismic Sec.5)(36 ksi)(4. For the braced design.24 should be used in conjunction with the load combinations in ASCE 7 as is done here.0 factor is applied to L when the live load is greater than 100 psf (AISC Seismic Sec. only the tensile value is considered because it is assumed that the diagonal braces are capable of resisting only tensile forces. 1.2) = 269 kips.7. For the case discussed here. Using A36 steel for angles: Tn = φFyAg Ag = P 132 n = = 4. the required strength becomes 132 kips. Ω0 = 2.2 requires the design strength of the brace connections to be based on the expected tensile strength: RyFyAg = (1. 41. 14.4D + 0.7.07 in. 2003 Provisions Eq.24.” Therefore.2 OK AISC Seismic Sec.FEMA 451. has to carry compression and that compression is determined using the overstrength factor.2 > 4. However. See AISC Seismic Sec. 4. the load combination for design of the brace members reduces to: 1.98 in. Also be sure to check the eave strut at the roof.23 and 4. 4.2 does not apply because this is not a V or an inverted V 526 .
= 530 plf. Structural Steel Design configuration. There are deviations from simple approximations in both directions. 527 . In the NS direction. the eave strut in the 3D model is a HSS 6x6x1/4. This might be expected given the significant change in stiffness. the shear is generally highest in the bay between the mezzanine frame and the first frame without the mezzanine. This is a shear lag effect. 5.4. The shear is also high at the longitudinal braced bays because they tend to resist the horizontal torsion. 5. There does not appear to be any particularly good simple approximation to estimate the shear here without a 3D model. Torsion is not significant so a simple approximation is to take half the force to each side and divide by the length of the building.111 shows the inplane shear force in the roof deck diaphragm for both seismic loading conditions. In the EW direction. The shear at the braced bays is lower than observed for the EW motion.000/2)/180 ft.1. however.6 Roof Deck Diaphragm Figure 5.2) with 83 percent or 191 kips at the roof.Chapter 5. the base shear is 230 kips ( Sec.5.1. which yields (191. The plot shows that the shear in the edge of the diaphragm is significantly higher in the two braced bays.
NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Roof diaphragm shear.59 N/M). NorthSouth motion. pound per foot. upper diagram is for EW motion and lower is for NS motion (1. Roof diaphragm shear. = 14. EastWest motion.0 lb. Figure 5. pound per foot.111 Shear force in roof deck diaphragm. /ft. 528 .FEMA 451.
Braced frame elevations are shown in Figure 5. They are located in the elevator core walls between columns 3C and 3D. 5. The story height is 13 ft. and 5 in Figure 5. 6.22).2 Alternatives This example features three alternatives – a steel momentresisting frame. Floors consist of 31/4 in. 1. 3.1. CALIFORNIA Three alternative framing arrangements for a sevenstory office building are illustrated.2. 4 in. 4 in. except for the first story which is 22 ft. long in the EW direction and 127 ft. 4C and 4D.3 Scope The example covers: 1.1. Alternative C – Seismic force resistance is provided by a dual system with the special moment frames at the perimeter of the building and a special concentrically braced frames at the core. 5. 3D and 4D. wide in the NS direction (Figure 5. 5. 2. 3E and 4E. high. 3E and 3F. The moment frames are shown in Figure 5.Chapter 5. and 3F and 4F in the NS direction (Figure 5. and 6 in Figure 5. It extends a total of 118 ft.1 Building Description 5. The braced frames in an X configuration are designed for both diagonals being effective in tension and compression. 4.21). and a dual system with a momentresisting frame at the perimeter and a concentrically braced frame at the core area – as follows: 1. above grade.21. 4 in. The elevators and stairs are located in the central three bays. but are arranged to accommodate elevator door openings. 2. lightweight concrete placed on composite metal deck. concentrically braced frame. H. Alternative A – Seismic force resistance is provided by special moment frames located on the perimeter of the building (on lines A. 5. 4 in. 4 in. The penthouse extends 16 ft above the roof level of the building and covers the area bounded by gridlines C. It is framed in structural steel with 25ft bays in each direction.2. Structural Steel Design 5.2.23.21.1 General Description This sevenstory office building of rectangular plan configuration is 177 ft. 3. also illustrated in Figure 5. Seismic design parameters Analysis of perimeter moment frames Beam and column proportioning Analysis of concentrically braced frames Proportioning of braces Analysis and proportioning of the dual system 529 . Alternative B – Seismic force resistance is provided by four special concentrically braced frames in each direction.2.23. The building has a penthouse. The braced frames are not identical.22 and the braced frames are shown in Figure 5.1. and 4E and 4F in the EW direction and between columns 3C and 4C. 2.2 SEVENSTORY OFFICE BUILDING. LOS ANGELES. F. The building is planned for heavy filing systems (350 psf) covering approximately four bays on each floor.21).
1.0 ft = 0. 530 22'4" .FEMA 451.0 in.4 mm. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 177'4" 1'2" 1'2" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 1'2" 127'4" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" N 1'2" 16'0" PH roof Roof 7 6 6 at 13'4" 5 4 3 2 Figure 5.21 Typical floor framing plan and building section (1.3048 m). = 25.
23 Concentrically braced frame elevations (1. = 25. 1.22 Framing plan for special moment frame (1.3048 m).0 in.0 ft = 0. = 25.Chapter 5.3048 m).4 mm. 22'4" 102'4" 531 . Structural Steel Design 7 at 25'0" 5 at 25'0" N Figure 5.0 ft = 0. 25'0" 16'0" 25'0" 25'0" PH roof Roof 13'4" 13'4" 13'4" 13'4" 13'4" 13'4" PH roof 16'0" PH floor PH floor 13'4" 13'4" 13'4" 13'4" 13'4" 13'4" 22'4" 102'4" Figure 5. 1.4 mm.0 in.
9 SDS = 2/3 SMS = 1. M&E) Exterior wall cladding Penthouse floor D Floor L Floor D (deck.1 [3. girders.2.0 SD1 = 2/3 SM1 = 0.5]) (Provisions Map 9 [Figure 3. girders. M&E. Special Steel Concentrically Braced Frame (Provisions Table 5.34]) (Provisions Sec.4b [3. Dual System of Special Steel Moment Frame Combined with Special Steel Concentrically Braced Frame (Provisions Table 5.0 Fv = 1.1.1.2.2.5 Cd = 6. Special Steel Moment Frame (Provisions Table 5.33]) (Provisions Eq. 4.5 5.6 Fa = 1. lightweight (LW) = 25 psf = 25 psf = 25 psf of wall = 55 psf = 25 psf of wall = 65 psf = 50 psf = 62.2.2.51 [3.31]) R =8 Ω0 = 3 Cd = 5.1.2.41 [3. 1.1. ceiling.2.4a [3.31]) =8 Ω0 = 2.2.33]) (Provisions Map 10 [Figure 3. fireproofing.3 [1.1.5 Alternative B. insulation.2. 4.31]) Ω0 = 2 Cd = 5 R =6 Alternative C.42 [3.2 [4. ceiling.6 Seismic Use Group = I Seismic Design Category = D (Provisions Sec.1 Provisions Parameters Site Class = D SS = 1.2. 4. fireproofing. 4.31]) (Provisions Eq.2.5 SM1 = FvS1 = 0.2 Loads Roof live load (L) Penthouse roof dead load (D) Exterior walls of penthouse Roof DL (roofing.5 psf R . partitions) Floor L reductions per the IBC 5.1.2.5 S1 =0.2 [4.1 [1.2.34]) (Provisions Table 4. beams.2.2.32]) (Provisions Eq. 4. 4.31]) (Provisions Table 4.2 [4.4]) Alternative A.FEMA 451.5 SMS = FaSS = 1.2.2.2]) (Provisions Sec. deck beams. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 5.1.3 Materials Concrete for drilled piers Concrete for floors 532 fc' = 5 ksi. normal weight (NW) fc' = 3 ksi.2 Basic Requirements 5.32]) (Provisions Eq.2.52 [3.
5.3. ρ = 1.3.2.0.0 as long as it can be shown that failure of beamtocolumn connections at both ends of a single beam (moment frame system) or failure of an individual brace (braced frame system) would not result in more than a 33 percent reduction in story strength or create an extreme torsional irregularity. Alternatively. (ρ) for a Seismic Design Category D structure is: ρ =2− 20 r max x Ax In a typical story.3. if the structure is regular in plan and there are at least two bays of perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal direction.3 [4.4. the reliability factor. 4. 5.2. which is not uncommon for corebraced buildings. Structural Steel Design All other concrete Structural steel Wide flange sections HSS Plates fc' = 4 ksi.1 Building Configuration The building is considered vertically regular despite the relatively tall height of the first story.579 ft.2 Redundancy According to Provisions Sec.2.1.4.2.2 The ratio of the design story shear resisted by the single element carrying the most shear force in the story to the total story shear is rmax x as defined in Provisions Sec. Grade 50 ASTM A500.4.2. Per 2003 Provisions Sec.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]. Grade B ASTM A36 5. 5.3. These preliminary ρ factors will be verified by subsequent analyses. Based on the preliminary design.2. [The redundancy requirements have been substantially changed in the 2003 Provisions.Chapter 5. Ax = 22.2. the floor area.3.3.0 for Alternative A because it has a perimeter moment frame and is regular. The determination of ρ for Alternatives B and C (which are torsionally irregular) requires the evaluation of connection and brace failures per 2003 Provisions Sec.2.3.3.0.3. Because the building is symmetrical in plan.2.1 Alternative A (moment frame) 533 . it will be shown that the first story drift ratio is less than 130 percent of the story above.] 5. ρ = 1.2.2. it is permitted to use ρ = 1. The exception of Provisions Sec.3 Structural Design Criteria 5. plan irregularities would not be expected.3]is taken in which the drift ratio of adjacent stories are compared rather than the stiffness of the stories. 4. special moment frames in Seismic Design Category D must be configured such that the structure satisfies the criteria for ρ = 1. 5. NW ASTM A992. There are no reductions in the redundancy factor for dual systems. Preliminary ρ factors will be determined for use as multipliers on design force effects. In the 3D analysis. Analysis reveals that Alternatives B and C are torsionally irregular. For a building assigned to Seismic Design Category D.
At that point. These torsional effects are illustrated in Figure 5.1625Vx.01Mta Vt = (0. The torsional force applied to either grid line C or F is Vt = MtaKd / ΣKd2.5) = 0.3].250Vx. Thus. there are four bracedbay braces subject to shear at each story.0875Vx.0. ρ was found to be 1.0875Vx = 0. the direct shear applied to each line of braces is Vx/4 and the torsional shear. it is a good idea to make a preliminary estimate of ρ. The average deflection is thus proportional to [(0.5) ⎡(2)(37.2. In this case.4.3. Provisions Sec.5) = 0. is completed. not to displacements.046)/2]Vx = 0. As the torsional deflections will be proportional to the shears and extrapolating to Grids A and H. the deflection at H is proportional to 0.24.5)2 + (6)(12. 5. Vt = 0.2.05)(175)(Vx) = 8. Note that ρ is a multiplier that applies only to the force effects (strength of the members and connections).08 in the NS and EW directions. and not strength.250Vx .FEMA 451. so the direct shear on each line of braces is equal to Vx/4.4.0875Vx)(87.11 and 1.0875Vx The amplification of torsional shear (Ax) must be considered in accordance with Provisions Sec. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples For a momentresisting frame. although ρ need not be taken larger than 1.(0.) Therefore.2.5/37. See Sec.3. Assuming all frame rigidity factors (K) are equal: Vt = Mta (37.5/37. we will know the total shear in each story and the shear being carried by each column at every story.1. which will include the effects of accidental torsion.25 for special moment frames. drift. rmax x is taken as the maximum of the sum of the shears in any two adjacent columns divided by the total story shear. The final calculation of ρ will be deferred until the building frame analysis.2.3375Vx. Likewise.5)2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 0.3 [5. 5.)(87. 5. As will be seen for this momentresisting frame. 5.01)(8.2 requires that the configuration be such that ρ shall not exceed 1.2.4.4. [1. respectively.50 in the design.75Vx.1. the deflection at A can be seen to be proportional to 0. the following preliminary analysis must be refined by the final calculation.25Vx .0875 Vx.25Vx + 0. and the combined shear at Grid F is 0.046Vx.454Vx.75 Vx) = 0.0875Vx = 0. A method for a preliminary estimate is explained in Alternative B.4. the combined shear at Grid C is 0. which was done here. 534 . For the braced frame system. Without dynamic amplification of torsion. The effects of accidental torsion will be estimated as: The torsional moment Mta = (0.454 + 0. will govern the design.250Vx + (0.2 Alternative B (concentrically braced frame) Again.0 in the 2003 Provisions] (There is no limit for other structures.
5.250 + (2.450Vx As there are two braces in each braced bay (one in tension and the other in compression): rmax x = 0. Structural Steel Design 0.250 = δ average 0.338 535 .41 (0.213] as: ⎛ δ Ax = ⎜ max ⎜ 1.24 Approximate effect of accidental of torsion (1.225 2 and ρ = 2− 20 20 = 2− = 1.4.1.1 [5.4.250) ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ 2 2 The total shear in the NS direction on Gridlines C or F is the direct shear plus the amplified torsional shear equal to: Vx/4 + AxVt = [0.29)(0.4 mm).3.450 = 0.29 ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ ⎝ (1. = 25.05 L x Lx Figure 5.579 r max Ax x 0.163 0.2 δ avg ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 0.0 in.046 0. the torsional amplification can be determined per Provisions Eq.454 = δmax 0.Chapter 5.2)(0. From the above estimation of deflections.454 ⎞ = 2.225) 22.0875)]Vx = 0.
the moment frame will substantially reduce the torsion at any story.2.4.05)QE ± (0.FEMA 451. As stated above.2)D 5. This will be verified by analysis later.05. 5.3.4.5.2)D E = (1.3 and 5. 5.41)QE ± (0.2.2)D E = (1.3.0.6H 536 . For Alternative A NS direction EW direction Alternative B NS direction EW direction Alternative. with the dual system. C NS direction EW direction E = (1. the preliminary value for ρ is taken as 1. The reason for this decision is that.0E + 1.00)QE ± (0.2D + 1. if necessary.08)QE ± (0.11)QE ± (0.2 [4. 5.2.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] calls for taking only 80 percent of the calculated ρ value when a dual system is used.2.41 for the NS direction.0.5 Load Combinations Load combinations from ASCE 7 are: 1.2)D E = (1. Thus.00)QE ± (0.0.2. refined later.5L + 0. These preliminary values will be verified by the final calculations.2S and 0.2.2. use ρ = 1. we expect the final value to fall below 1.71 [4.5.0.2. ρ values are preliminary estimates to be checked and.2.2. 5.3. the ρ factor for the EW direction is determined to be ρ = 1. so torsional amplification will be low. 5.3 Orthogonal Load Effects A combination of 100 percent of the seismic forces in one direction with 30 percent seismic forces in orthogonal direction is required for structures in Seismic Design Category D (Provisions Sec.3.21] as: E = ρ Q E + 0.2. In a like manner.2 S DS D Recall that SDS = 1.4 Structural Component Load Effects The effect of seismic load is be defined by Provisions Eq. Provisions Sec.0E + 0.2]).3 Alternative C (dual system) For the dual system.2)D E = (1.9D + 1. The combined redundancy of the braced frame combined with the moment frame (despite the fact that the moment frame is more flexible) will reduce ρ from either single system. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Therefore.2)D E = (1. for which we will take ρ = 1.2. 5. Finally.
2.7D + 1. Structural Steel Design To each of these load combinations.170)(6.36 in.110)(8)(16) Total Lower roof Roof slab = (0.1.2.4D + 1.7D + 1. (102 ft4 in./ft) = 3.025)(75)(75) Walls = (0.745 kips 537 .7D + 1.5L and 0.41QE +0.05QE 1.11QE 1.7D + QE 1.67)(48) Equipment (allowance for mechanical equipment in penthouse) Total = = = = 932 kips 366 kips 162 kips 68 kips = = = = 141 kips 60 kips 14 kips 215 kips = 217 kips = 1.5L and 0.8 [4.Chapter 5. 5.5L and 0.02)(13. showing the maximum additive and minimum negative.51] is ∆a = 0./ft) = 5.7 Basic Gravity Loads Penthouse roof Roof slab = (0.2.4D + QE +0. Remember to adjust calculated story drifts by the appropriate Cd factor from Sec.11QE +0.025)(609)(6.56 in.3.67) Columns = 14 + (0.4D + QE +0.4D + 1.05QE +0. main roof/penthouse floor) is 24.7D + 1.5L and 0.4D + 1.08QE 5. The allowable story drift for the first floor is ∆a = (0.065)(75)(75) Walls = 60 + (0.02)(22.4D + 1.055)[(127.41QE 1.3. 5. substitute E as determined above.33 ft)(12 in.5L and 0.08QE +0.025)(8)(300) Columns = (0.5L and 0.2. The allowable story drift for a typical story is ∆a = (0.33)(177.6 Drift Limits The allowable story drift per Provisions Sec. Consider that the maximum story drifts summed to the roof of the sevenstory building.2.02hsx. Recall that QE acts both east and west (or north and south): Alternative A NS EW Alternative B NS EW Alternative C NS EW 1.33) . 5.7D + QE 1.33 ft)(12 in.20 in.(75)2] Penthouse floor = (0.
066 T (R / I ) 1.33)(48) Heavy storage = (0.2.4.50)(4)(25 x 25)(350) Total Total weight of building = 215 + 1.1.025)(609)(13. Moment Frame First determine the building period (T) per Provisions Eq. Use 50 percent of this weight as effective seismic mass. 5.028)(102.33) Walls = (0.14(8/1) and the minimum value for Cs per Provisions Eq.2.4.14 sec where hn.285)(13. 538 .412 kips = 203 kips = 182 kips = 438 kips = 2.235) = 1.4.1.2.1 Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis The equivalent lateral force (ELF) procedure will be used for each alternative building system.1. The seismic base shear will be determined for each alternative in the following sections.4. the height to the main roof. (This was done to add seismic mass to this example thereby making it more interesting.22] as: CS = S DS 1 = = 0.044)(1)(1) = 0.6 = = 0.) is determined from Provisions Eq.044ISDS = (0.235 kips = 15.4 Analysis 5. 5. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Typical floor Floor = (0. 5. The seismic response coefficient (Cs. is conservatively taken as 102.8 = 1.066.3) 0.2.1.13 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] is: Cs = 0.1 ELF Analysis for Alternative A.26]: Ta = Cr hnx = (0. 5.33)(177.125 R / I (8/1) However.4.11 [5. It is not meant to imply that the authors believe such a step is necessary for ordinary office buildings.12 [5. The height of the penthouse (the penthouse having a smaller contribution to seismic mass than the main roof or the floors) will be neglected. use Cs = 0.745 + 6(2.) 5.33) Columns = (0.370 kips Note that this office building has heavy storage in the central bays of 280 psf over five bays.23] indicates that the value for Cs need not exceed: CS = S D1 0. Provisions Eq.0625)(127.044 Therefore. 5.FEMA 451.4.11 [5.3 ft.
6 = = 0.4.125 (8/1) However.044ISDS = (0.11 [5.26]): Ta = C r hnx = (0.117 T (R / I ) (0. Provisions Eq.1.4.044)(1)(1) = 0.156)(15.4.4.12 [5.1. 5.23] indicates that the value for Cs need not exceed: CS = S D1 0. 5. 5. 539 .1. 5.75 = 0.4.4.02)(102.64)(6/1) and the minimum value for Cs per Provisions Eq. 5. Seismic base shear is computed using Provisions Eq.1.64 sec The seismic response coefficient (Cs) is determined as (Provisions Eq. 5.11 [5.11 [5. Structural Steel Design Seismic base shear is computed per Provisions Eq.156 T (R / I ) (0. 5.1.02)(102. Dual System The building period (T) is the same as for the braced frame (Provisions Eq.2.4.156.26]: Ta = Cr hnx = (0.2.4. 5. Braced Frame As above.22] as: CS = S DS 1 = = 0.370) = 1014 kips 5.Chapter 5.044 ISDS = (0. 5.13 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]): Cs = 0.4.3) 0. first find the building period (T) using Provisions Eq.3 ELF Analysis for Alternative C.1.22]): CS = S DS R/ I = 1 = 0.4.2.21] as: V = CSW = (0.64)(8/1) and the minimum value for Cs is (Provisions Eq.2 ELF Analysis for Alternative B.23]): CS = S D1 0.75 = 0.1 [5.13 [not applicable in 2003 Provisions] is: Cs = 0.1.398 kips 5.64 sec The seismic response coefficient (Cs) is determined from Provisions Eq.044 Use Cs = 0.117.12 [5.167 R / I (6/1) However. 5.11 [5. the value for Cs need not exceed (Provisions Eq.3)0.044 Therefore.6 = = 0.1 [5. use Cs = 0.066)(15.370) = 2.1.4.21] as: V = CSW = (0.4.2.044)(1)(1) = 0.
5 [5.3 [5.214]: M x = Σ Fi (hi − hx ) i=x n The application of these equations for the three alternative building frames is shown in Tables 5.370) = 1. 540 .32 For Alternatives B and C T = 0.2 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces Provisions Sec.1 [5.FEMA 451.4. thus k = 1. 5.211]) Cvx = n k wxhx i =1 ∑ whik i For Alternative A T = 1. the seismic design shear in any story is computed as: Vx = Σ Fi i=x n The story overturning moment is computed from Provisions Eq.2.798 kips 5.2.07 Using Provisions Eq. The floor force Fx is calculated using Provisions Eq.3] provides the procedure for determining the portion of the total seismic load that goes to each floor level.14 secs. 5. thus k = 1.4 [5. 5.4.117)(15.64 sec.4. and 5.21]): V = CsW = (0. 5.4.4.212]. 5. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Seismic base shear is computed as (Provisions Eq.21.13. 5.31 [5.22.4. 5.4.210] as: Fx = CvxV where (Provisions Eq.32 [5.
Moment Frame Seismic Forces and Moments by Level Level (x) PH Roof Main roof Story 7 Story 6 Story 5 Story 4 Story 3 Story 2 Σ Wx (kips ) 215 1.21 0.500 675.470 1.070 8.67 22.720 1.03 0.22 Alternative B.08 0.00 35.300 228.720 124.Chapter 5.33 49.235 15.18 0.21 Alternative A.160 18.67 22.67 62.702.900 272.04 1.3048 m.235 2.398 Mx (ftkips) 1.67 62.11 0.0 ft = 0.000 143.07 0.235 2.900 186.235 2.21 0.235 2.089 2. 541 .400 62.745 2.235 2.33 Wxhxk (ftkips) 35.18 0.33 89.010 41.745 2.33 Wxhxk (ftkips) 117.200 522.23 0.00 75.235 2.00 75. 1.0 kip = 4.870 77.014 Vx (kips) 32 247 476 661 805 909 977 1.700 380.0 kip = 4.000 1. Structural Steel Design Table 5.370 hx (ft) 118.800 102.500 Cvx 0.160 177.00 Fx (kips) 32 215 229 185 143 104 69 37 1.33 102.19 0.819 2.810 10.235 2.278.200 134.398 Vx (kips) 67 530 1.870 93.00 Fx (kips) 67 463 511 430 349 270 192 116 2.45 kN.620 65.800 3.130 22.500 246.520 1.33 49.500 250.235 2.980 29.200 785.33 102.03 0.14 0.235 2. Table 5.830 54.281 2.235 15.000 Cvx 0.3048 m.00 35.15 0.0 ft = 0.05 1.200 836.710 41.33 89.014 Mx (ftkips) 514 3. 1.45 kN.041 1.370 hx (ft) 118. Braced Frame Seismic Forces and Moments by Level Level (x) PH Roof Main roof Story 7 Story 6 Story 5 Story 4 Story 3 Story 2 Σ Wx (kips ) 215 1.10 0.235 2.
0 ft = 0.800 102.2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 5. Note that the story overturning moment is applied to the level below the level that receives the story shear.500 31.67 62.798 Vx (kips) 50 397 781 1.000 143. 2.00 Fx (kips) 50 347 383 322 262 202 144 87 1.711 1.500 246.08 0.235 2.6) (AISC Seismic Sec.3 [5.567 1.365 1.400 70.00 35.798 Mx (ftkips) 800 6. FEMA 350 Sec.0 kip = 4.2) (Provisions Sec.000 1.1]) (Provisions Sec.11 0.8 [5.370 hx (ft) 118.3]) Reproportion member sizes as necessary after each check.278.4. 1. 3.15 0.235 2. 9.1.3.4.03 0. Resisting the overturning moment is the weight of the building above that level combined with the moment resistance of the framing at that level.3 Size Members At this point we are ready to select the sizes of the framing members.4. produces the shear applied at that level and that shear produces the moment which is applied at the top of the next level down.3. Alternative A.33 89.900 186.3.3048 m.100 16.00 75. 5.2 [5. Special Moment Frame: 1. 5.2. Select preliminary member sizes Check deflection and drift Check torsional amplification Check the columnbeam moment ratio rule Check shear requirement at panelzone 6. Check strength (Provisions Sec.33 49.) 5. The method for each alternative is summarized below.386 62.2.19 0.235 15.235 2. 5.000 Cvx 0.103 1. relative strengths of columns and beams.23 Alternative C. 542 . (This is illustrated in Figure 9.3]) (AISC Seismic Sec.FEMA 451.4.45 kN.05 1.120 133.270 1. Check redundancy 7. 5. Be sure to note that the seismic mass at any given level. 3.290 93. 4. Dual System Seismic Forces and Moments by Level Level (x) PH Roof Main roof Story 7 Story 6 Story 5 Story 4 Story 3 Story 2 Σ Wx (kips ) 215 1.21 0. and the panelzone shear.350 228.235 2.4.220 49.2. 9.3.900 272.18 0.24 in the masonry examples.235 2. which includes the lower half of the wall above that level and the upper half of the wall below that level.67 22.745 2. The most significant criteria for the design are drift limits.33 Wxhxk (ftkips) 35.33 102.4.
3.2. In addition.3. 5.1]) (Provisions Sec.1 [4. 6.4. AISC Seismic 9.2.2.5.2. Es.2 [4.3]) (Provisions Sec. Select preliminary member sizes Check strength Check drift Check torsional amplification Check redundancy (Provisions Sec. Dual System: 1.4. Both of these changes are essentially editorial. For Grade 50.1 [5. 5.1 [5.2.8 [4. 4.4.25 and in the Y direction (5 bays) in Figure 5.2. 5.Chapter 5.is more restrictive for cases with low Pu /φbPy. the more stringent λp requirements apply for b/t. 5. Moment Frame 1. 5.1.3.4b [I81] requires that when the column moment strength to beam moment strength ratio is less than or equal to 2. has been added as a variable.1]) (Provisions Sec.3.8 [4. 2.2.1.2 [4. Select Preliminary Member Sizes – The preliminary member sizes are shown for the moment frame in the Xdirection (7 bays) in Figure 5. such as in this example. and when Pu/φbPy is less than or equal to 0.1) and beam web stability in accordance with AISC Seismic Table I91 [I81]. Further note that for columns in special steel moment frames such as this example. but Table I81 in the 2002 edition of AISC Seismic has also been expanded to include more elements than in the 1997 edition.4. 543 . Structural Steel Design Alternative B. Select preliminary member sizes Check strength of moment frame for 25 percent of story shear Check strength of braced frames Check drift for total building Check torsional amplification Check redundancy (Provisions Sec. 5. b/t is limited to 7.3]) Reproportion member sizes as necessary after each check. Alternative C. 3.] Be careful because certain shapes found in the AISC Manual will not be permitted for Grade 50 steel (but may have been permitted for Grade 36 steel) because of these restrictions. Special Concentrically Braced Frame: 1.4.4. the formulas appear different because the elastic modulus.26. the more stringent h/t requirements apply.4. 3.0. Check Local Stability – Check beam flange stability in accordance with AISC Seismic Table I91 [I81] (same as FEMA 350 Sec.3. 3.2. The most significant criteria for this design is torsional amplification. 4.4. [The terminology for local stability has been revised in the 2002 edition of AISC Seismic. 5. 2.3]) Reproportion member sizes as necessary after each check. 5.3.1 Size Members for Alternative A.125. (FEMA 350 Sec. 5. The limiting slenderness ratios in AISC Seismic use the notation λps (“seismically compact”) to differentiate them from λp in AISC LRFD.3]) (Provisions Sec.) Beam flange slenderness ratios are limited to 52 / Fy and beam web heighttothickness ratios are limited to 418 / Fy .35.4.1. 5.2.2.5.1]) (Provisions Sec.3.
the first story drift ratio is less than 130 percent of the story above (Provisions Sec.2. 5.2.1].3. there is no vertical irregularity.2. ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 160 in. 544 . Pdelta effects are included.1] and Sec.2. 5.3.8 [4. Calculated story drifts and Cd amplification factors are summarized in Table 5. ⎠ Therefore. ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 268 in. 2. 5.FEMA 451. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples W21x44 W14x145 W 14x145 W21x44 W 14x145 W21x44 W 14x145 W21x44 W 14x145 W21x44 W 14x145 W21x44 W 14x145 W21x44 W 14x145 W14x398 W 14x283 W 14x233 W24x62 W24x62 W24x62 W24x62 W24x62 W24x62 W24x62 W27x94 W14x233 W 14x233 W27x94 W 14x233 W27x94 W 14x233 W27x94 W 14x233 W27x94 W 14x233 W27x94 W 14x233 W 14x257 W14x370 W27x94 W27x102 W27x102 W27x102 W27x102 W27x102 W27x102 W27x102 W30x108 W14x283 W 14x257 W30x108 W 14x257 W30x108 W 14x257 W30x108 W 14x257 W30x108 W 14x257 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W33x141 W14x370 W14x398 W33x141 W14x370 W33x141 W14x370 W33x141 W14x370 W33x141 W14x370 W33x141 W33x141 Figure 5. Check Drift – Check drift in accordance with Provisions Sec.8 [4. As indicated below. 5.6 of this chapter. Displacements at the building centroid are used here because the building is not torsionally irregular (see the next paragraph regarding torsional amplification). The building was modeled in 3D using RAMFRAME. ⎠ =⎝ = 0.5.17 in.3 [4.30 ⎛ 3.3]): Cd ∆x story 2 Cd ∆x story 3 ⎛ 5. All story drifts are within the allowable story drift limit of 0.98 < 1.24.2.5.020hsx per Provisions Sec.3.14 in.25 SMRF frame in EW direction (penthouse not shown).
93 ∆EW (in.08 1.20 3.97 3.53 0.48 0.5 5.5 5. = 25.65 2.66 2.) ∆NS (in.57 0.14 3.5) Story Drift from 3D Elastic Analysis at Building Centroid Cd (Cd ) x (Elastic Story Drift) Allowable Story Drift δEW (in.58 0.57 0. 545 . Table 5.) 4.17 3.) 2.20 5.19 2.) 0.19 3.20 3.54 0.14 5.50 0.57 0.58 0.47 0.) 0.19 2.64 3.) 5.4 mm.5.36 1.08 1.) Roof Floor 7 Floor 6 Floor 5 Floor 4 Floor 3 Floor 2 4.58 0.94 δNS (in.24 3.57 0.20 3.51 0.5 5.19 3.14 2.24 Alternative A (Moment Frame) Story Drifts under Seismic Loads Total Displacement at Building Centroid (86.5 5.20 3.5 2.19 2.93 5.Chapter 5. 62.5 5.5 ∆EW (in.57 0.76 3. Structural Steel Design W21x44 W14x145 W14x145 W21x44 W14x145 W21x44 W14x145 W21x44 W14x145 W21x44 W14x145 W14x398 W14x283 W14x233 W24x76 W24x76 W24x76 W24x76 W24x76 W27x94 W14x233 W14x233 W27x94 W14x233 W27x94 W14x233 W27x94 W14x233 W27x94 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W30x108 W14x283 W14x283 W30x108 W14x283 W30x108 W14x283 W30x108 W14x283 W30x108 W30x116 W30x116 W30x116 W30x116 W30x116 W33x141 W14x398 W14x398 W33x141 W14x398 W33x141 W14x398 W33x141 W14x398 W33x141 Figure 5.12 ∆ (in.26 SMRF frame in NS direction (penthouse not shown).14 3.59 3.14 5.77 3.5 5.0 in.94 ∆NS (in.92 3.20 3.24 3.
04 1.2.25 Alternative A Torsional Analysis Torsion Checks The 3D analysis provided the story deflections listed in Table 5. 5.98 (125.28.4 for the columns (re: AISC Seismic Sec.04 1. 9.6.16 1. This is illustrated in Figure 5.4.08 1. For purposes of this check.57 0.FEMA 451.3]).2δ avg ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 If Ax < 1.89 3. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 3.0 in. δmax/δavg exceed 1. 546 . However.00 1.04 1.213] is: ⎛ δ Ax = ⎜ max ⎜ 1.6. 9. = 25.54 4.4 mm. 4. Check the ColumnBeam Moment Ratio – Check the columnbeam moment ratio per AISC Seismic Sec.07 1.0) 4.07 1. Because none of the ratios for δEW Roof Story 7 Story 6 Story 5 Story 4 Story 3 Story 2 1.2 [8.04 1.2.1.62 1.4. So.30 2. Check Torsional Amplification – The torsional amplification factor per Provisions Eq. then torsional amplification will not be necessary.0) 4.07 1.04 1.27. combinations involving Ω0 factors do not come into play for the special steel moment frames. the moments at the location of the beam flanges is projected to the columnbeam intersection as shown in Figure 5. this frame is controlled by drift.07 1.07 1. torsional amplification of forces is not necessary for the moment frame alternative.75 2.25. then torsional amplification need not be considered.04 3.08 Member Design Considerations – Because Pu/φPn is typically less than 0.03 1.23 1.42 2. The expected moment strength of the beams were projected from the plastic hinge location to the column centerline per the requirements of AISC Seismic Sec.5db from the face or the column in accordance with FEMA 350 for WUFW connections (see below for description of these connections).) δNS max (in.39 3. Table 5. we will check the columnbeam moment ratio and the panel zone shear. 8.0. In sizing columns (and beams) for strength we will satisfy the most severe value from interaction equations.) δEW /δEW max avg δNS / δNS max avg (175.04 1. For the columns. with both strength and drift requirements satisfied.31 [5. It is readily seen that if the ratio of δmax/δavg is less that 1.85 2. max (in. the plastic hinge was taken to occur at 0.
For the columns: ⎛ P ⎞ ΣM * = ΣZ c ⎜ Fyc − uc ⎟ pc ⎜ Ag ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 500 kips ⎞ ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ ΣM * = 2 ⎢736 in. 1.2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ Adjust this by the ratio of average story height to average clear height between beams. The columnbeam strength ratio calculation is illustrated for the lower level in the EW direction. Therefore.3 ⎜ 50 ksi − pc ⎟ = 66.27 Projection of expected moment strength of beam (1.3048 m).1R y M p + M v ) pb where Ry = 1.13. ΣM*pc = (1. Structural Steel Design Center line of column Assumed plastic hinge location Center line of column MV Sh M*Pb Center line of beam MP Sh 25'0" Figure 5. Level 2.0 ft = 0. = 25.Chapter 5. For the beams.13)(66.35 + 128.kips Mv = VpSh Sh = Distance from column centerline to plastic hinge = dc/2 + db/2 = 25. or (268 + 160)/ (251.0 in.44) = 1.700 in.61 in.850 ftkips 109 in.1 for Grade 50 steel Mp = Fy Z = (50) (514) = 25. Vp = Shear at plastic hinge location 547 .850) = 75.4 mm. ΣM * = Σ (1.300 ftkips. at gridline G (W14×370 column and W33×141 beam).
700) + ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 12 ⎠ = 221. 2M p + wL ′ 2 L′ 2 Vp Figure 5.61) = 5.665 in.8)2 ⎞ (2)(25.406) (248.kips.0625 ksf)(12. w = Factored uniform gravity load along beam w = 1.700) + 5.5L = 1.5 ft) + 0.2 kips = 248. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Center line of beam Center line of column hc clear height Center line of beam The shear at the plastic hinge (Figure 5. Vp = ⎛ (1.8 and Mv = VpSh = (221.050 ksf)(12.5 ft) = 1. hs Mp Vp W Mp L' Plastic hinges where L′ = Distance between plastic hinges = 248.4(0.406 klf Therefore.8 in.1RyMp + Mv) = 2[(1. ΣM*pb = Σ(1.2)(25. The ratio of column moment strengths to beam moment strengths is computed as: 548 .FEMA 451.kips Finally.1)(25.4D + 0.29 Free body diagram bounded by plastic hinges.1)(1.665] = 73.28 Story height and clear height.29) is computed as: Vp = [2M p + (wL′ 2 /2] / L′ Figure 5.500 in.5(0.
900 pc = = 1.0 in.400 50.900 74. only these are shown. Table 5.000 40.0 73.36 1.500 ColumnBeam Ratio 1. 1. Structural Steel Design Ratio = ΣM * 76.05 > 1.24 ColumnBeam Moment Ratios for SevenBay Frame (NS Direction) Story 7 5 3 2 Member column W14×145 beam W24×62 column W14×233 beam W27×102 column W14×257 beam W30×108 column W14×370 beam W33×141 ΣM*pc (in.06 1.kips) 21.500 ΣM * pb OK The columnbeam strength ratio for all the other stories is determined in a similar manner. Check Panel Zone – The Provisions defers to AISC Seismic for the panel zone shear calculation.15 1.kip = 0. 1. both are illustrated below.300 ΣM*pb (in. Because the two methods for calculating panel zone shear (AISC Seismic and FEMA 350) differ.00.11 1.04 1.900 ΣM*pb (in. 5.000 53.700 63.100 85.17 1.Chapter 5.0 in.25 for the NS direction (fivebay) frame.800 73. They are summarized in Table 5. All cases are acceptable because the columnbeam moment ratios are all greater than 1.113 kNm. only these are shown.kips) 27. 549 .700 48.600 48. Table 5. the one with the larger beam size will govern.113 kNm.900 75.24 for the EW direction (sevenbay) frame and in Table 5.100 ColumnBeam Ratio 1.kips) 29.700 53.kip = 0.16 For levels with the same size column.02 For levels with the same size column.300 42. the one with the larger beam size will govern.kips) 29.25 ColumnBeam Moment Ratios for FiveBay Frame (NS Direction) Story 7 5 3 2 Member column W14×145 beam W24×76 column W14×233 beam W30×108 column W14×283 beam W30×116 column W14×398 beam W33×141 ΣM*pc (in.
the shear in the panel zone (Ru) is Ru = Σ Mf db − t fb Mf is the moment at the column face determined by projecting the expected moment at the plastic hinge points to the column faces (see Figure 5. 550 .3. The factored shear Ru is determined from the flexural strength of the beams connected to the column. This depends on the style of connection. FEMA 350 methods for panel zone shear. dc 2 x L' x dc 2 Column center line Column center line Mf M pe M pe lc M f = Expected moment at plastic hinge projected to face of column (AISC Seismic method) dc 2 dc 2 Mf Column center line x L' x Column center line Mc M pr M pr L Mc = Expected moment at plastic hinge projected to column centerline (FEMA 350 method) Mc Figure 5.210). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples AISC Seismic Method Check the shear requirement at the panel zone in accordance with AISC Seismic Sec. 9. In its simplest form.210 Illustration of AISC Seismic vs.FEMA 451.
91: Rv = 0. Structural Steel Design For a column with equal beams of equal spans framing into opposite faces (such as on Grids C. Use a plate thickness of 11/4 in.30 − 0. 3.6Fy dct p ⎢1 + ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ 2 3bcf tcf ⎤ ⎥ dbd ct p ⎥ ⎦ Rv = (0. 056 = 1. 537. only one beam frames into the column.660)2 ⎤ ⎥ (33. Thus the frame Ru = 1.1 − (2)(16.30)(17. this is 98 kips at this location. beam: W33×141) is from AISC Seismic Eq.056 in. For Grids 1 and 6. E. at Grids A and H.0)(1883) and tp = 2. there is no moment because the beams are pinconnected to the corner columns. and ΣM f = 2Ry Fy Zx ⎢ ⎡ lc ⎤ lc − 2x ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where lc = the clear span and x = distance from column face to plastic hinge location.98 = 1. the effect of gravity loads offset. The panel zone shear calculation for Story 2 of the frame in the EW direction at Grid F (column: W14×370. 4.91 in.92)(t p ) ⎢1 + ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ (3)(16.655 in.6t p + 315 The required total (web plus doubler plate) thickness is determined by: Rv = φRu Therefore.26 in.981 . the above relationship needs to be modified accordingly. From analysis.6)(50)(17. Because the column web thickness is 1. 2.1)(50)(514) ⎢ ⎡ ⎤ 282. For W33×141 beams framing into each side of a W14×370 column (such as Level 2 at Grid F): ΣM f = (2)(1.475)(2. and 5).kips ⎣ 282.Chapter 5.981 kips 33.92)(t p ) ⎥ ⎦ Rv = 537.1 ⎥ = 64. the distance x is different on one side.883 kips. D.586 ⎤ ⎥ tp ⎥ ⎦ Rv = 537. at Grids B and G. F. 551 . For all these cases. the required doubler plate thickness is 1.6t p ⎢1 + 0.55) ⎦ Ru = 64.6tp + 315 = (1..96 The shear transmitted to the joint from the story above opposes the direction of Ru and may be used to reduce the demand.
34: ⎡h − d ⎤ Cy = 1 Z Cpr be Sb Cpr.FEMA 451. (This b difference is illustrated in Figure 5.2.49 in. 3.4) and is computed from FEMA 350 Eq.2. buckling also must be checked using AISC Seismic Eq. 92 as doubler plate buckling would be a greater concern. FEMA 350 Method For the FEMA 350 method. 3.) The term ⎢ is an adjustment similar to reducing Ru ⎣ h ⎥ ⎦ by the direct shear in the column.6) F ⎡ h − db ⎤ ⎢ h ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ R yc d c ( d b − t fb ) yc (Please note the Σ. among others (see FEMA 350 Sec. to avoid thick welds. plug welding of the doubler plate to the column web is not necessary. 32: Cpr = (Fy + Fu ) 2Fy For the case of a W33×141 beam and W14×370 column (same as used for the above AISC Seismic method). the minimum individual thickness as limited by local buckling is: t ≥ (d z + wz )/90 t≥ (31. If necessary.2.7) and is computed from FEMA 350 Eq. the doubler plate may be plugwelded to the column web as indicated by AISC Seismic Commentary Figure C9. “Panel Zone Strength. one on each side of the column web.3.6) = 0. the detailing of connections that may be attached to the (thinner) doubler plate on the side of the weld needs to be carefully reviewed for secondary effects such as undesirable outofplane bending or prying. where h is the average story height. two doubler plates (each of half the required thickness) may be used. see FEMA 350 Sec.” to determine the required total panel zone thickness (t): CyM c t= ∑ (0. includes the effects of strain hardening and local restraint..9)(0. In the case of thick doubler plates. whereas AISC Seismic uses the expected beam moment projected to the face of the column flange. 92.210.3. 3. For this case.2. Also. Cy is a factor that adjusts the force on the panel down to the level at which the beam begins to yield in flexure (see FEMA 350 Sec. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Both the column web thickness and the doubler plate thickness are checked for shear buckling during inelastic deformations by AISC Seismic Eq. 37 is an inadvertent typographical error. 90 Because both the column web thickness and the doubler plate thicknesses are greater than 0. its omission from FEMA 350 Eq. For such cases.38 +12.49 in. a factor accounting for the peak connection strength. values for the variables are: 552 .) The term Mc refers to the expected beam moment projected to the centerline of the column.
Sh = dc/2 + db/2 = 17.266)(20.924 + (273)(17.1)(17.61/2) = 40. by FEMA 350 is close to the thickness of 1.61 in.924 in.1.9)(0.27 in.916 in.655 in.2.211 and 5.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]. .924) + ⎜ ⎟⎥ (12)(2) ⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Vp = (20. Structural Steel Design Distance from column centerline to plastic hinge.93 in.30 − 0.Chapter 5. L′ = 25 ft .92/2 + 25.916) ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ (214) ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ t = 2⎢ ⎢ (0. ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ (214) − (33.92/2 + 33.73)2 ⎞⎤ ⎢(2)(33.26 by AISC Seismic. 5. Thus. = 1. For columns common to two bays with moment resisting connections on opposite sides of the column at the level under consideration. Check Redundancy – Return to the calculation of rx for the moment frame.93 in.212).kips Cy = 1 1 = = 0.61 in.92)(33.2(25.kips (FEMA 350.73 ft Mpr = CprRyZeFy (FEMA 350 Figure 34) Mpr = (1.30/2 = 25.)/12 = 20. 553 .1)(514)(50) = 33. In accordance with Provisions Sec. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The required doubler plate thickness is equal to t . 70 percent of the shear in that column may be used in the column shear summation (Figures 5.73)(12) = 273 kips Mc = Mpr + Vp(x + dc/2) (FEMA 350 Figure 34) Mc = 33.2)(1.4. Figure 34) ⎡ ⎛ wL′ 2 ⎞ ⎤ 2 M pr + ⎜ ⎢ ⎟⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ Vp = ⎣ L' ⎡ ⎛ (1. Span between plastic hinges.73)(40. 6.tcw = 2. the doubler plate thickness for 1.96) ⎥ = 2.73 514 Zbe (1.6)(50)(1.30) ⎤ (0. rmax x is taken as the maximum of the sum of the shears in any two adjacent columns in the plane of a moment frame divided by the story shear.27 in.2) Cpr 448 Sb Therefore.
The maximum value of rmax x in the NS direction is 0.1 kips 110. Level 2) (1.139 r x = (1.211 Column shears for EW direction (partial elevation.7 kips 14.2) = 0.2.) 554 .7) = 0.15 is less than the limit of 1.1) + (0.25.1 kips 113.0 kip = 4.4.1 kips Figure 5.063 1.7)(113.7) + (0.2.45 kN).7)(76.1 kips 113.3 kips 110.25.15 0.0)(14. and ρ is now determined using Provisions Eq.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions].0)(56.875 ft2 ρ = 2− Because 1.160.2 kips 76. The shear carried by each column comes from the RAMFRAME analysis.3) + (0.FEMA 451.5. then the framing would have to be reconfigured until ρ < 1.15.2 kips 76. + (0. which includes the effect of accidental torsion.1) = 0. Level 3) (1.212 Column shears for NS direction (partial elevation.3 kips 56.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]: ρ = 2− 20 rmaxx Ax 20 = 1.25 for special moment frames per the exception in the Provisions Sec.105 1.1) 977 r x = (0.7)(76. For this example. (If ρ > 1. rx was computed for every column pair at every level in both directions.45 kN).014 Figure 5.7)(113.0 kip = 4. 5.7 kips 70.014 rx = (1. use ρ =1.7)(70.7 kips 76.7 kips 76. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 14.160 21.7)(110.1 kips 70.160 977 56.1 kips rx = (0.4.3) = 0. Selected results are illustrated in the figures.
rmax x = 0.1 for this application is reviewed below.) The connection.Chapter 5. remember that the quality assurance requirements are a vital part of the total requirements and must be enforced. All design force effects (axial force.2.) 7. (However. here the panel zone strength requirement is from FEMA 350.4 1. 3. All other beamtocolumn connections in the moment frame will be similar. The welded unreinforced flangeswelded web (WUFW) connection is selected because it is prequalified for special moment frames with members of the size used in this example. so use ρ = 1. drift controls the design in this example. Structural Steel Design In the EW direction.71. While the discussion of the design procedure below considers design requirements. shown in Figure 5.8bf t f FybRyb FycRyc 555 . FEMA 350 Sec. is based on the general design shown in FEMA 350 Figure 38.105 and ρ = 0. 3.00.213 illustrates the forces at the beamtocolumn connection. 3. Connection Design – One beamtocolumn connection for the momentresisting frame is now designed to illustrate the FEMA 350 method for a prequalified connection. Sh Sh M pr Vp M pr Vp Figure 5.3. Mpr. The procedure outlined above for the FEMA 350 method for panel zone shear is repeated here to determine Sh.2 notes that the WUFW connection can perform reliably provided all the limitations are met and the quality assurance requirements are satisfied. Vp. Mc .214.5. Continuity plates are required in accordance with FEMA 350 Sec. Figure 5. not the AISC Seismic method.00. The design procedure outlined in FEMA 350 Sec. shear. which is less than 1.3. Cy and the required panel zone thickness.213 Forces at beam/column connection. (Of course.1: tcf < 0. First review FEMA 350 Table 33 for prequalification data. Drift and deflections are not subject to the ρ factor. moment) obtained from analysis must be increased by the ρ factors. Our case of a W36×135 beam connected to a W14×398 column meets all of these.5.
4 (1.1) tcf = 2.79 in.215 Figure 5.4 mm). 556 . = 25. required (50)(1.214 WUFW connection.8)(11. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples tcf < 0. Provide continuity plates of 7/8 in. thickness.65 in.FEMA 451. continuity plates are not necessary at this connection because the column flange is so thick.950)(0.845 in. which is thicker than the beam flange of 0.1) = 1. At a minimum.0 in. continuity plates should be at least as thick as the beam flanges. But we will provide them anyway to illustrate continuity plates in the example. > actual OK Therefore. NSdirection (1. 1 2" R See Figure 5. Second level.790) (50)(1.
98 in.875 in.8" 6 Erection bolt PP 4 Shear tab: 5 " x 3" 8 Figure 5. = 2 ⎠ 3 ⎝ OK tstiffener ≥ bf 2 0.950 ⎛ ⎜5 + ⎟ = 5. > 3.77 ⎞ 11.88 in. = tstiffener > wstiffener Fy 95 1 1" Backing bar 1 1" 2 5 16 3 4" 3 8" 2" 238" R 3 5 1 3 4" .9: b t Width of stiffener + cw ≥ bf 2 3 1.0 in. Structural Steel Design Check AISC LRFD K1.215 WUFW weld detail (1.395 in. > 0. = 25.4 mm).Chapter 5.79 2 OK 0. 557 .
CJP groove weld at top and bottom flanges.215 (indicated by circles in the figure) are: 1. 6. See also FEMA 350 Figure 38 for more elaboration on the welds.217.2 Size Members for Alternative B. Grind end of weld smooth at weld access holes. Braced Frame 1. > 0. = (5) ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 50 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 95 ⎠ OK The details shown in Figures 5. 13.4. CJP groove weld full length between weld access holes. Fillet weld shear tab to beam web. Check Strength – First. Full depth partial penetration weld from far side. made with backing bar. Weld size shall be equal to thickness of shear tab minus 1/16 in.875 in.125. Provide nonfusible weld tabs.3. Select Preliminary Member Sizes – The preliminary member sizes are shown for the braced frame in the EW direction (seven bays) in Figure 5. Then fillet weld from near side. check slenderness and widthtothickness ratios – the geometrical requirements for local stability.216 and in the NS direction (five bays) in Figure 5.215 conform to the requirements of FEMA 350 for a WUFW connection in a special moment frame. Root opening between beam web and column prior to starting weld 5.35 2t Fy 50 Webs in combined flexural and axial compression (where Pu/φbPy < 0. Remove backing bar. 5. Wide flange members and channels must comply with the widthtothickness ratios contained in AISC Seismic Table I91 [I81].214 and 5. These are shop welds of shear tab to column. 2. Notes for Figure 5. Weld shall extend over the top and bottom third of the shear tab height and extend across the top and bottom of the shear tab. 5.37 in. The arrangement is dictated by architectural considerations regarding doorways into the stairwells. and add fillet weld. 4.2. bracing members must satisfy kl 1000 1000 ≤ = = 141 r Fy 50 The columns are all relatively heavy shapes. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 0. so kl/r is assumed to be acceptable and is not examined in this example. which shall be removed after welding. 2. In accordance with AISC Seismic Sec. backgouge. 3. which is the case in this example) must satisfy: 558 . Flanges must satisfy: b 52 52 ≤ = = 7.2.FEMA 451.
2 t Fy 46 559 W14x665 HS W14x455 HS W14x211 W14x109 1 2 1 2 1 2 5 8 1 2 5 8 5 8 5 8 5 8 x 12 2x S1 x 12 2x S1 5 8 x 12 2x S1 5 8 5 8 2x 2x1 S1 5 8 . Structural Steel Design PH W14x38 W14x34 W14x38 W14x38 W14x34 W14x38 PH W14x38 W14x34 W14x38 R W14x109 HS 14 S4x 4x 4x 1 S4x 4 HS W14x34 x x8 S8 HS HS S8 x8 x1 2 HS 14 S4x 4x 4x 1 S4x 4 HS W14x34 HS S8 x8 x1 x x8 S8 HS 2 R W14x109 HS 1 x4 S4x 4x4 4x 1 SS 4 H W14x38 W14x109 W14x109 W14x109 7 W14x34 HS S8 x8 x1 x x8 S8 HS 2 W14x34 x x8 S8 HS HS S8 x8 x1 2 7 HS 5 S10 x 8 x10 x10 x5 S10 S 8 H W14x38 6 W14x211 W14x38 x 10 0x S1 HS HS S1 0x 10 x5 8 W14x38 HS S1 0x 10 x5 x 10 0x S1 HS 6 8 HS 5 S10 x 8 x10 x10 x5 S10 8 HS W14x38 W14x211 W14x211 W14x211 W14x211 5 W14x43 HS S1 0x 10 x5 x 10 0x S1 HS 8 W14x43 x 10 0x S1 HS HS S1 0x 10 x5 8 5 HS 5 8 S12 12x x12 12x x5 SS 8 H W14x38 4 W14x455 W14x48 HS S1 2x 12 x5 W14x48 W14x455 W14x455 W14x455 S1 2x 12 x5 HS 8 4 W14x455 HS 5 8 S12 12x x12 12x x5 SS 8 H W14x38 8 3 HS W14x53 S1 2x 12 x5 8 W14x53 HS S1 2x 12 x5 8 3 x 12 2x S1 5 8 HS S12 12x x12 12x x5 SS H 8 W14x38 HS 2 W14x61 HS 8 W14x61 2 5 HS x 8 S12 x12 x12 S12 x5 HS 8 W14x38 HS 2x 5 HS W14x665 W14x665 W14x665 W14x665 S1 2x1 W14x665 2x x1 12 S HS 5 8 HS S1 2x 12 x5 8 2x x1 12 S HS 5 8 HS S1 2x 12 x5 8 Figure 5.Chapter 5.217 Braced frame in NS direction. hc 520 ⎡ Pu ⎤ ≤ ⎢1 − 1.54 ⎥ tw φb Py ⎥ Fy ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ Rectangular HSS members must satisfy: b 110 110 ≤ = = 16. Figure 5.216 Braced frame in EW direction.
17 < 16. Maximum displacements at the building corners are used here because the building is torsionally irregular.8 < 141 4. Note that the W14×34 is at the penthouse roof.62 OK b 9.35 W14×34: b/2t = 7. 3.8 [4. 560 .5]. Pdelta effects are included. The building was modeled in 3D using RAMFRAME.6 < 7. Use of the displacements at the centroid as the average displacements is valid for a symmetrical building. which is barely significant for this braced frame.581 OK Also note that t for the HSS is actual.2 t 0..4 > 7. but is acceptable for this example.35.26.FEMA 451.4 = = 16. which affects the dimension b. and it would have to be specified for this tube to meet the b/t limit. not nominal. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Selected members are checked below: W14×38: b/2t = 6.40 in. 9. This is summarized in Table 5. Calculated story displacements are used to determine Ax. 5.2. Displacements at the building centroid are also calculated because these will be the average between the maximum at one corner and the minimum at the diagonally opposite corner. Check Drift – Check drift in accordance with Provisions Sec. The value of b used here. OK HSS12×12×5/8: kl = r ⎛ 28. The corner radius of HSS varies somewhat. the torsional amplification factor.33 × 12 ⎞ (1) ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ = 36. depends on a corner radius slightly larger than 2t.
08 7.0 ft = 0.70 19. 1.13 1. = 25.38 2.14 2. Check Torsional Amplification – A second RAMFRAME 3D analysis was made. These will be used in the next round of analysis.64 1.86 0.32 1.70 1.67 1.2.3.95 16.18 1.52 7.69 1.27 0.34 EW 3.32. which. given rigid diaphragms and symmetry about both axes.23 1.08 1.03 0. However.03 2.59 0.29 1.3 of this volume of design examples for a more detailed examination of this issue.44 1. One reason for this is that the computed period of vibration would lengthen.93 2.41 16.35 NS 1.05 in the EW and NS directions are multiplied by Ax to determine the amplified eccentricities. 1.80 7.2δ avg ⎠ EW 1.05L for accidental torsion. The Provisions does not require an arbitrary offset for center of mass in dynamic analysis nor is it common practice to do so.79 1.27.2 and 9. Structural Steel Design Table 5.57 * These values are taken directly from the analysis.Chapter 5.) δ max ** δ avg Torsional Amplification Factor = ⎛ δ ⎞ Ax = ⎜ max ⎟ ⎝ 1. Item 1a]).41 17.62 1.65 1.30 0.2 (Provisions Table 5.1 [4.23 2 Amplified Eccentricity = Ax(0.96 1.06 2.41] indicates that an ELF analysis is “not permitted” for torsionally irregular structures.2 Item 1a [4.28 1.53 NS 3. The building is torsionally irregular in plan.30 1.88 1. 9.16 0.86 17.99 18.82 1.15 1.37 7.66 0.3048 m.60 EW 7. 4.2 1. using the amplified eccentricity for accidental torsion instead of merely 0.47 1. See Sec. Accidental torsion is not amplified here. in turn.89 NS 15. *** The initial eccentricities of 0.34 1. 561 .5.25 1.26 Alternative B Amplification of Accidental Torsion Average Elastic Displacement = Displacement at Building Centroid (in. ** Amplification of accidental torsion is required because this term is greater than 1. Provisions Table 5.15 1.48 1.20 7.93 1.95 0.37 2.) Maximum Elastic Displacement at Building Corner* (in.26 NS 1.04 1.71 7.79 EW 1.39 NS 2.72 1.99 2.0 in.75 1. would reduce the overall seismic demand. a modal analysis will not give any difference in results than an ELF analysis insofar as accidental torsion is concerned unless one arbitrarily offsets the center of mass.05 L)*** (ft) EW R 7 6 5 4 3 2 2.89 0.62 2.4 mm.2.33 1. The results are summarized in Table 5.
) EW R 7 6 5 4 3 2 3.89 2.2.98 1. Displacement (at corners) (in. Even though many braced frames are controlled by strength.) ∆ 3.0 in.FEMA 451.68 2.37 in. 5.23 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 5.) Allowable Story Drift (in.20 3.2. 5. The maximum rx was found to be 0.75 ∆NS 2.6 above.55 ∆NS 0.2.32 2.) ∆EW 0.05 1.46 2.64 0.95 3.55 0.75 3.38 0. Elastic Displacement at Building Corners (in. the elastic displacements at the main roof are: At the centroid = 2.20 3.20 3. A value for rx was determined for every brace element at every level in both directions.36 ∆EW 2.25 1.93 0.2.223 below Level 7 in the NSdirection.85 Elastic Story Drift at Location of Max. Selected results are illustrated in the figures. = 25. rmax x for braced frames is taken as the lateral force component in the most heavily loaded brace element divided by the story shear (Figure 5.27 Alternative B Story Drifts under Seismic Load Max.40 0. At the corner with amplified accidental torsion = 4.45 0. Check Redundancy – Now return to the calculation of rx for the braced frame. At the corner with accidental torsion = 3.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]. this is an example of how the Provisions places significant stiffness demands on some braced structures.61 0.4.85 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Cd (Cd) × (Elastic Story Drift) (in.24 1.20 3.93 4. For the final structure.20 5.72 2.8 [4.10 2.4 mm All story drifts are within the allowable story drift limit of 0. it would more properly be called torsional flexibility) of amplifying the accidental torsion and checking the drift limits at the corners combine to create a demand for substantially more stiffness in the structure.64 0. which includes the effect of amplified accidental torsion. 5.08 in.63 0.16 3.32 0.43 0. 5.20 3. This a good point to reflect on the impact of accidental torsion and its amplification on the design of this corebraced structure.51] and the allowable deflections for this building from Sec.77 1.27 2.42 0.18 3.55 NS 4.4.19 3.45 0.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]: 562 .50 3.50 in.59 0. The lateral component carried by each brace element comes from the RAMFRAME analysis.07 2. The two effects of torsional irregularity (in this case.49 0. The reliability factor (ρ) is now determined using Provisions Eq.3. 5.218). Per Provisions Sec. The sizes of members were increased substantially to bring the drift within the limits (note how close the NS direction drifts are).020hsx in accordance with Provisions Sec.14 2.
factors. When Pu/φPn is greater than 0. There is a panel of chevron bracing at the top story of one of the braced frames (Figure 5. AISC Seismic Sec.875 ft 2 = 1.2 = 0. Braced Frame Member Design Considerations – The design of members in the special concentrically braced frame (SCBF) needs to satisfy AISC Seismic Sec. 41 and 42 [Provisions Eq. 6. The requirements of AISC Seismic Sec. (The level above in Figure 5. which is the case here.23 and 4.) [See Sec. drift controls because of amplified accidental torsion. the size of the braces must be known in order to design the beam.2 kips 7 530 kips = story shear rx = 118. 5. The load combination for the beam is modified using a Qb factor defined in AISC Seismic Sec.2.216 is a minor penthouse that is not considered to be a story.223 530 Figure 5.192 and 1.39 In the NS direction. moments) obtained from analysis must be increased by the ρ factor of 1.7 [4. Note in particular AISC Seismic Sec. for the EWdirection. the beam must be able to 563 . as is the predominant case here. Beams in many configurations of braced frames have small moments and forces.2. 13. 13.39. 8. in this case.Chapter 5.45 kN).2c. which requires that both the compression brace and the tension brace share the force at each level (as opposed to the “tension only” braces of Example 5. 4. all design force effects (axial forces.218 Lateral force component in braces for NS direction – partial elevation. Note that ρ is not used where Ω0 is used (see Provisions Sec.2.2. Similarly. or overstrength.2 also stipulates a kl/r limitation and local buckling (widththickness) ratio limits. 5. Moments are generally small for the braced frame so load combinations with Ω0 can control column size for strength considerations but. Drift and deflection are not subject to the ρ factor.4 should be checked although. shears. for this building.2]).223 21.3. V and inverted V (chevron) configurations are an exception to this. the required axial strength needs to be determined from AISC Seismic Eq. certain limitations of AISC Seismic do not apply because the beam is at the top story of a building.24]. rmax x and ρ are found to be 0.26.2 for a discussion of the significant changes to the redundancy requirements in the 2003 Provisions. 13.0 kip = 4. These equations are for load combinations that include the Ω0. Bracing members have special requirements as well.) If the chevron bay were not at the top story. respectively.] 118. Level 7 (1.4a. although Ω0 factors do not apply to braces in a SCBF. 13.216). 13 and columns also need to satisfy AISC Seismic Sec. (However drift controls the design for this problem.1).4. Basically. Structural Steel Design ρ = 2− 20 r max x A x = 2− 20 0.
1. tic as Pl ng hi ez e on = 2t 12 x 5 8 564 . The prescribed load effect is to use 0. First. but the tension brace has not yet yielded).0 ft = 0.219 Bracing connection detail (1..) p (T y W14x211 Pl as tic 2'7" hi ng ez on e= 8 Plate: 118" (A36) 7'11" 2'31 2" W14x38 6 2'1 2" Le ff 3'1" 2x S1 HS Figure 5. = 25.e.219 illustrates a typical connection design at a column per AISC Seismic Sec. Connection Design – Figure 5.3048 m). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples carry a concentrated load equal to the difference in vertical force between the postbuckling strength of the compression brace and the yield strength of the tension brace (i. 7. 2t x5 HS S 10 x 10 30° .0 in. 13. The bracing members satisfy these checks.4 mm.3φcPn for the compression brace and Py for the tension brace in order to determine a design vertical force to be applied to the beam. the compression brace has buckled. check the slenderness and widthtothickness ratios (see above).FEMA 451.
220 for the determination of this dimension.677 kips.7 in.993 kips > 1.) = 1.933 kips is less than 2. Structural Steel Design Next.75)(58 ksi )(1. " 37 " 12 For tension yielding of the gusset plate: φTn = φFyAg = (0.5 30 30° HS W14x211 x 12 2x S1 5 8 Figure 5.677 kips > 1.639 kips For fracture in the net section: OK φTn = φFuAn = (0. × 54. 54 3 4" 30 ° " . 13. For an HSS12×12×5/8.220 Whitmore section (1. OK 565 .90)(36 ksi)(1.0 in.125 in. The required strength of the connection is to be the nominal axial tensile strength of the bracing member. See Figure 5.3a: Pn = RyFyAg = (1. 1.0 ft = 0. = 25. × 54.3048 m).639 kips The area of the gusset is determined using the plate thickness and the Whitmore section for effective width. design the connections.4 mm.3)(46 ksi)(27.639 kips Since 1.2) = 1.7 in.) = 2. the nominal axial tensile strength is computed using AISC Seismic Sec.Chapter 5. yielding (ductile behavior) governs over fracture.125 in.4 in.
the required length of weld is determined to be: Lw = 410 kips = 37 in. there will be alternating cycles of compression to tension in a single bracing member and its connections. The demand in each weld will be 1.5. By this method.04 kips/in.× 1. Remember that during the earthquake. using a design compressive load from the brace of 1. With such a plastic hinge. fillet weld. there will be four welds. First. The gusset plate must be permitted to flex about this hinge.000 Since λc < 1.220.FEMA 451. See also AISC Seismic C13. Inelastic rotation associated with brace postbuckling deformations: The gusset plate is detailed such that it can form a plastic hinge over a distance of 2t (where t = thickness of the gusset plate) from the end of the brace.5 in.217 )(46) = 42.0) = 1.5 is: φFw = φ(0.151 kips.60)π 29. E24: λc = kl rπ Fy E = (1)(169) 46 = 0. determine the nominal compressive strength of the brace member. Leff = 169 in. determine the buckling capacity of the gusset plate using the Whitmore section method.466 (4. The design strength for a fillet weld per AISC LRFD Table J2.) = 21.)(31.151 kips Now. the connection will be designed in accordance with these criteria.6580. the design of brace connections need not consider flexure if the connections meet the following criteria: a.4)(42.5 ksi) In accordance with the exception of AISC Seismic Sec.75)(0.6Fexx) = (0.3c. The connection design strength must be at least equal to the nominal compressive strength of the brace.25 in. the compressive force per unit length of gusset plate is (1.5 ksi For a 1/2 in.707)(0.3c.151 kips/54. the compression brace may buckle outofplane when the tension braces are loaded. and the nominal compressive strength is determined using AISC LRFD Eq. b.7 ksi 566 . illustrated by Figure 5. unrestrained by any other structural member.6)(70 ksi) = 31. fa = P/A = 21.658λc ) Fy = (0. For the brace being considered.0 ksi 2 Pcr = AgFcr = (27.7 in. 13. use AISC LRFD Eq. (0. The effective brace length (Leff) is the distance between the plastic hinges on the gusset plates at each end of the brace member.125 in. Try a plate thickness of 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples For a tube slotted to fit over a connection plate. Therefore.04 kips/(1 in.) = 18.639 kips/4 = 410 kips. E22: Fcr = (0. Proper detailing is imperative so that tears or fractures in the steel do not initiate during the cyclic loading.
The effective length for buckling of this plate will be k[12" + (2)(2t + weld length)].220. wide slot for the gusset plate (at the column).2) = 1.7 in. and the Whitmore section is the same. even if the net area equaled the gross area. The gusset plate will experience the same tension force as the plate above.639 kips For fracture in the net section: OK φTn = φFyAg = (0.54)π 29.) = 2.2.000 Since λc < 1.25 in.4 ksi > 18. plate.406 = 1.45) = 24.25 in. Structural Steel Design The gusset plate is modeled as a 1 in.65[12 + (2)(2 × 15/16 + 5/16)] = 9.45 in. OK For compression loads. deep rectangular section.8)(30.25 × 2) = 1. the effective width is shown in Figure 5.75)(58 ksi)(0.257 )(36) = 32.639 kips). the effective length is 0. × 54. so a thinner plate may be adequate.9375 in.) = 1.75 x 1. but this is clearly impossible. This design is considered satisfactory.3 ksi 2 φFcr = (0.231 kips > 1.7 in. which has a 1 1/4 in.125 in. × 54. yielding (ductile behavior) governs over fracture. E24: λc = kl rπ Fy E = (0. Next. and the net section.5) 36 = 0.221. E22: Fcr = (0.7 .7 in.9375 in.055 kips) to exceed probable tensile yield (1. use AISC LRFD Eq. Anet = (25. Per AISC LRFD Eq.85)(32.658λc ) Fy = (0. For tension yielding of the gusset plate: φTn = φFyAg = (0. check the reduced section of thetube.2 Compare yield in the gross section with fracture in the net section: Yield = FyAg =(46 ksi)(25.662 kips > 1.5.7 ksi OK Now consider the bracetobrace connection shown in Figure 5.182 kips Fracture = FuAn =(58 ksi)(24.8. wide by 1.581 × 1.90)(36 ksi)(0. For this case. Try a 15/16 in.1.3b could be used to require design fracture strength (0. Again. 567 . The effective length factor (k) for this “column” is 0.2) = 1.231 kips.6580.3) = 27.639 kips Since 1. Compression in the plate over this effective length is acceptable by inspection and will not be computed here.4 ksi φFcr = 27.51 (0.Chapter 5. The reduction in HSS12×12×5/8 section due to the slot is (0. the plate must be detailed to develop a plastic hinge over a distance of 2t from the end of the brace.2 in. However.662 kips is less than 2.406 kips OK OK AISC Seismic 13. the compression length is much less. pinned at one end (the plastic hinge) and fixed at the other end where welded to column (see Whitmore section diagram).
2 [4. 5.3.3. For some buildings this may present an opportunity to design the columns without doubler plates because the strength requirement is only 25 percent of the total.222 and 5.2.221 Bracetobrace connection (1.1.2. Select Preliminary Member Sizes – A dual system is a combination of a momentresisting frame with either a shear wall or a braced frame. columnbeam moment ratio.82 . a dual system consisting of special moment frames at the perimeter and special concentrically braced frames at the core will be used. but feasible. for the members used in this example.2. Preliminary sizes for the perimeter moment frames are shown in Figures 5.4. panel zone shear. The methodology for the analysis and these checks is covered in Sec. In accordance with the building systems listed in Provisions Table 5. = 25.2. however.0 in.3.68 568 . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 2x 5 HS S1 2 x1 Le ff 8 W14x38 2 S1 HS x1 2x 5 8 Pl zo asti ne c h = ing 2t + e 5 16 " Figure 5.31]. and redundancy) and all must be checked.223. so they will not be repeated here. All the design requirements for special moment frames still apply (flange and web widthtothickness ratios. it may be prudent to defer some of the checks until the design has progressed a bit further.1 [4. However.FEMA 451. 5. doubler plates will still be necessary. 2. This is a good place to start a design. The sequence of column sizes that is shown is W 14×132 .4. It is designed for strength using 25 percent of the design lateral forces. Dual System 1.1]). The increase in column size to avoid doubler plates is substantial.2. drift. 5.3 Size Members for Alternative C.4 mm). Check Strength of Moment Frame – The moment frame is required to have sufficient strength to resist 25 percent of the design forces by itself (Provisions Sec.
211 . Because of the presence of the moment frame. the sizes are not controlled by the check using Ω0E. Check the Strength of the Braced Frames – The next step is to select the member sizes for the braced frame. 3.2 [8. this should help to realize significant savings in the braced frame member sizes.2 [8. Structural Steel Design 53 and would become W14×257 .3] apply to these columns.176 to avoid doubler plates.233 . the accidental torsion on the building will be reduced as compared to a building with only a braced core.Chapter 5.222 and 5. followed by analysis of the entire dual system.3] because Pu/φPn > 0. All members need to be checked for widththickness ratios and the braces need to be checked for slenderness. A trial design is selected. Because the check using Ω0E is for axial capacity only and the moment frame columns are dominated by bending moment.4. W16x31 W14x53 W 14x53 W16x31 W 14x53 W16x31 W 14x53 W16x31 W 14x53 W16x31 W 14x53 W16x31 W 14x53 W16x31 W 14x53 W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 W14x68 W 14x68 W16x31 W 14x68 W16x31 W 14x68 W16x31 W 14x68 W16x31 W 14x68 W16x31 W 14x68 W16x31 W 14x68 W18x35 W18x35 W18x35 W18x35 W18x35 W18x35 W18x35 W18x40 W14x82 W 14x74 W18x40 W 14x74 W18x40 W 14x74 W18x40 W 14x74 W18x40 W 14x74 W18x40 W 14x74 W18x40 W 14x82 W21x44 W21x44 W21x44 W21x44 W21x44 W21x44 W21x44 W21x50 W14x132 W14x132 W21x50 W14x132 W21x50 W14x132 W21x50 W14x132 W21x50 W14x132 W21x50 W14x132 W21x50 W14x132 Figure 5. 8. 8. 569 . except in the upper few stories. Note that Pu /φPn > 0. The beams in Figures 5.4 for a few of the columns when analyzed without the braced frame so the overstrength requirements of AISC Seismic Sec.223 are controlled by strength because drift is not a criterion. This last requirement causes a significant increase in column sizes. In combination with the larger R factor (smaller design forces). Note that columns in the braced frame will need to satisfy the overstrength requirements of AISC Seismic Sec.222 Moment frame of dual system in EW direction.
8 [4. Pdelta effects are included. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples W16x31 W14x53 W14x53 W16x31 W14x53 W16x31 W14x53 W16x31 W14x53 W16x31 W14x53 W14x132 W14x82 W14x68 W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 W18x40 W14x68 W14x68 W18x40 W14x68 W18x40 W14x68 W18x40 W14x68 W18x40 W21x44 W21x44 W21x44 W21x44 W21x44 W21x50 W14x82 W14x82 W21x50 W14x82 W21x50 W14x82 W21x50 W14x82 W21x50 W21x50 W21x50 W21x50 W21x50 W21x50 W24x55 W14x132 W14x132 W24x55 W14x132 W24x55 W14x132 W24x55 W14x132 W24x55 Figure 5. Displacements at the building centroid are also calculated because these will be the average between the maximum at one corner and the minimum at the diagonally opposite corner.2.5]. 5.28). The building was modeled in three dimensions using RAMFRAME. the torsional amplification factor (Table 5. 570 . Check Drift – Check drift in accordance with Provisions Sec.223 Moment frame of dual system in NS direction.FEMA 451. 5. Check Torsional Amplification – Calculated story drifts are used to determine Ax. 4. Maximum displacements at the building corners are used here because the building is torsionally irregular. Use of the displacements at the centroid as the average displacements is valid for a symmetrical building.
05 0.00 2. These will be used in the next round of analysis.41 EW 3.29 1.2.77 2.57 EW 7.05L accidental eccentricity in order to validate the amplifiers used in design.31 1.28 Alternative C Amplification of Accidental Torsion Average Elastic Displacement = Displacement at Building Centroid (in. Structural Steel Design Table 5.0 in. ** Amplification of accidental torsion is required because this term is greater than 1.50 1.Chapter 5.2.4 mm.28 1.05L in the EW and NS directions are multiplied by Ax to determine the amplified eccentricities. Item 1a).52 NS 9. The amplifier increased for the EW direction but decreased for the NS direction.29. which was the controlling direction for torsion.2 (Provisions Table 5.25 7.37 2 Amplified Eccentricity = Ax(0.05 1.31 1.40 EW 1.225. That design was revised by increasing various brace and column sizes and then reanalyzing using the amplified eccentricity instead of merely 0.29 1.98 * These values are directly from the analysis.81 0.45 2. 1.224 and 5.11 0.75 0.28 1.3048 m.28 1.22 0.05L for accidental torsion.51 1.) Maximum Elastic Displacement at Building Corner* (in.07 7.43 NS 2.69 2.14 1.63 2.19 7.33 1. That structure was then checked for its response using the standard 0.) EW R 7 6 5 4 3 2 2.25 1. The results are summarized in Table 5.09 1.37 3.15 1.03 0.32 NS 1.28 1.32.6.50 11.28 does not quite satisfy the drift limits.16 1.57 3. Item 1a [4. a design that satisfied the drift limits was achieved.05 L)*** (ft.13 1.13 7.14 1.14 7.28 1. After a few iterations. *** The initial eccentricities of 0. 1.10 1. These member sizes are shown in Figures 5.14 1.15 11.27 1.) δ max δ avg ** Torsional Amplification Factor = ⎛ δ ⎞ Ax = ⎜ max ⎟ ⎝ 1.54 10.20 1.01 1.2.46 10. See discussion in footnote ** of Table 5.2δ avg ⎠ EW 1.13 1.56 1. The design that yielded the displacements shown in Table 5.57 NS 3. The building is torsionally irregular in plan.01 10.8 11. Accidental torsion is not amplified here.35 1.34 1.23 1.3.0 ft = 0.50 2.15 2. 571 .91 1.20 NS 1.38 1. = 25.64 1. even without amplifying the accidental torsion.08 7.
572 W14x426 W14x311 8x 5 8 8x W14x176 SS 7x 7x 5 8 W14x68 H 1 2 5 8 x x6 S6 HS 1 2 1 2 6x 6x SS 1 2 5 8 5 8 5 8 HS HS x x8 S8 5 8 x x8 S8 5 8 S HS 8x 8x 5 8 8x 5 8 5 8 . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples PH W14x48 W14x34 W14x48 W14x48 W14x34 W14x48 PH W14x48 W14x48 W14x48 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 R W14x68 HS S6 x6 x1 2 W14x48 W14x68 W14x68 x x6 S6 HS HS 1 2x3 S3 1 1 2x 4 HS S3 1 W14x48 2 x3 1 2x 1 4 R SS 6x 6x 1 2 HS W14x68 S3 1 1 2x 4 1 2x3 HS S3 1 W14x48 2 x3 1 2x1 4 W14x68 7 H W14x48 HS S6 x6 x1 2 W14x48 SS 6x 6x 1 2 HS 7 x x6 S6 HS 12 6x S6x W14x48 HS S6x 6x 1 6 W14x176 W14x48 x x7 S7 HS W14x38 W14x176 W14x176 W14x176 HS S7 x7 x5 x x7 S7 HS 8 S HS 6 W14x176 x 6x6 H 12 HS S6x 6x 1 W14x48 5 W14x48 HS S7 x7 x5 x x7 S7 HS 8 W14x48 x x7 S7 HS HS S7 x7 x5 8 S HS 1 x2 7x7 H HS S7x 7x 1 5 W14x48 4 W14x311 W14x48 W14x311 W14x311 W14x48 W14x311 S HS 4 W14x311 8x 5 8x 8 1 x2 7x7 HS S7x 7x 1 W14x48 HS S HS S 3 W14x48 W14x48 S HS x 8x8 12 HS S8x 8x 1 3 S HS 8x W14x48 x8 x5 x8 x5 8 S8 S8 8 2 W14x48 0x 0x1 S1 HS 8 W14x48 H 2 x 8x8 SS HS HS 12 HS S8x 8x 1 W14x48 HS S1 0x1 0x 5 W14x426 W14x426 W14x426 W14x426 W14x426 H 8x 8x SS 5 8 HS S8 x8 x5 8 8x 8x SS H 1 2 HS S8 x8 x1 Figure 5.225 Braced frame of dual system in NS direction.224 Braced frame of dual system in EWdirection. Figure 5.FEMA 451.
34 0.2. rmax x for braced frames is taken as the lateral force component in the most heavily loaded brace element divided by the story shear.47 0.45 0.06 2.0.49 0.01 4.4.218 for Alternative B.69 2. This is illustrated in Figure 5.20 3.37 0.5 6.5 6.45 0.875 ft.2 ⎣ x ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ ⎥ = 0.20 3.5 ∆EW 2. Structural Steel Design Table 5.64 6.17 3.4.1762 21.66 2.Chapter 5. [See Sec.58 2.94 2. 5.) Cd (Cd ) x (Elastic Story Drift) (in. rx was determined for every brace element at every level in both directions.5 6.42 3.2.2. > 3.64 Elastic Story Drift at Location of Max.] 573 . which includes the effect of amplified accidental torsion.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]. so use ρ = 1.0 for both directions.) ∆EW 0. is considered close enough for this example.46 0.54 ∆NS 0. 6.5.17 ∆ 3.2 for a discussion of the significant changes to the redundancy requirements in the 2003 Provisions.37 0.) Allowable Story Drift (in.79 1.0 for this example.09 1.0 in.39 0.52 ∆NS 2. rmax is less.1762 at the base level in the NS direction.4.2): ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ 20 20 ⎢2 − ⎥ = 0.1 in.05 2.8 ⎢ r max A x ⎥ ⎢ 0.58 1.1].89 2. 5. For this design.) EW R 7 6 5 4 3 2 3.3. therefore. The maximum value was found to be 0. Elastic Displacement at Building Corners (in. but the difference of only 0.20 3.30 3. ρ will be less.93 2.41 0. ρ = 1.20 5.11 0. 5.51 0. The lateral component carried by each brace element comes from the RAMFRAME analysis.48 0.05 3.20 3.8 ⎢ 2 − ρ = 0.93 0.5 6.43 2.42 3.09 3.8 [4.20 3. Displacement (at corners) (in. 5.54 NS 3. Check Redundancy – Now return to the calculation of rx for the braced frame.2.30 in. In accordance with Provisions Sec. ρ is now determined to be (see Sec.36 1.986 ⎥ ⎦ The 0. = 25. 5.20 in.55 3. As ρ is less than 1.29 Alternative C Story Drifts under Seismic Load Max.45 0. In the EW direction.020hsx as per Provisions Sec.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions].5 6.8 factor comes from Provisions Sec.2.24 1.4 mm The story drifts are within the allowable story drift limit of 0. Level 5 has a drift of 3.5 6. Thus.
574 . The weight of the momentresisting frame is controlled by drift and the strong column rule. Torsional amplification and drift limitations both increased the weight of steel in the bracing.4. The takeoffs are based on all members. Special Steel Moment Resisting Frame Alternative B.3.2. Connection Design – Connections for both the moment frame and braced frames may be designed in accordance with the methods illustrated in Sec. Special Steel Concentrically Braced Frame Alternative C.FEMA 451. but do not include an allowance for plates and bolts at connections. 5.2.5 Cost Comparison Material takeoffs were made for the three alternatives.2.3. The result of the material takeoffs are: Alternative A. the total structural steel was estimated. Dual System 593 tons 640 tons 668 tons The higher weight of the systems with bracing is primarily due to the placement of the bracing in the core. In each case. 5.2.1 and 5.4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 7. where resistance to torsion is poor.
1. = 25. gravels. The bay spacing is 20 ft each way.0 in. OAKLAND. The foundation soils are deep stable deposits of sands.1 Building Description This twostory hospital. is shown in Figure 5. 120 ft by 140 ft in plan.0 ft = 0.Chapter 5.4 mm. It has an unusually high roof load because of a plaza with heavy planters on the roof. The beams and girders on the column lines are tied to the slabs with stud connectors. The following items of seismic design of steelframed buildings are illustrated: 1.3048 m). B. 8.31. Floor beams are spaced three to a bay.3. CALIFORNIA This example features an eccentrically braced frame (EBF) building. The verticalloadcarrying system consists of concrete fill on steel deck floors supported by steel beams and girders that span to steel columns and to the perimeter basement walls. 575 . The building is founded on a thick mat. Structural Steel Design 5. The lateralforceresisting system for Stories 1 and 2 consists of EBFs on Gridlines 1. The building has a basement and two floors. and F as Brace (typical) 20'0" Basement walls 20'0" 20'0" 20'0" 20'0" 140'0" 20'0" 20'0" 20'0" 20'0" 20'0" 20'0" 20'0" 120'0" 20'0" N Figure 5. and stiff clays overlying rock. Design of bracing members 3.31 Main floor framing plan (1. Brace connections 5. Analysis of eccentrically braced frames 2.3 TWOSTORY BUILDING.
These EBFs transfer lateral loads to the main floor diaphragm. Select member preliminary sizes. and so on. The inelastic displacement must be within the allowable story drift from Provisions Table 5. Compute elastic drift (δe) and forces in the members. but because it is below the base that classification does not apply. 3.32].2. EBFs have been selected for this building because they provide high stiffness and a high degree of ductility while permitting limited storytostory height.0 in.3048 m). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples shown in Figure 5. Perform an elastic analysis of the building frame. = 25. A summary of the method is as follows: 1. not the foundation.31. 3'0" 15'6" Basement The structure illustrates a common situation for lowrise buildings with basements. This has a similarity to the irregularity Type 4 “outofplane offsets” defined in Provisions Table 5. 1.0 ft = 0.32.34 Figure 5.3.FEMA 451.2 [4. Compute the inelastic displacement as the product of Cd times δe. The fundamental concept behind the eccentric braced frame is that seismic energy is absorbed by yielding of the link. rather the focus will be on the design of a specific example of an EBF starting with the forces in the frame as obtained from a linear analysis.51]. the columns in the basement that are part of the EBFs must be designed and detailed as being the extension of the EBF that they are. Yielding in shear is more efficient than yielding in flexure.4 mm.2. Roof 2nd floor 1st floor 12'8" 12'8" Figure 5. splice requirements. the diagonal braces do not extend into the basement because the horizontal force is in the basement walls (both in shear parallel to the motion considered and in direct pressure on perpendicular walls). although either is permitted.2 Method The method for determining basic parameters is similar to that for other examples.3] for definition) of the building is the first floor. overstrength checks.8 [4. Therefore.3. 5. A typical bracing elevation is shown in Figure 5. This affects widththickness ratios. The braced frames are designed for 100 percent of lateral load and their share of vertical loads. Keep in mind that the load path is from the floor diaphragm to the beam to the braces. However. The combination of the basement walls and the first floor diaphragm is so much stiffer that the superstructure that the base (see Provisions Chapter 2 [4. It will not be repeated here. 576 .1.32 Section on Grid F (1. 2. Column design for an EBF is illustrated later in this example.
7.31. they will not be presented here. it may be necessary to modify member sizes. 5. The axial forces in the link and brace may be determined as follows: Total secondstory shear (determined elsewhere) = 535. without further detail.3.36 kNm. (The tradeoff to increasing the link length is that the moment in the link will increase.9 ftkips 121.5 ftkips 9. Cd = 4. The EBF system will not impose large rotational demands on a beam to column connection. To meet the link rotation angle requirement. An ELF analysis was used.2 kips 127.31 Summary of Critical Member Design Forces Member Link Force Designation Plink Vlink Mleft Mright Pbrace Mtop Mbot Magnitude 5. it is the authors’ interpretation that an ordinary moment resisting frame connection will be adequate).08 radians. then α will have to be limited to 0.7 kips 85. Compute the link rotation angle (α) and verify that it is less than 0.2 [4. For this case. Structural Steel Design 4.2. There are explicit requirements for the connection from a link to a column. Therefore.02 radians instead of 0.Chapter 5. The portions of the beam outside the link are to remain elastic.0 ftkip = 1. are summarized in Table 5.31]. The axial load in the link at Level 2 may be computed directly from the secondfloor forces.3.3. Therefore from Provisions Table 5.08 radians for yielding dominated by shear in the link or 0. there are momentresisting connections at the columns. Table 5. The braces and building columns are to remain elastic. only the link portion of the beam yields.) 6. the inelastic deformations are confined to the link. and Ω0 =2.34 for illustration of α). The criteria is based on the relationship between Mp and Vp as related to the length of the link.5 ftkips Brace 1.45 kN.6 kips 577 .0 kip = 4.1 Member Design Forces The critical forces for the design of individual structural elements. but the more efficient approach is to increase the link length. determined from computer analysis.3 ftkips 120. R = 8.02 radians for yielding dominated by flexure in the link. (Neither the Provisions nor AISC Seismic offer very much detailed information about requirements for momentresisting connections for the beam to column connection in an EBF. (See Figure 5. 5. 5.0 kips 15.3 Analysis Because the determination of basic provisions and analysis are so similar to those of other examples. 1. The force from the braces coming down from the roof level has a direct pass to the braces below without affecting the link. Should the moment become high enough to govern over shear yielding.
e = 3 ft as follows: α = ⎜ ⎟θ = ⎜ ⎟ = 0. As can be seen in Figure 5.08 radians (AISC Seismic Sec. ⎛L⎞ ⎛ 20 ft ⎞ ⎛ 0.91 klf Axial force in link = (1.8 kips/140 ft = 1. L = 20 ft. thus creating a link subject to high shear. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Secondstory shear per braced line = 535. The total inelastic drift is computed as: Cdδc = (4)(0.2 Drift From the linear computer analysis. ⎞ 5. In a severe earthquake. 15.0 kips Secondstory shear per braced line = 267.33 and 5. 578 . All section sizes and connection details are made similar for all braced bays.FEMA 451.2g [15.95 kips Axial force per brace = 66.25 ft/8.3. 15. shown in Figures 5.8 kips Secondstory shear per individual EBF = 267. The link rotation angle is computed for a span length. For now.2]). further calculations deal with the braced frames on Line F.9/2 = 66.7 kips 5.247 inches.95 (15. we will assume that shear yielding of the link governs and will verify this later.043 radians ⎟⎜ ⎝e⎠ ⎝ 3 ft ⎠ ⎝ (12.3.34. The following sections have been selected as a preliminary design: Typical girders Typical columns Typical braces W16×57 W14×132 HSS 8×8×5/8 Since all members of the braced frames are to be essentially the same. the elastic drift was determined to be 0.8/2 = 133. energy is dissipated through shear yielding of the links while diagonal braces and columns remain essentially elastic.33.247) = 0.3.67 ft)(12) ⎠ The design is satisfactory if we assume that shear yielding governs because the maximum permissible rotation is 0.8 kips Secondstory shear per linear foot = 267.99 in.4 Design of Eccentric Bracing Eccentric bracing adds two elements to the frame: braces and links. The criteria for the design of eccentric bracing are given in AISC Seismic Sec.5 ft) = 120. and a link length. two eccentric braces located in one story of the same bay intersect the upper beam a short distance apart.91 klf)(3 ft) = 5.9 kips Secondstory shear per brace = 133.99 in.6/2 = 267.
Chapter 5.32) is examined first. The shear force and end moments in the link (W16x57 beam section) are listed in Table 5. 1.34 Typical eccentric braced frame (1.34 Roof 2nd floor 1st floor Basement Figure 5.3.33 Diagram of eccentric braced frames on Grid F. Drift 8'6" 3'0" 8'6" α 12'8" θ 15 '3 Figure 5.4. Structural Steel Design Figure 5.4 mm.0 ft = 0.31 and repeated below: Plink = 5.3048 m).9 ftkips Mright = 121. 5.0 in. = 25.3 ftkips " 579 .1 Link Design The firststory eccentric braced frame (identified in Figure 5.7 kips Vlink = 85.2 kips Mleft = 127.
9)(50)(105) = 4725 in. b/t = 4.2]. That section specifies that the required shear strength of the link (Vu) must not exceed the design shear strength φVn. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 5.4.7 OK 5.35 OK The permitted web slenderness is dependent on the level of axial stress.3.3.5 kips e (3 × 12) 580 .9)(16. For the selected section.1. therefore. The nominal shear strength of the link is defined as the lesser of: Vp = (0.5 kips and Mp = φMn = 0.4. and Mright must not exceed member strength computed from AISC Seismic Sec.kips 2 Mp (2)(4725) = = 262.2 kips and Vn is the nominal shear strength of link.(2)(0.1 WidthThickness Ratio The links are first verified to conform to AISC Seismic Sec.2 Link Shear Strength The forces Vlink.8 = = 0.2d [15.715)](0. check the beam flange widththickness ratio.FEMA 451. First. Mleft.0 for the selected section is less than the limiting widthtothickness ratio computed as: 253 Fy = 253 50 = 35. which refers to AISC Seismic Table I91 [I81].8 × 50) It is less than 0.43 .2].60Fy)(d2tf)tw and 2 Mp e For the W16×57 section selected for the preliminary design: Vp = (0. The level of axial stress is determined as: Pu 5.98.125. 15.60)(50)[16.430) = 193. where Vu = Vlink = 85.1. 15.008 φb Py (0. the ratio tw/hc = 33.9Fy Zx = (0.2a [15. which is less than the permitted b/t ratio of : 52 Fy = 52 50 = 7.
and interpolation results in a spacing requirement of 15. Since the link length (e) of 36 in.08 radians: Spacing = (30tw . Interpolation of the stiffener spacing based on the two equations presented in AISC Seismic Sec.16.3.02 radians: Spacing = (52tw . α. the link rotation angle.16.5 kips φVn = (0.2].6Mp/Vp.f [15.8 in) = 840 kips 0.430 .430 . intermediate stiffeners are necessary in accordance with AISC Seismic Sec. Because the link length (e) is less than 1. because Pu < Py. Therefore. was determined to be 0.4 Link Rotation Angle In accordance with AISC Seismic Sec.4 in.d/5) = (30 × 0.1 in.5) = 39.4. Structural Steel Design Therefore.3.3.4. 15. Therefore.1.3 Link Axial Strength In accordance with AISC Seismic Sec.1 in.43/5) = 19. the effect of axial force on the link design shear strength need not be considered. the link rotation angle is not permitted to exceed 0.3].9)(193.2e [15. 5. the link rotation angle is permitted up to 0.1.3]. which is acceptable.1.5 Link Stiffeners AISC Seismic Sec.2 ftkips > 85.08 radians.43/5) = 9.2] do not need to be invoked.15Py of the link = (0. 5. the maximum link length is determined as: 1. requirement and also fits nicely within the link length of 36 in.2.3. In accordance with AISC Seismic Sec. Vn = 193.6Mp/Vp long or less.4. Further.6)(4725)/(193. 15.3.3b [15. For our case the link rotation angle is 0. These serve to transfer the link shear forces to the reacting elements (the braces) as well as restrain the link web against buckling. is less than 1.2 kips 5.4 in.3] will be necessary.3] requires fulldepth web stiffeners on both sides of the link web at the diagonal brace ends of the link.15)(840) = 126 kips OK Since the axial demand of 5. From Sec. because it conforms to the 15. and the stiffeners must be sized as follows: 581 . use a stiffener spacing of 12 in. 15. the link axial strength is examined: Py of the link = FyAg = (50 ksi)(16.08 radians for links 1.043 radians.Chapter 5.043 radians.2g [15.d/5) = (52 × 0. full depth stiffeners must be provided on both sides of the link. For a link rotation angle of 0.2]. 15. 15.6 in. For link rotation angle of 0.1 [15. 15.6Mp/Vp.7 kips is less than 126 kips.3b.5) = 174.6Mp/Vp = (1.3a [5. the additional requirements of AISC Seismic Sec. 15.3a [15. 5.
the brace at the bottom flange will need to be designed for this condition. Figure 5.8 ksi The design strength of the brace as an axial compression element is: Pbr = φc AgFcr = (0.85)(17.2 Brace Design For the design equations used below.430) = 6.2tw) = (7. each.1)(50)(7.31). determined to be 8×8×5/8 in. Taking the length of the brace conservatively as the distance between panel points. the length is 15.200(121. which specifies a maximum unbraced length of: Lpd = [3.25. the end lateral supports must have a design strength computed as: 0. Accordingly.600 + 2. F117.96π 29.5) is sufficient.9)](1. In accordance with AISC Seismic Sec.60) 50 = 182 in.6 Lateral Support of Link The spacing of the lateral bracing of the link must not exceed the requirement of AISC LRFD Eq.000 E 2 2 Fcr = (0.120)(0.75tw or 3/8 in.2 × 0.200(M1 / M2 )]ry Fy = [3.8) = 514 kips AISC Seismic Sec.96 (k has been conservatively taken as 1.6] requires that the design axial and flexural strength of the braces be those resulting from the expected nominal shear strength of the link (Vn) increased by Ry and a factor of 1. see Chapter E.8 kips tension or compression.1. of the AISC LRFD Specification. 5. 582 .3/127.817 2. Use 3. The braces.817 )(46) = 34. lateral bracing of beams with one brace at each end of the link (which is required for the link design per AISC Seismic Sec.9 r 2.26 feet.35 shows angle braces attached to the lower flange of the link.06)(1. The slenderness ratio is kl (1)(15. 15.600 + 2. Such angles will need to be designed for 16. 5.4. but is actually lower because of restraint at the ends. tubes with Fy = 46 ksi in the preliminary design. 15.4)(34.25 in.8 kips While shear studs on the top flange are expected to accommodate the transfer of this load into the concrete deck.3.26)(12) = = 61.0.26 in.4. Thickness at least 0.) Using AISC LRFD E24 for Fy = 46 ksi: λc = kl rπ Fy (1)(15.3.06RyFybftf = (0.6580.FEMA 451.5.6a [15.715) = 16.26 × 12) 50 = = 0.120 .658λc ) Fy = (0. 15. Use 3/8 in. are subjected to a calculated axial seismic load of 120 kips (from elastic analysis in Table 5. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Combined width at least (bf .
6 ftkips The design strength of the brace. determined from elastic analysis.6 − 0. per AISC LRFD C12: B1 = Cm ≥ 1.6 ⎞ Cm = 0. so the brace is adequate for axial loading.12)(9.12.4 ⎜ 1 ⎟ = 0. is 85. Thus. For axial demandtocapacity ratio greater than 0.817)2 ⎛M ⎞ ⎛ 29.199 kips (0. Structural Steel Design Thus.Chapter 5.12)(120) = 374 kips Design Mtop = (3. exceeds the design demand of 374 kips. Therefore. Mu.12)(15.4)(46) = 1. the increase is 266/85. 514 kips.5) = 48.2 kips. is computed in accordance with AISC LRFD Chapter C and must account for second order effects. 583 . the brace must also be checked for combined axial and flexure using AISC LRFD Chapter H. However. the factored Vn is equal to (193.5 kips)(1.5) = 29. axial and flexure interaction is governed by AISC LRFD H11a: ⎛ Mu ⎞ + 8⎜ ≤ 1.6 − 0.0 1 − Pu Pe Pe = Ag Fy λc2 = (17.0 φ Pn 9 ⎝ φ bMn ⎟ ⎠ Pu where Pu = 374 kips Pn = 514 kips Mn = ZFy = (105)(50) = 5250 in.20.kips The flexural demand. For a braced frame only two stories high and having several bays.4 ftkips as determined above and.4 ⎜ ⎟ = 0. the required flexural strength in the brace to resist lateral translation of the frame only (Mlt) is negligible.1)(1.4 ⎠ ⎝ M2 ⎠ Therefore.25) = 266 kips. The shear in the link.36 ⎝ 48. the required flexural strength is computed from AISC LRFD C11 as: M u = B1 M nt where Mnt = 48. Let us now determine the design values for brace axial force and moments by increasing the values determined from the elastic analysis by the same factor: Design Pbrace = (3.4 ftkips Design Mbot = (3.2 = 3.
the connections must also be designed as a fully restrained moment connection. 5. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples M u = B1 M nt = Cm M nt (0. to add another stiffener to the beam opposite the flange on the gusset.199 and ⎛ (25. link.92 < 1.3 Brace Connections at Top of Brace AISC Seismic Sec. like the brace itself. a check should be made of stiffener requirements on the beam web opposite the gusset flanges (if any) and the panel zone in the beam web above the connection. Because there is a moment at the top of the brace.3 ftkips P 374 1− u 1− Pe 1. All of these calculations are conventional and need no explanation here. The beam. (Such a flange is shown ine Figure 5.4) = 25.52)(48.00 + ⎜ + 8⎜ ⎟= φ Pn 9 ⎝ φb M n ⎠ (0. The required strength of the bracetobeam connection must be at least as much as the required strength of the brace.FEMA 451.35.4. In such a case.9)(4.36)(48. it may be required.830) ⎟ ⎠ OK The design of the brace is satisfactory. and brace centerlines intersect at a common work point.3.6 requires that. It also should be remembered that the axial force in the brace may be either tension or compression reflecting the reversal in seismic motions. 584 .3)(12) ⎞ Pu 8 ⎛ M u ⎞ 374 = 0. The tube may be attached to the girder with a gusset plate welded to the bottom flange of the girder and to the tube with fillet welds.85)(514) 9 ⎝ (0. Details of the link and adjacent upper brace connection are shown in Figure 5. or at least desirable.) Adding a similar flange on the other side of the brace will keep the joint compact.35. The design of the gusset and connecting welds is conventional except that cutting the gusset short of the link may require adding a flange. In addition to the design of the gusset and the connecting welds. 15.4) = = (0. and no part of this connection shall extend over the link length. the connection of the brace to the girder be designed to remain elastic at yield of the link.
but are not required.36) or at the bottom of the brace at the first floor (e.35 Link and upper brace connection (1. Moment connections could be used.4.. Gussets shall not influence link in this zone Figure 5.0 ft = 0. the right beam in Figure 5.4 mm. Plate 1"x7" TS 8x8x5 8 Gusset plate 1" W16x57 Equal Link: 3'0" Equal Equal Plate 3 8"x31 4" stiffener each side C.P.3.g. the left beam in Figure 5. In order to be able to use R = 8.36 if it is at the first floor level) . If so. The design of the gusset plate and welds is conventional. the connection must carry the axial load (force from floor deck to collector) that is being transferred through the beam to column connection to the link beam on the right side.0 in..4 Brace Connections at Bottom of Brace These braces are concentric at their lower end. moment connections are required at the ends of the link beams (at the roof and second floor levels).36 could be a collector. framing into the columngirder intersection in a conventional manner. 1. = 25. The beam on the left in Figure 5. Structural Steel Design 2nd floor or roof (not shown) Plate 1"x both sides Plate 3 8"x31 4" each side Angle brace (typical) C. 5.Chapter 5.36. 585 . as well as beam vertical loads. outside of the EBF (e. Details of a lower brace connection are shown in Figure 5.P.3048 m).g.
4 mm).3..4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples TS 8x8x5 8" CJP 2nd floor or 1st floor (not shown) 1" Gusset plate W.FEMA 451.P. Although the moment and shear are less in the beam than in the link. 15.5 Beam and Column Design Refer to AISC Seismic Sec.0 in. the axial load is substantially higher.36 Lower brace connections (1. = 25. 586 .6 for design of the beam outside the link and AISC Seismic Sec. The philosophy is very similar to that illustrated for the brace: the demand becomes the forces associated with expected yield of the link. W16x57 5.8 for design of the columns. 15. Floor beam with pinned connection Beam framing to column web (not shown) Figure 5.
For the more extreme loading. and a depth below slab of 16 in. The main gravity framing system consists of seven continuous 30ft spans of pan joists. Along Gridlines 2 and 7. but along Gridlines B and C. Hawaii. a 12story reinforced concrete office building with some retail shops on the first floor is designed for both high and moderate seismic loadings. These joists are spaced 36 in. in Honolulu. P. as described later. Along Gridlines 1 and 8. In the EW direction. Normal weight (NW) concrete walls are located around the entire perimeter of the basement level. it is assumed that the structure will be located in Berkeley. The building. on center and have an average web thickness of 6 in. a 4in. for the lower levels of the structural walls in the Berkeley building. Ph.g.D. the frames have five 20ft bays with constant depth girders. The girders are haunched to accommodate mechanicalelectrical systems.. California. The girders are not haunched on exterior Gridlines 1 and 8. and for the moderate loading. giving the joists a total depth of 20 in. 5 and 6. At the Berkeley location. 4. the frames of the Honolulu building are detailed as intermediate momentresisting frames. the structural walls are not necessary so EW seismic resistance is supplied by the moment frames along Gridlines 1 through 8. For both locations.thick floor slab is used. frames are referred to by their gridline designation (e. NW concrete also is used for the first (ground) floor framing and. For the Honolulu building. At Gridlines 3.E. The joists along Gridlines 2 through 7 are supported by variable depth "haunched" girders spanning 40 ft in the exterior bays and 20 ft in the interior bays. and the 40ft spans have been divided into two equal parts forming a total of five spans of 20 ft. Due to the lower seismicity and lower demand for system ductility. the seismicforceresisting system for the Berkeley building is a dual system composed of a combination of frames and framewalls (walls integrated into a momentresisting frame). The frames on Gridlines 1 and 8 are fivebay frames and those on Gridlines 2 through 7 are threebay frames with the exterior bays having a 40ft span and the interior bay having a 20ft span. The girders along all spans of Gridlines A and D are of constant depth. the seismicforceresisting system in the NS direction consists of four 7bay momentresisting frames. has 12 stories above grade and one basement level. these frames are detailed as special momentresisting frames.. Hereafter. to be constructed primarily from sandlightweight (LW) aggregate concrete. the frames consist of two exterior 40ft bays and one 20ft interior bay. in section. Charney. Frame 1 is located on 61 . The girders in each span are of variable depth as described earlier. In this chapter. Figure 61 shows the basic structural configuration for each location in plan view and Figure 62. the interior bay has been filled with a shear panel and the exterior bays consist of 40ftlong haunched girders. The interior frames differ from the exterior frames only in the end bays where the girders are of reduced depth. Due to fire code requirements. the depth of the end bay girders has been reduced to allow for the passage of mechanical systems. The typical bays are 30 ft long in the northsouth (NS) direction and either 40 ft or 20 ft long in the eastwest (EW) direction.6 REINFORCED CONCRETE Finley A.
0 ft = 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Gridline 1). 62 .3048 m). The Honolulu building is similar but without structural walls (1. It is assumed that the structure for both the Berkeley and Honolulu locations is founded on very dense soil (shear wave velocity of approximately 2000 ft/sec). ' ' N Figure 62B Figure 62A 7 at 30'0" 216'0" 5 at 20'0" 102'6" Figure 61 Typical floor plan of the Berkeley building.FEMA 451.
Chapter 6.3048 m). Reinforced Concrete 11 at 12'6" 18'0" 15'0" Level R 40'0" ' 12 11 10 Story 12 11 10 G 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 11 at 12'6" 18'0" 15'0" 40'0" B B 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Level 40'0" ' 12 11 10 R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Figure 62 Typical elevations of the Berkeley building. Section at Frame 20'0" 40'0" ' 63 . Story 1 G 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 A. the Honolulu building is similar but without structural walls (1.0 ft = 0. Section at Wall ' 20'0" B.
wind load. Rabbat. and load combinations. typical beamcolumn joint in Frame 3. 1998 [2002]. 3. A. For final design. Hence. For example. Portland Cement Association.A.FEMA 451. Portland Cement Association. typical exterior column in Frame 3. American Society of Civil Engineers. J. Each major section (development of forces. Munshi. structural design. 2. 1997. ACI 318 is the other main reference in this example. 64 . and M.. Skokie. boundary elements of structural wall (Berkeley building only) and panel of structural wall (Berkeley building only). Notes on ACI 31899 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete with Design Applications. typical beamcolumn joint in Frame 1. Except for very minor exceptions. Because a single building configuration is designed for both high and moderate levels of seismicity. typical girder in Frame 3. the following portions of the design process are presented in varying amounts of detail for each structure: 1. The ELF analysis is useful even if the final design is based on a more sophisticated analysis (e. Illinois. D. Cases where requirements of the Provisions and ACI 318 differ are pointed out as they occur. D.A.) is followed by discussion. the seismicforceresisting system design requirements of ACI 318 have been adopted in their entirety by the Provisions.. Instead of providing one full set of calculations for the Berkeley building and then another for the Honolulu building. forces from an ELF analysis are used to apply accidental torsion and to scale the results from the more advanced analysis and are useful as a check on a modal response spectrum or timehistory analysis). portions of the calculations are presented in parallel. Other recent works related to earthquake resistant design of reinforced concrete buildings include: ACI 318 ASCE 7 Fanella American Concrete Institute. and B. ACI 318 Notes Fanella. Structural analysis and interpretation of structural behavior. the preliminary design based on an ELF analysis is a natural place to start. G. the Provisions may require that a modal response spectrum analysis or time history analysis be used. Design of structural members including typical girder in Frame 1.. typical interior column in Frame 1. 2nd Edition. Design of LowRise Concrete Buildings for Earthquake Forces. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The calculations herein are intended to provide a reference for the direct application of the design requirements presented in the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions (hereafter. the Provisions) and to assist the reader in developing a better understanding of the principles behind the Provisions. In this context. In addition to the Provisions. Skokie. 1999. two different sets of calculations are required. The decision to use more advanced analysis can not be made a priori because several calculations are required that cannot be completed without a preliminary design. etc.g. Development and computation of seismic forces. The full design then is given for the Berkeley building followed by the design of the Honolulu building. Illinois. the development of seismic forces for the Berkeley and Honolulu buildings are presented before structural design is considered for either building. The design presented represents the first cycle of an iterative design process based on the equivalent lateral force (ELF) procedure according to Provisions Chapter 5. ASCE 7 is cited when discussions involve live load reduction. Munshi. Building Code Requirements and Commentary for Structural Concrete. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Fanella. Editors. 1999 [2002].
Smaller portions of the structure were modeled using the SAP2000 Finite Element Analysis Program. EarthquakeResistant Concrete Structures Inelastic Response and Design. Detroit. The other publications cited above provide additional background for the design of earthquakeresistant reinforced concrete structures. 1991. Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings. While the general concepts of the changes are described. Domel. Michigan. Ghosh. Portland Cement Association. K.. revisions to the minimum base shear equation. Illinois. the design examples and calculations have not been revised to reflect the changes to the 2003 Provisions. New York. Ω0. Priestley. Design of Concrete Buildings for Earthquake and Wind Forces. S. Paulay.. it has been annotated to reflect changes made to the 2003 Provisions. J. W. Skokie. However. Fanella. Some general technical changes in the 2003 Provisions that relate to the calculations and/or design in this chapter include updated seismic hazard maps. N. Other chances to Chapter 9 are related to precast concrete (as discussed in Chapter 7 of this volume of design examples). A.. Portions of the 2000 Provisions have been removed because they were incorporated into ACI 31802. 1992. Inc. A. ACI SP127. Wind load calculations are based on ASCE 798 as referenced in the 2000 Provisions. revisions to the redundancy requirements. John Wiley & Sons. also developed by Computers and Structures. and revisions several of the system factors (R. other significant changes to the 2003 Provisions and primary reference documents are noted. and M. and there have not been any comparisons or annotations related to ASCE 702. The notes are based on the requirements of the 1997 Uniform Building Code (International Conference of Building Officials) instead of the Provisions. Cd) for dual systems. Column capacity and design curves were computed using Microsoft Excel. Most of the largescale structural analysis for this chapter was carried out using the ETABS Building Analysis Program developed by Computers and Structures. with some verification using the PCACOL program created and developed by the Portland Cement Association. 65 . Where they affect the design examples in this chapter. [ ]. American Concrete Institute. Note that these examples illustrate comparisons between seismic and wind loading for illustrative purposes. The changes related to reinforced concrete in Chapter 9 of the 2003 Provisions are generally intended to maintaining compatibility between the Provisions and the ACI 31802. Berkeley. 1995. K. Annotations within brackets. and D. S. Reinforced Concrete ACI SP127 Ghosh Paulay Ghosh. California.. Editor. The Portland Cement Association’s notes on ACI 318 contain an excellent discussion of the principles behind the ACI 318 design requirements and an example of the design and detailing of a framewall structure. 2nd Edition. some minor changes to the 2003 Provisions and the reference documents may not be noted. indicate both organizational changes (as a result of a reformat of all of the chapters of the 2003 Provisions) and substantive technical changes to the 2003 Provisions and its primary reference documents.Chapter 6. Although this volume of design examples is based on the 2000 Provisions. T.
62.1.16 x 0.1.288 = 0.0. 4.2.65 and Site Class C.68.2.1 [3. [The 2003 Provisions have adopted the 2002 USGS probabilistic seismic hazard maps.589 = = 0.1].1.310] give the shortperiod and 1sec period spectral response acceleration parameters of 0.41 and 4.65 = 1. Provisions Table 4.65 = 1.61 and 0.1.1. from Provisions Table 4.10 SD1 = (2/3) SM1 = (2/3) 0.884 The design spectral response acceleration parameters are given by Provisions Eq.4a [3. respectively.288 and the design spectral response acceleration parameters are: SDS = (2/3) SMS = (2/3) 0.178. Interpolating from Provisions Table 4. respectively.1.51 and 4.1 Seismicity Using Provisions Maps 7 and 8 [Figures 3. and the maps have been added to the body of the 2003 Provisions as figures in Chapter 3 (instead of the previously used separate map package.0 x 1.5.1. Using Provisions Eq.32].FEMA 451.31 and 3. the short period and onesecond period spectral response acceleration parameters SS and S1 are 1.884 = 0.52 [3.1.2.] For the very dense soil conditions.472 SD1 = (2/3) SM1 = (2/3) 0. The maximum considered spectral response acceleration parameters for the Honolulu building are: SMS = FaSS = 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 6.42 [3. Provisions Table 4.192 The transition period (Ts) for the Honolulu response spectrum is: 66 .32] gives a velocity based site coefficient Fv of 1. the interpolated longperiod site coefficient (Fv) is 1.34]: SDS = (2/3) SMS = (2/3) 1.33 and 3.3 x 0.62 x 0.16 and.2.1. the site is classified as Site Class C. It is used later in this example as a parameter in determining the type of analysis that is required for final design.3.2a [3.2.589 The transition period (Ts) for the Berkeley response spectrum is: Ts = S D1 0. Provisions Maps 19 and 20 [Figure 3. Site Class C is appropriate as described in Provisions Sec. California.33 and 3.2. For Honolulu.4b [3. 4.178 = 0.34] for Berkeley.32].708 = 0. For the very dense soil/firm rock site condition.4.31] lists a short period site coefficient Fa of 1. the shortperiod site coefficient (Fa) is 1.708 SM1 = FvS1 = 1.31].535 sec S DS 1. the maximum considered spectral response acceleration parameters for the Berkeley building are: SMS = FaSS = 1.61 = 0.4b [3.65 and 0.5 and Site Class C. For S1 > 0.2. Using SS = 1. 4.1 DEVELOPMENT OF SEISMIC LOADS AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 6.68 = 0.10 Ts is the period where the horizontal (constant acceleration) portion of the design response spectrum intersects the descending (constant velocity or acceleration inversely proportional to T) portion of the spectrum.2.65 SM1 = FvS1 = 1.1.
With regard to the response modification coefficients for the special and intermediate moment frames.2. For the Berkeley building.192 = = 0.31. R = 7.4 [1.1b [Tables 1.2 [4.2.31].3] assigns an occupancy importance factor (I) of 1.1. According to Provisions Table 5.1. This indicates that intermediate frames can be expected to deliver lower ductility than that supplied by the more stringently detailed special moment frames.41 and 1. Provisions Sec. Provisions Sec. both the Berkeley and the Honolulu buildings are classified as Seismic Use Group I. As discussed below.2.31] provides values for the response modification coefficient (R). The values determined for the Berkeley and Honolulu buildings are summarized in Table 61.1. Provisions Table 1.1. neither of these structures violate height restrictions. According to Provisions Tables 4. For the Honolulu building assigned to Seismic Design Category C. this requires that a separate analysis of a frameonly system be carried out for loading in the EW direction. 9.625 times the value for the special frame.0 for the intermediate frame is 0. 67 .3 [9.1.5.1.3] requires the structural walls to be detailed as special reinforced concrete shear walls. the system over strength factor (Ω0).2. Overstrength.2.1. the Berkeley building is classified as Seismic Design Category D.3] (which modifies language in the ACI 318 to conform to the Provisions) requires that all momentresisting frames be designed and detailed as special moment frames.1. Provisions Sec.3 [9.Chapter 6.5 6.2.472 6. and the deflection amplification factor (Cd) for each structural system type.2. The Honolulu building is classified as Seismic Design Category C because of the lower intensity ground motion.3 [9. the Provisions requires that the frame portion of the system be able to carry 25 percent of the total seismic force.1.5 4.2.1a and 4. assigned to Seismic Design Category D. and Deflection Amplification Coefficients for Structural Systems Used Location Berkeley Response Direction NS EW Honolulu NS EW Building Frame Type Special moment frame Dual system incorporating special moment frame and structural wall Intermediate moment frame Intermediate moment frame R 8 8 5 5 Ω0 3 2. 1.5 4.3 [1. Provisions Table 5. it is important to note that R = 5.2 Structural Design Requirements According to Provisions Sec.0 to all Seismic Use Group I buildings.2. Ω0 = 2.5 [For a dual system consisting of a special moment frame and special reinforced concrete shear walls. Reinforced Concrete Ts = S D1 0.1. and Cd = 5.5 3 3 Cd 5.407 sec S DS 0. Similarly. 9. The seismicforceresisting systems for both the Berkeley and the Honolulu buildings consist of momentresisting frames in the NS direction.5 in 2003 Provisions Table 4.2]. 9.] For the Berkeley building dual system.42].2 [4.2. Table 61 Response Modification.3] allows the use of intermediate moment frames. EW loading is resisted by a dual framewall system in the Berkeley building and by a set of momentresisting frames in the Honolulu building.
5.589)/(0. because its height of 18 ft is well in excess of the 12.3 [4. it is assumed (but verified later) that a vertical irregularity does not exist. As with the torsional irregularity. For the purpose of this example. 5. it is assumed (but verified later) that torsional irregularities do not exist.21]. the short period and long period response accelerations.044SDSI Note that the above limit will apply when the structural period is greater than SD1/0. This limit is (0.52 sec for the Berkeley building and (0.3 Structural Configuration Based on the plan view of the building shown in Figure 61. and the system response modification factor (R).472) = 1. 6. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples For the Berkeley system.192)/(0.] 68 .4.044 x 5 x 0. the response coefficient must not be less than that given by Eq.1.85 sec for the Honolulu building.12 [5.33].13 [changed in the 2003 Provisions]: CS = 0. however.4. As for the vertical irregularities listed in Provisions Table 5.3. the dynamic properties of the system. 5.4.01in the 2003 Provisions.2 DETERMINATION OF SEISMIC FORCES The determination of seismic forces requires knowledge of the magnitude and distribution of structural mass.044RSDS.FEMA 451.2. In this case.23] controls: CS = S D1 T (R / I ) However. it appears unlikely for both the Berkeley and the Honolulu buildings because the lateralforceresisting elements of both buildings are distributed evenly over the floor.2 [4. 6. the design base shear for the structure is: V = CSW where W is the total (seismic) weight of the building and CS is the seismic response coefficient. This provides an incentive for the engineer to opt for a framewall system under conditions where a frame acting alone may be too flexible or a wall acting alone cannot be proportioned due to excessively high overturning moments. Using Provisions Eq. which would not be applicable to this example as discussed below.11 [5.3.1. the only possibility of a plan irregularity is a torsional irregularity (Provisions Table 5. [The minimum Cs value is simply 0. The upper limit on CS is given by Provisions Eq.1 [5.1.4. the presence of a soft or weak story cannot be determined without calculations based on an existing design.5ft height of the story above. Eq. the first story is suspect.32]) of Type 1a or 1b.2.1.1) = 1. the response modification coefficients are the same (R = 8) for the frame and framewall systems but are higher than the coefficient applicable to a special reinforced concrete structural wall system (R = 6). 5.044 x 8 x 1. While the actual presence of such an irregularity cannot be determined without analysis.22]: CS = S DS R/I For intermediate response periods.
21. 5.016 and x = 0. all of the other terms in previous equations have been defined and/or computed earlier in this chapter.4.22].2.020 and x =0. however. the Ta = 1.5) = 2.21]. 6.9. the resulting period may be too high due to a variety of possible modeling errors. if the accurate analysis produces periods less than Ta.50 sec.2.4(1. With SD1 > 0.2 [5.26] could be used: x Ta = Cr hn Because this formula is based on lower bound regression analysis of measured building response in California. 5.2.4. The upper limit on the analytical period is (1.3. For the Honolulu building.1 sec.Chapter 6. SD1 is 0.4. If the accurate analysis produces periods less than CuTa but greater than Ta. the importance factor (I) is taken as 1. 4 percent vertical steel is a more practical limit.75.5 sec period computed above for concrete moment frames is applicable in both the NS and EW direction. the structure is a framewall system with Cr = 0.88 sec.26]. The period to be used in the ELF analysis will be in the range of Ta to CuTa. Cr = 0. the structure is a reinforced concrete momentresisting frame and the approximate period is calculated according to Provisions Eq. the period from the analysis should be used.88 = 1. An additional consideration is the amount of vertical reinforcement in the columns.2 [5. 5.1 limits the vertical steel reinforcing ratio to 6 percent for special moment frame columns.192g and.52(1.2. however.1 [5. This is particularly true when lightweight (LW) concrete is used.0.5) = 2. This is particularly true for buildings located in regions of lower seismicity.4)0. Ta may be used. Substituting the appropriate values in Provisions Eq.4.4. If an accurate analysis provides periods greater than CuTa.11 [5. Using Provisions Table 5. For the preliminary design using the ELF procedure. it will generally result in periods that are lower (hence. The upper limit is T = CuTa where Cu is provided in Provisions Table 5.2. limitations on beamcolumn joint shear and reinforcement development length usually control.5 ft.52.2 [5. CuTa should be used.4. Before this can be done. Ta = 1. the approximate size of the different members of the seismicforceresisting system must be established. Later in this chapter.26]. Consequently.2. 5. For EW seismic activity in Berkeley. For special moment frames. For Honolulu.2 Building Mass Before the building mass can be determined. If a more rigorous analysis is carried out (using a computer). Cu can be taken as 1. With the exception of the period of vibration (T). more conservative for use in predicting base shear) than those computed from a more rigorous mathematical model. 69 .40 for the Berkeley building.21]. from Provisions Table 5. the approximate period (Ta) computed in accordance with Provisions Eq. With hn = 155.2.28 sec. the Provisions places an upper limit on the period that can be used for design.11 [5. ACI 318 Sec.23 sec.4. the EW period Ta = 0. For the NS direction of the Berkeley building. the more accurate periods will be computed using a finite element analysis program.2]. 6. Cu = 1.4 and the upper limit on the analytical period is T = 1.1 Approximate Period of Vibration Requirements for the computation of building period are given in Provisions Sec. the building mass must be determined. The upper limit on the analytical period is T = 1.4. Reinforced Concrete In each of the above equations.11 [5. Finally.
85 when sandLW concrete is used.4. by 30 in. Note from Table 62 that the roof and lowest floor have masses slightly different from the typical floors.4 [21. Masses. LW aggregate reinforced concrete has a lower toughness or ductility than NW reinforced concrete and the higher the strength. 610 . including a 4in.2. In this example. the term f c′ appears. However. but there is no explicit requirement to reduce the shear strength of the concrete when LW aggregate is used. 21. 21. and mass moments of inertia are listed in Table 62.] A further penalty placed on LW concrete is the reduction of shear strength. the mass and mass moments of inertia are required for the determination of modal properties using the ETABS program.) Mass Moment of Inertia (in. it should be multiplied by 0.000 psi for LW concrete in areas of high seismicity. the larger the reduction in available ductility. deep. A normal weight (NW) concrete building of the same configuration would have a density of approximately 14.75 when allLW concrete is used and by 0. For the Honolulu building (which has no structural wall and ultimately ends up with slightly smaller elements). and. there are some disadvantages to the use of LW concrete.2 allows a maximum compressive strength of 4.5 in. It is also interesting to note that the average density of this building is 11.2 states that wherever the term f c′ appears in association with shear strength. the required tension development lengths for bars embedded in LW concrete are significantly greater than those required for NW concrete.. the shear strength of the concrete will be multiplied by 0. These masses were used for both the Berkeley and the Honolulu buildings.2. which utilizes sandLW concrete.. 21. girders are 22. [Note that in ACI 31802 Sec. Table 62 Story Weights. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Based on a series of preliminary calculations (not shown here).2). 21. ACI 318 Sec.85 as specified in ACI 318 Chapter 11.2) but also has an effect on the amount of shear reinforcement required in the panels of structural walls. o.thick slab.4] gives equations for the shear strength of the panels of structural walls. the individual story weights. However. In addition to the building structural weight. the masses computed from the above member sizes are on the conservative (heavy) side.1 For girders. the maximum compressive strength for LW concrete has been increased to 5. thick. Finally. 21. it is assumed that all columns and structural wall boundary elements are 30 in. are 20 in.7. In the equations.kipsec2/rad) 1 ACI 318 Sec.3. This primarily affects the sizing of beamcolumn joints (ACI 318 Sec.000 psi.4.0 pcf. the following superimposed dead loads (DL) were assumed: Partition DL (and roofing) Ceiling and mechanical DL Curtain wall cladding DL = 10 psf = 15 psf = 10 psf Based on the member sizes given above and on the other dead load.5.2 pcf. 11. The use of LW instead of NW concrete reduces the total building mass by more than 20 percent and certainly satisfies the minimize mass rule of earthquakeresistant design.4. and Moments of Inertia Story Level Weight (kips) Mass (kipssec2/in. these member sizes probably are close to the final sizes.. ACI 318 Sec. deep. wide by 32 in.6. As discussed below. the reduction in shear strength of LW aggregate concrete usually is of no concern because ACI 318 disallows the use of the concrete in determining the shear resistance of members with significant earthquake shear (ACI 318 Sec.2.5. have an average web thickness of 6 in. and the panel of the structural wall is 16 in.c. For this reason and also the absence of pertinent test results. In general. masses.FEMA 451. It has already been established that pan joists are spaced 36 in. For the Berkeley building.
5.896 7. all floor diaphragms were assumed to be infinitely rigid in plane and infinitely flexible outofplane.000 5.3 Structural Analysis Structural analysis is used primarily to determine the forces in the elements for design purposes.896 8. Axial.0 kip = 4.051 3.202 7.126.000 5.2. and structural wall boundary members were represented by twodimensional frame elements. Those aspects of the model that should be noted are: 1.051 3. 8. 2.45 kN.10.000 5. 611 .896 7. 1.462 7.0 in.051 3.126.g.000 5.000 5.000 5. The computed periods of vibration are addressed in this section and the other results are presented and discussed later.126. For the haunched girders.000 5.896 7.051 3. The structural walls of the Berkeley building are modeled as a combination of boundary elements and shear panels. It was assumed that the walls were "fixed" at their base.675. 6.896 7. 3.126. 4. As automatically provided by the ETABS program. flexural.000 1.051 3.126.201 4.051 3. and shear deformations were included for all members.126. an equivalent depth of stem was used. compute story drift.000 5. (The effect of cracking is considered in a simplified manner. and properties were based on gross area for the columns and boundary elements and on effective Tbeam shapes for the girders.051 3.876 7. The ETABS program was used for the analysis of both the Berkeley and Honolulu buildings.896 7.896 7. The perimeter basement walls were modeled as shear panels as were the main structural walls.126. Reinforced Concrete Roof 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Total 2.896 7.000 5. accurate periods of vibration and computational checks on plan and vertical irregularities).4 mm.783 3. = 25.126. and assess the significance of Pdelta effects. This provides effective stiffness for beamcolumn joints halfway between a model with fully rigid joints (clear span analysis) and fully flexible joints (centerline analysis).. The structure was modeled with 12 levels above grade and one level below grade.) The width of the flanges for the Tbeams is based on the definition of Tbeams in ACI 318 Sec.324.896 7. Beamcolumn joints are modeled as 50 percent rigid.000 5.051 3. Each member was assumed to be uncracked. the flexural stiffness of the joists was ignored. Beams. Except for the slab portion of the joists which contributed to Tbeam stiffness of the girders.000 5.Chapter 6. The equivalent depth was computed to provide a prismatic member with a stiffness under equal end rotation identical to that of the nonprismatic haunched member.051 3.051 3. The structural analysis also provides other useful information (e.126.169 36. columns.126.
and the assumption that flexural behavior dominates. and CuTa = 2. Both of these cracked periods are greater than CuTa.FEMA 451.2. An evaluation of the accuracy of this assumption is provided later in this example.414 (the square root of 2.28 sec.4 Accurate Periods from Finite Element Analysis The computed periods of vibration and a description of the associated modes of vibration are given for the first 11 modes of the Berkeley building in Table 63.50 sec. In the EW direction. and CuTa is 2. Pdelta effects are ignored. therefore. the cracked periods would be approximately 1.1 sec. If cracked section properties were used. For the purpose of computing ELF forces. Ta = 1.4) = 1. the computed NS period of vibration is 1.5 sec.2] requires that a dynamic analysis must include at least 90 percent of the actual mass in each of the two orthogonal directions. and 1. 612 . For both the EW and the NS directions.3. respectively. the approximate period (Ta) for the Honolulu building is 1. the computed period values for the Berkeley building would be somewhat greater. the computed periods would be 2.98 sec.77) = 2.78 and 1. for Berkeley. the accumulated modal mass in each direction is more than 90 percent of the total mass. the uncracked periods in the NS and EW directions are 1. A summary of the approximate and computed periods is given in Table 65.87 sec indicates a significant reduction in stiffness due to the loss of the walls in the Honolulu building.414(1.87 sec. For the Honolulu building. 6.64 sec in the EW direction. 5. Table 64 provides the computed modal properties for the Honolulu building. In the EW direction. The NS period is virtually the same as for the Berkeley building because there are no walls in the NS direction of either building. the computed period is 1. Both of the computed periods fall within these bounds. the increase in period from 1. 90 percent of the total mass was developed in just eight modes. respectively.52 sec in the NS direction and 2. Hence.5.0) times the uncracked periods.2 [5.88 sec and CuTa = 1. For the Berkeley building. Based on this assumption. This is between the approximate period. a period of 2. the cracked NS and EW periods are 1. so CuTa can be used in the ELF analysis.40 sec. For preliminary design.23 sec. it is reasonable to assume that each member has a cracked moment of inertia equal to onehalf of the gross uncracked moment of inertia. Provisions Sec. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 6. if cracked section properties were used. which is greater than both Ta = 0. However.414(1.5 sec.28 sec can be used for both the NS and EW directions in Honolulu. In this case.77 sec.4 sec to 1. With 11 modes.
00 (91.3) 0. Reinforced Concrete Table 63 Periods and Modal Response Characteristics for the Berkeley Building Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 * ** Period* (sec) 1.0 (80.6) 0.4) Description First Mode EW First Mode NS First Mode Torsion Second Mode EW Second Mode NS Second Mode Torsion Third Mode EW Third Mode NS Third Mode Torsion Fourth Mode EW Fourth Mode NS Based on gross section properties.365 0.260 0.00 (90.00 (88.00 (71.00 (80.00 (88.5) 0.0 (80.00) 80.77 1.2) 0.00 (80.2) 0.6) 0.581 0.00 (71.5) 0.87 1.235 0.88 (91.2) 0.28 1.25 (80. Table 65 Comparison of Approximate and "Exact" Periods (in seconds) Berkeley Method of Period Computation Approximate Ta Approximate × Cu ETABS (gross) ETABS (cracked) * Honolulu EW 0.8) 0.64 NS 1.6) 0.3) 0.50 Values in italics should be used in the ELF analysis.00 (71.27 (90.4) 0.27 0.5 Seismic Design Base Shear 613 .6) 0.04 (88. Accumulated mass in parentheses.89 (91.00 (85.5) 0.88 1.04 (88.87 (91.230 0.00 (90.2) 8.50 2.3) 2.5) 0.40 1.40 1.00 (0.98 NS 1.00) 71.584 0.6) 0.00 (91.7) 0.23 (80.2.10 * 1.00 (90.Chapter 6.5) 0.78 1.5) 2.52 EW 1.95 (90.00 (88.79 (88.135 % of Effective Mass Represented by Mode** NS 80. Table 64 Periods and Modal Response Characteristics for the Honolulu Building Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 * ** Period* (sec) 1.00 (88.28 1.336 0.23 (90.337 0.50 2.00 (0.38 0.5) 14.2) 8.6) 4.452 0.394 0.00 (88.5) 0.7) 0.00 (90.00 (85.40 (91.5) 0.8) EW 00.610 0.00 (79.7) 8. Accumulated mass in parentheses.77 2.17 (85.7) 0.00 (85.7 (79.7) 0.5) 0.210 0.231 % of Effective Mass Represented by Mode** NS 79.23 1.00 (85.7) 0.78 2.87 2.6) EW 0.5) 0.00 (88.00 (79.48 (71.24 (90.00 (91.3) 0.3) 2.171 0.6) Description First Mode NS First Mode EW First Mode Torsion Second Mode NS Second Mode Torsion Second Mode EW Third Mode NS Fourth Mode NS Third Mode Torsion Fifth Mode NS Third Mode EW Based on gross section properties.3) 0.345 0. 6.50 2.2) 0.4) 0.
CS = 0.12 [5.0484 (36.472)(1.min = 0. I = 1.044(0. a base shear computed according to Provisions Eq.0484 [As noted previously in Sec. Note that Provisions Sec. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The seismic design base shear for the Berkeley is computed below. In the NS direction with W = 36.180 kips For the Honolulu building. I = 1. 5.1375 R / I 8 /1 CS = S D1 0. In the stiffer EW direction. With W = 36. and the design base shear in the NS direction is V = 0. Seismic Shears Coefficients.23 sec.462 kips.4.0351 T ( R / I ) 2. and T = 2. and T = 2.28 sec: CS .1] states that for the purpose of computing drift.min = 0.044 S DS I = 0.min above). the minimum Cs value is 0.472 = = 0.13 [5.044(1.max = CS = S DS 0.044 S DS I = 0.462 kips (see Table 62).1)(1) = 0.0207 (36. SD1 = 0.0598 T ( R / I ) 1. CS.0168 T ( R / I ) 2.0598 controls and V = 0. 5.4.FEMA 451.10(8 /1) CS .192 = = 0.765 kips.24] (used to compute CS.max and CS.10 sec: CS . Table 66 Comparison of Periods.0) = 0.6 [5.6.462) = 2.1.2.589 = = 0.28(5 /1) CS .2.462) = 755 kips A summary of the Berkeley and Honolulu seismic design parameters are provided in Table 66. and Base Shears for the Berkeley and Honolulu Buildings Location 614 Response Direction Building Frame Type T (sec) Cs V (kips) .0207 controls and V = 0.max = S DS 1. 6. R = 5.1. 5.462) = 1. SDS = 0.0944 R/I 5 /1 S D1 0.0207 CS = 0.10 = = 0.4.474.0484 controls.23] (used to compute CS above) may be used in lieu of the shear computed using Provisions Eq.10. SDS = 1.min are as before. R = 8.23(8 /1) In this case.589 = = 0.min = 0.] CS. SD1 = 0. and CS = S D1 0. T = 1. base shears are computed in a similar manner and are the same for the NS and the EW directions.0598 (36.589.01 in the 2003 Provisions.192.
0485 0. some of the sums are not exact due to truncation error. the seismic story forces.4. it is just the simplest approach.75 + 0.10 1.5T for 1. shears. Reinforced Concrete Berkeley NS EW Special moment frame Dual system incorporating special moment frame and structural wall Intermediate moment frame Intermediate moment frame 2.28 0.0598 0.45 kN.0207 1.4.6 Development of Equivalent Lateral Forces The vertical distribution of lateral forces is computed from Provisions Eq.2.5 sec k = 2. 5.23 2.180 755 755 Honolulu 1.765 2. A note at the bottom of each table gives the calculated vertical force distribution factor (k).0207 0.211]: Fx = CvxV Cvx = where wx h x k ∑w h i i= 1 n k i k = 1. NS EW 6. and overturning moments are easily computed using an Excel spreadsheet. The results of these computations are shown in Tables 67a and 67b for the Berkeley buildings and in Table 68 for the Honolulu building. 615 .5 sec k = 0.0 for T < 0.31 and 5.0 for T > 2. Also.28 2.210 and 5.5 sec Based on the equations above.Chapter 6. The tables are presented with as many significant digits to the left of the decimal as the spreadsheet generates but that should not be interpreted as real accuracy.0 kip = 4.0 < T < 2.32 [5.
051 2.5 124.23 sec and k = 1.051 3.5 143.9 311.146 153.9 81.788 575.486 1.753 13.0 30.051 3.104 0.676 1. 1.046 0.498 155.833 1.0 Weight W (kips) 2.500 Table based on T = 1.049 25.051 3.8 302.1 1.998 k Force Fx (kips) 330.821.5 118.957 1.051 3.758 323.051 3.5 68.771 103.150 0. 616 .452.181 208.020 0.072 0.081 0.169 36.000 Force Fx (kips) 350.057 0.5 18.5 68.2 66.5 118.123 91.3 190.0 130.4 143.8 907.393 2.0 1.3048 m.7 180. 1.226 133.0 ftkip = 1.382 13.799 1.0 kip = 4. 1.45 kN.757.975 163.780 4.051 3.9 19.051 3.526.2 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 67a Vertical Distribution of NS Seismic Forces for the Berkeley Building* Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Total * Height h (ft) 155.909 2.9 642.088 10.8.970 72.613 53.177 0.762.7 226.0 ft = 0.3 1.308.004 0.5 43.375.7 1.180 4.682 128.783 3.5 41.8 56.8 110.783 2.816 80. 1.814 1.5 43.051 3.019 0.36 kNm.010 1.0 105.3 94.123.FEMA 451.118 2.208.102 0.8 Story Overturning Shear Vx Moment (kips) Mx (ftk) 330.563.051 3.053.121 0.063 0.6 21.0 105.0 30.714 1.051 3.701. 1.361.154 19.051 3.5 143.5 263.051 3.051 3.067 23.219 177.128.0 55.432.947 Table based on T = 2.0 1.242 59.0 2180.051 3.5 18.051 3.218.5 Story Overturning Shear Vx Moment (kips) Mx (ftk) 351 693 996 1.051 3.612.0 80.730.0 130.260 1.483.125 0.043 0. 1.0 ft = 0.783 3.8 4.8 35.737.220.879 8. Table 67b Vertical Distribution of EW Seismic Forces for the Berkeley Building* Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Total * Height h (ft) 155.663 112.253 246.066.575 Whk/Σ 0.157 0.136 12.957 2.011 0.462 Whk 24.087 0.056 6.497 41.658.260 207.669.5 93.139 0.169 36.051 3.030 0.658.5 93.9 264.3048 m.0 55.6 220.365.1 sec and k = 1.821 16.161 0.159 2.462 Whk 2.8 1764.5 156.870 733.187 0.8 1.764.503 517.645.408 2.4 1.788 180.032 0.36 kNm.0 kip = 4.5 1.051 3.6 342.3 7.356.129 Wh /Σ 0.869 16.051 3.0 80.170 23.982.45 kN.0 Weight W (kips) 2.051 3.987 130.0 ftkip = 1.579 967.512 37.
For Berkeley. respectively.030 0.051 3.869.4 46. seismic forces control the strength demands.799 16.080 0. 1.508 90.440 23.169 36.820 5.0 130.801 67.019 0. all of the elements must be detailed for inelastic deformation capacity as required by ACI 318 rules for intermediate moment frames.0 33.9 396.197 Wh /Σ 0.729.3 2.405.5 744.6 136.044 0.028 8.2 567.126 0.0 kip = 4.462 Whk 38. the NS seismic shears are significantly greater than the corresponding wind shears.393 39.010 0. but the EW seismic and wind shears are closer.0 80.0 ftkip = 1.36 kNm The computed seismic story shears for the Berkeley and Honolulu buildings are shown graphically in Figures 63 and 64. In the lower stories of the building.36 (load factor of 1.348 36.Chapter 6. the seismic shears for the Berkeley building are well in excess of the wind shears and will easily control the design of the members of the frames and walls.051 3.299 16.5 18.8 754.051 3.7 Story Overturning Shear Vx Moment (kips) Mx (ftk) 145. 1.85) to bring them up to the ultimate seismic loading limit state represented by the Provisions. 1.343 10.8 1.1 7.948.3 674.839 12.8 14. (A somewhat more detailed comparison is given later when the Honolulu building is designed.3 707.6 281.136.783 3.3048 m.061 0.5 93.051 3.807 747. The wind shears have been factored by a value of 1.181 0.192 6.218.9 628. In each case.6 94. in the upper levels.5 43.4 22.0 105.051 3.539 31. As can be seen from the figures.002 k Force Fx (kips) 145.5 68.075 25.45 kN.260 30.210. 617 .28 sec and k = 1. For the Honolulu building.6 times directionality factor 0. Reinforced Concrete Table 68 Vertical Distribution of NS and EW Seismic Forces for the Honolulu Building* Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Total * Height h (ft) 155.655 3. an Exposure B classification was assumed.669 57.051 3.193 0.004 1.6 751.143. for Honolulu.0 Weight W (kips) 2.051 3.051 3.89.7 60.903 1.822 48.102 0. Also shown in the figures are the story shears produced by ASCE 7 wind loads.152 0.5 491.051 3.341.0 55.115 200. wind controls the strength demands and.0 30.2 114.041.176 20.8 76.5 143.626. a 3sec gust of 105 mph.) With regards to detailing the Honolulu building.108 76.8 730.051 3.0 ft = 0.5 118. a 3sec gust of 85 mph was used and.093 Table based on T = 2.027.9 754.
0 ft = 0. kips 1. 1.3048 m.000 Shear. 618 .000 2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 160 EW seismic 140 NS seismic EW wind NS wind 120 100 Height.500 Figure 63 Comparison of wind and seismic story shears for the Berkeley building (1. ft 80 60 40 20 0 0 500 1.FEMA 451.45 kN).500 2.0 kip = 4.
000 1. With regards to the values shown in Table 69a .1 Direct Drift and PDelta Check for the Berkeley Building Drift and Pdelta effects are checked according to Provisions Sec. According to Provisions Table 5.2. was not used in computing drift.2.3 DRIFT AND PDELTA EFFECTS 6. it must be noted that cracked section properties were used in the structural analysis and that 0.2.1] and 5. This limit may be thought of as 2 percent of the story height.1. respectively.4.0484=0.3.0351/0.0 ft = 0. respectively.020hsx where hsx is the height of story x. Quantitative results of the drift analysis for the NS and EW directions are shown in Tables 69a and 69b.45 kN). 5.51]. 5.3048 m.6 [5. kips 800 1.6. cracked section 619 .8 [4.2.725 times the story forces shown in Table 67a were applied. Reinforced Concrete 160 Seismic 140 EW wind NS wind 120 100 Height. In Table 69b. ft 80 60 40 20 0 0 200 400 600 Shear.6. 1.200 Figure 64 Comparison of wind and seismic story shears for the Honolulu building (1. This adjusts for the use of Provisions Eq. the story drift limit for this Seismic Use Group I building is 0.2]. 6. which governed for base shear.4.13 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions].0 kip = 4.8 [5.Chapter 6.
* Elasticlly computed under codeprescribed seismic forces Figure 65 Drift profile for Berkeley building (1.5(0. 5.742% < 2. in.613/150) = 0.0 10.0 Magnified story drift = ∆5 = Cd ∆5e/I = 6.0 = 2.0 30. Story drift = ∆5e = δ5e . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples properties were also used.5 x NS 2% limit 0.4. Deflection amplification factor.δ4e = 1.1.613 in.5 Importance factor.0 25.1.01742 = 1.812 in. the story drift requirement is satisfied.812 .12 [5. A plot of the total drift resulting from both the NS and EW equivalent lateral seismic forces is shown in Figure 65. Cd = 6. Magnified drift ratio = ∆5/h5 = (2. An example calculation for drift in Story 5 loaded in the EW direction is given below. but the modifying factor does not apply because Provisions Eq.0 15.0 5.0% 160 OK 140 120 100 Height.0 in. = 25.0 40. Therefore.FEMA 451.410 = 0.0 20 0 Total drift.23] controlled in this direction.5 x EW NS* 5.0 20. Deflection at bottom of story = δ4e = 1. Deflection at top of story = δ5e = 1. 1.402 in.402)/1. 620 .410 in.3048 m. ft 80 60 40 EW* 6. In neither case does the computed drift ratio (magnified story drift/hsx) exceed 2 percent of the story height.4 mm).0 35.0 ft = 0. I = 1. Note that the relevant row is highlighted in Table 69b.
398 1.652 2.232 0. However.3.) 1.2.097 3. When a soft story exists in a Seismic Design Category D building. for Levels 3 through roof and 216 in.410 1.3 [4.276 0. Provisions Sec.Chapter 6.002 2. story height = 150 in.834 1. .319 0.1 [4.812 1.087 0.573 Cd = 5.509 2. 5.210 2.532 0.381 0. 1b. .348 0. 1.534 1.360 4.276 1.2.473 1.340 2.408 3. or 2 in Table 5.851 1.334 0.32] do not apply where no story drift ratio under design lateral load is less than or equal to 130 percent of the story drift ratio of the next story above.620 2.020 2.386 0.950 2.360 0.973 2.5.117 1.473 1.0 in.670 0.5 for loading in this direction.) 3.354 0.3] lists an exception: Structural irregularities of Types 1a.400 0. total drift is at top of story. for Levels 3 through roof and 216 in.402 0.744 0.276 1.697 2.210 2.362 Story Drift × Cd * (in.205 2.41] requires that a modal analysis be used.362 Story Drift (in.363 0.640 3. Reinforced Concrete Table 69a Drift Computations for the Berkeley Building Loaded in the NS Direction Story 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * Total Deflection (in.364 0.353 Drift Ratio (%) 1.733 1.0 in.300 1. .560 1. Table 69b Drift Computations for the Berkeley Building Loaded in the EW Direction Story 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * Total Drift (in. = 25.3.478 0. 621 .742 1.618 Story Drift (in.276 1.914 2.220 1.533 3.) 4.060 3.613 2.223 1.675 1.117 1.348 0.334 1.733 1.408 0.4 mm.010 1.340 0.618 Story Drift × Cd * (in.059 1.3. = 25.515 1. total drift is at top of story.308 0.720 3.400 0.673 1.600 2.340 0.089 Cd = 6.002 2.914 1.2.999 0.024 0. The story drift ratios of the top two stories of the structure are not required to be evaluated. 1.711 1.203 0.5 for loading in this direction. for Level 2.) 0.600 2.301 2.2.335 1.305 0.145 0.) 0. story height = 150 in.380 3.768 1.300 0.) 0.397 Drift Ratio (%) 0.3 [4.4 mm.393 2. for Level 2.798 1. Provisions Table 5.
3. the ratio of first story to second story drift ratios is 1.573/1.335 = 0. which also is less than 1.22 [changed in the 2003 Provisions] as: θ max = 0.0)6.5/(1.] 622 .500 kips Story height = hs5= 150 in.957 kips Accumulated story weight P5 = 27. However.398 = 1. which is less than 1.0 (see Provisions Sec.089/1.10 at all levels.10 if and only “if the resistance to lateral forces is determined to increase in a monotonic nonlinear static (pushover) analysis to the target displacement as determined in Sec.6. Magnified story drift = ∆5 = 2. since the values are less than 0.5/(1.5 θ = (P5 (∆5/Cd)) /(V5hs5) = 27.613 in.4.0)5.077. and for the EW direction the limit is 0. the maximum limit on the stability coefficient has been replaced by a requirement that the stability coefficient is permitted to exceed 0.613/6.2.1.0377 < 0.0.6. the ratio is 1.1)(150) = 0.3. As can be seen in the last column of each table.6. this does not affect this example because I = 1. The Pdelta analysis for each direction of loading is shown in Tables 610a and 610b. Moreover. The importance factor.82.091. 5.5 = 0. The upper limit on the allowable story stability ratio is given by Provisions Eq.077 OK [Note that the equation to determine the stability coefficient has been changed in the 2003 Provisions. 5. 5. An example Pdelta calculation for the Level 5 under EW loading is shown below. Pdelta effects can be neglected for both drift and strength computed limits according to Provisions Sec. and story shears are adjusted as necessary for use of Provisions Eq. 5. 5.13 [5. 5. the stability ratio (θ) does not exceed the maximum allowable value computed above. Cd = 6.4. Note that the relevant row is highlighted in Table 610b.4. Therefore.” Therefore. in this example.4.5)/(1957. [In the 2003 Provisions.500(2.5 ≤ 0.3. A5.2 [5. I.2 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]). the stability ratio limit for the NS direction is 0.2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples For the building responding in the NS direction. Pdelta effects shall be included in the analysis. Deflections are based on cracked sections.6.] For this Pdelta analysis a (reduced) story live load of 20 psf was included in the total story weight calculations. Story shear = V5 = 1.2. has been added to 2003 Provisions Eq.216.23].16.50 β Cd Taking β as 1. the stability coefficient should be evaluated directly using 2003 Provisions Eq.2]. a modal analysis is not required and the equivalent static forces from Tables 67a and 67b may be used for design.FEMA 451.13. For EW response.5 = 0.
9 1957. = 25.725.6 1485.9 1133.0582 0. = 25.353 350.0307 0.2.515 1.0384 0.834 1. 1.509 2.) (kips) 0. This test is required per Provisions Sec.3.0331 0.0535 0.0757 0.4. 6.7 1052.0928 Story shears in Table 67a factored by 0. Reinforced Concrete Table 610a PDelta Computations for the Berkeley Building Loaded in the NS Direction Level 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * Story Drift Story Shear (in.210 2. 1.1.6 693.0138 0.9 466.3 1192.4 Story Dead Load (kips) 2783 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3169 Story Live Load (kips) 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 Total Story Accum.0361 0. This will now be verified by applying the story forces of Table 63a at an eccentricity equal to 5 percent of the building dimension perpendicular to the direction of force (accidental torsion requirement of Provisions Sec.3 2117.613 2.0257 0. Analysis was performed using the ETABS program.4.0259 0.0 in.301 2.478 0.2 [4.3.002 2.8 817.0218 0.950 2.0209 0.9 948.2]).675 1.6 1233.45 kN.117 1.0 kip = 4.002 2.097 3. Story Stability Load Load Ratio (kips) (kips) θ 3203 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3589 3203 6674 10145 13616 17087 20558 24029 27500 30971 34442 37913 41502 0.0377 0.8 1279.600 2.Chapter 6.2.0389 0.0231 0.4.600 2.0 in.9 1259.0319 1.397 239.0327 0.4 1832.2].3 995.0396 0.0183 0.) (kips) 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1. Table 610b PDelta Computations for the Berkeley Building Loaded in the EW Direction Story Drift Story Shear Level (in.652 2.2.1.0357 0. 623 .2 [5.0 kip = 4. 5.4 2180.2 Test for Torsional Irregularity for Berkeley Building In Sec.5 * Story Dead Load (kips) 2783 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3169 Story Live Load (kips) 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 Total Story Accum. 6.3.0 657.3 it was mentioned that torsional irregularities are unlikely for the Berkeley building because the elements of the seismicforceresisting system were well distributed over the floor area.0077 0.9 1676.340 2.798 1. 1.0471 0.4 mm.210 2.3.45 kN.914 1.276 1. 5. See Sec.8 2159.0663 0.914 2.4 mm.8 1259. Story Stability Load Load Ratio (kips) (kips) θ 3203 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3589 3203 6674 10145 13616 17087 20558 24029 27500 30971 34442 37913 41502 0.8 1273.1 2051. 6.
32]). (see Table 69a) Rotation at center of mass = 0. and 6.3.FEMA 451. Even though it is not pertinent for Seismic Design Category C buildings.000648(216)(12)/2 = 5.125 ft for forces in the NS direction and 0.200 in.2. [As noted previously in Sec.756/3.19 < 1.3.360 = 1.1.05(102.640 = 1.05(216) = 10.0168/0. so no torsional irregularity exists. is very close to being torsionally irregular (irregularity Type 1a of Provisions Table 5.000189(102.2. a soft first story does not exist for the Honolulu building because the ratio of first story to second story drift does not exceed 1. The torsional flexibility of the building arises from the fact that the walls exist only on interior Gridlines 3. The applied seismic forces.3. 6. 4.2.000189 radians Maximum displacement at corner of floor plate = dmax = 3. 5. For forces acting in the EW direction: Total displacement at center of mass = δavg = 4. As with the Berkeley building.000648 radians Maximum displacement at corner of floor plate = dmax = 4.360 in.200/4.13. even though the building is extremely regular in plan.20.3 Direct Drift and PDelta Check for the Honolulu Building The interstory drift computations for the Honolulu building deforming under the NS and EW equivalent static forces are shown in Tables 611a and 611b. Ratio dmax/davg = 5. show that the story drift at each level is less than the allowable interstory drift of 0.808 to adjust for the use of Provisions Eq.756 in. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The eccentricity is 0.03 < 1.4. as well as Figure 66.51]).640 in. shown previously in Table 63b were multiplied by the ratio 0.8 ft in the EW direction.360 + 0. 6.5)(12)/2 = 3. Ratio δmax/δavg = 3. when loaded in the EW direction.8 [4.2 [4. It is interesting that this building. so no torsional irregularity exists.20. the analysis used cracked section properties. 5.5) = 5. For forces acting in the NS direction: Total displacement at center of mass = δavg = 3.0207 = 0.640 + 0. 624 .] These tables.020hsx (Provisions Table 5. (see Table 69b) Rotation at center of mass = 0. the minimum Cs value has been removed in the 2003 Provisions.
ft 80 60 40 EW* 6. Reinforced Concrete 160 140 120 100 Height.0 ft = 0.0 10.0 5. 625 . 1.0 in.0 25. * Elasticlly computed under codeprescribed seismic forces Figure 66 Drift profile for the Honolulu building (1.0 20 0 Total drift.5 x NS 2% limit 0.0 15. = 25.4 mm). in.3048 m.0 30.0 35.0 20.0 40.5 x EW NS* 5.Chapter 6.
089 in.121 0.772 0.572 0.4 mm. I = 1.441 1.446 0.522 0. total drift is at top of story.793 0. story height = 150 in.354 0.) 0.756 0.) 0.00558 = 0.597 1. 1.168 0.157 0.306 1.325 Story Drift × Cd * (in.669 0.4 mm.182 0.407 0.FEMA 451.903 0.137 0.5 for loading in this direction. Story drift = ∆5e = δ5e .807 0.061 0.559 1.176 0.436 0.504 0.0% 626 OK .191 0.338 Drift Ratio (%) 0.090 0.705 0.269 1.658 0.271 0.470 0.0 = 0. A sample calculation for Level 5 of Table 611b (highlighted in the table) is as follows: Deflection at top of story = δ5e =1.313 0.440 1.097 0.349 0.734 1.197 0.524 0. Cd = 4. for Levels 3 through roof and 216 in.179 0.208 0.558% < 2.677 Cd = 4.858 0. Magnified drift ratio = ∆5 / h5 = (0.850 1.611 0.0890. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 611a Drift Computations for the Honolulu Building Loaded in the NS Direction Story 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Total Drift (in.514 0.002 1.412 0.5 for loading in this direction.558 0.186 0.276 0.040 0.116 0.836 0. Table 611b Drift Computations for the Honolulu Building Loaded in the EW Direction Story 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * Total Drift (in.160 0.0 Magnified story drift = ∆5 = Cd ∆5e/I = 4.297 Story Drift (in. Deflectiom amplification factor.291 0.713 0.0 in.553 0.) 1.069 0.157 0.480 0.836/150) = 0.531 0. total drift is at top of story.656 1.462 Drift Ratio (%) 0.0 in.836 in.407 0.618 0. = 25.619 * Cd = 4.5 Importance factor. for Levels 3 through roof and 216 in. = 25. Deflection at bottom of story = δ4e = 0.482 0.186)/1.) 2. for Level 2.171 0.887 1.118 0.997 0.514 0.149 0.572 0.941 1.186 in.089 0.136 0.δ4e = 1.829 1.903 in.829 0.184 0.766 1.) 0.) 0.5(0. story height = 150 in.325 Story Drift (in.191 0.538 0.726 1.0903 = 0.858 0.771 0. for Level 2.528 0. 1.591 0.720 0.184 0.171 0.297 Story Drift × Cd * (in.
0766 0.7 544. 5. Reinforced Concrete Therefore. = 25.836/4.0 kip = 4.8 Story shears in Table 68 factored by 0.) (kips) 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * Story Dead Load (kips) 2783 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3169 Story Live Load (kips) 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 Total Story Accum.0937 0.111) are satisfied.9 590. has been added to 2003 Provisions Eq. Pdelta effects need not be considered (Provisions Sec.216. (The value of 0.2. Cd = 4. respectively. 6. However.313 0. 5.2]).5/Cd = 0. See Sec.4 396.4. 627 . this does not affect this example because I = 1.182 0.9 571.4 mm.Chapter 6.) Table 612a PDelta Computations for the Honolulu Building Loaded in the NS Direction Story Drift Story Shear * Level (in.0539 0.611 0.9)(150) = 0.1023 in the first story for the EW direction is considered by the author to be close enough to the criterion.0596 [Note that the equation to determine the stability coefficient has been changed in the 2003 Provisions.6 607.3.793 0.5)/(571. Story Stability Load Load Ratio (kips) (kips) θ 3203 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3589 3203 6674 10145 13616 17087 20558 24029 27500 30971 34442 37913 41502 0.836 in. 1.829 1. Calculations for Pdelta effects are shown in Tables 612a and 612b for NS and EW loading.] The requirements for maximum stability ratio (0.9 458.0599 0.9 = kips Accumulated story weight P5 = 27500 kips Story height = hs5 = 150 in.756 0.0136 0.6.5 = 0.3. 1.720 0.0 in.7 320.9 507. Story shear = V5 = 571.0073 0.10 at all floors.6. The stability ratio at the 5th story from Table 612b is computed: Magnified story drift = ∆5 = 0.0270 0.6 609.0401 0.45 kN.669 0.771 0.2 [5.0470 0.436 0.808.0.5/4.5 θ = [P5 (∆5/Cd)]/(V5hs5) = 27500(0.0337 0. story drift satisfies the drift requirements.0205 0. I.7 227.338 117.3 601. Because the stability ratio is less than 0.531 0. The importance factor.0672 0.
618 0. except that the earthquake load effect.7 227.9 590. do not exist in the Honolulu building.524 0.0667 0. 5.836 0.4 Test for Torsional Irregularity for the Honolulu Building A test for torsional irregularity for the Honolulu building can be performed in a manner similar to that for the Berkeley building.3 [4. 1. This will be the case because the walls.7 544.213] was not used because the building has no significant plan irregularities.2.5.3.0 in.1023 Story shears in Table 68 factored by 0.4.0314 0.21 and 4.000 psi strength is used everywhere except for the lower two stories of the structural walls where 6.72 [4.1 Material Properties For the Berkeley building.0527 0. 6. All reinforcement has a specified yield strength of 60 ksi. 1.2.3 601.4. For strength analysis. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 612b PDelta Computations for the Honolulu Building Loaded in the EW Direction Level 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 * Story Drift Story Shear (in.8 * Story Dead Load (kips) 2783 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3051 3169 Story Live Load (kips) 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 420 Total Story Accum. Story Stability Load Load Ratio (kips) (kips) θ 3203 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3471 3589 3203 6674 10145 13616 17087 20558 24029 27500 30971 34442 37913 41502 0.7 [4.4.3].7 320.45 kN.887 1.9 571.4 mm.6 609.0246 0. however.2 [5. Provisions Sec. 5. 6.2.0820 0.9 458. 6.0463 0.3.4.4.31 [5.1] and Eq.25. E.3.2. According to ACI 318 Sec.2.71 and 5.4.2.FEMA 451. it is clear that a torsional irregularity will not occur for the Honolulu building if the Berkeley building is not irregular.4.2.4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF THE BERKELEY BUILDING 6. 5.276 0. the structure was analyzed for the equivalent lateral loads shown in Tables 67a and 67b.0389 0. 6.0111 0. See Sec.772 0.) (kips) 0. This reinforcement must conform to ASTM A706.2 Combination of Load Effects Using the ETABS program. The torsional magnification factor (Ax) given by Provisions Eq.9 507.808. the loads were applied at a 5 percent eccentricity as required for accidental torsion by Provisions Sec.2.0728 0.462 117.0177 0.4 396.4. which draw the torsional resistance towards the center of the Berkeley building.0596 0. except for the panel of the structural walls which contains 40 ksi reinforcement.705 0.2. Where applicable.000 psi NW concrete is used. ASTM A615 reinforcement may be used if the actual yield strength of the steel does not exceed the specified strength by more than 18 ksi and the ratio of actual ultimate tensile stress to actual tensile yield stress is greater than 1.407 0. 5.22] require combination of load effects be developed on the basis of ASCE 7. 5.6 607.0 kip = 4. sandLW aggregate concrete of 4.2].858 0.807 0. = 25. orthogonal loading effects were included per Provisions Sec.2. be defined as: 628 .858 0. 21.5. However.
1]. In the NS direction. 5.4.71 and 5.2S DS D when gravity and seismic load effects are additive and E = ρ QE − 0.23 and 4.2.0525 22.2.6. Hence. Reinforced Concrete E = ρ QE + 0. Similarly.4.140 square ft: ρx = 2 − 20 = −0. For the structure loaded in the NS direction.0357V.0525 V V For one interior and one exterior column: rix = (0.0375V ) + 0. For interior columns that have girders framing into both sides. but need not exceed 1.72 [4.Chapter 6.5 × 216 = 22. and rix is taken as the maximum of the shears in any two adjacent columns in the plane of a moment frame divided by the story shear.24] do not apply to the Berkeley building because there are no discontinuous elements supporting stiffer elements above them.56 0.0441 V V The larger of these values will produce the largest value of ρx.7(Vint + Vint ) 0. for a floor diaphragm area Ax equal to 102.5. Using the portal frame idealization.7Vint + Vext ) 0. the structural system consists of special moment frames.2S DS D when the effects of seismic load counteract gravity.) The reliability factor (ρ) in Eq.7(0.2. the shear in an interior column will be Vinterior = 0. 5.2. Each of these frames has eight columns. The computed value for ρ must be greater than or equal to 1.0179V. 9. only 70 percent of the individual column shear need be included in this sum. there are four identical frames. For two adjacent interior columns: rix = 0. 5.25 (1/14) V = 0.2.25 (2/14) V = 0. (See Provisions Sec. The special load combinations given by Provisions Eq.0375V ) = = 0. the shear in an exterior column will be Vexterior= 0.7(0.71 and 5. Special moment frames in Seismic Design Category D are an exception and must be proportioned such that ρ is not greater than 1.25.0179V ) = = 0.2: ρx = 2 − 20 rmaxx Ax where Ax is the area of the floor or roof diaphragm above the story under consideration and rmaxx is the largest ratio of the design story shear resisted by a single element divided by the total story shear for a given loading.0375V + 0.72 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] should be taken as the maximum value of ρx defined by Provisions Eq.2 [9.0.140 629 .
the walls carry significant shear.42D + 0. Alternatively. Thus. with ρ taken as 1.2 + 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples As this value is less than 1.125 22. it is permitted to use.740 0. in the EW direction ρ x = 0.5L ± 1.0 (shear wall system) would not result in more than a 33 percent reduction in story strength or create an extreme torsional irregularity. as this will clearly not control.0.42D + 0.0.4 times dead load will not control for any condition in this building.8 ⎜ 2 − ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ = 0.0 in the NS direction.2SDS)D + 0. and for the purposes of computing ρ.9D ± 1.0. 4.25V (10 / 20) = 0. the following load combinations must be used for earthquake: 1.140 ⎟ ⎠ 20 and as with the NS direction. substituting 1.6L 1.10 for SDS. [The redundancy requirements have been substantially changed in the 2003 Provisions.] For the Berkeley structure. for one wall: rmaxx = rix = 0.125 V Only 80 percent of the ρ value based on the above computations need be used because the walls are part of a dual system.5L .9 . Per 2003 Provisions Sec.E 630 .0. rix for walls is taken as the shear in the wall multiplied by 10/lw and divided by the story shear.E (0. Note that ρ need not be computed for the columns of the frames in the dual system. the following load combinations must be used for earthquake: (1. ρ = 1.2 + 0.E Finally. ρ = 1. The term lw represents the plan length of the wall in feet. Based on the preliminary design. the basic ASCE 7 load combinations that must be considered are: 1.0 for because the structure has a perimeter moment frame and is regular. ρ will be taken as 1. There are no reductions in the redundancy factor for dual systems.FEMA 451.5L + E 1.0E The ASCE 7 load combination including only 1.0.2 SDS)D + E (0.5L + E (1. if the structure is regular in plan and there are at least 2 bays of perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal direction.2SDS)D . For seismic forces acting in the EW direction.9 .2D + 0.0. ρ may be taken as 1.0. According to the Provisions. ρ = 1.3.2D + 1.0 as long as it can be shown that failure beamtocolumn connections at both ends of a single beam (moment frame system) or failure of a single shear wall with aspect ratio greater than 1.4.1.0E 0. it will be assumed that they take all the shear.2SDS)D + 0.5L .3 special moment frames in Seismic Design Category D must be configured such that the structure satisfies the criteria for ρ = 1. Substituting E from the Provisions. For a building assigned to Seismic Design Category D. Hence.
This allows for a uniformity in the design of the girders.E It is very important to note that use of the ASCE 7 load combinations in lieu of the combinations given in ACI Chapter 9 requires use of the alternate strength reduction factors given in ACI 318 Appendix C: Flexure without axial load φ = 0. The actual distribution of story forces developed in the different frames of the structure is shown in Figure 67. For frames containing structural walls (Frames 3 through 6). and Frame 6 is similar to Frame 3. The eccentricity and orthogonal load were included in the analysis carried out for member design. using tied columns φ = 0.3 Comments on the Structure’s Behavior Under EW Loading Framewall interaction plays an important role in the behavior of the structure loaded in the EW direction.65 (transitions to 0.9 at low axial loads) Shear if shear strength is based o nominal axialflexural capacity φ = 0. 7. 2.3 are: Flexure without axial load φ = 0. Thus. 2 631 . Frame 8 is similar to Frame 1. 2. the shears developed in the girders (except for the first story) do not differ greatly from story to story. Reinforced Concrete 0.60 Shear in beamcolumn joints φ = 0.Chapter 6.68D + E 0. using tied columns φ = 0.9 (tensioncontrolled sections) Axial compression. The deflected shape of the structure loaded in the EW direction (see Figure 65) also shows the effect of framewall interaction because the shape is neither a cantilever mode (wall alone) nor a shear mode The analysis used to create Figures 67 and 68 did not include the 5 percent torsional eccentricity or the 30 percent orthogonal loading rules specified by the Provisions.75 Shear if shear strength is not based o nominal axialflexural capacity φ = 0. Frame 7 is similar to Frame 2. For frames without walls (Frames 1. This happens because the structural wall pulls back on (supports) the top of Frame 1. and 3 only.80 Axial compression.75 Shear if shear strength is not based on nominal axialflexural capacity φ = 0. 7. As may be observed from Figure 67.85] 6. 9. By symmetry. the 40ftlong girders act as outriggers further reducing the overturning moment resisted by the structural walls. Frames 4 and 5 have a response that is virtually identical to that of Frames 3 and 6.68D .65 (transitions to 0. 2. and 8).8 at low axial loads) Shear if shear strength is based on nominal axialflexural capacity φ = 0. 2.80 [The strength reduction factors in ACI 31802 have been revised to be consistent with the ASCE 7 load combinations. the factors that were in Appendix C of ACI 31899 are now in Chapter 9 of ACI 31802. This behavior is beneficial to the design of the structure because: 1. and 8). with some modification. The strength reduction factors relevant to this example as contained in ACI 31802 Sec. the overturning moments in the structural walls are reduced significantly as a result of interaction with the remaining frames (Frames 1. a large reverse force acts at the top of Frame 3 which contains a structural wall.2 This figure shows the response of Frames 1. 3.55 Shear in beamcolumn joints φ = 0. For the frames containing structural walls.4.
1.64 255.18 20. The distribution of overturning moments is shown in Figure 69 and indicates that the relatively stiff Frames 1 and 3 resist the largest portion of the total overturning moment.1 [4. and 6) would be analyzed in a rational way.79 91.74 9.48 19. and 3 is shown in Figure 68.18 30. The reversal of moment at the top of Frame 3 is a typical response characteristic of framewall interaction. 611. 632 .9 Story force.4 Story force. and 612.96 Story force.14 45.1] requires the frames (without walls) to resist at least 25 percent of the total base shear.72 8.2. [Note that R = 7 per 2003 Provisions Table 4. 6. kips Figure 67 Story forces in the EW direction (1.88 8.62 6.FEMA 451.2.31. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples (frame alone). the 25 percent rule controls only at the lower level of the building. 5.7 12 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2.] The 25 percent analysis was carried out using the ETABS program with the mathematical model of the building being identical to the previous version except that the panels of the structural wall were removed.14 39.4. kips 1 58.4 Analysis of FrameOnly Structure for 25 Percent of Lateral Load When designing a dual system. 2.68 8.71 61.29 52.76 4.8 Frame 3 (includes wall) 12 77.3. It is the “straightening out” of the deflected shape of the structure that causes the story shears in the frames without walls to be relatively equal.67 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 120.58 18. 5. 4.1 29. The results of the analysis are shown in Figures 610. A plot of the story shears in Frames 1.98 15.56 21.26 0. In these figures.26 34.45 kN).56 1.88 36.28 8.2. This provision ensures that the dual system has sufficient redundancy to justify the increase from R = 6 for a special reinforced concrete structural wall to R = 8 for a dual system (see Provisions Table 5.12 26. As can be seen.96 Frame 2 107.2 [4.31]). Frame 1 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 8.77 31. The boundary elements of the walls were retained in the model so that behavior of the interior frames (Frames 3.37 34. kips 1 114.0 kip = 4. the original analysis (structural wall included) is shown by a solid line and the 25 percent (backup frame) analysis (structural wall removed) is shown by a dashed line.88 66. Provisions Sec.96 13.
000 40.45 kN).3048 m.000 Bending moment. Reinforced Concrete 160 Frame 1 140 Frame 2 Frame 3 120 100 Height.000 0 10.0 ft = 0.0 ftkip = 1.0 ft = 0.36 kNm). kips 300 400 500 600 Figure 68 Story shears in the EW direction (1. 633 .3048 m.0 kip = 4.000 30. 160 Frame 1 140 Frame 2 Frame 3 120 100 Height. ft 80 60 40 20 0 10.000 20.Chapter 6. 1. ft 80 60 40 20 0 200 100 0 100 200 Shear.000 50. 1. ftkips Figure 69 Story overturning moments in the EW direction (1.
3048 m. ft 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 Shear. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 160 25% V analysis for Frame 1 140 Frame 1 120 100 Height.0 ft = 0.0 kip = 4.FEMA 451.45 kN). 1. 634 . kips 200 250 300 350 Figure 610 25 percent story shears. Frame 1 EW direction (1.
Reinforced Concrete 160 25% V analysis for Frame 2 Frame 2 140 120 100 80 Height. Frame 2 EW direction (1. ft 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 Shear.3048 m.0 kip = 4.45 kN).0 ft = 0. kips 200 250 300 350 Figure 611 25 percent story shears. 635 . 1.Chapter 6.
and columns would be 30 in. In this example. 6. which is 75 percent of the column width. the moment is designated as a positive moment. it is necessary to estimate the size and placement of the reinforcement that will be used.0 ft = 0.3048 m. the moment is designated as a negative moment. When the steel at the bottom is in tension.5.5 in.5 Design of Frame Members for the Berkeley Building A sign convention for bending moments is required in flexural design.4.4.5. is assumed. it is useful to establish. 1. 6. clear cover of 1. in an overall sense. Frame 3 EW direction (1. this means negative moments are plotted on the top and positive moments are plotted on the bottom.5 in. when the steel at the top of a beam section is in tension. by 30 in. moments are drawn on the tension side of the member. 21.1 Initial Calculations Before the quantity and placement of reinforcement is determined. kips 200 250 300 350 Figure 612 25 percent story shear. All moment diagrams are drawn using the reinforced concrete or tensionside convention. In order to consider the beamcolumn joints “confined” per ACI 318 Sec. it was necessary to set the beam width to 22. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 160 25% V analysis for Frame 3 140 Frame 3 (without panels) 120 100 Height.45 kN).FEMA 451. Since this structure has beams spanning in 636 . how the reinforcement will be distributed. In order to determine the effective depth used for the design of the beams. ft 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 Shear.. For beams. The preliminary design established that beams would have a maximum depth of 32 in. In all cases.0 kip = 4. In establishing this depth. For columns.. it is assumed that #8 bars will be used for longitudinal reinforcement and that hoops and stirrups will be constructed from #3 deformed bars.
1.0 . Reinforced Concrete two orthogonal directions.5 in.1.375 .5 . the slab is in compression and the effective Tbeam width varies according to ACI 318 Sec.5" cover #8 bar 2'41 2" 2'51 2" Northsouth spanning beam Eastwest spanning beam #3 hoop 2'6" Figure 613 Layout for beam reinforcement (1.1. C. it is necessary to layer the flexural reinforcement as shown in Figure 613.2 controls the longitudinal reinforcement requirements for beams. 1. (slab thickness) ACI 318 Sec. For negative moment bending.375 .5 + [6(4)] = 46.5 . (span length) b = 22.1.1.4 mm).0 in = 25.6 = = 2. The reinforcement for the EW spanning beams was placed in the upper and lower layers because the strength demand for these members is somewhat greater than that for the NS beams. compute the effective depth for both positive and negative moment as: Beams spanning in the EW direction.0.5)29.Chapter 6.5 + 2[8(4)] = 86. For positive moment.0. d = 32 .5 in.2 fy 60. the effective width is 22.000 2'8" 637 .00/2 = 28. 1.6 in.5 in. d = 32 .min = 200bw d 200(22.3048 m. and D b = 22. (slab thickness) b = 22. B. 8. 21. The effective widths for positive moment are as follows (with the parameter controlling effective width shown in parentheses): 20ft beams in Frames 1 and 8 Haunched beams 30ft beams in Frames A. Given Figure 613.6 in.0 ft = 0. for all beams.5 + 20(12)/12 = 42.5 in. Beams spanning in the NS direction.00/2 = 29. The minimum reinforcement to be provided at the top and bottom of any section is: As .10.3.22 in.
.) 9.1 81. there will be no problem developing hooked bars in the columns.410 ldh hook (in.7 72.270 1.0 56.4 13.1 11.6 23. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples This amount of reinforcement can be supplied by three #8 bars with As = 2. The development length for the portion of the bar extending into unconfined concrete must be increased by a factor of 1. Development length requirements for hooked and straight bars are summarized in Table 613.4.500 0.9 39. 21.2 Since the three #8 bars will be provided continuously top and bottom. ACI 318 Chapter 12 should be used. For LW concrete.7 ld top (in.000 psi LW Concrete Bar Size #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 1. 7. From Eq. These values are applicable only when the bars are anchored in well confined concrete (e.5 in. As required by ACI 318 Sec.5 58.0 64.000 psi LW concrete.0 45. 216.0.2 20.5.2 90.2 638 .) 22. of cover and #4 ties.0 ld bottom (in. db (in. the available development length is 30 . 216 of ACI 318 Sec. 216 controls for #3 through #11 bars. For bars hooked into 30in.5 34. Where hooked bars are used. Table 613 Tension Development Length Requirements for Hooked Bars and Straight Bars in 4.875 1.25 times that given by ACI 318 Eq. the computed length should not be less than 6 in. ACI 318 Sec. Before getting too far into member design.square columns with 1. For development of bars outside of joint regions. reinforcement required for strength will include these #8 bars.0 63.) 31.000 1.1. column cores and plastic hinge regions with confining reinforcement).. the minimum length is the larger of 1.FEMA 451.9 48. Table 613 is applicable to bars anchored in joint regions only. the hook must be 90 degrees and be located within the confined core of the column or boundary element.625 0.50 .3 40.37 in. ACI 318 Eq.) 0. ld = 2.128 1. For straight “top” bars.5 51.5.2 25.5ldh and for straight bottom bars.7 16.1. 7.g.0 in.5ldh.750 0. ld = 3. hooked bars have a 12db extension beyond the bend.2 requires that #3 through #8 bars have a 6db bend diameter and #9 through #11 bars have a 8db diameter.0 18. = 25. or 10db.5 in. With this amount of available length. the required development length is: ldh = f y db 65 f c′ For NW concrete.8 28. it is useful to check the required tension development length for hooked bars since the required length may control the dimensions of the columns and the boundary elements of the structural walls. For fc' = 4.5 = 28. 12.4 mm. or 8db.6.0 in.
4. 1984). the equivalent lateral forces of Table 67b were applied at an eccentricity of 10. The beam reinforcement is critical because the basic concept of ductile frame design is to force most of the energyabsorbing deformation to occur through inelastic rotation in plastic hinges at the ends of the beams.Chapter 6. Before continuing with the example. tensile stress in reinforcement at 1.5 in.8.. This assumes the stress block in compression is less than the 4. In computing flexural capacities.0.0 ft. The beams are designed first because the flexural capacity of the asdesigned beams is a factor in the design and detailing of the column and the beamcolumn joint. while the neutral axis depth at ultimate ranges from 0.3 The preliminary design of the girders of Frame 1 was based on members with a depth of 32 in. tensile stress in reinforcement at 1. only the tension steel will be considered.0. respectively.00 fy φ = 1.07 to 0. the crosssectional characteristics of the column. In carrying out the design calculations. For this part of the example. The layout of the geometry and gravity loading on the three easternmost spans of Level 5 of Frame 1 as well as the unfactored gravity and seismic moments are illustrated in Figure 614. yielding a depth to the neutral axis similar to the depth of the compression reinforcement (d'/d is about 0. three different flexural strengths were used for the beams. the column flexural reinforcement. The effective depth for positive and negative bending is 29.08.5 in.25 fy Various aspects of the design of the beams and other members depend on the above capacities as follows: Beam rebar cutoffs Beam shear reinforcement Beamcolumn joint strength Column flexural strength Column shear strength Design strength Probable strength of beam Probable strength of beam 6/5 × nominal strength of beam Probable strength of column In addition. This is a valid design assumption because reinforcement ratios are quite low.5 ft together with 30 percent of the forces of Table 67a applied at an eccentricity of 5. the size and spacing of beam shear reinforcement.00 fy φ = 1. tensile stress in reinforcement at 1. These capacities were based on: Design strength Nominal strength Probable strength φ = 0. and the effective widths for positive and negative bending are 42. beams in ductile frames will always have top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement throughout their length. Reinforced Concrete 6.5. The eccentricities were applied in such a manner as to maximize torsional response and produce the largest shears in Frame 1. The percentage and placement of beam flexural reinforcement governs the flexural rebar cutoff locations. and a width of 22.6 in.5 and 22.2 Design of Members of Frame 1 for EW Loading For the design of the members of Frame 1. The design of a corner column will be presented later.0inch flange thickness. the design and detailing of all five beams and one interior column of Level 5 are presented in varying amounts of detail. The seismic moments are taken directly from the ETABS program output and the gravity moments were computed by hand 3 See Chapter 1 of the 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Concrete Engineering edited by Mark Fintel (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 639 . and the column shear reinforcement. it should be mentioned that the design of ductile reinforced concrete moment frame members is dominated by the flexural reinforcement in the beams.15 times the depth) .
834 242 221 152 786 715 4.0 in.0) + 3(0.kips) 1. Design for Negative Moment at the Face of the Support Mu = 1.641 in.708 3.113 kNm).1.kips Try two #9 bars in addition to the three #8 bars required for minimum steel: As = 2(1.232 5.149 4. 6. 1.0(4515) = 5.225 5.68D .988 492 562 152 173 5.122 3. Note that all moments (except for midspan positive moment) are given at the face of the column and that seismic moments are considerably greater than those due to gravity.2D + 1.68D .3048 m.6L .0E load combination.641 951 4.2 fc' = 4.4.42(715) + 0.0E.761 5.0 ft = 0.028 Figure 614 Bending moments for Frame 1 (1.515 (a) Span layout and loading 4.635 715 715 (b) Earthquake moment (in.5(221) + 1. Factored bending moment envelopes for all five spans are shown in Figure 614.222 834 4.42D + 0.6L.79) = 4.515 715 492 (c) Unfactored DL moment (in.5L + E 1. Midspan positive moments are based on the load combination 1.37 in.641 5.kips) 4.457 4.42D + 0.5.1 Span BC 1. and positive moment at the support is controlled by 0.E 492 221 221 221 152 5. ' 17'6" 20'0" 20'0" 20'0" 4.FEMA 451.5L + 1.028 834 4.000 psi fy = 60 ksi 640 .kip = 0.2D+1.453 4.kips) (d) Unfactored LL moment (in.2. The design process is illustrated below starting with Span BC. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples using the coefficient method of ACI 318 Chapter 8.midspan 0.kips) (e) Required strength envelopes (in. Negative moment at the supports is controlled by the 1.
Design for Negative Moment at the Face of Support A' Mu = [1.5] = 1. Design for Positive Moment at Face of Support Mu = [0.028 in.68(715)] + [1.kips > 4. Design strength.635)] = 4.5] = 3.222 in.3. φMn = φAsfy(d .641 in. 6.kips As before.4. Design for Positive Moment at Face of Support B' Mu = [0.0(4.6 in.5(221)] + [1.kips 3.68(715)] + [1. a = Asfy/.515)] = 4.57 in.8(4.43/2) = 5.0(4708)] = 4.8(3.a/2) φMn = 0.6 . Design for Positive Moment at Face of Support A' Mu = [0.Chapter 6.kips As before. use three #8 bars plus two #9 bars.2(492)] + [1.79)] = 3. a = [3.kips) works as shown for Span BC. 3.6 in.149 in.834 in.708)] = 5.2.0(4.57) 60(29.1. 641 .kips > 5. Positive Moment at Midspan Mu = [1.761 in.kips Three #8 bars plus two #9 bars (capacity = 5.42(715)] + [0.48/2) = 4.57(60)]/[0. use three #8 bars plus two #7 bars.37 (60)/[0.0(4.kips OK OK Minimum reinforcement (three #8 bars) controls by inspection.85(4)42. φMn = 0.kips 2.37)60(29.kips) will work as shown for Span BC.60)] + [3(0.028 in.5 in.kips Try two #7 bars in addition to the three #8 bars already provided as minimum steel: As = [2(0. d = 29. 4.849 in.635)] = 5.85fc'b a = 4.2 Span A'B 1.945 in.5.43 in.5(221)] + [1. 2 Width b for positive moment = 42.6 in.42(715)] + [0.5 in. Reinforced Concrete Width b for negative moment = 22.945 in. 2. Depth of compression block. Design for Negative Moment at the Face of Support B Mu = [1.0(4.849 in.48 in.6 .kips Three #8 bars plus two #7 bars (capacity = 4.85 (4) 22.6(152)] = 833. This positive moment reinforcement will also work for Spans A'B and AA'.68(715)] + [1. d = 29.
10/2) = 5.FEMA 451.kips > 5. the final layout of reinforcing steel also must satisfy the following from ACI 318 Sec.0(3.225 in.95)60] (29. In addition to the computed strength requirements and minimum reinforcement ratios cited above.457)] = 5.4 Spans CC' and C'D Reinforcement requirements for Spans CC' and C'D are mirror images of those computed for Spans A'B and AA'. use three #8 bars plus two #7 bars.2.kips Three #8 bars plus two #7 bars will be sufficient.5(152)] + [1.318 in.5.2 Width b for negative moment = 22.68(492)] + [1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 6. Design for Negative Moment at the Face of Support A' Mu = [1.10 in. 6.95(60)/[0. a = [3.5] = 3.0(3. but it allows 642 . Similarly.kips 2.79 = 3.42(786)] + [0.0(4.2. The use of six #8 bars is somewhat awkward for placing steel. six #8 bars are used at the bottom of Span BC.85(4)22.2: Minimum of two bars continuous top and bottom Positive moment strength greater than 50 percent negative moment strength at a joint Minimum strength along member greater than 0. Design for Negative Moment at the Face of Support A Mu = [1.453 in. 21.4.3.457)] = 4. Design for Positive Moment at Face of Support A' Mu = [0.6 in.232 in.5 in.5.4.5(242)] + [1.68(786)] + [1.42(492)] + [0. 4.0(4. 3.232 in.3 Span AA' 1.kips As before.122 in. φMn =[0.95 in.kips Use three #8 bars plus two #9 bars as required for Support B of Span A'B.988)] = 5. Design for Positive Moment at Face of Support A Mu = [0.988)] = 3.kips Try three #8 bars plus two #8 bars: As = 5 × 0. d = 29.6 .3.8(3. respectively. The arrangement of bars actually provided is based on the above computations with the exception of Span BC where a total of six #8 top bars were used instead of the three #8 bars plus two #9 bars combination.25 maximum strength OK (three #8 bars continuous top and bottom) OK (at all joints) OK (As provided = three #8 bars is more than 25 percent of reinforcement provided at joints) OK The preliminary layout of reinforcement is shown in Figure 615.
a = As(1. An alternate choice would have been to use two #9 continuous across the top of Span BC instead of the three of the #8 bars.510 10.00303) does not meet the minimum reinforcement requirement ρmin = 0.0033. As mentioned above.945 7. Reinforced Concrete for the use of three #8 continuous top and bottom at all spans.0 in.5 in. However.25fy)/0.79) = 4. A five #8 5.510 10.085 C' three #8 + two #9 5.945 7.25fy)(d .945 7.25)60/[0.5] = 4.kips) 1.195 A' three #8 + two #9 5.6 in. Mpr = 1.318 8.0As(1.048 m). the use of two #9 bars (ρ = 0.74(1. later phases of the frame design will require computation of the design strength and the maximum probable strength at each support.677 As an example of computation of probable strength.849 8.0 ft = 03.kips) Probable Strength (in. ' (2) #8 (3) #8 2'8" ' (2) #9 (3) #8 (3) #8 (2) #8 (2) #9 (3) #8 2'6" (3) #8 (2) #7 (2) #7 20'0" (typical) (2) #7 (2) #7 Note: Drawing not to scale Figure 615 Preliminary rebar layout for Frame 1 (1.85fc'b a = 4.677 4.085 C six #8 7.677 three #8 + three #8 + two #7 two #7 4.697 six #8 6.a/2) 643 . Depth of compression block.113 kNm.100 9.kips) Reinforcement Positive Moment Design Strength (in. Table 614 Design and Maximum Probable Flexural Strength For Beams in Frame 1 Location Item Reinforcement Negative Moment Design Strength (in.kip = 0.Chapter 6.999 B six #8 6. consider the case of six #8 top bars: As = 6(0.945 7.311 9.849 8. d = 29.999 three #8 + two #7 4.65 in.kips) Probable Strength (in.74 in.85(4)22. The results of these calculations are shown in Table 614.195 three #8 + two #7 4.2 Width b for negative moment = 22.655 D five #8 5.697 six #8 6.318 8.
25(60)[(6(0. or increasing the beam depth.085 + 8. which shows how plastic moments are developed in the various spans for equivalent lateral forces acting to the east.5 ) = 2. increasing the column area.3. the largest shear that theoretically can be developed in the column above Level 5 is 150. a = 4. This is computed from equilibrium as shown at the bottom of Figure 616: 94. the layout of reinforcement has been considered preliminary because the quantity of reinforcement placed in the girders has a direct bearing on the magnitude of the stresses developed in the beamcolumn joint.0(4.2(9.83) + 90.9(10.000 psi may be used for the columns and beamcolumn joint region while the LW concrete is used for the joists and beams.999)/(240 .30) = 94.5/2) Vc = 150. The beam shears shown in Figure 616c are based on the probable moment strengths shown in Table 614.6 in.kips 6.74 in.2 kips For Span CC': VE = (10.30) = 90. gravity loads do not produce significant column shears.79)] = 355.25(60)(29.FEMA 451. the only remedies are increasing the concrete strength.65/2) = 9.74(1. Mpr = 1.9 kips With the earthquake shear of 94.2 Width b for positive moment = 42.46 in. If the computed joint stresses are too high.2. The forces in the beam reinforcement for negative moment are based on six #8 bars at 1.2.+ Mpr+ )/lclear = (9.5 kips 644 . The design of the beamcolumn joint is based on the requirements of ACI 318 Sec. 21.6 . An isolated subassemblage from the frame is shown in Figure 616b. d = 29.5 Adequacy of Flexural Reinforcement in Relation to the Design of the BeamColumn Joint Prior to this point in the design process.697 + 10.4.25(60)(29.6 . NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Mpr = 1. The determination of the forces in the joint of the column on Gridline C of Frame 1 is based on Figure 616a.4 kips With equal spans.74)1.50) = 2Vc(12.9 kips being developed in the beams.85 × 4 × 42. Therefore. compute the earthquake shear in Span BC: VE = (Mpr.085 in. NW concrete with a strength greater than 4.697 in. For forces acting from west to east. If absolutely necessary.5.79) = 4.46/2) = 10. except at the end column. gravity loads are not included in this computation.4.000 psi) allowed for LW concrete. changing the reinforcement layout. however.kips For the case of six #8 bottom bars: As = 6(0.2 and 90.25 fy: T = C = 1.0(4. where the seismic shear is much less.25)60/(0.5.5 in.5 kips.74)1. The option of increasing concrete strength is not viable for this example because it is already at the maximum (4.085)/(240 .
45kN. 1.113 kNm).085 10'6" 20'0" 150.kips) in spans BC and CC' 10.9 150.4 Figure 616 Diagram for computing column shears (1.150.5 + 355.0 ft = 0.4 = 560.3048 m.0 kip = 4.Chapter 6.697 8.5 kips. 1. assuming C = T. C = 355. six #8 bars also are used.085 9'10" 20'0" 10.VE = 355. For positive moment.999 (b) Plastic moments (in.5 = 623 psi 30 2 645 . As illustrated in Figure 617. Reinforced Concrete ' ' + + + +  (a) Plastic mechanism ' 9.5 .4 94.2 (c) Girder and column shears (kips) 90.0 in.6 kips The joint shear stress is: vj = Vj d c2 = 560. the joint shear force Vj is computed as: Vj = T + C .kip = 0.
75)(15 4.3 as referenced by the 2003 Provisions. ACI 318 Sec.0 kip = 4. One remedy to the situation would be to reduce the quantity of positive moment reinforcement.4 will be placed within the depth of the joint. See Sec 6. As shown later.5 kips C = 355.4. Using φ = 0. the allowable shear stress for LW concrete is based on ACI 318 Sec.FEMA 451.5 kips C = 355.5. It is left to the reader to verify that the joint shear stress would be acceptable under these circumstances. For now we will proceed with the larger column. 21.5 = 560.75 as a modifier for LW concrete: v j . Given that the joint stress is acceptable. 646 .3 controls the amount of reinforcement required in the joint.80(0.2. If the column is increased in size to 32 in. A'.5 kips T = 355. this reinforcement consists of fourleg #4 hoops at 4 in. and D is less than that for Columns B and C.5 kips Figure 617 Computing joint shear stress (1. C'. Because the combined area of top and bottom reinforcement used at Columns A. For joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces. by 32 in. on center. 21. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Vc = 150.000) = 569 psi [Note that for joints.5 = 547psi < 569 psi 322 which is also acceptable.3. φ = 0.80 for joints (from ACI Appendix C) and a factor of 0. these joints will not be overstressed. Since the joint is not confined on all four sides by a beam.45kN). Joint stresses would be checked for the other columns in a similar manner.5 kips T = 355. The six #8 bottom bars at Columns B and C could be reduced to three #8 bars plus two #7 bars. allowable = 0. the new joint shear stress is: vj = Vj d c2 = 560. Another remedy would be to increase the size of the column. the total amount of transverse reinforcement required by ACI 318 Sec.4.85 per ACI 31802 Sec 9.] Since the actual joint stress (623 psi) exceeds the allowable stress (569 psi)..5)150. This would require a somewhat different arrangement of bars than shown in Figure 615. but as discussed later.5 kips Vg = 2(355. 21.2 for discussion. the joint is overstressed. the final solution will be to rearrange the bars to three #8 plus two #7.5.
it is assumed that theoretical cutoff locations correspond to the point where the continuous top and bottom bars develop their design flexural strength.Chapter 6.68 times the uniform dead load. Consequently. Loading diagrams for determining cut off locations are shown in Figure 618. C' and D. 0. Note that this is exactly at the midspan of the member.7 in. it is assumed that the member is subjected to earthquake plus 0.3 requires an additional length equal to the effective depth of the member or 12 bar diameters (whichever is larger). the cutoff locations of the various bars may be determined (see Figure 615 for a schematic of the arrangement of reinforcement). the required extension beyond the face of the support is 76. The free body diagram produces an equilibrium equation as: 6. For positive moment cutoffs.kips is the design strength of the section with three #8 bars.3 kips is the end shear.7 x = 3. Solving the quadratic equation results in x = 42.311 + 0. For negative moment cutoff locations. ACI 318 Sec.42 times dead load plus 0. it has been determined that the design flexural strength supplied by a section with only three #8 bars is 3.9 in. To determine the cutoff location for negative moment.311 in.) is 0.9 + 29.6 in. 647 . A'. shorter bars are used to make up the additional reinforcement required for strength. and a 6 ft1 in.510 − 0. Since the goal is to develop a negative moment capacity of 3.kips for negative moment. extension beyond the face of the column could be used.261 2 In the above equation.261 in. 12.311 (in.68 times the dead load forces. see Figure 614 and Figure 619b. effective depth. refer to Figure 619a.5 times live load. At Supports A. Adding the 29.6 x = 3.kips in the continuous #8 bars summing moments about Point A in Figure 619a: 6.3 in.6 = 72. Cutoff locations are based on the members developing their design flexural capacities (fy = 60 ksi and φ = 0. which is a free body diagram of the west end of the member. these bars are cut off in Spans A'B and CC'. To determine where bars should be cut off in each span. Sample cutoff calculations are given first for Span BC.261 in. the total length of the bar beyond the face of the support is 42.8).121 (kips/in. and 3. Reinforced Concrete Because the arrangement of steel is acceptable from a joint strength perspective.311 2 where the distance x is computed to be 75.5 in.0 + 29.kips for positive moment and 3. For positive moment cutoff.281x 2 − 31.261 in.121x 2 − 73. 73.6 = 105. Using calculations similar to those above. the loading is taken as earthquake plus 1. 6. The three #8 bars (top and bottom) required for minimum reinforcement are supplied in one length that runs continuously across the two end spans and are cut off in the center span.kips) is the negative moment capacity for the section with six #8 bars. or 8 ft9 in.10. An additional three #8 bars are placed top and bottom in the center span.
68 WD= 0.121 kip/in. 1.113 kNm). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples WL = 0.42D+0.311 X X+ 6. The confined length in which the bar is developed is shown in Figure 620 and consists of 648 .kip = 0.6 kips Figure 619 Free body diagrams (1.42D+0.68L Bending moment (in.261 E E +0.5L = 0. if the bar is anchored in a confined joint region. the short bottom bars shown in Figure 615 are impractical.510 in.311 in.6 kN/m. A 6. 1.68D E +1.0 in.0 klf = 14.0 klf = 14.3048 m. A (a) X73. As shown in Figure 620.kips 0.kip = 0. Clearly.0 in.1 in. 1. another requirement in setting cutoff length is that the bar being cut off must have sufficient length to develop the strength required in the adjacent span.7 kips 1.113 kNm). From Table 613.66 klf WD= 2.510 Figure 618 Loading for determination of rebar cutoffs (1.6 kN/m.281 kip/in. by 30 in.45kN. the bottom steel will be rearranged to consist of three #8 plus two #7 bars continuous. 1.0 ft = 0. the required development length of the #9 top bars in tension is 72. 6. and the columns may remain at 30 in.FEMA 451.0 kip = 4. Instead. Recall that this arrangement of reinforcement will satisfy joint shear requirements.kips (b) X+ 31.311 3.14 klf Face of support 17'6" 6.kips) 3.
Chapter 6. taking c as the cover (1. According to ACI 318 Sec. the entire region of the splice must be confined by closed hoops spaced no closer than d/4 or 4 in. According to ACI 318 Sec. the development length (ld) is computed from: ld 3 fy αβγλ = ' ⎛c+K ⎞ db 40 f tr c ⎜ ⎟ db ⎠ ⎝ using α = 1. required.0 ⎠ ' Must also check for force F. 1.15.) plus the tie dimension (0.5 l dh = 72. β =1. ⎜ ⎟ 40 ⎜ 4. 12.0 (bottom bar). From ACI 318 Sec.0 (uncoated). use a 48in.1 in. the development length for one #9 bar is: ld = 3 ⎛ 60. The final bar placement and cutoff locations for all five spans are shown in Figure 621.) plus 1/2 bar diameter (0.0 (#9 bar). This length is 30 + 32 + 32 = 94 in.3 (LW concrete). 21. The splice length is taken as the bottom bar Class B splice length for #8 bars. which is greater than the 72.000 ⎞ 1 × 1 × 1.50 in.0 = 48.3.1 in. The results are shown in Table 615.0) = 37.3 and 21. Reinforced Concrete the column depth plus twice the depth of the girder.0 × 1.) = 2. γ = 1. 649 d b = 2'8" .3 times the development length.5 + 0 ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1. contact splice.3048 m. The column and girder are considered confined because of the presence of closed hoop reinforcement as required by ACI 318 Sec. and using Ktr = 0.4 mm). the splice length is 1.3 (1..3 × 37. λ = 1.5 in.000 ⎟ ⎛ 2.0 in = 25.2.1" #9 bar F Confined region Cut off length based on moments in span A'B dc = 2'6" 7'10" 6'1" Figure 620 Development length for top bars (1.3.5 in.2.0 in.2. 12. The splice length = 1.3. The bottom bars are spliced at the center of Spans A'B and CC' as shown in Figure 621.0 ft = 0.4. Required length = 3..4. Due to the different arrangement of bottom steel. the strength at the supports must be recomputed. Therefore.50 in. 21.
944 7. Table 615 Design and Maximum Probable Flexural Strength For Beams in Frame 1 (Revised) Location Item Reinforcement Negative Moment Design Moment (in.4 mm). The maximum probable earthquake shear is based on the assumption that φ = 1.849 8.kip = 0.944 7.677 4. 19 at 5.3.kips) Probable moment (in. 6 at 4" Figure 621 Final bar arrangement (1.311 9.0 ft = 0.3048 m.999 three #8 + two #7 4.kips) Reinforcement Positive Moment Design Moment (in. The probable moment strength at each support is shown in Table 615.kips) 1.25fy.113 kNm.3 (minimum reinforcement) and 21.999 B six #8 6.677 three #8 + three #8 + three #8 + three #8 two #7 two #7 two #7 + two #7 4.5.318 8. 21.195 A' three #8 + two #9 5. the shear strength demand is computed as the sum of the factored gravity shear plus the maximum probable earthquake shear.5" Typical spans A'B.5". BC.6 Transverse Reinforcement Transverse reinforcement requirements are covered in ACI 318 Sec. (4) #3 leg 1 at 2".311 9.kips) Probable moment (in.696 C' three #8 + two #9 5. To avoid nonductile shear failures.FEMA 451.677 4.696 C six #8 6.2.944 7.944 7.4.677 4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples ' 5'0" (3) #8 (2) #9 ' (3) #8 (2) #8 (3) #8 + (2) #7 4'0" Hoop spacing (from each end): Typical spans AA'. 15 at 5. 1.318 8.849 8.677 D five #8 5. 650 .4 (shear strength).CC'.0 in.944 7.944 7. C'D (4) #3 leg 1 at 2".0 in = 25.677 6.0 and the flexural reinforcement reaches a tensile stress of 1.3.195 three #8 + two #7 4. A five #8 5.
In Figure 622a.7 kips. For forces acting to the east.4 kips. Reinforced Concrete Figure 622 illustrates the development of the design shear strength envelopes for Spans AA'. the maximum probable earthquake moments are shown for seismic forces acting to the east (solid lines) and to the west (dashed lines). The moments shown occur at the face of the supports. and BC. VE = (9696 + 7677) / 210 = 82. For forces acting to the west. For Span AB. VE = (8999 + 7677) / 210 = 79. 651 . A'B. = 210 in. the values shown in the figure are: VE = − + M pr + M pr lclear where lclear = 17 ft6 in.Chapter 6. Note that the earthquake shears act in different directions depending on the direction of load. The earthquake shears produced by the maximum probable moments are shown in Figure 622b.
677 7.4 82.2 53.6 79.1 105.4 82.1 108.7 (b) Seismic shear positive kips 75.0 in = 25.5 29.5 (c) Gravity shear (1.999 9.9 53.677 7. 1.5 108.5 29.677 15" 210" 240" 15" 79.677 7.9 112.7 82.0 in.2 112.kips 7. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Loading ' 8.0 kip = 4.5L) positive kips 29.FEMA 451.195 8.9 49.9 49.kip = 0.42D + 0.45kN.113 kNm).2 (d) Design shear seismic + gravity 46.2 53.5 29.7 29.2 112. 652 .696 9.2 positive kips Figure 622 Shear forces for transverse reinforcement (1. 1.4 mm.696 (a) Seismic moment (tension side) in.5 29.
(29.75[4(0. Reinforced Concrete The gravity shears shown in Figure 622c are: Factored gravity shear = VG = 1. The strength envelope for Span BC is shown in detail in Figure 623.2: 653 .44 in.11)](60)(29. At midspan.6 in.8) = 29. according to ACI 318 Sec. this ratio is VE/Vu = 82. say 7.7 .75.2.2)/2 = 82.9) = 5. From Figure 622. compute the required spacing: s = φAvfyd/Vu = 0.5/2 = 18.2 . the shear strength can consist of contributions from concrete and from steel hoops or stirrups.2). Using the ASCE 7 compatible φ for shear = 0.3" 54.6/103. In designing shear reinforcement. which indicates that the maximum design shears is 82.53..7 + 29. the design shear strength of the concrete must be taken as zero when the axial force is small (Pu/Agf!c < 0. a shear of 82. [Note that this is the basic strength reduction factor for shear per ACI 31802 Sec 9.2 kips φ Vs = 110. Check maximum spacing per ACI 318 Sec.5 kips Total design shears for each span are shown in Figure 622d.05) and the ratio VE/Vu is greater than 0. the design shear Vu = (112.65 in.6 in.0 in.5 = 53.7) + 0.73.2 kips 9.0 kip = 4.5/2 = 5.Chapter 6. φ Vs = 132. See Sec 6.8 kips VG = 1.] Compute the shear at d = 29.6/82.3. However.5(5.5 = 112.2 kips acts at the opposite end of the member.2) = 103. from the face of the support: Vu = φVs = 112. say 5.08 in.7 kips.4. fv = 60 ksi and d = 29. 1.2 kips 53.3.2 kips 53.2 = 0.5 kips s = 6" φ V s = 94.6/210)(112.66 × 17.2 kips.42Vdead + 0.45kN).4 mm.3. the spacing of reinforcement required is computed as described below. Compute the required spacing: s = 0.5.0 in = 25.7 kips Vlive = 0..3.4.4" 41.2 .2 + 53.29. 21.7 kips s = 7" 112.42(18. While this shear acts at one end.2 for discussion. so concrete shear strength must be taken as zero.9 kips Vs = Avfyd/s Assuming four #3 vertical legs (Av = 0. 21.75[4(0.14 × 17.5Vlive Vdead = 2.6 kips s = 5" 112.7/112.5 in.11)](60)(29..7) = 7.3" Figure 623 Detailed shear force envelope in Span BC (1.
the column bending moment for NS forces can be neglected. the girder is relatively short. at midspan.000 psi LW concrete. at the support and 7.0) = 8.4 in.5 in. 60 ksi longitudinal reinforcement. From that point on. and C'D. 654 . however. on center. the column is designed for axial force plus uniaxial bending. from the face of the support. 7. The first hoop must be placed 2 in. 30 percent of the NS force. Hence. Because no beams frame into this column along Gridline A'. This is being done because the earthquake shear is a large portion of the total shear. and accidental torsion. The load combination used to compute this force consists of full earthquake force in the EW direction. Where hoops are required (first 64 in.FEMA 451. a spacing of 5. which supports Level 5 of Frame 1.3. from face of support). stirrups may be used. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples d/4 = 29.3. 21.5 in.10. will be used for the full length of the beam. For the girders of Frame 1.5. is 30 in. The column. In Spans A'B and CC'. The spacing must vary between 5. 24dh = 24(3/8) = 9. Details of the transverse reinforcement layout for all spans of Level 5 of Frame 1 are shown in Figure 621. Due to the relatively flat shear force gradient. and the economic premium is negligible. The flexural reinforcement in the beams framing into the column is shown in Figure 621. and 60 ksi transverse reinforcement.3 Design of a Typical Interior Column of Frame 1 This section illustrates the design of a typical interior column on Gridline A'. stirrups will not be used.4. ACI 318 Sec.0 in. Hoops should be arranged such that every corner and alternate longitudinal bar is supported by a corner of the hoop assembly and no bar should be more than 6 in. tension or compression. 6.3.6/4 = 7. square and is constructed from 4. The ETABS analysis indicates that the maximum axial earthquake force is 84 kips. longitudinal reinforcing bars should be supported as specified in ACI 318 Sec. clear from such a supported bar.0 in.5. BC.1 states that closed hoops are required over a distance of twice the member depth from the face of the support.0 in. 8db = 8(1. the bottom flexural reinforcement is spliced and hoops must be placed over the splice region at d/4 or a maximum of 4 in. and the hoops will be used along the entire member length. This arrangement of hoops will be used for Spans AA'. Using simple tributary area calculations (not shown). the column supports an unfactored axial dead load of 528 kips and an unfactored axial live load of 54 kips. An isolated view of the column is shown in Figure 624.
2.095 in.kips Average nominal moment framing into joint = 6.8 = 7. 21. or #10 bars.4 mm.42(528) + 0. 1.68D .0(84) = 275 kips (compression) The maximum axial compression force of 861 kips is greater than 0.68(528) . These capacities are provided in Table 615.0 in = 25.945/0. Figure 625 gives design curves for 30 in. the nominal column flexural strength must be at least 6/5 of the nominal flexural strength of the beams framing into the column. Nominal (negative) moment strength at end A' of Span AA' = 5. by 30 in. #9.5L + 1. computed with a 655 .1.0E.0 kip = 4.0E 0. use the basic load combinations: 1. Knowing the factored axial load and the required design flexural strength.1fc'Ag = 0.3.181 in. Reinforced Concrete ' P L= 54 kips Includes PD= 528 kips level 5 32" See Figure 621 for girder reinforcement Level 5 12'6" 30" 32" Level 4 20'0" 20'0" Figure 624 Layout and loads on column of Frame A (1.746 in. a column with adequate capacity must be selected.4.000 psi concrete and reinforcement consisting of 12 #8. 6.3048 m. according to ACI 318 Sec. Thus.8 = 6.311 in.1.4.5(54) + 1.kips.1 Longitudinal Reinforcement To determine the axial design loads.kips Nominal column design moment = 6/5 × 6746 = 8. Beam moments at the face of the support are used for this computation.1(4)(302) = 360 kips.42D + 0.kips Nominal (positive) moment strength at end A' of Span A' B = 4. These curves.45kN). 1. The combination that results in maximum compression is: Pu = 1.849/0.Chapter 6.0 ft = 0.0(84) = 861 kips (compression) The combination for minimum compression (or tension) is: Pu = 0. columns of 4.5.
NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.4. For rectangular sections with hoops.4 gives the requirements for minimum transverse reinforcement. 213 and 214 are applicable: ⎛ sh f ′ ⎞ ⎛ Ag ⎞ Ash = 0.500 2. At axial forces of 275 kips and 861 kips.2 Ag = 30 (30) = 900 in.000 Mu (ftkips) Figure 625 Design interaction diagram for column on Gridline A' (1. are based on a φ factor of 1.5)2 = 729 in.24 ACI 318 Eq.1.0 kip = 4. 656 .0 ftkip = 1.000 1. These dots must lie to the left of the curve representing the design columns.2 and 1.48 in. The dots on the lines represent the required nominal flexural strength (8095 in.3 ⎜ c c ⎟ ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎜ f yh ⎟ ⎝ Ach ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Ash = 0.000 1. 1. a column with 12 #8 bars (with As = 9. 21.000 (12) #10 4.4. 214 therefore controls.05 percent of steel) is clearly adequate.000 2.kips) at each axial load level. 6. ACI 318 Eq.36 kNm).5 .3.2 Transverse Reinforcement ACI 318 Sec.3.5. For the 30in.by30in.2 Ag/Ach = 900/729 = 1.000 0 500 1.000 0 1. Pu (kips) 5.000 2.0 as required for nominal strength. For both the minimum and maximum axial forces.FEMA 451. solid horizontal lines are drawn.09shc fc′ f yh The first of these equations controls when Ag/Ach > 1. columns: Ach = (30 .000 (12) #9 (12) #8 3.45kN.1.
or 6db.5 . at each end of the member and.09 (26.433 in. but it does not specify what the details of reinforcement should be. so a spacing of 5 in.2 + 165 = 198.75(0.5 in.4.1. Column bar splices. spacing required by ACI Eq. try hoops with four #4 legs and fc' = 4.5.4.25/0.0.000(30)(27. 214 controls. the column shear can be estimated at 8433/(0. hx = 8.. 6.0 in. With a clear height of 118 in.5) 4000] = 5.5.2 kips φVs = φ Av f y d / s = 0. ACI 318 requires transverse steel at this spacing. the concrete contribution to shear strength may be considered because Pu > Agf!c/20. This shear will be compared to the capacity provided by the 4leg #4 hoops spaced at 6 in.0 in. 657 . This is done for practical reasons only.000 psi: hc = 30 .6 requires a maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement in the region of the column not covered by Sec.72 in.85)( 4. where required. the design shear strength contributed by concrete is: φVc = φ 0. s = [4 (0.4. ACI 318 Sec. which for #8 bars is also 6 in. Using a shear strength reduction factor of 0.5 .2. six bar diameters (6 × 1.5 in.4.25/0.75 fc′bc dc = 0.5) / 6 = 165 kips φVn = φVc + φVs = 33.2 kips > 143 kips OK The column with the minimum transverse steel is therefore adequate for shear. The maximum spacing is the smaller of 6.2) 60. The spacing of reinforcement through the joint has been reduced to 4 in. on center.4.000]/[0. However.kips. the maximum spacing of transverse reinforcement is the lesser of onefourth the maximum column dimension (30/4=7. This transverse reinforcement must be spaced over a distance lo = 30 in. 11. should be located in the center half of the of the column and must be proportioned as (Class B) tension splices. The final column detail with both longitudinal and transverse reinforcement is given in Figure 626.25 . The average probable moment is roughly 1.2. In this example. Reinforced Concrete For LW concrete.03in.Chapter 6.3. or the dimension sx where: sx = 4 + 14 − hx 3 and where hx is the maximum horizontal spacing of hoops or cross ties.0 = 6. will be used.85 for sandLW concrete (ACI 318 Sec.5x118) = 143 kips.8)(5397) = 8.833 in. according to ACI 318 Sec.1. 21.75(4)(0. The 5. 21.5) = 33. For the column with twelve #8 bars and #4 hoops and cross ties.8 (φ = 0. on center.4.). and sx = 5. For the design of column shear capacity.).03 in.2)(60)(27.3 Transverse Reinforcement Required for Shear The amount of transverse reinforcement computed above is the minimum required. 21. must extend through the joint at (at most) the same spacing.1. If this capacity is well in excess of the demand.25 = 26.8) times the average design moment = (1. the columns will be acceptable for shear.0. The column also must be checked for shear with the column shears being based on the maximum probable moments in the beams that frame into the column. hoops and crossties with the same details as those placed in the critical regions of the column are used.2) in addition to the capacity reduction factor for shear.
End A of the girder was supported with halfheight columns pinned at midstory and End B.5. throughout. For the purpose of estimating gravity moments. this girder supports an average of 3. This girder is of variable depth with a maximum depth of 32 in. which is supported by a shear wall. The length of the haunch at each end (as measured from the face of the support) is 8 ft9 in.375 kips/ft of dead load and 0. was modeled as fixed.FEMA 451. This analysis included 100 percent of the earthquake forces in the EW direction and 30 percent of the 658 30" #4 hoops Level 6 . at the support and a minimum depth of 20 in.0 in = 25. for the middle half of the span. For determining earthquake forces. The loading and geometry of the girder is shown in Figure 627a.4.90 kips/ft of reduced live load.4 mm). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples ' Level 7 32" 6 at 5" 2" (12) #8 bars + + 9 at 6" 30" 2" 6 at 5" 2" 7 at 4" 32" 30" Figure 626 Details of reinforcement for column (1. The width of the web of girder is 22. Each haunch was divided into four segments with nonprismatic section properties used for each segment.5 in. a separate analysis of the girder was carried out using the SAP2000 program. 6.4 Design of Haunched Girder The design of a typical haunched girder of Level 5 of Frame 3 is now illustrated. the entire structure was analyzed using the ETABS program. Based on a tributary gravity load analysis.
000 4.5E 0.6 kN/m.102 = φMn (7) #11 Level 5 (5) #9 (c) Flexural reinforcement details Negative moment hinge Level 5 4'0" 6'0" 6'0" 4'0" (d) Potential plastic hinge locations Range of possible positive moment hinges Figure 627 Design forces and detailing of haunched girder (1.000 6.38 kips/ft Level 5 (a) Span geometry and loading 1'3" 8'9" 10'0" 10'0" 8'9" 1'3" 13.68D . and accidental torsion.42D + 0.000 6.68D + 0.Chapter 6. Each of these systems of lateral forces was placed at a 5 percent eccentricity with the direction of the eccentricity set to produce the maximum seismic shear in the member.000 8.000 4.5E 1.982 = φMn 6.0 ft = 0.167 = φMn 14.kip = 0.kips) 4.2D + 1.000 6.824 = φMn 1.0 k/ft = 14. WL = 0. 1.E 1.3048 m.0 in.5L + 0.000 8.000 2.0.000 0 2.5E 0.90 kips/ft WD= 3.113 kNm).42D + 0. 659 .000 10.000 12.5L . 1.6L Strength envelope (b) Moment envelope (in. Reinforced Concrete earthquake force in the NS direction.
5L ± E controls negative moment at the support.2.54 = 10.1.92 (60)]/[0.kips For positive moment at the support.68D ± E controls positive moment at the support.102 in.5) = 0. ρ =5. The maximum positive moment at the support is less than 50 percent of the maximum negative moment and the positive and negative moment at midspan is less than 25 percent of the maximum negative moment.00/(17.00) 60] (29.00 in. which supplies about half the negative moment reinforcement: As = 5 (1.42D + 0.8. O.128/2 = 17.6 in.92/(29. ρ = 5. b = 86. try five #9 bars.6 × 22.5.6 × 22.025.kips.92 in. OK OK The five #9 bottom bars are adequate for strength and satisfy ACI 318 Sec.2 d = 32 .2.167 in.2 d = 20 .0) = 5.1.3/8 . Envelopes of maximum positive and negative moment are shown on the figure indicate that 1.1.1. and 1.5 .4 × 22.8 (10. try seven #11 bars.41/2 = 29.68D .4.K.00 in.1.4 in.600 in.5 in. φMn = [0.85 (4) 22.0075 > 0.6 . (assuming stress block in flange) a = [5. φMn = [0.02/2) = 4.kips > 12.6L controls positive moment at midspan.00/(29.5] = 1.6 in.0126 b = 86. from the face of the support) when the 0.5) = 0. Design strength. b = 22.5 in.00 (60)]/[0.02/2) = 6.1. These bars provide a strength greater than 25 percent of the negative moment capacity at the support.2. For positive moment at midspan the same five #9 bars used for positive moment at the support will be tried: As = 5 (1. which requires that the positive moment capacity be not less than 25 percent of the negative moment capacity at the face of the support.00 (60)]/(0. O. 21. therefore.4 .kips.2 d = 32.128/2 = 29. a = [5.0) = 5. 21.5 .kips at Support B.2D + 1. is greater than 50 percent of the negative moment capacity at the face of the support.92) 60](29. For negative moment in the 20ft span between the haunches.982 in.02 in.3/8 . Depth of compression block.00) 60] (17.033. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 6.3/8 .5] = 1.8 (5. four #11 bars (ρ = 0.1.3.600 in. This moment is larger than the design moment and.3.5 .E load combination is applied. 0.3. For a factored negative moment of 12.FEMA 451.5) = 0.56 in. These four top bars are part of the negative moment reinforcement already sized 660 .2.5 in. Using four bars across the top also eliminates the possibility that a negative moment hinge will form at the end of the haunch (8 ft9 in.8 (5.85 (4) 86.85 (4) 86.282 in. and assuming #3 hoops: As = 7 × 1.2. 21. a = [10.1. ρ = 10.0165 < 0.5] = 8.016) could be used at the top.6 .4.56/2) = 13.kips > 3.02 in.K.2. as required by ACI 318 Sec.1 Design and Detailing of Longitudinal Reinforcement The results of the analysis for five different load combinations are shown in Figure 627b. the design for negative moment controls the amount of reinforcement required at all sections per ACI 318 Sec. φMn = [0.
therefore. the spacing between bars is approximately 1.28 in.0(10.5] = 10. a tabular approach is taken for the calculations. however. Mpr = [1.4.4 .00 (1. Mpr = 1.85 (4) 22. a negative moment plastic hinge will form at the support and.92)(1. the maximum probable strength must be determined for negative moment at the support and for positive moment in the constant depth region. The layout of longitudinal reinforcement used for the haunched girder is shown in Figure 627c. seven #11 bars in 20in. a = [10.2.6 .1. As discussed in the following sections. which is a violation of ACI 21.92 in. b = 22. the corresponding positive moment hinge will form in the constant depth portion of the girder.1.5 in. Note that these bars provide a negative design moment capacity of 6. however.28/2) = 6. Reinforced Concrete for negative moment at the support. the exact location of plastic hinges must be determined in order to design the transverse reinforcement.25) 60]/[0. and the flexural strength envelope provided by the reinforcement is shown in Figure 627b.3/8 . For negative moment at the face of the support and using seven #11 bars: As = 7 (1.10. As noted in Table 613. deep portion of the girder provide ρ = 0.56) = 10. however. this detail results in a possible bar cutoff in a plastic hinge region (see below) that is not desirable.92 (1. Another alternative would be to extend all seven #11 bars across the top and thereby avoid the bar cutoff in a possible plastic hinge region. 6.3. the hooked #11 bars can be developed in the confined core of the columns. This spacing should accommodate the vertical column reinforcement.25)(60)(29.kips Before the earthquake shear may be determined.025).028. To do so.6 in.1 (ρmax = 0.5 in. which is greater than the diameter of a #11 bar and is therefore acceptable.5 .4. For positive moment in the constant depth region and using five #9 bars: As = 5 (1.1. based on the moment envelopes from the loading (Figure 627b).25 (60)] (17. Under combined gravity and earthquake load.693 in.128/2 = 17. Before the table may be set up.4 in.824 in. the location of the positive moment hinge that will form in the constant depth portion of the girder must be identified. Summing moments (clockwise positive) about point B gives: + − M pr + M pr + Rx − wx 2 =0 2 At the positive moment hinge the shear must be zero. a = [5.5 .4 in. b = 86.3/8 .1.2 Design and Detailing of Transverse Reinforcement The design for shear of the haunched girder is complicated by its variable depth.kips.71/2) = 19. where seven #11 top bars are used. thus R – wx = 0 661 .kips in the constant depth region of the girder.41/2 = 29.71 in.Chapter 6.00 in.1.360 in. The other three bars extending from the support are not needed for negative moment in the constant depth region and would be cut off approximately 6 ft beyond the haunch.00) 1.2 d = 20 .0) = 5.0 (5.25) 60]/[0.5] = 1. The violation is minor and will be accepted in lieu of cutting off the bars in a potential plastic hinge region.5.. Finally.2 d = 32 .85 (4) 86. consider the freebody diagram of Figure 628a.
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
By combining the above equations:
x=
+ − 2( M pr + M pr )
w
Using the above equation with Mpr as computed and w = 1.42(3.38) + 0.5(0.90) = 5.25 k/ft = 0.437 k/in., x = 345 in., which is located exactly at the point where the right haunch begins.4 The reaction is computed as R = 345 (0.437) = 150.8 kips. The earthquake shear is computed as VE = R = wL/2 = 150.8(0.437)(450)/2 = 52.5 kips This earthquake shear is smaller than would have been determined if the positive moment hinge had formed at the face of support. The earthquake shear is constant along the span but changes sign with the direction of the earthquake. In Figure 628a, this shear is shown for the equivalent lateral seismic forces acting to the west. The factored gravity load shear (1.42VD + 0.5VL) varies along the length of the span as shown in Figure 628b. At Support A, the earthquake shear and factored gravity shear are additive, producing a design ultimate shear of 150.8 kips. At midspan, the shear is equal to the earthquake shear acting alone and, at Support C, the ultimate design shear is 45.8 kips. Earthquake, gravity, and combined shears are shown in Figures 628a through 628c and are tabulated for the first half of the span in Table 616. For earthquake forces acting to the east, the design shears are of the opposite sign of those shown in Figure 628. According to ACI 318 Sec. 21.3.4.2, the contribution of concrete to member shear strength must be taken as zero when VE/VU is greater than 0.5 and Pu/Agf!c is less than 0.05. As shown in Table 616, the VE/VU ratio is less than 0.5 within the first threefourths of the haunch length but is greater than 0.50 beyond this point. In this example, it is assumed that if VE/VU is less than 0.5 at the support, the concrete strength can be used along the entire length of the member. The concrete contribution to the design shear strength is computed as:
φVc = φ (0.85)2 f c' bw d
where the ASCE 7 compatible φ = 0.75 for shear, and the 0.85 term is the shear strength reduction factor for sandLW concrete. [Note that this is the basic strength reduction factor for shear per ACI 31802 Sec 9.3. See Sec 6.4.2 for discussion.] The remaining shear, φVs = Vu  φVc, must be resisted by closed hoops within a distance 2d from the face of the support and by stirrups with the larger of 6dh or 3.0 in. hook extensions elsewhere. The 6dh or 3.0 in. “seismic hook” extension is required by ACI 318 Sec. 21.3.3.3.
The equation for the location of the plastic hinge is only applicable if the hinge forms in the constant depth region of the girder. If the computed distance x is greater than 28 ft  9 in. (345 in.), the result is erroneous and a trial and error approach is required to find the actual hinge location.
4
662
Chapter 6, Reinforced Concrete
W
'
R
x
M PR "B"
+
(a) Location of plastic hinge
face of support 52.5 kips (b) Earthquake shear (kips) 98.3 kips pos
(c) Factored gravity shear (kips) pos 150.8 kips 98.3 kips
(d) Earthquake + factored gravity shear (kips) A B 45.8 kips (e)
6 at 6" 13 at 5"
30 at 4"
Provide two additional hoops (detail B) at kink
b 6d
#3 hoops A B
Figure 628 Computing shear in haunched girder (1.0 in = 25.4 mm, 1.0 kip = 4.45kN).
6d
b
663
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
Table 616 Design of Shear Reinforcement for Haunched Girder
Distance from Center of Support (in.) Item Ve 1.42VD + 0.5VL Vu VE/VU d 15 52.5 98.3 150.8 0.35 29.4 53.3 97.5 5.97 7.35 #3 at 6 42.25 52.5 86.4 139.2 0.38 26.5 48.1 91.2 5.78 6.63 #3 at 5 67.5 52.5 75.4 127.9 0.41 23.5 42.6 85.3 5.46 5.88 #3 at 5 93.75 52.5 63.9 116.6 0.45 20.5 37.2 79.4 5.12 5.13 #3 at 5 120 52.5 52.4 104.9 0.50 17.6 0.0 104.9 3.32 4.40 #3 at 4 180 52.5 26.2 78.7 0.67 17.6 0.0 78.7 4.43 4.40 #3 at 4 240 52.5 0.0 52.5 1.00 17.6 0.0 52.5 6.64 4.40 #3 at 4 in. in. kips kips Units
φVC φVS
s d/4 Spacing
1.0 in. = 25.4 mm, 1.0 kip = 4.45 kN.
In Table 616, spacings are computed for four #3 vertical leg hoops or stirrups. As an example, consider four #3 vertical legs at the section at the face of the support:
s = [0.75(4)0.11(60)29.4]/97.5 = 5.97 in.
φVc = φ(0.85)2 f c′ db = 0.75(0.85)2(4000)0.529.4(22.5) = 53,300 lb = 53.3 kips φVs = Vu  φVc = 150.8  53.3 = 97.5 kips φVs = φAvfyd/s = 97.5 kips
The maximum spacing allowed by ACI 318 is shown in Table 616. These spacings govern only in the center portion of the beam. In the last line of the table, the hoop and stirrup spacing as actually used is shown. This spacing, together with hoop and stirrup details, is illustrated in Figure 628d. The double Ushaped stirrups (and cap ties) in the central portion of the beam work well with the #11 top bars and with the #9 bottom bars. 6.4.5.4.3 Design of BeamColumn Joint The design of the beamcolumn joint at Support A of the haunched girder is controlled by seismic forces acting to the west, which produces negative moment at Support A. ACI 318 Sec. 21.5 provides requirements for the proportioning and detailing of the joint. A plastic mechanism of the beam is shown in Figure 629a. Plastic hinges have formed at the support and at the location of the far haunch transition. With a total shear at the face of the support of 150.8 kips, the moment at the centerline of the column may be estimated as MCL = Mpr + 15(150.6) = 19,693 + 15(150.6) = 21,955 in.kips. The total shear in the columns above and below the joint is estimated as 21,955/(150) = 146.3 kips.
664
Chapter 6, Reinforced Concrete
The stresses in the joint are computed from equilibrium considering the reinforcement in the girder to be stressed at 1.25fy. A detail of the joint is shown in Figure 630. Compute the joint shear Vj: Force in the top reinforcement = 1.25Asfy = 1.25(7)1.56(60) = 819 kips Joint shear = Vj = 819.0  146.3 = 672.7 kips The joint shear stress vj = Vj/dc2 = 672.7/[30 (30)] = 0.819 ksi

+
(a) Plastic mechanism
19,693
(b) Plastic moment (in.kips) 6,360 10,800
15" 450" 15"
146.3 kips
75"
61.1 kips
75"
(c) Column shears (kips)
146.3 kips
288"
Figure 629 Computation of column shears for use in joint design (1.0 in = 25.4 mm, 1.0 kip = 4.45 kN).
In the case being considered, all girders framing into the joint have a width equal to 0.75 times the column dimension so confinement is provided on three faces of the joint. According to ACI 318 Sec. 21.5.3, the allowable joint shear stress = 0.75φ(15)2pfc'. The 0.75 term is the strength reduction factor for LW concrete. Compute the allowable joint shear stress: vj,allowable = 0.75(0.80)15(4,000)0.5 = 569 psi = 0.569 ksi
665
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
This allowable stress is significantly less than the applied joint shear stress. There are several ways to remedy the situation: 1. Increase the column size to approximately 35 × 35 (not recommended) 2. Increase the depth of the haunch so that the area of reinforcement is reduced to seven #10 bars. This will reduce the joint shear stress to a value very close to the allowable stress. 2. Use 5000 psi NW concrete for the column. This eliminates the 0.75 reduction factor on allowable joint stress, and raises the allowable stress to 848 psi. For the remainder of this example, it is assumed that the lower story columns will be constructed from 5000 psi NW concrete. Because this joint is confined on three faces, the reinforcement within the joint must consist of the same amount and spacing of transverse reinforcement in the critical region of the column below the joint. This reinforcement is detailed in the following section.
146 kips
T = 819 kips
VJ = 819146 = 673 kips
C = 819 kips
30"
Figure 630 Computing joint shear force (1.0 kip = 4.45kN).
6.4.5.5 Design and Detailing of Typical Interior Column of Frame 3
The column supporting the west end of the haunched girder between Gridlines A and B is shown in Figure 631. This column supports a total unfactored dead load of 804 kips and a total unfactored live load of 78 kips. From the ETABS analysis, the axial force on the column from seismic forces is ±129 kips. The design axial force and bending moment in the column are based on one or more of the load combinations presented below. Earthquake forces acting to the west are: Pu = 1.42(804) + 0.5(78) + 1.0(129) = 1310 kips (compression)
666
Chapter 6, Reinforced Concrete
P L= 78.4 kips Includes PD= 803.6 kips level 5
12'6"
32"
Level 5
20"
Figure 631 Column loading (1.0 ft = 0.3048 m, 1.0 in = 25.4 mm, 1.0 kip = 4.45kN).
This axial force is greater than 0.1fc'Ag = 360 kips; therefore, according to ACI 318 Sec. 21.4.2.1, the column flexural strength must be at least 6/5 of the nominal strength (using φ = 1.0 and 1.0 fy) of the beam framing into the column. The nominal beam moment capacity at the face of the column is 16,458 in.kips. The column must be designed for sixfifths of this moment, or 19,750 inkips. Assuming a midheight inflection point for the column above and below the beam, the column moment at the centerline of the beam is 19,750/2 = 9,875 in.kips, and the column moment corrected to the face of the beam is 7,768 in.kips. Earthquake forces acting to the east are: Pu = 0.68(804)  1.0(129) = 424 kips (compression) This axial force is greater than 0.1fc'Ag = 360 kips. For this loading, the end of the beam supported by the column is under positive moment, with the nominal beam moment at the face of the column being 8,715 in.kips. Because Pu > 0.1fc'Ag, the column must be designed for 6/5 of this moment, or 10,458 in.kips. Assuming midheight inflection points in the column, the column moment at the centerline and the face of the beam is 5,229 and 4,113 in.kips, respectively. Axial force for gravity alone is: Pu = 1.6(804) + 1.2(78) = 1,380 kips (compression)
32"
Level 4
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FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
This is approximately the same axial force as designed for earthquake forces to the west, but as can be observed from Figure 625, the design moment is significantly less. Hence, this loading will not control. 6.4.5.5.1 Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement Figure 632 shows an axial forcebending moment interaction diagram for a 30 in. by 30 in. column with 12 bars ranging in size from #8 to #10. A horizontal line is drawn at each of the axial load levels computed above, and the required flexural capacity is shown by a solid dot on the appropriate line. The column with twelve #8 bars provides more than enough strength for all loading combinations.
Pu (kips) 5,000
(12) #10
4,000
(12) #9 (12) #8
3,000 2,000 1,000
0 1,000 2,000 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 Mu (ftkips)
Figure 632 Interaction diagram and column design forces (1.0 kip = 4.45kN, 1.0 ftkip = 1.36 kNm).
6.4.5.5.2 Design of Transverse Reinforcement In Sec. 6.4.5.3, an interior column supporting Level 5 of Frame 1 was designed. This column has a shear strength of 198.2 kips, which is significantly greater than the imposed seismic plus gravity shear of 146.3 kips. For details on the computation of the required transverse reinforcement for this column, see the “Transverse Reinforcement” and “Transverse Reinforcement Required for Shear” subsections in Sec. 6.4.5.3. A detail of the reinforcement of the column supporting Level 5 of Frame 3 is shown in Figure 633. The section of the column through the beams shows that the reinforcement in the beamcolumn joint region is relatively uncongested.
668
Chapter 6, Reinforced Concrete
Level 7
7 at 4"
2"
(12) #8 bars
5"
8 at 6"
+
+
30"
5"
2" 7 at 4"
Level 6
6 at 4" 4"
30"
Figure 633 Column detail (1.0 in = 25.4 mm).
6.4.5.6 Design of Structural Wall of Frame 3
The factored forces acting on the structural wall of Frame 3 are summarized in Table 617. The axial compressive forces are based on a tributary area of 1,800 square ft for the entire wall, an unfactored dead load of 160 psf, and an unfactored (reduced) live load of 20 psf. For the purposes of this example it is assumed that these loads act at each level, including the roof. The total axial force for a typical floor is: Pu = 1.42D + 0.5L = 1,800((1.42×0.16) + 0.50x0.02)) = 427 kips for maximum compression Pu = 0.68D = 1,800(0.68×0.16) = 196 kips for minimum compression The bending moments come from the ETABS analysis. Note the reversal in the moment sign due to the effects of framewall interaction. Each moment contains two parts: the moment in the shear panel and the couple resulting from axial forces in the boundary elements. For example, at the base of Level 2:
30"
#4 hoops
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FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
ETABS panel moment =162,283 in.kips ETABS column force = 461.5 kips Total moment, Mu = 162,283 + 240(461.5) = 273,043 in.kips The shears in Table 617 also consist of two parts, the shear in the panel and the shear in the column. Using Level 2 as an example: ETABS panel shear = 527 kips ETABS column shear = 5.90 kips Total shear, Vu = 527 + 2(5.90) = 539 kips As with the moment, note the reversal in wall shear, not only at the top of the wall but also at Level 1 where the first floor slab acts as a support. If there is some inplane flexibility in the first floor slab, or if some crushing were to occur adjacent to the wall, the shear reversal would be less significant, or might even disappear. For this reason, the shear force of 539 kips at Level 2 will be used for the design of Level 1 as well. Recall from Sec. 6.2.2 that the structural wall boundary elements are 30 in. by 30 in. in size. The basic philosophy of this design will be to use these elements as “special” boundary elements where a close spacing of transverse reinforcement is used to provide extra confinement. This avoids the need for confining reinforcement in the wall panel. Note, however, that there is no code restriction on extending the special boundary elements into the panel of the wall. It should also be noted that preliminary calculations (not shown) indicate that a 12in. thickness of the wall panel is adequate for this structure. This is in lieu of the 18in. thickness assumed when computing structural mass.
Table 617 Design Forces for Structural Wall
Supporting Level R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Axial Compressive Force Pu (kips) Moment Mu (in.kips) 1.42D + 0.5L 0.68D 427 854 1,281 1,708 2,135 2,562 2,989 3,416 3,843 4,270 4,697 5,124 5,550 196 392 588 783 979 1,175 1,371 1,567 1,763 1,958 2,154 2,350 2,546 30,054 39,725 49,954 51,838 45,929 33,817 17,847 45,444 78,419 117,975 165,073 273,043 268,187
Shear Vu (kips) 145 4 62 118 163 203 240 274 308 348 390 539 376 (use 539)
1.0 kip = 4.45 kN, 1.0 in.kip = 0.113 kNm.
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Chapter 6, Reinforced Concrete
6.4.5.6.1 Design of Panel Shear Reinforcement First determine the required shear reinforcement in the panel and then design the wall for combined bending and axial force. The nominal shear strength of the wall is given by ACI 318 Eq. 217:
Vn = Acv (α c
f c' + ρ n f y )
where αc = 2.0 because hw/lw = 155.5/22.5 = 6.91 > 2.0. Note that the length of the wall was taken as the length between boundary element centerlines (20 ft) plus onehalf the boundary element length (2.5 ft) at each end of the wall. Using fc' = 4000 psi, fy = 40 ksi, Acv = (270)(12) = 3240 in.2, and taking φ for shear = 0.55, the ratio of horizontal reinforcement is computed: Vu = φVn
⎛ 539.000 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ − (0.85 × 2 4,000)3, 240 0.55 ⎠ ρn = ⎝ = 0.0049 3, 240(40,000)
Note that the factor of 0.85 on concrete strength accounts for the use of LW concrete. Reinforcement ratios for the other stories are given in Table 618. This table gives requirements using fc' = 4,000 psi, as well as 6,000 psi NW concrete. As shown later, the higher strength NW concrete is required to manage the size of the boundary elements of the wall. Also shown in the table is the required spacing of horizontal reinforcement assuming that two curtains of #4 bars will be used. If the required steel ratio is less than 0.0025, a ratio of 0.0025 is used to determine bar spacing.
Table 618 Design of Structural Wall for Shear
Level
fc' = 4,000 psi (lightweight) Reinforcement ratio Spacing1 (in.) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 12.00 (6.0) 6.84 (6.0) 6.84 (6.0)
fc' = 6,000 psi (normal weight) Reinforcement ratio 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00369 0.00369 Spacing * (in.) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (12.0) 13.33 (9.0) 9.03 (9.0) 9.03 (9.0)
R 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
*
0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00250 0.00278 0.00487 0.00487
Values in parentheses are actual spacing used. 1.0 in. = 25.4 mm.
For LW concrete, the required spacing is 6.84 in. at Levels 1 and 2. Minimum reinforcement requirements control all other levels. For the final design, it is recommended to use a 6in. spacing at 671
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
Levels 1, 2, and 3 and a 12in. spacing at all levels above. The 6in. spacing is extended one level higher that required because it is anticipated that an axialflexural plastic hinge could propagate this far. For the NW concrete, the required spacing is 9.03 in. at Levels 1 and 2 and minimum reinforcement requirements control elsewhere. For the final design, a 9in. spacing would be used at Levels 1, 2, and 3 with a 12in. spacing at the remaining levels. ACI 318 Sec. 21.6.4.3 [21.7.4.3] requires the vertical steel ratio to be greater than or equal to the horizontal steel ratio if hwl/lw is less than 2.0. As this is not the case for this wall, the minimum vertical reinforcement ratio of 0.0025 is appropriate. Vertical steel consisting of two curtains of #4 bars at 12 in. on center provides a reinforcement ratio of 0.0028, which ill be used at all levels. 6.4.5.6.2 Design for Flexure and Axial Force The primary consideration in the axialflexural design of the wall is determining whether or not special boundary elements are required. ACI 318 provides two methods for this. The first approach, specified in ACI 318 Sec. 21.6.6.2 [21.7.6.2], uses a displacement based procedure. The second approach, described in ACI 318 Sec. 21.6.6.3 [21.7.6.3], is somewhat easier to implement but, due to its empirical nature, is generally more conservative. In the following presentation, only the displacement based method will be used for the design of the wall. Using the displacement based approach, boundary elements are required if the length of the compression block, c, satisfies ACI 318 Eq. 218:
c≥ lw
600(δ u hw )
where δu is the total elastic plus inelastic deflection at the top of the wall. From Table 69b, the total elastic roof displacement is 4.36 in., and the inelastic drift is Cd times the elastic drift, or 6.5(4.36) = 28.4 in. or 2.37 feet. Recall that this drift is based on cracked section properties assuming Icracked = 0.5 Igross and assuming that flexure dominates. Using this value together with lw = 22.5 ft, and hw = 155.5 ft:
600(δ u hw )
lw
=
22.5 = 2.46 ft = 29.52 in. 600(2.37 155.5)
To determine if c is greater than this value, a strain compatibility analysis must be performed for the wall. In this analysis, it is assumed that the concrete reaches a maximum compressive strain of 0.003 and the wall reinforcement is elasticperfectly plastic and yields at the nominal value. A rectangular stress block was used for concrete in compression, and concrete in tension was neglected. A straight line strain distribution was assumed (as allowed by ACI 318 Sec. 21.6.5.1 [21.7.5.1]). Using this straight line distribution, the extreme fiber compressive strain was held constant at 0.003, and the distance c was varied from 100,000 in. (pure compression) to 1 in. (virtually pure tension). For each value of c, a total cross sectional nominal axial force (Pn) and nominal bending moment (Mn) were computed. Using these values, a plot of the axial force (Pn) versus neutral axis location (c) was produced. A design value axial forcebending moment interaction diagram was also produced. The analysis was performed using an Excel spreadsheet. The concrete was divided into 270 layers, each with a thickness of 1 in. The exact location of the reinforcement was used. When the reinforcement was in compression, an adjustment was made to account for reinforcement and concrete sharing the same physical volume.
672
Chapter 6, Reinforced Concrete
Two different sections were analyzed: one with fc' = 4,000 psi (LW concrete) and the other with fc' = 6,000 psi (NW concrete). In each case, the boundary elements were assumed to be 30 in. by 30 in. and the panel was assumed to be 12 in. thick. Each analysis also assumed that the reinforcement in the boundary element consisted of twelve #9 bars, producing a reinforcement ratio in the boundary element of 1.33 percent. Panel reinforcement consisted of two curtains of #4 bars spaced at approximately 12 in. on center. For this wall the main boundary reinforcement has a yield strength of 60 ksi, and the vertical panel steel yields at 40 ksi. The results of the analysis are shown in Figures 634 and 635. The first of these figures is the nominal interaction diagram multiplied by φ = 0.65 for tied sections. Also plotted in the figure are the factored PM combinations from Table 617. The section is clearly adequate for both 4,000 psi and 6,000 psi concrete because the interaction curve fully envelopes the design values.
18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 Axial force, kips 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2,000 4,000 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000 Bending moment, in.kips 1.42D + 0.5L 0.68 D 6 ksi NW 4 ksi LW
Figure 634 Interaction diagram for structural wall (1.0 kip = 4.45kN, 1.0 in.kip = 0.113 kNm).
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FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
15,000 13,000 11,000 9,000 7,000 5,000 3,000 1,000 0 1,000 3,000 0 50 100 150 200 250 Neutral axis location, in. 6 ksi NW 4 ksi LW
Figure 635 Variation of neutral axis depth with compressive force (1.0 in = 25.4 mm, 1.0 kip = 4.45kN).
Figure 635 shows the variation in neutral axis depth with axial force. For a factored axial force of 5,550 kips, the distance c is approximately 58 in. for the 6,000 psi NW concrete and c is in excess of 110 in. for the 4,000 psi LW concrete. As both are greater than 29.52 in., special boundary elements are clearly required for the wall. According to ACI 318 Sec. 21.6.6.4 [21.7.6.4], the special boundary elements must have a plan length of c  0.1lw, or 0.5c, whichever is greater. For the 4,000 psi concrete, the first of these values is 110 0.1(270) = 83 in., and the second is 0.5(110) = 55 in. Both of these are significantly greater than the 30 in. assumed in the analysis. Hence, the 30in. boundary element is not adequate for the lower levels of the wall if fc' = 4,000 psi. For the 6,000 psi concrete, the required length of the boundary element is 580.1(270) = 31 in., or 0.5(58) = 29 in. The required value of 31 in. is only marginally greater than the 30 in. provided and will be deemed acceptable for the purpose of this example. The vertical extent of the special boundary elements must not be less than the larger of lw or Mu/4Vu. The wall length lw = 22.5 ft and, of the wall at Level 1, Mu/4Vu = 273,043/4(539) =126.6 in., or 10.6 ft. 22.5 ft controls and will be taken as the required length of the boundary element above the first floor. The special boundary elements will begin at the basement level, and continue up for the portion of the wall supporting Levels 2 and 3. Above that level, boundary elements will still be present, but they will not be reinforced as special boundary elements. Another consideration for the boundary elements is at what elevation the concrete may change from 6,000 psi NW to 4,000 LW concrete. Using the requirement that boundary elements have a maximum plan dimension of 30 in., the neutral axis depth (c) must not exceed approximately 57 in. As may be seen from Figure 635, this will occur when the factored axial force in the wall falls below 3,000 kips. From Table 617, this will occur between Levels 6 and 7. Hence, 6,000 psi concrete will be continued up through Level 7. Above Level 7, 4,000 psi LW concrete may be used. 674
Factored axial force, kips
Chapter 6, Reinforced Concrete
Where special boundary elements are required, transverse reinforcement must conform to ACI 318 Sec. 21.6.6.4(c) [21.7.6.4(c)], which refers to Sec. 21.4.4.1 through 21.4.4.3. If rectangular hoops are used, the transverse reinforcement must satisfy ACI 318 Eq. 214:
Ash = 0.09 shc
f c′ f yh
If #5 hoops are used in association with two crossties in each direction, Ash = 4(0.31) = 1.24 in.2, and hc = 30  2(1.5)  0.525 = 26.37 in. With fc' = 6 ksi and fyh = 60 ksi:
s= 1.24 0.09(26.37) 6 60 = 5.22
If 4,000 psi concrete is used, the required spacing increases to 7.83 in. Maximum spacing is the lesser of h/4, 6db, or sx where sx = 4 + (14hx)/3. With hx = 8.83 in., the third of these spacings controls at 5.72 in. The 5.22in. spacing required by ACI 318 Eq. 214 is less than this, so a spacing of 5 in. on center will be used wherever the special boundary elements are required. Details of the panel and boundary element reinforcement are shown in Figures 636 and 637, respectively. The vertical reinforcement in the boundary elements will be spliced as required using Type 2 mechanical splices at all locations. According to Table 613 (prepared for 4,000 psi LW concrete), there should be no difficulty in developing the horizontal panel steel into the 30in.by30in. boundary elements.
(12) #9 #5 x developed in wall
4"
#5 at 5" o.c. Alternate location of 90° bend
4"
#5
4"
at 5" o.c.
Figure 636 Details of structural wall boundary element (1.0 in = 25.4 mm).
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FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
f'c = 4.0ksi (LW) #4 at 12" EF
Class B
(24) #11 #4 at 12" See figure EWEF 626 (24) #9 #4 at 12" EWEF #4 at 12" EWEF
(12) #9 #4 at 12" EF See figure 626 #4 at 12" EF
Class B
#5 at 4" f'c = 6.0ksi (NW)
#4 at 12" EF
#4 at 12" EF See figure 626 #4 at 12" EF
Class B
#4 at 4"
#4 at 6" EF #5 at 4" #4 at 12" EWEF #4 at 12" EF (24) #11 #4 at 6" EF #5 at 4" #4 at 12" EWEF
(12) #9 #4 at 12" EF See figure 626 #4 at 12" EF
#4 at 4" (24) #10
#4 at 12" EF See figure 626 #4 at 12" EF
Class B
#4 at 4"
#4 at 12" EF See figure 626
#4 at 4"
#4 at 12" EWEF f'c = 4.0ksi (LW)
Figure 637 Overall details of structural wall (1.0 in = 25.4 mm).
ACI 318 Sec. 21.6.6.4(d) [21.7.6.4(d)] also requires that the boundary element transverse reinforcement be extended into the foundation tie beam a distance equal to the tension development length of the #9 bars used as longitudinal reinforcement in the boundary elements. Assuming the tie beam consists of 6,000 psi NW concrete, the development length for the #9 bar is 2.5 times the value given by ACI 318 Eq. 216:
⎡ f d y b ld = 2.5 ⎢ ⎢ 65 f c′ ⎣
⎤ 60,000(1.128) ⎥ = 2.5 = 33.6 in. ⎥ 65 6,000 ⎦
Hence, the transverse boundary element reinforcement consisting of #5 hoops with two crossties in each direction, spaced at 5 in. on center, will extend approximately 3 ft into the foundation tie beam.
6.5 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF THE HONOLULU BUILDING
The structure illustrated in Figure 61 and 62 is now designed and detailed for the Honolulu building. Because of the relatively moderate level of seismicity, the lateral load resisting system will consist of a series of intermediate momentresisting frames in both the EW and NS directions. This is permitted for Seismic Design Category C buildings under Provisions Sec. 9.6 [9.4]. Design guidelines for the reinforced concrete framing members are provided in ACI 318 Sec. 21.10 [21.12].
676
Chapter 6, Reinforced Concrete
Preliminary design for the Honolulu building indicated that the size of the perimeter frame girders could be reduced to 30 in. deep by 20 in. wide (the Berkeley building has girders that are 32 in. deep by 22.5 in. wide) and that the columns could be decreased to 28 in. square (the Berkeley building uses 30in.by30in. columns). The haunched girders along Frames 2 through 7 have a maximum depth of 30 in. and a width of 20 in. in the Honolulu building (the Berkeley building had haunches with a maximum depth of 32 in. and a width of 22.5 in.). The Frame 2 through Frame 7 girders in Bays BC have a constant depth of 30 in. Using these reduced properties, the computed drifts will be increased over those shown in Figure 66, but will clearly not exceed the drift limits.
6.5.1 Material Properties
ACI 318 has no specific limitations for materials used in structures designed for moderate seismic risk. For the Honolulu building, 4,000 psi sandLW concrete is used with ASTM A615 Grade 60 rebar for longitudinal reinforcement and Grade 60 or Grade 40 rebar for transverse reinforcement.
6.5.2 Combination of Load Effects
For the design of the Honolulu building, all masses and superimposed gravity loads generated for the Berkeley building are used. This is conservative because the members for the Honolulu building are slightly smaller than the corresponding members for the Berkeley building. Also, the Honolulu building does not have reinforced concrete walls on Gridlines 3, 4, 5, and 6 (these walls are replaced by infilled, nonstructural masonry designed with gaps to accommodate frame drifts in the Honolulu building). Provisions Sec. 5.2.7 [4.2.2] and Eq. 5.2.71 and 5.2.72 [4.21 and 4.22] require a combination of load effects to be developed on the basis of ASCE 7, except that the earthquake load (E) is defined as:
E = ρ QE + 0.2S DS D
when gravity and seismic load effects are additive and as:
E = ρ QE − 0.2S DS D
when the effects of seismic load counteract gravity. For Seismic Design Category C buildings, Provisions Sec. 5.2.4.1 [4.3.3.1] permits the reliability factor (ρ) to be taken as 1.0. The special load combinations of Provisions Eq. 5.2.71 and 5.2.72 [4.23 and 4.24] do not apply to the Honolulu building because there are no discontinuous elements supporting stiffer elements above them. (See Provisions Sec. 9.6.2 [9.4.1].) For the Honolulu structure, the basic ASCE 7 load combinations that must be considered are: 1.2D + 1.6L 1.2D + 0.5L ± 1.0E 0.9D ± 1.0E The ASCE 7 load combination including only 1.4 times dead load will not control for any condition in this building.
677
FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples
Substituting E from the Provisions and with ρ taken as 1.0, the following load combinations must be used for earthquake: (1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + 0.5L + E (1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + 0.5L  E (0.9  0.2SDS)D + E (0.9  0.2SDS)D E Finally, substituting 0.472 for SDS (see Sec. 6.1.1), the following load combinations must be used for earthquake: 1.30D + 0.5L + E 1.30D + 0.5L  E 0.80D + E 0.80D  E Note that the coefficients on dead load have been slightly rounded to simplify subsequent calculations. As EW wind loads apparently govern the design at the lower levels of the building (see Sec. 6.2.6 and Figure 64), the following load combinations should also be considered: 1.2D + 0.5L + 1.6W 1.2D + 0.5L  1.6W 0.9D  1.6W The wind load (W) from ASCE 7 includes a directionality factor of 0.85. It is very important to note that use of the ASCE 7 load combinations in lieu of the combinations given in ACI 318 Chapter 9 requires use of the alternate strength reduction factors given in ACI 318 Appendix C: Flexure without axial load φ = 0.80 Axial compression, using tied columns φ = 0.65 (transitions to 0.8 at low axial loads) Shear if shear strength is based on nominal axialflexural capacity φ = 0.75 Shear if shear strength is not based on nominal axialflexural capacity φ = 0.55 Shear in beamcolumn joints φ = 0.80 [The strength reduction factors in ACI 31802 have been revised to be consistent with the ASCE 7 load combinations. Thus, the factors that were in Appendix C of ACI 31899 are now in Chapter 9 of ACI 31802, with some modification. The strength reduction factors relevant to this example as contained in ACI 31802 Sec. 9.3 are: Flexure without axial load φ = 0.9 (tensioncontrolled sections) Axial compression, using tied columns φ = 0.65 (transitions to 0.9 at low axial loads) Shear if shear strength is based o nominal axialflexural capacity φ = 0.75 Shear if shear strength is not based o nominal axialflexural capacity φ = 0.60 Shear in beamcolumn joints φ = 0.85]
6.5.3 Accidental Torsion and Orthogonal Loading (Seismic Versus Wind)
As has been discussed and as illustrated in Figure 64, wind forces appear to govern the strength requirements of the structure at the lower floors, and seismic forces control at the upper floors. The seismic and wind shears, however, are so close at the midlevels of the structure that a careful evaluation 678
Reinforced Concrete must be made to determine which load governs for strength.5. As mentioned earlier. For wind. 5. load is applied separately in the two orthogonal directions.75 P W 0. which is reproduced directly from Figure 69 of ASCE 7.4.2 [5.2 [4.56 P W 0. Load Cases 3 and 4 require that 75 percent of the wind pressures from the two orthogonal directions be applied simultaneously.75 P L PL 0.2 and 6.3. 5.4. as required by Provisions Sec.) For wind.56 P W PL 0.4.3.4. 6.4. Torsional amplification is not required per Provisions Sec. Because the Honolulu building is in Seismic Design Category C and has no plan irregularities of Type 5 in Provisions Table 5.2 [4. the Honolulu building has no orthogonal seismic loading requirements.4.75 P W 0. This determination is complicated by the differing (wind versus seismic) rules for applying accidental torsion and for considering orthogonal loading effects.57% the building width.75 P L Case 2 Case 4 Figure 638 Wind loading requirements from ASCE 7. Case 4 is similar to Case 2 because of the torsion inducing pressure unbalance.75 P L 0. This is relatively less severe than required for seismic effects.3.2]. where 100 percent of the story force is applied at a 5 percent eccentricity.4 for supporting calculations and discussion.2].75 P W 0. However. 5.2. ASCE 7 requires that buildings over 60 ft in height be checked for four loading cases.75 P L 0.2.75 P W 0.Chapter 6.2.4. In Cases 1 and 2. The required loads are shown in Figure 638.3] because the building does not have a Type 1a or 1b torsional irregularity.56 P L 0. orthogonal loading effects need not be considered per Provisions Sec. (See Sec.2. PW 0.2.75 P W 0.75 P L Case 1 PW Case 3 0.2.32]. 679 .3 [5.56 P L 0.75 P W 0. seismic story forces must be applied at a 5 percent accidental eccentricity. Case 2 may be seen to produce torsional effects because 7/8 of the total force is applied at an eccentricity of 3.75 P L PW PL 0.
680 . For the five load cases indicated above.5. Hence. Wind controls at the lower three stories and seismic controls for all other stories. with the next largest forces coming from direct EW wind without torsion. the following lateral load conditions were applied to the ETABS model: 100% EW Seismic applied at 5% eccentricity ASCE 7 Wind Case 1 applied in EW direction only ASCE 7 Wind Case 2 applied in EW direction only ASCE 7 Wind Case 3 ASCE 7 Wind Case 4 All cases with torsion are applied in such a manner as to maximize the shears in the elements of Frame 1. This is shown graphically in Figure 639. only loading in the EW direction is considered. 6. the girder shears produced from seismic effects control at the fifth level.FEMA 451.4 Design and Detailing of Members of Frame 1 In this section. the girders and a typical interior column of Level 5 of Frame 1 are designed and detailed. hence. where the shears in the exterior bay of Frame 1 are plotted vs. The basic difference between Figures 64 and 639 is that Figure 639 includes accidental torsion and. story height. wherein the total story shears are plotted and where wind controlled for the lower five stories. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples In this example. This is somewhat different from that shown in Figure 64. Frame 1 sees a relatively larger seismic shear.
0 kip = 4. ft 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Girder shear.5.12.4. kips Figure 639 Wind vs.4] gives the minimum requirements for longitudinal and transverse reinforcement in the beams of intermediate moment frames. Reinforced Concrete 160 Seismic (with torsion) 140 Wind (without torsion) 120 100 Height. 6. the effective depth for computing flexural and shear strength is 27.0 in.3048 m. Neither the positive nor the negative moment strength at any section along the length of the member shall be less than onefifth of the maximum moment strength supplied at the face of either joint. 681 . 21.1 Initial Calculations The girders of Frame 1 are 30 in.5.0 ft = 0.6 in. deep and 20 in. cover. Assuming 1.45kN).10. 2.Chapter 6. 6.2 Design of Flexural Members ACI 318 Sec. For positive moment bending. The positive moment strength at the face of a joint shall be at least onethird of the negative moment strength at the same joint. 1.4. the effective width of the compression flange is taken as 20 + 20(12)/12 = 40.5 in. The requirements for longitudinal steel are as follows: 1.4 [21. wide. #3 stirrups and #8 longitudinal reinforcement. seismic shears in exterior bay of Frame 1 (1.
12.492 502 573 155 176 3.302 850 2. The gravity moments shown in Figures 640c and 640d are slightly larger than those shown for the Berkeley building (Figure 614) because the clear span for the Honolulu building increases due to the reduction in column size from 30 in.835 (b) Earthquake moment (in.886 2. 1. according to ACI 318 Sec.5L+E 0.910 (e) Required strength envelopes (in.852 729 502 969 2.835 729 502 225 155 225 155 3.658 3.6 kN/m.kips) 2.796 2.14 kips/ft 17. 21. and the gravity moments were computed by hand using the ACI coefficients.4 [21.1 as 200/fy or 0. However. to 28 in. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The second requirement has the effect of requiring top and bottom reinforcement along the full length of the member.0' (a) Span layout and loading 2.3 times the amount of reinforcement required for strength.3D+0.850 2.66 kips/ft WD = 2.946 247 225 802 729 2.kip = 0.927 3. 10. All moments are given at the face of the support.0033 for fy = 60 ksi.10.kips) 2.0 in.3.269 2. 1. 10.6L 225 729 (c) Unfactored DL moment (in. the reinforcement layout of Figure 641 will be checked.FEMA 451.8D .0' 20.kips) (d) Unfactored LL moment (in.4].E 1.394 1. The gravity loads and design moments for the first three spans of Frame 1 are shown in Figure 640.67' 20.910 3.5.3048 m. The seismic moments are taken directly from the ETABS analysis.5.0 kip/ft = 14. 682 .kips) 1. Note that the steel clearly satisfies the detailing requirements of ACI 318 Sec. the minimum reinforcement provided need not exceed 1.526 3. Based on preliminary calculations.113 kNm). ' WL = 0.0 ft = 0.252 Figure 640 Bending moment envelopes at Level 5 of Frame 1 (1.2D+1. The minimum reinforcement ratio at any section is taken from ACI 318 Sec.0' 20.252 850 2.
0.8(3850) = 3.76 in.kips > 2.8 (502) + 1.0 (2.2 ρ = 0.5 (225) .5.6 .kips 6.79) = 3. Nominal moment capacity.2.5.5.0)] [27. 1. (2) #8 (3) #8 Figure 641 Preliminary reinforcement layout for Level 5 of Frame 1 (1.85 (4) 40] = 1.6 .0 (2.4.4 mm. Asfy = 3 (0. a = [3.946 in.37 (60. 5 at 8" (typical each span).295) = 4.850 in.1 Design for Negative Moment at Face of Support A Mu = 1.2.3 (729) .kips φMn = 0.6) = 3.a/2) = [3.1.526 in.236 in.2.526 in. As = 3 (0.0068 683 OK OK .98/2] = 5.2 Design for Positive Moment at Face of Support A Mu = 0.3 Design for Negative Moment at Face of Support A' Mu = 1.8(5.kips Design capacity.kips > 3.2.394 in. 10 at 6".Chapter 6.0 ft = 0. Mn = Asfy(d .05/2] = 3.0 (2.0.796) = 3.38 in.37 in.kips This reinforcement also will work for positive moment at all other supports.0 in = 25.98 in.kips Try three #8 long bars.79) + 1 (0.a/2) = [2.394 in.5 (155) . Mn = Asfy(d .080 in.1.3 (502) .3048 m). 6.79) = 2.4.2 ρ = 0.38 (60.85 (4) 20] = 2.kips Try four #8 long bars and one #7 short bar: As = 4 (0.2 ρ = 0.886) = 3.kips Try three #7 short bars and two #8 long bars.0061 Depth of compression block. φMn = 0.4.05 in. Reinforced Concrete ' 5'0" ' (1) #7 (1) #7 (1) #7 (2) #8 (1) #7 (3) #7 (3) #7 30" (2) #8 (2) #8 (3) #8 28" 48" (2) #8 (3) #8 20'0" (typical) #3x stirrups spaced from each support: 1 at 2". 6.38 (60)]/[0.60) + 2 (0.295 in.0)][27.0043 a = 2.1.796) = 2.37 (60)/[0.
The bottom bars are spliced in Spans A'B and CC' with a Class B lap length of 48 in. Unlike special moment frames.kips > 3.0. 6.76 (60)]/[0.0)][27. This shear force applies for earthquake forces coming from either direction as shown in the shear strength design envelope in Figure 642.8) + 1. is the clear span of the member.5(5.852 + 3. the first option is used.9) + 0.2.FEMA 451.6 .14(20 − 2. The required design strength is: 684 .3. The earthquake shears computed from the nominal flexural strength are added to the factored gravity shears to determine the total design shear. This shear is used in combination with the factored gravity shears. The top short bars are cut off 5 ft0 in.681 in. The second option requires that the design earthquake shear force be 2.85 (4) 20] = 3. Compute the design earthquake shear VE: VE = 5.852 in. 21.4 Design for Shear Force in Span A'B: ACI 318 Sec.33) = 18.a/2) = [3.66(20 − 2.9 kips 2 VL = 0.946 in. Mn = Asfy(d . For this example. the earthquake shear is 43.4.1 kips. The first option requires that the design shear force for earthquake be based on the nominal moment strength at the ends of the members.8(5.10.3] provides two choices for computing the shear strength demand in a member of an intermediate moment frame: 1.852) = 4.852 in. Note that the concrete component may be used regardless of the ratio of earthquake shear to total shear.850 = 45.8 kips 212 where 212 in.83 kips 2 The factored design shear Vu = 1. Nominal moment strengths are computed with a flexural reinforcement tensile strength of 1.76 (60.0 times the factored earthquake shear taken from the structural analysis.kips OK This reinforcement will also work for negative moment at Supports B and C. 2. The gravity load shears at the face of the supports are: VD = 2. the flexural reinforcement layout shown in Figure 641 is adequate.32/2] = 5. there are no requirements that the spliced region of the bars in intermediate moment frames be confined by hoops over the length of the splice.kips for positive moment at Support A' and 5.3 kips. from the face of the support.3 [21.12. The nominal strengths at the ends of the beam were computed earlier as 3850 in.33) = 5.0fy and a flexural φ factor of 1.kips φMn = 0. For earthquake forces acting in the other direction. The design shear force is resisted by a concrete component (Vc) and a steel component (Vs).32 in. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples a = [3.3(18.8) = 73.0(45.kips for negative moment at Support B.5. Therefore.
3 must be checked: smax = 0.75 Using VS = Av fyd/s: s= (0. Reinforced Concrete Vu # φVc + φVs where φ = 0.32 in.4. which requires a 90degree hook with a 6db extension. eight times the smallest longitudinal bar diameter.5. than the 6. 685 . 24 times the stirrup diameter.6) = 59.3 − 0. stirrups should be placed at a maximum of d/2 (ACI 318 Sec.10. the minimum requirements of ACI 318 Sec.85) (2 4.000 The factor of 0.75(59.32 in. 21.3.0 in.4.000) = 8.4.3 [21.3) = 38. and within a distance 2h from the face of the support. This is slightly greater. 000)20(27.1.6) = 6. Because the earthquake shear (at midspan) is greater than 50 percent of the shear strength provided by concrete alone.85 above reflects the reduced shear capacity of sandLW concrete. The shear to be resisted by steel. The first stirrup should be placed 2 in. however. or 12 in. In the remainder of the span. Vc = (0. For the beam under consideration d/4 controls minimum transverse steel.3 kips 1. 7. This spacing is used for all other spans as well.4 kips 0. the spacing should be not greater than d/4.22)(40)(27.9 in.3]).22) and fy = 40 ksi is: Vs = Vu − φ V c φ = 73. The stirrups may be detailed according to ACI 318 Sec.4. 38. with the maximum spacing being 27. 11. assuming stirrups consist of two #3 legs (Av = 0.75 for shear.2 [21. required for strength.10. from the face of the support.12.2(40.5. 50(20) This spacing controls over the d/2 requirement. The final spacing used for the beam is shown in Figure 641.Chapter 6.2].4 Minimum transverse steel requirements are given in ACI 318 Sec. This is in contrast to the details of the Berkeley building where full hoops with 135degree hooks are required in the critical region (within 2d from the face of the support) and stirrups with 135degree hooks are required elsewhere.12. 21.6/4 = 6.
1.3 73.3 18.3 18.45kN.3 73.0L) positive kips 27.5 27.5 27.8 45.850 3.kips 3.5 27.3 18.0 in.5 27.4 mm.FEMA 451.0 in = 25.850 3.852 5.1 45. 1.3 (d) Design shear seismic + gravity positive kips 15.3 73.8 (c) Gravity shear (1.6 70.852 5.5 27. 686 .8 45.113 kNm).3 Figure 642 Shear strength envelopes for Span A'B of Frame 1 (1.3 18.175D + 1.0 kip = 4.5 73.8 (b) Seismic shear positive kips 43.3 18.850 14" 212" 240" 14" 45.850 3.852 (a) Seismic moment (tension side) in.295 5.kip = 0.6 73.8 45. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Loading ' 5.
5. respectively.2 kips 687 .1 Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement The factored gravity force for maximum compression (without earthquake) is: Pu = 1. The column.2 = 746. square and is constructed from 4.3(528) + 0. The ETABS analysis indicates that the axial earthquake force is ±33.4.9 kips.6 kips The factored gravity force for minimum compression (including earthquake) is: Pu = 0. 6.kips.000 psi LW concrete. Reinforced Concrete 6. Moments and shears due to gravity loads are assumed to be negligible.5.2 = 389.8(528) .4.3048 m.6(54) = 720 kips This force acts with no significant gravity moment.0 kip = 4.45kN).3.137 and ±2.3 Design of Typical Interior Column of Frame 1 This section illustrates the design of a typical interior column on Gridline A'. is 28 in. the earthquake shear force is ±41. 60 ksi longitudinal reinforcement.2(528) + 1. which supports Level 5 of Frame 1.5(54) + 33.2 kips. An isolated view of the column is shown in Figure 643. and 40 ksi transverse reinforcement. 1.Chapter 6.0 ft = 0.708 in. The column supports an unfactored axial dead load of 528 kips and an unfactored axial live load of 54 kips. ' P = 54 kips Includes P = 528 kips level 5 30" Level 5 28" 12'6" 30" Level 4 See Figure 641 for girder reinforcement 20'0" 20'0" Figure 643 Isolated view of column A' (1.33. The factored gravity force for maximum compression (including earthquake) is: Pu = 1. and the earthquake moments at the top and the bottom of the column are ±2.
10. (ACI 318 Sec. [Note also that the equation to determine the stability coefficient has been changed in the 2003 Provisions. 221E ) 1 + 0. The importance factor.11. 5.000) ⎛ EI ⎞ = = 187.39 187.5 E ⎜ ⎟ 240 ⎝ L ⎠Girder According to ACI 318 Sec. 10.4 in.1b): E (45.2 states that the frame may be considered braced against sidesway if the story stability factor is less than 0. the ACI story stability factor will be in excess of 0.12.FEMA 451. For use with the nomograph for unbraced columns (ACI 318 Figure R10. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Since the frame being designed is unbraced in both the NS and EW directions.12.4EIColumn ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ (1 + βd ) ⎠ ⎛ EI ⎞ =⎝ ⎜ ⎟ 150 ⎝ L ⎠Column Using the 1.by28in. 221 in.7 E 150 ⎛ EI ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠Column Because there is a column above and below as well as a beam on either side: Ψ Top = Ψ Bottom = 72.2(528) = 0. column with a clear unbraced length.3.] ACI is silent on whether or not δ0 should include Cd.3: ⎛ 0..05 for Level 5 of the building responding in the EW direction. 10.3) and lu/r = 120/8. the structure must be considered unbraced. ACI 318 Sec.7 = 0.2 allows slenderness effects to be neglected when klu/r < 22. For a 28in.4. In this example.0. slenderness effects should be checked.2 and 1. has been added to 2003 Provisions Eq. Hence.3(28) = 8. δ0 does not include Cd. ACI 318 Sec.216. lu = 120 in. Even though the frame is defined as unbraced. this does not affect this example because I = 1.4 12 0.4(51. As can be seen from earlier calculations shown in Table 612b.88 720 I Column = 283 (28) = 51.6.05.13.54. and is therefore consistent with the Provisions.21 [5.5 688 .4. the gravity forces are factored. 5.4 = 14. This requires that the effective length factor k for this column be less than 1.216] except that in the ACI equation.6 load factors on gravity load: βd = 1.11.88 = 72. r = 0. 10. However. This factor is given as: Q= ∑ Puδ 0 Vu lc which is basically the same as Provisions Eq. I.
000 2.3.15 (ACI 318 Figure R10. the effective length factor for the column in the NS direction is effectively infinity. the columns on Lines A' and C' can be considered to be laterally supported by the other 32 columns and therefore can be designed using an effective length factor of 1.0 times the factored shear force as derived from the structural analysis. column with 12 #8 bars (ρ = 0. The concrete supplies a capacity of: Vc = 0.8 kips. The ETABS analysis indicates that the shear force is 41.85(2) 4.85(2) fc′bw d = 0.0 kip = 4.12.1 kips For loading in the NS direction. slenderness effects need not be checked for this column.36 kNm).000(28)(25. However.by28in.45kN.3] allows the column to be checked for 2.3 [21. 5 689 .0 ftkip = 1.2 Design and Detailing of Transverse Reinforcement ACI 318 Sec.9) = 83. Since each of the other 32 columns has a lateral stiffness well in excess of that required for story stability in the NS direction.0(41.000 1.0121) is shown in Figure 644.10.1b). As the computed effective length factor is less than 1. Reinforced Concrete and the effective length factor k = 1.6) = 77. an axialflexural interaction diagram for a 28in. The column clearly has the strength to support the applied loads (represented as solid dots in the figure).000 M x (ftkips) Figure 644 Interaction diagram for column (1. 1.9 kips and the design shear is 2.Chapter 6. 6.12. this column is only one of four in a story containing a total of 36 columns.54.5.4. the column under consideration has no beam framing into it in the direction of loading. If the stiffness contributed by the joists and the spandrel beam acting in torsion is ignored.5 Continuing with the design. A Pdelta analysis carried out per the ACI Commentary would be required to substantiate this. 21. P (kips) 3.500 2.000 500 0 500 0 200 400 600 800 1.500 1.0.
maximum cross section dimension = 28 in.FEMA 451.5] specifies the minimum reinforcement required.5 [21.6)] = 13.75(77.0 (25. on center.008) = 8. maximum spacing controls. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The requirement for steel reinforcement is: Vs = Vu − φVc φ = 83. (using #8 longitudinal bars) 24dtie = 24 (3/8) = 9. will be used.8 − 0. Ties at this spacing are required over a length lo of: 1/6 clearspan of column = 120/6 = 20 in.12. ACI 318 Sec. and the remaining ties are spaced at 8 in. a fourlegged #3 tie spaced at 8 in. 690 .6 kips 0. The 8. 12 in.0 (1. (using #3 ties) 1/2 the smallest dimension of the frame member = 28/2 = 14 in. The final spacing is as shown in Figure 645.0 in. Within a region lo from the face of the support.0db = 8. One tie will be provided at 4 in.10. Given the above. 21.0 in.75 Using ties with four #3 legs.1) = 34. above the floor slab.02 in. over a depth of 28 in. below the beam soffit.00 in. 18.6/34.0 in. the next tie is placed 4 in.11)] [40. the tie spacing should not exceed: 8. Note that the tie spacing is not varied beyond lo. s = [4(0.
11.c.2 requires that all beamcolumn connections have a minimum amount of transverse reinforcement through the beamcolumn joints.4 mm).Chapter 6.11. ACI 318 Sec. The amount of reinforcement required is given by ACI 318 Eq. 50(28) 691 28" Level 6 . 21. 6.11)(40.0 in = 25. 1113: ⎛b s⎞ Av = 50 ⎜ w ⎟ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ This is the same equation used to proportion minimum transverse reinforcement in beams.6 in.2.11. Assuming Av is supplied by four #3 ties and fy = 40 ksi: s= 4(0.5.5].5. 11.000) = 12. 28" 4" 30" 28" Figure 645 Column reinforcement (1. The only exception is in nonseismic frames where the column is confined on all four sides by beams framing into the column. Reinforced Concrete ' Level 7 4" 3" 3 at 8" 30" 3" (12) #8 bars 14 spaces at 8" o.12.4 Design of BeamColumn Joint Joint reinforcement for intermediate moment frames is addressed in ACI 318 Sec. which refers to Sec.4.10.3 [21.5.
FEMA 451.2D + 1.90 kips/ft 30" 20" Level 5 (a) Span geometry and loading 8'10" 1'2" 10'0" 10'0" 8'10" 1'2" 12.5. WL = 0.by28in. The final arrangement of ties within the beamcolumn joint is shown in Figure 645.000 4.000 6. located between Gridlines A and B. for the middle half of the span. 1. However. The length of the haunch at each end (as measured from the face of the support) is 106 in.5 Design of Members of Frame 3 6.0 kip/ft = 14.0 in. 1.5L . This girder.5.1 Design of Haunched Girder A typical haunched girder supporting Level 5 of Frame 3 is now illustrated. the first tie will be placed 3 in.4 mm. moments. The width of the girder is 20 in. 692 .0 ft = 0.E 1. and reinforcement for haunched girder (1. columns on Gridlines A and B.113 kNm).kip = 0.8D + E 0.000 2.000 4. throughout.kips) 1.000 10. The girder frames into 28in.000 6. 6.000 (b) Moment envelope (in.3D + 0. has a variable depth with a maximum depth of 30 in.6 kN/m.000 8.5L + E 1.8D .000 8.3D + 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples This effectively requires only two ties within the joint.0 in = 25. the reinforcement at Gridline B is extended into the adjacent span (Span BC) instead of being hooked into the column. at the support and a minimum depth of 20 in. below the top of the beam and then three additional ties will be placed below this hoop at a spacing of 8 in.5.6L Strength envelope (3) #10 (3) #10 (2) #10 Level 7 (2) #10 48" (4) #9 48" 48" (4) #9 Figure 646 Loads. 1.000 0 2.3048 m.E 0.90 kips/ft WD = 0. As illustrated in Figure 646c.
Nominal capacity. three extend from Span BC.375 .2 d = 20 .0114 a = [4.113) = 3.49 .49)] = 0.6.1 [21.72/2) = 11.16/[20 (27. try four #9 bars: As = 4 (1.85 (4) 20.kips φMn = 0.1].5 .2D + 1. Reinforced Concrete Based on a tributary gravity load analysis.Chapter 6.0] = 6.49 in.96/2) = 13.1.6L and 1.49 .996) = 11.0. Mn = [10.996 in. ρ = 7.0.0139 Depth of compression block.0/[20 (17. extending just past the end of the haunch. Three of the bars are short.kips > 10. For a factored negative moment of 10.kips The three #10 bars that extend across the top of the span easily supply a minimum of onefifth of the negative moment strength at the face of the support. The minimum positive or negative moment strength at any section of the span will not be less than onefifth of the maximum negative moment strength.56 . 21.62 (60)]/[0. (effective flange width = 84 in. a positive moment capacity of at least onethird of the negative moment capacity will be supplied per ACI 318 Sec.27/2 = 27.106 in. and the remaining two are short bars centered over Support B.38 kips/ft of dead load and 0.2 Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement The results of the analysis are shown in Figure 646b for five different load combinations. try eight #10 bars.8D E.031) = 8.85 (4) 84] = 0.72 in. ρ = 4.16 (60)](27.27) = 7.16 in.5. φMn = 0.kips on Gridline A.5.56 in.4.3D + 0. this girder supports an average of 3.964 inkips.16 (60)]/[0.824 in.641 in. For determining earthquake forces.5L ± E produce approximately equal negative end moments. try six #10 bars.10.0) = 4. This analysis included 100 percent of the earthquake forces in the EW direction placed at a 5 percent eccentricity with the direction of the eccentricity set to produce the maximum seismic shear in the member.kips > 2.62/[20 (27.8(11.96 in.84/2) = 4.49)] = 0.kips > 8. 6. Three of the bars extend from Span AB. the entire structure was analyzed using the ETABS program.8.0.00 (60)]/[0.221 in.4.kips on Gridline B.8(4.290 in.106 in. ρ = 10.84 in.kips For the maximum factored positive moment at midspan of 2. A gravity load analysis of the girder was carried out in a similar manner similar to that described above for the Berkeley building. As = 8 (1.) Mn = [4.2 d = 30 . For a factored negative moment of 8. Positive moment at the support is nearly zero under 0.00 in.2 d = 30 .375 . The envelopes of maximum positive and negative moment indicate that 1.964 OK OK OK 693 .0185 a = [10.5 .1.375 . a = [7.kips φMn = 0.1.0.27/2 = 27. As = 6 (1. and gravity controls midspan positive moment.0] = 8.12.5 .. Since positive moment at the support is negligible.128/2 = 17.90 kips/ft of reduced live load.113 in.00 (60)](17.85 (4) 20.1.56)] = 0.27) = 10.8(13.1.49 in.641 in. The other three bars are long and extend into Span BC.62 (60)](27.1.031 inkips Design capacity. Mn = [7.62 in.
kips For positive moment and four #9 bars. Note that the supplied design strengths at each location exceed the factored moment demands.2 d = 30 .9 = 130. Mn = [4.514) = 5. 000 Vs = Vu −φVc 136.3VD + 0.1 = 136.deep section with four #9 bars is computed as follows: As = 4 (1.85 (4) 20.3] gives the two options discussed above.514)/(480 .8(6.56)] = 0.031 + 6.kips The final layout of longitudinal reinforcement used is shown in Figure 646.211 in. 6.12.514)/(480 . use the larger shear for designing transverse reinforcement at each end. the four #9 bars will be extended into the supports as shown in Figure 646.8 kips VG = 1.4+91.5VL = 1.1 kips Maximum total shear occurs at Support B: Vu = 45.4 kips Earthquake shear when Support B is under positive seismic moment is: VE = (11.1.5 kips The shear at Support A is 38.0.0) of the girder will be used as follows: For negative moment and six #10 bars.375 . the approach based on the nominal flexural capacity (φ = 1.00) = 1.0 (60)]/[0. Vc = (0.5 − 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Even though they provide more than onethird of the negative moment strength at the support.128/2 = 27.84 in.kips φMn = 0. For the haunched girder.1 kips.56 in.56 .00/[20 (27. the nominal strength =13. Splices shown are Class B and do not need to be confined within hoops.514 in. Stirrup spacing required for strength is based on two #4 legs with fy = 60 ksi.031 in.kips For negative moment and eight #10 bars.00 in.84/2) = 6.00 (60)] (27. the nominal moment strength = 6. The design positive moment strength for the 30in.996 + 6. The complete design shear (demand) strength envelope is shown in Figure 647a.75(59.75 φ 694 .996 in. The hooked #10 bars can easily be developed in the confined core of the columns.3 (63.6) + 0. Due to the small difference in end shears.FEMA 451.28) = 38.8 + 91.3 kips 1.6) = 59.5.28) = 45.1. ACI 318 Sec.0073 a = [4. ρ = 4.3 Design of Transverse Reinforcement For the design for shear.3) = =122.7 kips 0.0.10.5 .85)(2) 4.514 in. 21. the nominal moment strength = 11.9) = 91.5.3 [21.0] = 0.kips Earthquake shear when Support A is under positive seismic moment is: VE = (13. 000)(20)(27.5(16.
695 . The final spacing of stirrups used is shown in Figure 647b.9 kips End of haunch.1 in.75 in. (b) Spacing of transverse reinforcement 2" 8'10" 2" 20'0" 8'10" #4 stirrups Figure 647 Shear force envelope for haunched girder (1.3048m. at midhaunch and 8. 1.4 kips Middle of haunch.39 in.87 in. on either side of the kink. Three additional stirrups should be placed at each bend or “kink” in the bottom bars.0 kips 52.c.4 mm.6) = 5.2 in. At the haunched segments at either end of the beam.c. and then 13 stirrups at 6 in.deep segment of the beam. from the face of the support followed by four stirrups at a spacing of 5 in.0 in = 25.39 in. s = 6. Outside this region.0 kips 46.2 kips Midspan.60 in. 5" o. 1. One should be located at the kink and the others approximately 2 in. the allowable maximum spacing is d/4 = 6. s = 29.c.4 kips Quarter point of region of 20in. is used.7 130.5 kips 6" o. 8" o. Reinforced Concrete Using Vs = Av fyd/s: s= (0.. depth. VU = 114.4 kips (a) Required shear strength envelope 42. at the end of the haunch and in the 20in.. s = 7. h = 25 in.67 in. For the constant 20in..1 kips s = 5. Vu = 45. Following the same procedure as shown above. h =20 in.7 in.0 ft = 0.Chapter 6.c. a constant spacing of 8 in. the spacing required for other stations is: At support.1 kips 136. 5" o. s = 12. at the support and approximately 5.61 in. depth region. 6" o.c. VU =93. at midhaunch.4)(60)(27. the first stirrup is placed 2 in. through the remainder of the haunch.45kN). the maximum spacing is d/2 = 11. VU = 136. 122. h = 30 in. Within a region 2h from the face of the support.0 kip = 4. VU = 69.
80(803.1 kips compression 696 .kips Moment at bottom = 0.3 kips (opposite sign of gravity shear) Axial force = 63.392 in.80(2603) .208 in.6(693) = 4.1 kips tension The factored forces involving earthquake from west to east are: Moment at top 0. by 28 in.1 = 580 kips For earthquake forces acting from east to west. the unfactored dead load moment is 2.6(78.kips (tension on inside face subtracts from gravity) Moment at bottom of column = 874 in.3 kips (same sign of gravity shear) Axial force = 63.5) = 57.kips (tension on outside face adds to gravity) Moment at bottom of column = 874 in.5.4) = 1. V = 1. Shear.6 kips and an unfactored reduced live load of 78. The factored gravity load combinations for designing the column are as follows: Bending moment.603) + 1.603 in.5.kips. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 6.690 = 1. the forces in the column are obtained from the ETABS analysis as follows: Moment at top of column = 690 in.kips (tension on inside face adds to gravity) Shear in column = 13.kips This moment causes tension on the outside face of the top of the column and tension on the inside face of the bottom of the column.0 in.63. and supports a total unfactored dead load of 803.kips Shear = 0.6) . M = 1.4) .232 in.090 kips For equivalent static earthquake forces acting from west to east.80(2603) . P = 1.4 and 11.kips (tension on outside face subtracts from gravity) Shear in column = 13. the forces in the column are obtained from the ETABS analysis as follows: Moment at top of column = 690 in.2(2.2(803.2(43.3) = 8.4) + 0.80(43.4 kips. The layout of the column is shown in Figure 648.6) + 1. Under gravity load alone.4 Design of Supporting Column The column on Gridline A which supports Level 5 of the haunched girder is 28 in.5(11.1 kips (using the second option for computing EQ shear) Axial force = 0.5 kips. The corresponding shears are 43.2(13.kips and the corresponding live load moment is 693.FEMA 451.8 kips Axial compression.874 = 1. respectively.
6 kips 30" Includes level 5 Level 5 12'6" 28" 20" Figure 648 Loading for Column A.6) + 0.3(43. 1.603) + 0. Frame 3 (1.kips Shear = 1.5(693) + 690 = 4.4) + 63. 1.3048 m.6 kips (using second option for computing EQ shear) Axial force = 1.Chapter 6. The actual details for the column supporting the haunched girder of Frame 3 are shown in Figure 650. Since the maximum design shear is less than that for the column previously designed for Frame 1 and since minimum transverse reinforcement controlled that column.603) + 0.5(78.1 = 1.kips Moment at bottom = 1.4 kips P D = 803. the column with 12 #8 bars is adequate for all loading combinations.3(2.0 ft = 0.3(2.45kN).4) + 0. Reinforced Concrete P L = 78.3) = 94.0 kip = 4.5) + 2(13. 30" Level 4 697 .0 in = 25.4 mm.3(803. The factored forces involving earthquake from east to west are: Moment at top 1. the details for the column currently under consideration are similar to those shown in Figure 645.604 in.420 in.5(11.147 kips As may be observed from Figure 649.5(693) + 874 = 4.
FEMA 451.500 2.45kN. 698 .5 Design of BeamColumn Joint The detailing of the joint of the column supporting Level 5 of the haunched girder is the same as that for the column interior column of Frame A. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples P (kips) 3.500 1.0 ftkip = 1. 6.000 M x (ftkips) Figure 649 Interaction diagram for Column A.0 kip = 4. The joint details are shown in Figure 650.000 1.5.000 500 0 500 0 200 400 600 800 1.36 kNm).000 2. Frame 3 (1.5. 1.
Chapter 6.0 in = 25.c. 28" 699 . Frame 3 (1.4 mm). 28" 4" Level 4 28" Figure 650 Details for Column A. Reinforced Concrete Level 5 4" (12) #8 bars 14 spaces at 8" o.
(In the authors’ opinion this does not apply to buildings in Seismic Design Category A. Ductile connections.E. if momentresisting frames are used as the vertical system. this requirement applies in Seismic Design Categories B and C. welds.) 3.) 2. Stevens. precast or not. or 71 . the Provisions: 1.. 4.D. Some detail is given for special moment frame designs that emulate monolithic concrete. in which the nonlinear response occurs at a connection between a precast unit and another structural element. Provide a momentresisting connection at all beamtocolumn joints with positive lateral support for columns and with special considerations for bearing lengths. To validate designs that do not emulate monolithic concrete. P. Requires assurance of ductility at connections that resist overturning for ordinary precast concrete shear walls. Very briefly. or b. or lap splices (observing the restrictions regarding the location of splices given for monolithic concrete) and the connection is completed with grout. for precast concrete structural systems.7 PRECAST CONCRETE DESIGN Gene R. Ph. Wet connections where reinforcement is spliced with mechanical couplers. Allows special moment frames and special shear walls of precast concrete to either emulate the behavior of monolithic concrete or behave as jointed precast systems. 5. Defines both ductile and strong connections can be either: a. Requires the system (even if the precast carries only gravity loads) to satisfy one of the following two sets of provisions: a.101). Strong connections. or b. provide a minimum degree of redundancy measured as a fraction of available bays. Defines that monolithic emulation may be achieved through the use of either: a. Resist amplified chord forces in diaphragms and. in which the nonlinear response occurs in reinforced concrete sections (generally precast) away from connections that are strong enough to avoid yield even as the forces at the nonlinear response location increase with strain hardening. and James Robert Harris. reference is made to a new ACI testing standard (ACI T1.E. (Because ordinary shear walls are used in lower Seismic Design Categories. P. This chapter illustrates the seismic design of precast concrete members using the NEHRP Recommended Provisions (referred to herein as the Provisions) for buildings in several different seismic design categories.
Tiltup concrete wall buildings in all seismic zones have long been designed using the precast wall panels as shear walls in the seismicforceresisting system. and future changes should be expected. 9.2 of this volume of design examples. which are defined as any connection that is not a wet connection.4] requires that the precast seismicforceresisting system emulate the behavior of monolithic reinforced concrete construction or that the system’s cyclic capacity be demonstrated by testing.1. the authors offer some interpretation. Type Z. but some differences remain. In tiltup buildings subject to strong ground shaking.thick hollow core precast. Requires that ductile connections be either: a. The Provisions describes methods specifically intended to emulate the behavior of monolithic construction.1. Sec. ACI 31802 identifies this system as an “intermediate precast concrete shear wall” and does not specifically define the Type Y or Z connections. Type Y. dry connections. The precast concrete walls in this example resist the seismic forces for a threestory office building. which is where most precast concrete seismicforceresisting systems are constructed. The design is computed using the Provisions rules for monolithic emulation. This example identifies points of yielding for the system and connection features that are required to maintain stable cyclic behavior for yielding.3 illustrates the design of a special precast concrete shear wall for a singlestory industrial warehouse building in the Los Angeles. One such requirement qualifies is that overturning connections qualify as the newly defined Type Y or Z. Where those differences are pertinent to the examples illustrated here.3. 9. and they are not the subject of any of the examples in this chapter. 9. The two untopped precast concrete diaphragms of Sec. 7.thick composite lightweight concrete topping for the fivestory masonry building in Seismic Design Category D described in Sec. located in southern New England (Seismic Design Category B). Such designs have usually been performed using design force coefficients and strength limits as if the precast walls emulated the performance of castinplace reinforced concrete shear walls.1. Many of these requirements have been adopted into the 2002 edition of ACI 318. prestressed concrete planks. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples b. the system probably would behave more like a jointed precast system. they are explained. the inplane performance of the precast panels has rarely been a problem. The example in Sec. 7. 7. Given the brief nature of the requirements in both the Provisions and ACI 318. primarily because there has been little demand for postelastic performance in that direction. There are very few seismic requirements for such walls in the Provisions. the only place they are addressed in the Provisions is the Appendix to Chapter 9. Although untopped diaphragms are commonly used in regions of low seismic hazard. however.1.12 [9.2. with a minimum ductility ratio of 8 and stronger anchorage requirements. Conventional tiltup buildings may deserve a unique treatment for seismicresistant design. Sec.3 presents an interpretation of monolithic emulation of precast shear wall panels with ductile. 7.2 shows the same precast plank with a 2 ½ in. which they usually do not. Additional clarity in the definition and application of design provisions of such precast systems is needed. Whether this connection would qualify under ACI 31802 is a matter of interpretation. and dry connections are permitted. 72 . 6. or b.2 illustrates the design of an ordinary precast concrete shear wall building in a region of low or moderate seismicity.1 show the requirements for Seismic Design Categories B and C using 8in. The examples in Sec.2. although tiltup panels with large heighttowidth ratios could behave in the fashion described in design example 7. The example in Sec.1 illustrate the design of untopped and topped precast concrete floor and roof diaphragms of the fivestory masonry buildings described in Sec. Provisions Sec. 7.2.FEMA 451. with a minimum ductility ratio of 4 and specific anchorage requirements. The reader should bear in mind that the appendices of the Provisions are prepared for trial use and comment. 7. For buildings in Seismic Design Category D. Dry connections.
Building Code Requirements and Commentary for Structural Concrete. yyy) where “xxx” is the section in the Provisions and “yyy” is the section proposed for insertion into ACI 31899. Special precast shear walls either need to satisfy the design requirements for special castinplace concrete shear walls 73 . Vol. No. Although the general conepts of the changes are described. Precast Concrete Design In addition to the Provisions.” PCI Journal. The design of ordinary precast shear walls is based on ACI 31802 excluding Chapter 21 and the design of intermediate shear walls is based on ACI 31802 Sec. 2. Moustafa PCI Handbook PCI Details SEAA Hollow Core The following style is used when referring to a section of ACI 318 for which a change or insertion is proposed by the Provisions: Provisions Sec. Moustafa. and S. Parts 1. Annotations within brackets. “Proposed Revisions to 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for Precast Concrete Structures. The most significant change related to precast concrete in the 2003 Provisions is that precast shear wall systems are now recognized separately from castinplace systems. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. No. Saad E.” PCI Journal. Second Edition. xxx (ACI Sec. 6 (Nov. 2000. Structural Engineers Association of Arizona. PCI Design Handbook. Neil M. 3 (MayJune 1982). Building Code Requirements and Commentary for Structural Concrete. and No. it has been annotated to reflect changes made for the 2003 Provisions. Hawkins. the design examples and calculations have not been revised to reflect the changes made for the 2003 Provisions. [ ]. Design and Typical Details of Connections for Precast and Prestressed Concrete. 3 (MayJune). American Society of Civil Engineers. Manual of Steel Construction.). 26. 5 (Sept. Vol. 1981 and 1982.. and 3. 1998 [2002]. American Concrete Institute.Oct. 1 (Jan. Ghosh. 2002. 45.Chapter 7. 1999. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.13 (with limited modifications in Chapter 9 of the 2003 Provisions). 2002. Load & Resistance Factor Design. No. 1999. Vol. Design and Detailing of Untopped HollowCore Slab Systems for Diaphragm Shear. 1981) and the discussion contained in PCI Journal. “Effectiveness of ShearFriction Reinforcement in Shear Diaphragm Capacity of HollowCore Slabs. Although this volume of design examples is based on the 2000 Provisions. Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute. K. No. the following documents are either referred to directly or are useful design aids for precast concrete construction: ACI 31899 ACI 31802 AISC LRFD ASCE 7 Hawkins American Concrete Institute. 21.).Feb.Dec. 27. Third Edition. Central Chapter. indicate both organizational changes (as a result of a reformatting of all chapters for the 2003 Provisions) and substantive technical changes to the Provisions and its primary reference documents. The 2003 Provisions does not distinguish between precast and castinplace concrete for special shear walls. The 2003 Provisions recognizes ordinary and intermediate precast concrete shear walls. Fifth Edition. 1988. American Institute of Steel Construction.
Some general technical changes for the 2003 Provisions that relate to the calculations and/or designs in this chapter include updated seismic hazard maps. Many of the design provisions for precast shear walls in the 2000 Provisions have been removed. However. 74 . and the requirements in ACI 31802 are in some ways less specific.7) or most be substantiated using experimental evidence and analysis (2003 Provisions Sec.2. other significant changes for the 2003 Provisions and primary reference documents are noted. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples (ACI 31802 Sec.4 and 9. some minor changes may not be noted.2. 21. revisions to the redundancy requirements. and revisions to the minimum base shear equation.” Commentary on how the specific design provision was incorporated into ACI 31802 is included where appropriate. the 2000 Provisions references in this chapter are simply annotated as “[not applicable in the 2003 Provisions].FEMA 451. 9. Where this occurs. Where they affect the design examples in the chapter.6).
2 provides design parameters used in this example.1. ρΩ0Fpx but not less than ρΩ0Cswpx where Fpx is calculated from Provisions Eq. 5.0. 21.1.21 shows the typical floor plan of the diaphragms. These two sources occasionally conflict (such as the symbol µ used above).thick hollow core precast. and connections are designed for limited ductility.1. Precast concrete diaphragms may be constructed using topped or untopped precast elements depending on the Seismic Design Category of the building. Alabama. No outofplane offsets in vertical seismicforceresisting members (Type 4 plan irregularities) are permitted with untopped diaphragms. (peak to valley).1 HORIZONTAL DIAPHRAGMS Structural diaphragms are horizontal or nearly horizontal elements. Reinforced concrete diaphragms constructed using untopped precast concrete elements are addressed in the Appendix to Chapter 9 of the Provisions. New York This example illustrates floor and roof diaphragm design for the fivestory masonry buildings located in Birmingham. µ. ACI 318 requires grout or concrete placed against hardened concrete to have clean.63]. The Appendix to Chapter 9 provides design provisions for untopped precast concrete diaphragms without limits as to the Seismic Design Category. but the source is clear from the context of the discussion. and intentionally roughened surfaces with a total amplitude of about 1/4 in. The example in Sec. 9.3 [A9. on soft rock (Seismic Design Category B) and in New York.4.Chapter 7. The terminology used is defined in ACI 318 Chapter 21 and Provisions Chapter 9.1 Untopped Precast Concrete Units for FiveStory Masonry Buildings Located in Birmingham. are designed using the requirements of ACI 31899 Sec. Diaphragms with untopped precast elements are designed to remain elastic. 7.1.5. This equation normally is specified for Seismic Design 1 Note that this equation is incorrectly numbered as 5.2. Details from the SEAA Hollow Core reference are used to develop the connection details. 21.2. The floors and roofs of these buildings are to be untopped 8in.3. Alabama. 9A. Figure 9. untopped precast diaphragms are permitted only in Seismic Design Categories A through C. Dynamic modeling of seismic response is not required. Static rational models are used to determine shears and moments on joints as well as shear and tension/compression forces on connections.4 in the first printing of the 2000 Provisions.2SDSIwpx and not more than 0. The design method used here is that proposed by Moustafa. This method makes use of the shear friction provisions of ACI 318 with the friction coefficient. that transfer seismic inertial forces to the vertical seismicforceresisting members. which also bounds Fpx to be not less than 0.. and New York. chord elements) are provided as needed for clarity in this example.2 General InPlane Seismic Design Forces for Untopped Diaphragms The inplane diaphragm seismic design force (F!px) for untopped precast concrete in Provisions Sec.4SDSIwpx. Precast Concrete Design 7.2.0. such as floors and roofs. 7. prestressed concrete plank. Other definitions (e. laitance free. 7.6.7 [ACI 31802 Sec. which act compositely or noncompositely for gravity loads.1. Roughness for formed edges is provided either by sawtooth keys along the length of the plank or by hand roughening with chipping hammers.41 [4.g. To use µ = 1.9]. New York (Seismic Design Category C). being equal to 1. Topped precast concrete elements. 75 .1 General Design Requirements In accordance with the Provisions and ACI 318.2] “shall not be less than the forcee calculated from either of the following two criteria:” 1.
2.2.1. For Seismic Design Categories B and C.1]. Parameters from the example in Sec.62] and not limited by the minima and maxima for that equation. For Seismic Design Category C. 5.3.2. (Note that φ = 1.4. For components thought likely to behave in a brittle fashion.1]) wpx is the weight tributary to the diaphragm at Level x SDS is the spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods (Provisions Sec. For the fivestory masonry buildings of this example. This requirement is different from similar requirements elsewhere in the Provisions.2 [4.2.2] is satisfied by the requirements of Provisions Sec. The maximum force would normally be computed from a plastic mechanism analysis.6. 1.2.3. 5.2.3.2. which requires use of the overstrength factor. 9A.2 used to calculate inplane seismic design forces for the diaphragms are provided in Table 7.6. Here the Provisions requires the designer to compute both an overstrength level force and a yield level force and then use the larger. My/Mu. 5.2. splices. the designer can then use the smaller of the two forces.2.6.2.3 [A9.4. 5.7.1 [4. This approach to yielding uses the first mode force distribution along the height of the building and basic pushover analysis concepts.4. 5. which can be approximated as: F!px = 1. 76 . 5. Provisions Sec.3]) I is the occupancy importance factor (Provisions Sec. ρ is the reliability factor.4 [1.2. 5.6 [4.1.2. Ω0 is the overstrength factor (Provisions Table 5.6. This appears to conflict with the Commentary.0) Fpx* is the seismic force at each level for the diaphragm as defined above by Provisions Eq.6. which places the overstrength factor on horizontal seismic forces and combines the horizontal and vertical seismic forces with the effects of gravity forces. 1. the designer is required to apply the overstrength factor and then given an option to check the maximum force that can be delivered by the remainder of the structural system to the element in question.3]) 2.2] requires that collector elements. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Categories D and higher.3. and connections.1. the shear force to cause yielding is first estimated to be that force associated with the development of the nominal bending strength of the shear walls at their base. 4. Provisions Sec.1 [4.4 [4.9] defines a minimum diaphragm seismic design force that will always be less than the forces computed above. 9.3. Because vertical forces do not normally affect diaphragm collector elements.25 times the shear force to cause yielding of the vertical seismicforceresisting system. and collector connections to the vertical seismicforceresisting members be designed in accordance with Provisions Sec.2].31]) Cs is the seismic response coefficient (Provisions Sec. it is intended in the Provisions Appendix to Chapter 9 that the same equation be used for untopped diaphragms in Seismic Design Categories B and C.11. the authors believe that Provisions Sec.FEMA 451.2.0 for Seismic Design Categories A through C per Provisions Sec. collector splices.2]. which is 1.2 [3.1 [5.7.1.2.1 [4.25KFpx* where K is the ratio of the yield strength in bending to the demand.2. If the option is exercised.1 [4.
77 .24 1. A simple factor of 0. but that does not appear necessary for design. An intermediate point on the interaction diagram was computed for each wall in Sec. the yield moment is on the order of 90 to 95 percent of the nominal capacity.0 kip = 4.0 2. particularly when the reinforcement is distributed uniformly along the wall rather than being concentrated at the ends of the wall.12 shows the load information from Sec.2 Design Parameter ρ Ωo Cs wi (roof) wi (floor) SDS I 1.Chapter 7. Birmingham 1 1.0 ftkip = 1.5 0.39 1. 9.26) in the region of interest that simply interpolating between the points for pure bending and balanced conditions is unacceptably unconservative for this particular check. The strength for design is controlled by minimum axial load.2.2 (the final numbers in this section may have changed. so Mn for the wall is computed from the axial load moment interaction diagram data developed in Sec.12 861 kips 963 kips 0. The shape of the interaction diagram between the balanced point and pure bending is far enough from a straight line (see Figure 9. which includes some live load and a vertical acceleration on dead load. Yielding begins before the nominal bending capacity is reached. Thus.45 kN.95 was applied to the nominal capacity here.0 2. Precast Concrete Design Table 7. 9. The factor K is large primarily due to consideration of axial load.11 Design Parameters from Example 9. For lightly reinforced walls with distributed reinforcement and with axial loads about onethird of the balanced load. and that point is utilized here.2. Table 7. because this example was completed first). whereas K is maximum for the maximum axial load.0 The Provisions Appendix to Chapter 9 does not give the option of using the overstrength factor Ω0 to estimate the yield of the vertical system. It is feasible to compute the moment at which the extreme bar yields.156 869 kips 978 kips 0. 1. such as these.36 kNm. 9.0 New York City 1.5 0.
723 ftkips 6. 78 .229 ftkips 363 kips 327 kips 5.67 ft) wpx n = 861 kips = 54 kips = 807 kips = 963 kips = 108 kips = 855 kips Compute diaphragm demands in accordance with Provisions Eq.13.4.FEMA 451.83 New York City 1. PnB Maximum Design Load.837 ftkips 2.6.483 ftkips 1.493 ftkips 3.3 Diaphragm Forces for Birmingham Building 1 The weight tributary to the roof and floor diaphragms (wpx) is the total story weight (wi) at Level i minus the weight of the walls parallel to the direction of loading.4 [4. 5.092 ftkips 4.6.1. Pu Interpolated Mn Approximate My Design Mu Factor K = My/Mu 963 ftkips 5. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Table 7. Mn0 Intermediate Load.4]: Fpx = i=x n i=x ∑ Fi w px ∑ wi Calculations for Fpx are provided in Table 7.2.67 ft/2) wpx Floors Total weight Walls parallel to force = (45 psf)(277 ft)(8. MnB Intermediate Load.58 7. Compute diaphragm weight (wpx) for the roof and floor as follows: Roof Total weight Walls parallel to force = (45 psf)(277 ft)(8.3.12 Shear Wall Overstrength Birmingham 1 Pure Bending.355 ftkips 335 kips 315 kips 5.782 ftkips 5.1.640 ftkips 1.
13 Birmingham 1 Fpx Calculations i= x Level Roof 4 3 2 1 wi (kips) 861 963 963 963 963 ∑ wi n (kips) 861 1.12(807 kips) = 96. Compare this value to Cswpx to determine the minimum diaphragm force for untopped diaphragms as indicated previously.7 kips) = 2(41. the diaphragm seismic design forces are as follows: F!px = ρΩ0Cswpx = 1. 79 .4SDSIwpx = 0.1 kips. the force to yield the walls clearly controls the design.5)(96.0(807 kips) = 0.8 kips (at the roof) Cswpx = 0.710 Fi (kips) 175 156 117 78 39 i=x ∑ Fi = Vi (kips) 175 331 448 527 566 n wpx (kips) 807 855 855 855 855 Fpx (kips) 164 155 137 120 103 1.0(2. Note that this will always be true when I = 1.1.5.2(0.13 are listed in Table 9.25(1.0(2.8 kips) = 242 kips (at the roof) F!px = ρΩ0Cswpx = 1.0(855 kips) = 2(38.Chapter 7.0 and R is less than or equal to 2.25(1. The values for Fi and Vi used in Table 7.22.25KFpx* = 1.24)1.12(855 kips) = 103 kips (at the floors) Since Cswpx is larger than Fpx. This is generally true at upper levels if the R factor is less than 5.0 kips (at floors) = 77.13 is substantially larger than the maximum Fpx.5 kips (at the roof) = 82.0 kips) = 38. Therefore.790 3.2SDSIwpx The maximum value of Fpx = 0. The value of Fpx used for the roof diaphragm is 82.45 kN. To simplify the design.85)164 kips = 379 kips (at the roof) F!px = 1.24)1. the controlling force is Cswpx.820 2.4 Diaphragm Forces for New York Building The weight tributary to the roof and floor diaphragms (wpx) is the total story weight (wi) at Level i minus the weight of the walls parallel to the force.0 kip = 4. 7.750 4.2(0. Precast Concrete Design Table 7. The minimum value of Fpx = 0.85)155 kips = 358 kips (at the floors) For this example. Cswpx = 0.1. the diaphragm design force used for all levels will be the maximum force at any level.7 kips (at the roof) = 41. 379 kips.1 kips (at floors) Note that Fpx by Table 7.5)(103 kips) = 256 kips (at the floors) The second check on design force is based on yielding of the shear walls: F!px = 1.25KFpx* = 1.
4] are required for the second check F!px = 1.25KFpx.5.4 [4.4SDSIwpx when I = 1.3.6.156(863 kips) = 135 kips (at the floors) The diaphragm seismic design forces are: F!px = ρΩ0Cswpx = 1. 1.5 Static Analysis of Diaphragms The balance of this example will use the controlling diaphragm seismic design force of 423 kips for the New York building.67 ft/2) wpx Floors Total weight Walls parallel to force = (48 psf)(277 ft)(8. just as with the Birmingham 1 building.156(812 kips) = 127 kips (at the roof) Cswpx = 0.6. the diaphragm design force used for all levels will be the maximum force at any level.0(2.0 and R is less than or equal to 2.2.5)(127 kips) = 318 kips (at the roof) F!px = ρΩ0Cswpx = 1. Compute Cswpx as: Cswpx = 0.4] are not required for the first set of forces because Cswpx will be greater than or equal to the maximum value of Fpx = 0.5)(135 kips) = 337 kips (at the floors) Calculations for Fpx using Provisions Eq. The diaphragm seismic design force (423 kips) is controlled by yielding at the base of the walls. 5. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Compute diaphragm weight (wpx) for the roof and floor as follows: Roof Total weight Walls parallel to force = (48 psf)(277 ft)(8.4 [4.58)214 kips = 423 kips (at the roof) To simplify the design.4.6.25(1.FEMA 451. the maximum Fpx is 214 kips at the roof.4.1. the loads will be distributed as shown in Figure 7.25KFpx* = 1.0(2. 710 .6. 7.3.1.2. 5.67 ft) wpx = 978 kips = 115 kips = 863 kips = 870 kips = 58 kips = 812 kips Calculations for Fpx using Provisions Eq. In the transverse direction.11. Following the same procedure as illustrated in the previous section. Thus.
W1 = [67 psf(72 ft) + 48 psf(8.0 ft = 0.180 lb/ft = 2.11) are computed as follows: F = 423 kips/4 = 105.364 lb/ft Figure 7.11 Diaphragm force distribution and analytical model (1.Chapter 7. Precast Concrete Design W1 W2 W1 F F F F 40'0" 3 at 24'0" = 72'0" 152'0" 40'0" Figure 7.12 identifies critical regions of the diaphragm to be considered in this design. These regions are: Joint 1 – maximum transverse shear parallel to the panels at paneltopanel joints Joint 2 – maximum transverse shear parallel to the panels at the paneltowall joint Joint 3 – maximum transverse moment and chord force Joint 4 – maximum longitudinal shear perpendicular to the panels at the paneltowall connection (exterior longitudinal walls) and anchorage of exterior masonry wall to the diaphragm for outofplane forces Joint 5 – collector element and shear for the interior longitudinal walls 711 . the diaphragm reactions at the transverse shear walls (F as shown in Figure 7.11).67 ft)4](423 kips / 863 kips) W2 = [67 psf(72 ft)](423 kips / 863 kips) = 3. Assuming the four shear walls have the same stiffness and ignoring torsion.8 kips The uniform diaphragm demands are proportional to the distributed weights of the diaphragm in different areas (see Figure 7.3048 m).
[The chord amplification factor has been dropped in the 2003 Provisions and does not occur in ASC 31802.1.FEMA 451.4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ 72 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ The amplification factor = ( 72 ) ⎣ 12 ( 8. Provisions Sec.] This amplification factor appears to apply to buildings with vertical seismicforceresisting members constructed of precast or monolithic concrete. Because these masonry wall buildings are similar to buildings with concrete walls.0 ft = 0. twice the length of the 40ftlong cantilevers is used for Leff = 80 ft hs = story height = 8. 9. Since the diaphragms have no infection points.03 712 .0 bd ⎣ 12hs where Leff = length of the diaphragm between inflection points. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 4 1 2 3 5 72'0" 36'0" 4'0" 24'0" Figure 7.67 ) = 1. The amplification factor is: 2 ⎡ ⎛ Leff ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 + 0.1.67 ft bd = diaphragm width = 72 ft 2 ⎡ ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 + 0.3048 m).12 Diaphragm plan and critical design regions (1. this amplification factor has been included in calculating the chord forces.4 [not applicable in 2003 Provisions] defines a chord amplification factor for diaphragms in structures having precast gravityload systems.4 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ ≥ 1. See the initial section of this chapter for additional discussion on changes for the 2003 Provisions.
6.4(SDS)Wwall = 0.2 [4.0 kips = 27.18 kips/ft (40 ft) Moment.105. 5.3. 4. bearing wall anchorage shall be designed for a force computed as: 0.03(2.39)(48 psf)(8.061 ftkips = 29.6.061 ftkips/71 ft) Joint 2 – Transverse forces Shear.2 [4. 1.3] (Seismic Design Category B and greater).5 but they generally are the same as those in the 2000 Provisions.1.25.6 apply to Seismic Design Category B and greater].9 kips .1. Assuming the planks are similar to beams and comply with the minimum requirements of Provisions Sec.5 kips (36 ft/2) Chord tension force.9 kips = 25. Mu1 = 114. Vu3 = 127 kips + 2. 5.39)1.9 kips = 78.05(D + L)plank = 0.1 kips = 3.03(2. Vu1 = 3.2] (Seismic Design Category A and greater).7 [4.1.2.2.Chapter 7.9 kips According to Provisions Sec.36 kips/ft (24 ft) .1. 5.6.2 kips = 127 kips = 2. Precast Concrete Design Joint forces are: Joint 1 – Transverse forces Shear.2 plf = 52.18 kips/ft (36 ft) Moment. Tu2 = M/d = 1. The design and detailing requirements in 2003 Provisions Sec.540 ftkips = 36. 5.1 [4.8 kips Moment.1] (Seismic Design Category C and greater) requires masonry wall anchorage to flexible diaphragms to be designed for a larger force. Vu4 = 52.6. the minimum anchorage for masonry walls is: Fp = 400(SDS)I = 400(0. Vu2 = 3.2.4(0.9 kips (36 ft)/(152 ft /2) Collector force at wall end.738 ftkips = 54. Tu3 = M/d = 1.1] (Seismic Design Category A and greater) [In the 2003 Provisions.6.2.0 kips Joint 4 – Outofplane forces The Provisions have several requirements for outofplane forces. Tu1 = M/d = 1.105.05(67 psf + 40 psf)(24 ft/2) = 64.5 kips = 2.738 ftkips/71 ft) Joint 4 – Longitudinal forces Wall Force.9 kips = 114.67 ft) = 64.6. F = 423 kips/8 Wall shear along wall length. the required outofplane horizontal force is: 0. Mu3 = 127 kips (44 ft) + 56.03(3.8 kips (24 ft) Chord tension force.540 ftkips/71 ft) Joint 3 – Transverse forces Shear. all requirements for Seismic Design Category A are in Sec.2.6.1.6.2. None are unique to precast diaphragms and all are less than the requirements in ACI 318 for precast construction regardless of seismic considerations.9 plf Provisions Sec.7 kips (12 ft) . This diaphragm is 713 . Mu2 = 127 kips (40 ft/2) Chord tension force.0 = 156 plf According to Provisions Sec. Tu4 = Cu4 = 52.
ACI’s tie forces are far greater than the minimum tie forces given in the Provisions for beam supports and anchorage for of masonry walls.0 kips = 52. 4. a note about ACI’s φ factors is necessary.5.9 kips = 12. These factors are about 10% less than the comparable factors within the main body of the standard. The 2002 edition of ACI 318 has placed the ASCE 7 load combinations within the main body of the standard and revised the φ factors accordingly. This building has no vertical precast members. They do control some of the reinforcement provided. The minimum tie force requirements given in ACI 318 Sec.5 will be described later. for structural integrity shall apply to all precast concrete structures. 714 .85SDSIWp.00 for those forces. Fp = 1. The horizontal tie force requirements are: 1. but most of the reinforcement is controlled by the computed connections for diaphragm action.67 ft)] = 195 plf [In the 2003 Provisions.” This is interpreted to apply to the precast elements of this masonry bearing wall structure.5 kips = 27. this is a reasonable assumption. Both ASCE 7 and the Provisions make it clear that the appropriate φ factors within ACI 318 are those contained within Appendix C of ACI 31899.9 kips ACI 318 Sec.61 in Sec.1.1 has been changed to 0.5 are specified as nominal values.500 lb/ft parallel and perpendicular to the span of the floor members.FEMA 451. the φ factors used here are: Tension control (bending and ties) φ = 0. 16.75 Compression control in tied members φ = 0. and considering that it is designed to avoid yield under the loads that will yield the walls.2. Thus. 16.39)1.9 kips [2(36 ft)/152 ft]/2 Collector force at wall end. The maximum spacing of ties perpendicular to the span is the distance between supporting walls or beams. The maximum spacing of ties parallel to the span is 10 ft. ACI 318 Sec. Joint 5 – Longitudinal forces Wall force.90 Shear φ = 0.5 also has minimum connection force requirements for structural integrity of precast concrete bearing wall building construction. 7. meaning that φ = 1. For buildings over two stories there are force requirements for horizontal and vertical members. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples considered rigid with respect to the walls.25. 4. Vu4 = 52.000 lb parallel to the perimeter of a floor or roof located within 4 ft of the edge at all edges. .2(SDS)Iwp = 1. 16. However.65.1 specifies that the strengths “. 16.2(0. Tu5 = Cu5 = 52. This example uses the φ factors given in the 2002 edition of ACI 318. 16. 1. Eq.6. The Provisions cites ASCE 7 for combination of seismic load effects with the effects of other loads.] The force requirements in ACI 318 Sec. 2. .6 Diaphragm Design and Details Before beginning the proportioning of reinforcement.0[(48 psf)(8. which are the same as those given in Appendix C of the 1999 edition with one exception.9 kips .1. F = 423 kips/8 Wall shear along each side of wall.
9(60 ksi)] = 1.1.13 shows the chord element at the exterior edges of the diaphragm. Compute the required amount of chord reinforcement as: Chord reinforcement. 9A. The compressive stress in the chord is computed using the ultimate moment based on a linear elastic model and gross section properties.5 in.8.3].1 Design and Detailing at Joint 3 Joint 3 is designed first to check the requirements of Provisions Sec. = 25.2 fc' = 0.4. 21...7. which then refers to ACI 318 Sec. Precast Concrete Design 7.0 in.2).9.2 Use two #7 bars.738 × 12)/(4.000 psi.13 Joint 3 chord reinforcement at the exterior edge (1.000) = 800 psi. t = area/width = 215/48 = 4. 21.7.Chapter 7.3 [21.5)(72 × 12)2 = 80.4.7.3 is not required.5.4. the transverse reinforcement indicated in ACI 318 Sec. The chord bars extend along the length of the exterior longitudinal walls and act as collectors for these walls in the longitudinal direction (see Joint 4 collector reinforcement and Figure 7.20 in.1 through 21.3.2 along the exterior edges (top and bottom of the plan in Figure 7.00 in. 715 . Require cover for chord bars and spacing between bars at splices and anchorage zones by ACI 318 Sec.5(7/8) = 2.2 kips)/[0. Minimum cover = 2.3].2(4.5. This section provides requirements for transverse reinforcement in the chords of the diaphragm.8.2. 3" (2) #7 bars (chord bars) Contact lap splice Splice bars Artificially roughened surfaces of void as required Prestressed hollow core plank 2"± 3"± 3" 3" Grouted chord / collector element along exterior edge of precast plank Figure 7. 21.9. Minimum spacing = 3(7/8) = 2. As = 2(0.4].8.1.4 mm).0 in.3 [21.3 [21.19 in. Since the chord compressive stress is less than 0. 4"Ø spiral of 1 4" wire with 2" pitch over each lap splice may be required depending on geometry of specific voids in plank. an equivalent thickness (t) based on the cross sectional area is used for the hollow core precast units as follows.6.1. 21. Figure 7.1 psi The design 28day compressive strength of the grout is 4. which references ACI 318 Sec. but not less than 2. but not less than 11/2 in.4.9 [A9.60) = 1.17). As3 = Tu3/φfy = (54.3].8.63 in. To determine the inplane section modulus (S) of the diaphragm.9. S = td2/6 Chord compressive stress is computed as: Mu/S = 6Mu3/td2 = 6(3.
2 Provide four #7 bars (two at each of the outside edges) plus four #6 bars (two each at the interior joint at the ends of the plank) for a total area of reinforcement of 4(0.FEMA 451. the cover and spacing of the two # 6 bars in the interior joints will be provided to meet the requirements of ACI 318 Sec.2 = 3.88 in.5 kips)/[(0. The two #6 bars extend along the length of the interior longitudinal walls as shown in Figure 7.8.1.16 in.55 in.0 in.3 [21.54 in. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Joint 3 must also be checked for the minimum ACI tie forces.6 kips).2 Because the interior joint reinforcement acts as the collector reinforcement in the longitudinal direction for the interior longitudinal walls.5(6/8) = 1. 33 4" (2) #6 (collector bars) #3 x 4'0" (behind) at each joint between planks Figure 7.11 in.2) + 2.2 Total reinforcement required = 2(0.0 in.65 in.1. The chord reinforcement obviously exceeds the 16 kip perimeter force requirement. Figure 7.9(60 ksi)] = 0. The 1.0)(60 ksi)] = 2. 716 31 2" 21 2" 2" .60 in.5 kips per foot requirement requires a 6 kip tie at each joint between the planks.4 mm).Joints 1 and 5 (1. Minimum spacing = 3(6/8) = 2.2 (collector force from Joint 4 calculations at 27.60 in2) + 4(0.25 in.14 Interior joint reinforcement at the ends of plank and the collector reinforcement at the end of the interior longitudinal walls . which is also the collector reinforcement for the interior longitudinal walls (Joint 5).3]: Minimum cover = 2.7.. As1 = Tu1/φfy = (29.. which is satisfied with a #3 bar in each joint (0. This bar is required at all bearing walls and is shown in subsequent details.55 in.9 kips is not directly additive).6. but not less than 2.2) = 4.2 at 60 ksi = 6.2 ACI tie force = (3 kips/ft)(72 ft) = 216 kips. 7.54 in.2 Joint 1 Design and Detailing The design must provide sufficient reinforcement for chord forces as well as shear friction connection forces as follows: Chord reinforcement.75)(1.14 shows the reinforcement in the interior joints at the ends of the plank.9. Avf1 = Vu1/φµfy = (114. but not less than 11/2 in. 21. = 25.44 in.8. Shear friction reinforcement. reinforcement = (216 kips)/(60 ksi) = 3.9 kips)/[0.18.
9(60 ksi)] = 0.5.6° + cos 26. This detail makes use of this supplement plank reinforcement (two #6 bars or an equal area of strand per ACI 31899 Sec.75 ( 60 )(1.5.6.4 mm).9 kips)/[0.16. Precast Concrete Design Figure 7.8 kips 2 ⎣ ⎦ This force must be transferred from the planks to the wall. Figure 7.14 into the region where the plank is parallel to the bars.As2) and by the four #6 bars projecting from the interior longitudinal walls across this joint.6° ) ( ) 11 2" 21 2" 2" 717 .6 factor applies when the development length is not within a confined core.75 ( 60 )(1. the required ld = 58. 2" (2) #6 anchored 4'0" into plank at ends. 21.1. 21. The anchorage length of the #6 bars is calculated using ACI 31899 Sec. The supplemental chord bars.0 )( 4 × 0. Therefore.79 in.44 ) ⎤ = 47.3 Joint 2 Design and Detailing The chord design is similar to the previous calculations: Chord reinforcement.9. 21.2(0. which is the width of the plank.4] which references ACI 318 Sec.6(2.7.7 in.75 in. Using #6 bars.4: ⎛ f y db ⎞ ⎡ 60. are conservatively excluded here.0 sin 26.5.1. 7.5) ⎜ ⎟ = 1.Chapter 7.5. The bars will need to be extended the full length of the diaphragm unless supplemental plank reinforcement is provided.15 shows the extension of the two #6 bars of Figure 7. As2 = Tu2/φfy = (36.68 in.7. Using the arrangement shown in Figure 7.2 φ f y µ sin α f + cos α f 0.0 in.6(2.8 Avf 2 = = = 0.5 factor is for the difference between straight and hooked bars.000( db ) ⎤ ld = 1. which are located at the end of the walls.) = 43.15 Anchorage region of shear reinforcement for Joint 1 and collector reinforcement for Joint 5 (1.9. = 25.2 The shear force may be reduced along Joint 2 by the shear friction resistance provided by the supplemental chord reinforcement (2Achord .4 [21.2db ⎜ 65 f ′ ⎟ c ⎠ ⎣ 65 4. use ld = 4 ft.2 [21. and the 1.000 ⎦ ⎝ The 2.5) ⎢ ⎥ = 58. The shear force along the outer joint of the wall where the plank is parallel to the wall is modified as: ⎡ ⎤ VuMod = Vu 2 − ⎣φ f y µ ( A4#6 ) ⎦ = 127 − ⎡0.5.2]) and shows the bars anchored at each end of the plank. the required shear friction reinforcement (Avf2) is computed as: VuMod 2 47.
12.2)(60 ksi)(1. minimum requirement.5 kips The development length of the #3 and #4 bars will now be checked. For the #3 hook: ldh = 0. The full strength is not required for shear transfer.3.7 factor of ACI 318 Sec.6 degrees (2to1 slope) across the joint at 4 ft from the ends of the plank and at 8 ft on center (three sets per plank).2 in. ld = f y db 25 fc′ = 60.2 is used for ld.106 = 21 kips The shear friction resistance provided by #3 bars in the grout key between each plank (provided for the 1. The bar will not be fully developed at the end of the plank because of the 6 in.0) = 49. the diagonal #3 hook will be developed in the wall as required for the computed diaphragmtoshearwall transfer. to apply the 0.2.000 = 14.8 factor. 12.5.75)(10 bars)(0.375 4. which is close enough to 2 in.11 in. but not less than 8db or 6 in.5.2) = 0.FEMA 451.2 The shear force between the other face of this wall and the diaphragm is: Vu2 .99 in.F = 127 .5 klf requirement of the ACI) is computed as: φAvffyµ = (0. Figure 7. The angle (αf) used above provides development of the #3 bars while limiting the grouting to the outside core of the plank. By inspection. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Use two #3 bars placed at 26. For the 180 degree standard hook use ACI 318 Sec. ldh = lhb times the factors of ACI 318 Sec.200) db fc′ = 0.95 in.7 (1.200) 0. The total shear reinforcement provided is 9(0.000 ( 0.5. Side cover exceeds 21/2 in.11 in. (6" minimum) The available distance for the perpendicular hook is about 51/2 in. 12. but it is not arranged to take advantage of ACI 318’s 0. 718 . The straight end of the #3 will now be checked. and cover on the bar extension beyond the hook is provided by the grout and the planks.375) 25 4. The standard development length of ACI 318 Sec.000 = 4.7 (1.3. The continuous #5 provides transverse reinforcement.16 shows the reinforcement along each side of the wall on Joint 2. 12.
52 in.2. The required collector reinforcement is computed as: As4 = Tu4/φfy = (27.0 kips)/[(0.0 ft = 0. For eight bars total. Provide 3 sets for each plank.2 Based upon the ACI tie requirement.1. 7. The bars are extended 2 ft into the grout key.20 in. which is more than sufficient even considering the marginal development length. Precast Concrete Design " 2'2 1 2 #3 x standard hooks #3x 2'6" standard hook grouted into each key joint embedded in grouted edge cell of plank.17 shows this joint along the wall.3048 m).9(60 ksi)] = 0. = 25.2 The two #7 bars.88 in. Figure 7.Chapter 7.9 kips)/[0. which is more than the development length and equal to half the width of the plank.0)(60 ksi)] = 0.16 Joint 2 transverse wall joint reinforcement (1.75)(1. provide an area of reinforcement of 1. 719 .4 Joint 4 Design and Detailing The required shear friction reinforcement along the wall length is computed as: Avf4 = Vu4/φµfy = (25. 1.56 in. which are an extension of the transverse chord reinforcement. the area of reinforcement is 8(0.2 The reinforcement required by the Provisions for outofplane force is (195 plf) is far less than the ACI 318 requirement. 2'2 " 2" cover 71 2" (1) #5 continuous in joint to anchor hooks (2) #5 in masonry bond beam Vertical reinforcement in wall Figure 7.4 mm.6. which is less favorable at Joint 2. provide #3 bars at each planktoplank joint.0 in.11) = 0.1.
1. 720 .2 Provide #3 bars at each planktoplank joint for a total of 8 bars.4 mm.0 ft = 0.9 kips)/[0. = 25.0)(60 ksi)] = 0.75)(1.5 kips)/[(0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Vertical wall reinforcement beyond #3x 2'6" standard hook grouted into each key joint 2" cover (2) #7 bars in joint (chord bars) (2) #5 in bond beam Figure 7.9(60 ksi)] = 0.17 Joint 4 exterior longitudinal walls to diaphragm reinforcement and outofplane anchorage (1.2 Figure 7.18 shows this joint along the wall.0 in.88 in.5 Joint 5 Design and Detailing The required shear friction reinforcement along the wall length is computed as: Avf5 = Vu5/φµfy = (12. The required collector reinforcement is computed as: As5 = Tu5/φfy = (27.28 in.6.1. 7. 1.FEMA 451.2 Two #6 bars specified for the design of Joint 1 above provide an area of reinforcement of 0.3048 m).52 in.
1.9]provides design provisions for topped precast concrete diaphragms. Precast Concrete Design Vertical wall reinforcement beyond 4" #3 x 4'8" grouted into each key joint (2) #6 bars in joint (collector bars) (2) #5 in bond beam Figure 7.2.7.Joint 5 (1. The topping thickness exceeds the minimum thickness of 2 in.1.2.4 [21. Figure 9.4].7 [21.3048 m).2) This design shows the floor and roof diaphragms using topped precast units in the fivestory masonry building in Los Angeles.2. 7. The topping shall be lightweight concrete (weight = 115 pcf) with a 28day compressive strength (fc' ) of 4. 9. 721 .1. 5.03. 7.1 General Design Requirements Topped diaphragms may be used in any Seismic Design Category. prestressed concrete plank.6] specifies the forces to be used in designing the diaphragms. Provisions Sec. 9. = 25. 21.0 in.18 Walltodiaphragm reinforcement along interior longitudinal walls . as required for composite topping slabs by ACI 318 Sec.2 Topped Precast Concrete Units for FiveStory Masonry Building.000 psi and is to act compositely with the 8in. ACI 318 Sec. Los Angeles.Chapter 7. 21.4 mm.9.21 shows the typical floor and roof plan. the same as previously computed for the untopped diaphragm. California (see Sec. The amplification factor of Provisions Sec.6 [4.thick hollowcore precast. 9. California.1. Design parameters are provided in Sec.0 ft = 0.1.4 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] is 1.
2 General InPlane Seismic Design Forces for Topped Diaphragms The inplane diaphragm seismic design force (Fpx) is calculated using Provisions Eq.67 ft/2) wpx = 1. 5.62] but must not be less than 0.3]) the portion of the seismic shear force required to be transferred to the components of the vertical seismicforceresisting system due to offsets or changes in stiffness of the vertical resisting member at the diaphragm being designed.6.2. For Seismic Design Category C and higher.2.2. Vx must be added to Fpx calculated using Eq.2SDSIwpx and need not be more than 0. 1.166 kips 1.5 1.4 [4.6.14 Design Parameters from Sec.4.0 D Ωo wi (roof) wi (floor) SDS I Seismic Design Category 1. the weight tributary to the roof and floor diaphragms (wpx) is the total story weight (wi) at Level i minus the weight of the walls parallel to the force.1 [4.1. Provisions Sec.3 Diaphragm Forces As indicated previously. 5.302 kips 1. 5. the chord amplification factor has been dropped for the 2003 Provisions and does not occur in ASC 31802. collector splices.1.2.2.1 [4.6.4 [4.3.2] requires that collector elements.2 used to calculate inplane seismic design forces for the diaphragms are provided in Table 7.62] where: wpx SDS I Vx = = = = the weight tributary to the diaphragm at Level x the spectral response acceleration parameter at short periods (Provisions Sec.2 [3.2.2.2.4SDSIwpx.166 kips = 72 kips = 1.4.45 kN.6.2]. Compute diaphragm weight (wpx) for the roof and floor as: Roof Total weight Walls parallel to force = (60 psf)(277 ft)(8. 4.0 kip = 4.3.0 1.FEMA 451. 5.4 [1. 9. 7.7. Table 7. and collector connections to the vertical seismicforceresisting members be designed in accordance with Provisions Sec.094 kips 722 .] 7.5]) occupancy importance factor (Provisions Sec.1. which combines the diaphragm forces times the overstrength factor (Ω0) and the effects of gravity forces. The parameters from example in Sec. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples [As noted above.2.2 Design Parameter Value 2.14. 9.
2(1.824 n wpx (kips) 1.2. Precast Concrete Design Floors Total weight Walls parallel to force = (60 psf)(277 ft)(8. Table 7.068 1.0)1.166 1.1.468 3.Chapter 7.302 1. Figure 7.158 1.698 1.094 kips) = 0.302 1.158 1.4 [4.302 1.158 kips) = 2(219 kips) = 2(232 kips) = 219 kips (at the roof) = 232 kips (at floors) = 438 kips (at the roof) = 463 kips (at floors) The value of Fpx used for design of the diaphragms is 463 kips.6.15.302 kips = 144 kips = 1. 9. 7. The force is only 9.094 1.095 are as: 723 . except for collector elements where forces will be computed below.0(1.1.5 times 1.67 ft) wpx = 1. Joint forces taken from Sec.5 times the diaphragm force based on the overstrength factor (Ω0).384 Fi (kips) 564 504 378 252 126 i= x ∑ Fi = Vi (kips) 564 1.158 1.12 shows critical regions of the diaphragm to be considered in this design. 7.5 percent higher than that used to design the untopped diaphragm for the New York design due to the intent to prevent yielding in the untopped diaphragm. The minimum value of Fpx = 0.2(1.45 kN.217. 7.2.4SDSIwpx = 0.770 5.2 wi (kips) 1. 5.1.1.4 Static Analysis of Diaphragms The seismic design force of 463 kips is distributed as in Sec.6 (Figure 7.158 Fpx (kips) 529 501 444 387 331 1.4.1.0(1.072 6.2SDSIwpx The maximum value of Fpx = 0.11 shows the distribution).166 2.62]: Fpx = i=x n i=x ∑ Fi w px n ∑ wi Calculations for Fpx are provided in Table 7. The values for Fi and Vi are listed in Table 9.158 kips Compute diaphragm demands in accordance with Provisions Eq. Collector elements will be designed for 2.446 1.15 Fpx Calculations from Sec.0 kip = 4.302 i=x ∑ wi n Level Roof 4 3 2 1 (kips) 1.0)1.
3]. For a 2.5.9 kips × 1. which requires a minimum As = 0.5(27. Vu1 = 114. Tu2 = M/d = 1. topping.095 Collector force at wall end.2 Boundary Members Joint 3 has the maximum bending moment and is used to determine the boundary member reinforcement of the chord along the exterior edge. 7. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Joint 1 – Transverse forces Shear.5 kips × 1.540 ftkips × 1. Vu3 = 78.9 kips)(1.780 ftkips / 71 ft Joint 3 – Transverse forces Shear.3 kips = 125 kips = 2. The minimum spacing of wires is 10 in. F = 52.5.7 kips = 76.5. Ω0Tu4 = 2.095 Moment.9 kips = 27.1. Vu4 =25 kips × 1. Mu1 = 2. the required As = 0.095 Chord tension force.5. The need for transverse boundary member reinforcement is reviewed using ACI 318 Sec.095) 7.5 Diaphragm Design and Details 7.054 in. Vu4 = 12.0018bd for welded wire fabric.1 [21.1 Minimum Reinforcement for 2.4 kips = 76. 21. 21. the outofplane forces are controlled by ACI 318 Sec.5.2/ft.095) OutofPlane forces Just as with the untopped diaphragm.3 kips = 139 kips = 2.12.03 × 2.5 kips × 1.095 Wall shear along wall length.9. Mu2 = 2.095 Chord tension force. 7. 16.6 kips 724 .250 ftkips = 32.W4.2.5×W4.9 kips = 13.7.2.061 ftkips × 1. 7.5 in.12 limit on spacing of five times thickness is interpreted such that the topping thickness is not the pertinent thickness.4 kips = 85.2/ft.03 × 4.2.738 ftkips × 1. Tu1 = M/d = 1.9. Mu2 = 3.FEMA 451.1. F = 463 kips / 8 walls Wall shear along each side of wall.5.250 ftkips / 71 ft Joint 2 – Transverse forces Shear. Joint 5 – Longitudinal forces Wall Force. which requires horizontal ties of 1.090 ftkips/71 ft Joint 4 – Longitudinal forces Wall Force.1 kips × 1.5.5 kips per foot from floor to walls.5 in.095 Collector force at wall end. Vu2 = 127 kips × 1.5 provides 0.5 kips = 4.090 ftkips = 59.7. Tu3 = M/d = 1. Calculate the compressive stress in the chord with the ultimate moment using a linear elastic model and gross section properties of the topping. Topping ACI 318 Sec.4 kips = 57. It is = 57.1. and the maximum spacing is 18 in.780 ftkips = 39.5(27. WWF 10×10 .095 Moment.095 Chord tension force.095 Moment.054 in.1] references ACI 318 Sec. Ω0Tu4 = 2.03 × 2. Note that the ACI 318 Sec.3 [21.9 kips)(1.
As developed previously.4 kips)/[0.58 in.19 Diaphragm plan and section cuts.2fc' = 0. the transverse reinforcement at lap splices also is shown. Transverse reinforcement in the boundary member is not required. the boundary member and chord/collector reinforcement along the edge.9(60 ksi)] = 1.3 kips)/[0. but not less than 2. Provide cover for chord and collector bars and spacing between bars per ACI 318 Sec.2 7. along the length of the exterior longitudinal walls. Given the close margin on cover.5)(72 × 12)2 = 158 psi The chord compressive stress is less than 0. Minimum spacing = 3(8/8) = 3.9(60 ksi)] = 1. 725 .7.110.5.3 [21. Precast Concrete Design conservative to ignore the precast units. 21.41 in.2.3 Collectors The design for Joint 4 collector reinforcement at the end of the exterior longitudinal walls and for Joint 5 at the interior longitudinal walls is the same. but not necessary.Chapter 7. the chord compressive stress is: 6Mu3/td2 = 6(4.0 in.2) along the exterior edges.19 shows the diaphragm plan and section cuts of the details and Figure 7.10 in..000) = 800 psi.3].0 in. As4 = As5 = Ω0Tu4/φfy = (76. but not less than 11/2 in. and along the length of the interior longitudinal walls.5 in.2(4.090 × 12)/(2.8.5(8/8) = 2. The required chord reinforcement is: As3 = Tu3/φfy = (59.1.. Figure 7.9.79 = 1. Figure 7.2 Use two #8 bars (As = 2 × 0.8. Minimum cover = 2.
Figure 7. = 25. WWF 21 2" min topping 3" (2) #8 (collector bars) Figure 7.110 Boundary member. A minimum space of 1 in. The side cover of 21/2 in.1.0 in.0 in.5.4 Shear Resistance 726 21 2" 3" 21 2" 21 2" min (concrete topping) 3" .4 mm.3048 m).FEMA 451.Joint 5 (1.0 ft = 0.4 mm). and chord and collector reinforcement (1.111 shows the collector reinforcement for the interior longitudinal walls. 7. is provided by casting the topping into the cores and by the stems of the plank. is provided between the plank stems and the sides of the bars. 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Prestressed hollow core plank with roughened top surface Splice bars (2) #8 bars (chord bars) 3" Artificially roughened edge WWF bend down into chord 41 2"Ø spiral of 1 4" wire with 2" pitch over each lap splice.111 Collector reinforcement at the end of the interior longitudinal walls . = 25. Contact lap splice 31 2" 21 2" Grouted chord / collector element along exterior edge of precast plank Figure 7.2.
7. The required shear reinforcement along the exterior longitudinal wall (Joint 4) is: Avf4 = Vu4/φµfy = (27.5.9)(60ksi) = 0.75(0. 16. No.023 in.61 in. In accordance with ACI 318 Sec.113.2]. As = 1.75)(1. 21. 1. all of the shear resistance must be provided by the reinforcement (that is. 3 bars is set to be modular with the CMU.25 kips. Provide #3 bars at 2 ft on center.7. Using #3 bars at 2 ft on center will be adequate. Vertical reinforcement 1" clear Cut out alternate face shells (16" o.1. = 25. and the detail is shown in Figure 7. each side) and place topping completely through wall and between planks #3x4'0" at 16" to lap with WWF WWF 10 x 10 W4.Joint 5 (1. The development length was checked in the prior example.4 kips)/[(0.0 in. Precast Concrete Design Thin composite and noncomposite topping slabs on precast floor and roof members may not have reliable shear strength provided by the concrete.2 [21. which provides a nominal strength of 0.5 for the 1. Fp = 624 plf = 2 ft(624 plf) = 1. Vc = 0). 727 . φVn = φAcvρnfy = 0.5 (2) #8 collector bars (2) #5 in masonry bond beam Figure 7.43 kips/ft The shear resistance in the transverse direction is: 2. and the spacing of the No.0 ft = 0.3 klf.5 Check OutofPlane Forces At Joint 4 with bars at 2 ft on center.25/(0.2.2. The detail at joint 2 is similar. The detail provides more than required by ACI 318 Sec.0)(60 ksi)] = 0.43 kips/ft (72 ft) = 175 kips which is greater than the Joint 2 shear (maximum transverse shear) of 139 kips.054 in. The topping is to be cast into the masonry walls as shown in Figure 7.3048 m).2 7.7.5 klf tie force.5 x W4. 3 dowels are used to make the welded wire fabric continuous across the masonry walls.2/ft)60 ksi = 2.Chapter 7. The required reinforcement.4 mm.112.11 x 60 / 2 = 3.c.112 Walltodiaphragm reinforcement along interior longitudinal walls .9.
728 .0 ft = 0.5 #3x STD HK 2'6" at 2'0" o.113 Exterior longitudinal walltodiaphragm reinforcement and outofplane anchorage .3048 m).5 x W4.4 mm. = 25.FEMA 451.0 in.Joint 4 (1. 1. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Vertical wall reinforcement beyond 2" Cut out face shells @ 2'0" and place topping into wall WWF 10 x10 W4. (2) #8 (collector bars) (2) #5 in masonry bond beam Figure 7.c.
Walls of the elevator/mechanical pits are castinplace below grade. 7. ACI 31802 has incorporated a less specific requirement. the building has a regular plan. 729 . [As indicated at the beginning of this chapter. The storytostory height is 12 ft.Chapter 7. the requirements for precast shear wall systems in the 2003 Provisions have been revised – primarily to point to ACI 31802 by reference. The structure utilizes 10ftwide by 18in.1 Building Description This precast concrete building is a threestory office building (Seismic Use Group I) in southern New England on Site Class D soils.deep prestressed double tees (DTs) spanning 40 ft to prestressed inverted tee beams for the floors and the roof. The building has no vertical irregularities. and removed some of the detail. As shown in Figure 7.2 THREESTORY OFFICE BUILDING WITH PRECAST CONCRETE SHEAR WALLS This example illustrates the seismic design of ordinary precast concrete shear walls that may be used in regions of low to moderate seismicity. renamed the system as intermediate precast structural walls. which should also meet the cited ACI 31802 requirements.] 7. This example shows an interpretation of the intent of the Provisions for precast shear wall systems in regions of moderate and low seismicity.2.2.thick (minimum). Each of the abovegrade floors and the roof are covered with a 2in. The Provisions has one requirement for detailing such walls: connections that resist overturning shall be Type Y or Z. The vertical seismicforceresisting system is to be constructed entirely of precast concrete walls located around the stairs and elevator/mechanical shafts.1 for more discussion of system requirements. normal weight castinplace concrete topping. The DTs are to be constructed using lightweight concrete. The only features illustrated in this example are the rational selection of the seismic design parameters and the design of the reinforcement and connections of the precast concrete shear walls. The precast shear walls are continuous from the ground level to 12 ft above the roof. The diaphragm design is not illustrated.2.21. Precast Concrete Design 7. See also Sec.
2.2 Design Requirements 7. 7.3048 m). 1.4 mm.1 Seismic Parameters of the Provisions The basic parameters affecting the design and detailing of the building are shown in Table 7. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 150'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 40'0" 26 IT 28 precast beams 120'0" 40'0" 15'0" 18" DT roof and floor slabs (10 DT 18) 8'0" 8'0" 8" precast shear walls 40'0" Figure 7.000 psi. thick for building mass calculations.FEMA 451.0 in.21. fc' = 5. The precast walls are estimated to be 8 in.0 ft = 0.000 psi.2. fc' = 4. = 25.2.21 Threestory building plan (1. 730 . The concrete for the foundations and belowgrade walls has a 28day compressive strength. Reinforcing bars used at the ends of the walls and in welded connectors are ASTM A706 (60 ksi yield strength). These walls are normal weight concrete with a 28day compressive strength.
08 D 1. as this example indicates conceptually.2. and Cd = 4.283 0. 9. Consistent with the philosophy that precast systems are not expected to perform as well as castinplace systems.21 Design Parameters Design Parameter Seismic Use Group I SS (Map 1 [Figure 3. shear slip could kink the vertical rebar at the connection and sabotage the intended performance. The flexural connections at the ends of the 731 . and Cd = 3.1 Precast Shear Wall System This system is designed to yield in bending at the base of the precast shear walls without shear slippage at any of the joints.3] provides for the use of ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls in Seismic Design Category B.] 7.0 0.] [Ordinary precast concrete shear walls is recognized as a system in Table 4.4 0.2.Chapter 7. which counts on an R factor of 4.2.2.31: R = 4. Precast Concrete Design Table 7. [The 2003 Provisions have adopted the 2002 U. Although not a stated design requirement of the Provisions or ACI 31802 for this Seismic Design Category.59 2.1. Note that while this system is permitted in Seismic Design Category B. Ω0 = 2.31 are: R = 3.5.S. Alternatively.3 [9.2.5.425 0. unline ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls.5 4 Provisions Sec. These figures replace the previously used separate map package.2 Structural Design Considerations 7.32]) Site Class Fa Fv SMS = FaSS SM1 = FvS1 SDS = 2/3 SMS SD1 = 2/3 SM1 Seismic Design Category Basic SeismicForceResisting System Wall Type R Ω0 Cd * * Value I = 1.192 0.2. this building could be designed incorporating intermediate precast concrete shear walls with the following design values per 2003 Provisions Table 4.266 0. it is not permitted in Seismic Design Category C. which does not require adherence to the special seismic design provisions of ACI 318 Chapter 21.1. the design factors for the ordinary precast concrete shear walls per 2003 Provisions Table 4.31 of the 2003 Provisions.2.1.128 B Bearing Wall System Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls 4 2.31]) S1 (Map 2 [Figure 3. Ω0 = 2. Geological Survey probabilistic seismic hazard maps and the maps have been added to the body of the 2003 Provisions as figures in Chapter 3.
Careful attention to detail is required to assure adequate ductility in the location of first yield and that no other connections yield prematurely. Therefore. [Per 2003 Provisions Sec.2. 21.1. 5. continuity. but that design is not illustrated here. but are not designed in this example. For this particular example. according to Provisions Table 5.2]) is permitted.1.2.44].1 [21.2.3]). but drift is not computed here.1]).6.1]) for the definitions of ordinary precast concrete structural walls and Provisions Sec.1 [4.2.2.2 [4.2. The drift limit is 0.1). ordinary precast concrete shear walls need only satisfy the requirements of ACI 31802 Chapters 118 (with Chapter 16 superceding Chapter 14). it frequently is not possible to do so with common configurations of precast elements and connections. for which. 21.6.6. 9.2.6) for the connections.11. For structural design.2. the floors are assumed to act as rigid horizontal diaphragms to distribute seismic inertial forces to the walls parallel to the motion.4.1] (ACI Sec.2.FEMA 451.6. the vertical bars at the ends of the shear walls act as flexural reinforcement for the walls and are selected as the location of first yield.2. At the base of the panel. Ties.2]) must be explicitly considered when detailing connections between the floors and roof. The building is regular both in plan and elevation. The yielding will not propagate far into the wall vertically due to the unavoidable increase in flexural strength provided by unspliced reinforcement within the panel. 732 .7 [4. Orthogonal load combinations are not required for this building (Provisions Sec. 21.6.12 [not applicable for the 2003 Provisions] (ACI Sec.6.2.2.1.1.] Although it would be desirable to force yielding to occur in a significant portion of the connections.5.1 and 4. Collector elements are required due to the short length of shear walls as compared to the diaphragm dimensions. use of the ELF procedure (Provisions Sec. 9. See Provisions Sec. 5.1.2.2 Building System No height limitations are imposed (Provisions Table 5.1 and 5.1. 5.5.2 [4.1. 5.1 [4. The issue of most significant concern is the performance of the shear connections at the same joint. welded steel angles are designed to be flexible for uplift but stiff for inplane shear.2. are designed to be the Type Y connection specified in the Provisions.2.2 [9.025hsx (Provisions Table 5. but this requirement is of no real consequence for this building.6. This example does not include consideration of nonstructural elements.6 [4. 7.31]).51]).1. The remainder of the connections (shear connectors) are then made strong enough to ensure that the inelastic straining is forced to the intended location. the connections are to be designed in accordance with ACI 31802 Sec.1. which are highly stressed by seismic forces.1.2. The bearing walls must be designed for a force perpendicular to their plane (Provisions Sec. The connections are designed to provide the necessary shear resistance and avoid slip without unwittingly increasing the flexural capacity of the connection because such an increase would also increase the maximum shear force on the joint. The connections are often unavoidable weak links. Diaphragms need to be designed for the required forces (Provisions Sec.2. 5.6. and the walls and columns.6. and anchorage (Provisions Sec.4 [5.2. 9.2.8 [4. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples walls.1 (ACI 31802 Sec. 16.9]).
5L (will not control) 0. double tees (32 psf) + 2 in.2D ± 1.4 Seismic Force Analysis 7.2.QE + 0.2.283)D = QE ± 0.9D ± 1. 5.0)QE ± (0. square columns Ceiling. 5.5L 0.2SDSD = (1.1.4.3.0 psf 92.0E Into each of these load combinations.2)(0. 5. The horizontal forces were described in Sec.3 Load Combinations The basic load combinations (Provisions Sec.2. Precast Concrete Design ACI 318 Sec.96D + QE (will not control) 0. 7.14D .0 psf 7. the vertical forces will be described in this example.0 for structures in Seismic Design Categories A. B. and C.2 Base Shear 733 .1 Weight Calculations For the roof and two floors 18 in. miscellaneous Exterior cladding (per floor area) Partitions Total The weight of each floor including the precast shear walls is: (120 ft)(150 ft)(92 psf/1. 7.Chapter 7.1].2.5 psf 4. ρ = 1.2. even though this seismic resisting system is not particularly redundant.1 [4.2. mechanical. the total building weight is W = 3(1.5L 1.0 psf 5.4.843D . 7.0 psf 10.5 requires minimum strengths for connections between elements of precast building structures. The relevant load combinations from ASCE 7 are: 1. substitute E as determined above: 1.71 and 5.QE These load combinations are for loading in the plane of the shear walls.72 [4.360 kips. = = = = = = = 56.2.000) + [15 ft(4) + 25 ft(2)](12 ft)(0.0567D According to Provisions Sec.22]: E = ρQE ± 0.5 psf 4.3.10 ksf) = 1. 16.2]) require that seismic forces and gravity loads be combined in accordance with the factored load combinations presented in ASCE 7 except that the factors for seismic loads (E) are defined by Provisions Eq.26D + QE + 0.21 and 4.2.4.790 kips) = 5.790 kips Considering the roof to be the same weight as a floor.0 psf 12. topping (24 psf) Precast beams at 40 ft 16 in.7 [4.2.0E + 0.
which is larger than the minimum specified in Provisions Eq.33 Cv2 = 0. 7.12 [5.283 = = 0.] The total seismic base shear is then calculated using Provisions Eq.370) = 380 kips Note that this force is substantially larger than a design wind would be.50 Cv3 = 0. use Cs = 0.26]: Ta = Cr hnx = (0.283) = 0 .0708 R/I 41 except that it need not exceed the value from Provisions Eq.22]: CS = S DS 0. With equal weights at each floor level.4.0 kips .11 [5. the result would be less than half this seismic force already reduced by an R factor of 4.4.29(4 / 1) where T is the fundamental period of the building computed using the approximate method of Provisions Eq.0708.11 [5.0125 [The minimum Cs has been changed to 0.3]: Fx = CvxV where Cvx = k wx hx i =1 ∑ wi hi n k Since the period. 5. k = l in both building directions.0)(0. = = 0110 T ( R / I ) 0. the resulting values of Cvx and Fx are as follows: Roof Third Floor Second Floor 734 Cvr = 0.3 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces The seismic lateral force (Fx) at any level is determined in accordance with Provisions Sec.4.4.6.2.01 in the 2003 Provisions.02)(36) 0.1.044ISDS = (. S D1 .2.0708)(5.23] computed as: CS = 0128 . 5.21] as: V = CsW = (0. 5.3 [5.13 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]: Cs = 0.75 = 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The seismic response coefficient (Cs) is computed using Provisions Eq. If a nominal 20 psf were applied to the long face and then amplified by a load factor of 1.5 sec.1. 5.17 Fr = 190 kips F3 = 127 kips F2 = 63.1. 5.29 sec Therefore.FEMA 451.4.044)(1.2. 5.41 [5. T < 0.4.
0 kip = 4. A rough approximation is used in place of a more rigorous analysis considering all of the walls.2.3048 m).4. Since the longitudinal walls are very close to the center of rigidity. 7. Precast Concrete Design 7. 735 .33) = 36.5 kips F3 = 109(0.4.2. 5. 95 kips 12'0" 63.2 Transverse Direction Design the four 15ftlong stairwell walls for the total shear including 5 percent accidental torsion (Provisions Sec.Chapter 7.0 ft = 0.167) = 18. The forces for each of the longitudinal walls are shown in Figure 7.2]). The maximum force on the walls is computed as: V = 380/4 + 380(0.2 [5.45 kN.3 kips F2 = 109(0.23.2.1 Longitudinal Direction Design each of the 25ftlong walls at the elevator/mechanical shafts for half the total shear.22 Forces on the longitudinal walls (1.5 kips 12'0" Grade V = ∑F = 190 kips 25'0" Figure 7.2.22.2 kips Seismic forces on the transverse walls of the stairwells are shown in Figure 7.4.4.4. 1.4 Horizontal Shear Distribution and Torsion 7. assume that torsion will be resisted by the 15ftlong stairwell walls in the transverse direction.5 kips 12'0" 31.4.4.4.50) = 54.05)(150)/[(100 ft moment arm) × (2 walls in each set)] = 109 kips Thus Fr = 109(0.
1.5 PROPORTIONING AND DETAILING The strength of members and components is determined using the strengths permitted and required in ACI 318 excluding Chapter 21 (see Provisions Sec.1 Overturning Moment and End Reinforcement Design shear panels to resist overturning by means of reinforcing bars at each end with a direct tension coupler at the joints.2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 54.45 kN.0 kip = 4. the weights for an elevator penthouse. except 100 psf is used in the elevator lobby.3048 m). 1. but not beams and columns.1.5 kips 12'0" 36. 7. In this example. ceiling and partition (total of 70 psf).2.1 Longitudinal Direction The freebody diagram for the longitudinal walls is shown in Figure 7. and the application of the rules for a Type Y connection to such a design is not clear.3 [9.3 kips 12'0" 18.) 736 .FEMA 451.2. (The elevator penthouse is so small that it was ignored in computing the gross seismic forces on the building. A commonly used alternative is a threaded posttensioning bar inserted through the stack of panels.2.1. 9. with a floor and equipment at 180 psf between the shafts and a roof at 20 psf.23 Forces on the transverse walls (1.5.3]).2. The tension connection at the base of the precast panel to the below grade wall is governed by the seismic overturning moment and the dead loads of the panel and supported floors and roof.24. 7. 7.1. Roof snow load is 30 psf. but the behavior is different. are included. Floor live load is 50 psf. The weight for the floors includes double tees.0 ft = 0. but it is not ignored in the following calculations.2 kips 12'0" Grade V= 15'0" ∑F = 109 kips Figure 7.5.
3048 m).5 kips)(12 ft) = 5.3 percent of f'c).5 = 23.165 ksi (3.Chapter 7.070 ksf)(3) + (25 ft)(8 ft/2)(0. The average compression Pmax / Ag = 0. the tension reinforcement can easily be found from the simple couple shown on Figure 7. Precast Concrete Design 12'0" D 95 kips 12'0" D 63. the vertical loads for combining with the overturning moment are computed as: Pmax = 1.24 Freebody diagram for longitudinal walls (1.45 kN.5 kips)(24 ft) + (31.2 S = 397 kips Pmin = 0.0 kip = 4.24.1 ksf) = 60 + 10 = 70 kips 3S = (25ft)(48 ft + 24 ft)(0.843 D = 239 kips The axial load is quite small for the wall panel.18 ksf) + (25ft )(24 ft/2)(0. The effective moment arm is: jd = 25 .5 ft 737 . 1.5 L + 0.02 ksf) = 120 + 126 + 14 + 18 + 6 = 284 kips 3L = (25 ft)(48 ft/2)(0.5 kips 12'0" D 31.1.1 ksf) + (25 ft)(48 ft/2)(0.26 D + 0.5 kips 12'0" D T 9" V 23'6" 12'0" C 9" Figure 7.520 ftkips 3D = wall + exterior floors (& roof) + lobby floors + penthouse floor + penthouse roof = (25 ft)(48 ft)(0. At the base ME = (95 kips)(36 ft) + (63.070 ksf)(2) + (25 ft)(8 ft/2)(0.0 ft = 0.05 ksf)(2) + (25 ft)(8 ft/2)(0.03 ksf)/2 = 27 kips Using the load combinations described above. Therefore.
520 ) P M 389 + = + = 742 psi A S 8 ( 25 )12 8 ( 25 )2 (12 ) The limiting stress is 0.6.0 in. it is shown here for interest. An analysis of the wall for the design lateral forces using 50% of the gross moment of inertia.5 2 jd The required reinforcement is: As = Tu/φfy = (107 kips)/[0. With one tie at each end of a 25 ft panel. 218 [218] is: c≤ 600(δ u / hw ) l where the term (δu/hw) shall not be taken less than 0. and applying the Cd factor of 4 to the results gives a ratio (δu/hw) far less than 0. 7.2 ) at each end with direct tension couplers for each bar at each panel joint.5.2 in. 16.2 Use two #9 bars (As = 2.2.FEMA 451.9(60 ksi)] = 1. and there must be at least two ties per panel. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples and the net tension on the uplift side is: Tu = M Pmin 5320 239 − = − = 107 kips 2 23.1.007. 21. Although no check for confinement of the compression boundary is required for ordinary precast concrete shear walls.98 in.. Neutral axis depth c = a/(0. the depth to the neutral axis is: Total compression force = As fy + Pmax = (2. width)] = 15.0 in.85)(5 ksi)(8 in.2]. Once the base joint yields.7. Using the check from ACI 31899 Sec. At this point a check of ACI 318 Sec. applying the 0. ACI 31899 would not require transverse reinforcement of the boundary even if this wall were designed as a special reinforced concrete shear wall. Therefore. which is 1000 psi. Thus. it is unlikely that there will be any flexural cracking in the wall more than a few feet above the base.80) = 19. the demand on the tie is: Tn = (3 kip/ft)(25 ft)/2 = 37. The maximum depth (c) with no boundary member per ACI 31899 Eq.6.6.0)(60) + 397 = 517 kips Compression block a = (517 kips)/[(0.007 in the equation results in a distance c of 71 in.2fc' . Since the flexural reinforcement must extend a minimum distance d (the flexural depth)beyond where it is no longer required. Bearing walls must have vertical ties with a nominal strength exceeding 3 kips/ft.5 will be made. ignoring the effect of axial loads.2 Transverse Direction 738 . required. use both #9 bars at each end of the panel at all three levels for simplicity.5 kip The two #9 bars are more than adequate for the ACI requirement.2 [21. so no transverse reinforcement is required at the ends of the longitudinal walls. far in excess of the 19 in.007. For those used to checking the compression stress as an index: σ= 6 ( 5.
7 kips Pmax = 1.5) .2 739 .35 in.1 ksf)(3) = 6 + 18 = 24 kips 3S = [2(12.5 = 13.1 ksf)(3) + (0. At the base ME = (54.2 kips)(12 ft) = 3.843(107) = 90.3 kips)(24 ft) + (18.5 ft Tu = (Mnet/jd) . 12'0" D 54.90.5 kips)(36 ft) + (36.3048 m). Precast Concrete Design The freebody diagram of the transverse walls is shown in Figure 7. The weight of the precast concrete stairs is 100 psf and the roof over the stairs is 70 psf.052/13.5 ft/2)(10 ft/2)(0.0 kip = 4.9(60 ksi)] = 3.25.07 ksf)] = 72 + 13 + 18 + 4 = 107 kips 3L = 2(12.1.07 ksf)(3) + (15 ft)(8 ft/2)[(0.2(4) = 148 kips Pmin = 0.26(107) + 0.Pmin/2 = (3. 1.45 kN.0 ft = 0.03 ksf) = 3.3 kips 12'0" D 18.2 kips 12'0" D V 9" T C 7'0" 13'6" 9" Figure 7.5(24) + 0.1 ksf) + 2(12. The transverse wall is similar to the longitudinal wall.25 Freebody diagram of the transverse walls (1.052 ftkips 3D = (15 ft)(48 ft)(0.Chapter 7.5 ft/2)(10 ft/2) + (15 ft)(8 ft/2)](0.5 kips jd = 15 .5 ft/2)(10 ft/2)(0.5 kips 12'0" D 36.5/2 = 181 kips As = Tu/φfy = (181 kips)/[0.05 ksf)(2) + (15 ft)(8 ft/2)(0.
6. In this instance the resistance may be provided by a large footing (on the order of 20 ft by 28 ft by 3 ft thick) under the entire stairwell.80) = 13.3(1. For the # 9 bar: 1. Even though this wall is more flexible and the lateral loads will induce more flexural cracking. for the #10 bar. 9.26.930 ) P M 140 + = + = 951 psi A S 8 (15 )12 8 (15 )2 (12 ) Since σ < 1. which must develop the specified tensile strength of the bar. 740 .2 ) at each end of each wall with a direct tension coupler at each bar for each panel joint. Some of the grouted splices on the market can qualify as the Type 2 coupler defined by ACI.11.000 psi. 21. Refer to Chapter 4 for examples of design of each type of foundation.6 in.FEMA 451. This yields a maximum value of c = 42. for the spliced bars is multiplied by both the 1.1.25)0.3 in. the connection requirements for ordianry precast concrete shear walls have been removed in the 2003 Provisions and the ACI 31802 requirements are less specific.] The 125% requirement applies to the grouted mechanical splice.12 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] (ACI 21.128) 4000 = 24. therefore no calculation of development length is necessary in the panel. although not for this particular example. The overturning reinforcement and connection are shown in Figures 7. thus confinement of the boundary would not be required. Note how much closer to the criterion this transverse wall is by the compression stress check.54)(60) + 148 = 360 kips Compression block a = (360 kips)/[(0..1.7(1200)d b f c' = 1365(1.007 is used for the ratio (δu/hw).6. The development length.1. The check of compression stress as an index gives: σ= 6 ( 2. no transverse reinforcement is required at the ends of the transverse walls. The dowel from the foundation will be hooked. and the requirement that a mechanical coupler develop 125% of specified yield strength of the bar is identical to the Type 1 coupler defined by ACI 318 Sec.4 in. this design does concentrate a demand for overturning resistance on the foundation.7 factor on ACI’s standard development length for hooked bars.3 factors to satisfy the Provisions requirement.4) requires that this Type Y connection develop a probable strength of 125% of the nominal strength and that the anchorage on either side of the connection develop 130% of the defined probable strength. otherwise the depth of the foundation would be more than required for structural reasons. ld.9 in.25 and the 1. Similarly.85)(5 ksi)(8 in. the length is 27. Following the same method for boundary member check as on the longitudinal walls: Total compression force = As fy + Pmax = (3. Like many shear wall designs. width)] = 10.3 in.6. The bar in the panel is made continuous to the roof. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Use two #10 and one #9 bars (As = 3. The size of the foundation will provide adequate cover to allow the 0.54 in. All three bars at each end of the panel will also extend up through all three levels for simplicity. Neutral axis depth c = a/(0. or by deep piers or piles with an appropriate cap for load transfer.25)ldh = (1. Provisions Sec. the computed deflections are still small and the minimum value of 0. [As already noted.2.
full ht. Tests have shown that this often leads to slip of the joint.0 ft = 0. as required.5.3048 m).26 Overturning connection detail at the base of the walls (1. This opening would concentrate the shear stress on the small area of the drypacked joint that remains in compression. 1. 7. .Chapter 7. Therefore.4 mm. This is the authors’ interpretation of the Provisions text indicating that “Type Y connections shall develop under flexural. and axial load actions. end. It would not be required by the ACI 31802 rules for intermediate precast walls. the joint will be designed with direct shear connectors that will prevent slip along the joint.” based upon 125 percent of the specified yield in the connection. a probable strength.2 Shear Connections and Reinforcement Panel joints often are designed to resist the shear force by means of shear friction but that technique is not used for this example because the joint at the foundation will open due to flexural yielding. . of 15' transverse wall panel 8" Longitudinal Wall Transverse Wall Reinforced foundation not designed in the example 25" min for #9 28" min for #10 Standard hook to develop overturning reinforcement 3" min Development at Foundation Figure 7. which could lead to a kink in the principal tension reinforcement at or near its splice and destroy the integrity of the system. end. This distribution can be affected by the shims used in construction.0 in = 25. full height of 25' longitudinal wall panel (2) #10 & (1) #9 ea. shear. 741 . Precast Concrete Design 8" Direct tension coupler(typical) 1" shim and drypack (typical) 8" precast wall (2) #9 ea. .2.
25)(60 ksi)(23.S.0 in = 25.4 mm. The vertical flexibility is intended to minimize the contribution of these connections to overturning resistance. connected by a C8x18.A. In the panel.1 Longitudinal Direction The shear amplification factor is determined as: M capacity M demand = As (1. the design shear (Vu) at the base is 1. long leg horizontal.2. provide an assembly with two face plates 3/8 in. × 4 in.75 (a) Section through connection 1 4 (c) Section through embedded assembly Figure 7.27 Shear connection at base (1.5 ft) + (397 kip)(23.3048 m).5. weld an L 4 × 3 × 5/16 × 0'8". In the field.0 in.0 ft = 0. 1 4 #5. In the foundation provide an embedded plate 1/2 × 12 × 1'6" with six 3/4 in.FEMA 451.27 and is to be flexible vertically but stiff horizontally in the plane of the panel. The shear capacity of this connection is checked: 742 . 4 Drypack Plate 1 2x12x1'0" C8x18.25) f y jd + Pmax jd / 2 Mu = (2.54(190 kips) = 292 kips The base shear connection is shown in Figure 7.5 ft / 2) 5320 ftkip =1.54 Therefore.2.75 and with diagonal #5 bars as shown in the figure. diameter headed anchor studs. which would simply increase the shear demand. × 12 in. on each face. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 7.2 )(1. 1. see (c) Welded wire fabric Plate 3 8x4x1'0" L4x3x516x0'8" LLH 1 4 8 (b) Side elevation 3 4"Ø H.
bf = 2. / 8 in.1 kip Weld at face plates. summed vectorially: horizontal component is 4 in.76[(b .5 kip Thus. Precast Concrete Design Shear in the two loose angles φVn = φ(0. Mu = fc[(btw)2/2 . By interpolation.25 a = eccentricity. al = 4.75)(0.tw)(l) = (2. Therefore bearing on the channel is φVn = CC1Dl(2 sides) ` φVc = fc(2 .6 kip Weld from channel to plate has at least as much capacity. and a = 4.6 = 86.3125 in. same table is 842 in 2nd edition) C1 = 1.65) . = 0.6)(58 ksi)(0. Bearing of concrete at steel channel fc = φ(0. the total capacity for transfer to concrete is: φVn = φVc + φVs = 46.487 in.76 ksi that develops the plastic moment in the web: Mp = φFytw2/4 = (0.67 in.65 in.29)(1. (average) The bearing will be controlled by bending in the web (because of the tapered flange. compute the width (b) of flange loaded at 2.0.5 kip Weld at toe of loose angles φVn = φ(0. tf = 0./8 in..2)(cos 45E) = 39. C = 1.6 from the table.6 + 39.243 in.85)(5 ksi) = 2. D = 4 (sixteenths of an inch) k = 2 in.487 in. / o 2)(8 in.)(2) = 130.9)(50 ksi)(0.65(0.31 in.0. φ = 0.](6 in. using Table 89 in AISC Manual (3rd edition.0)(4)(8)(2) = 82.2)/4 = 2. vertical component is 2.)(2) = 89.67 in..) = 46. thus.4872 in.(tw/2)2/2] = 2.85f'c) = 0.243 in.29 φVn = (1.0 for E70 electrodes l = 8 in. the critical flange thickness is greater than the web thickness). which are effective in tension and compression.39 in.)(8 in.75)(0.80 in.76 ksi)[(2(1. Conservatively ignoring the concrete’s resistance to vertical deformation of the flange.)2 .)2]/2 setting the two equal results in b = 1.25 in.#5 diagonal bars.1 kip 743 .6Fu)tl(2) = (0.8 in.6 kip To the bearing capacity on the channel is added the 4 .53 in. = 0.6)(70 ksi)(0.kip/in.75 for shear is used here: φVs = φfyAscosα = (0.76 ksi The C8 has the following properties: tw = 0. but less demand.6Fu)tel(2) = (0.Chapter 7.75)(60 ksi)(4)(0.(0.
9. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The capacity of the plate in the foundation is governed by the headed anchor studs. the required reinforcement is: 744 . Using ACI 318 Sec.0025. the wall is adequate for shear without even considering the reinforcement. The total demand moment. since Vu $ φVc/2 = 136 kips.75 to derate anchors in structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories C and higher.10. Thus.FEMA 451.8 requires minimum wall reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318 Sec.5 kip 89. The vertical force at the tip of the angle that will create the plastic moment in the leg of the angle is: T = Mp / x = Fylt2/4 / (lk) = (36 ksi)(8 in)(0. In summary the various shear capacities of the connection are: Shear in the two loose angles: Weld at toe of loose angles: Weld at face plates: Transfer to concrete: Headed anchor studs at foundation: 130. equally spaced along each side (5'0" on center works well to avoid the end reinforcement).10. is 5320 ft .000 ( 8)( 23. for which the entire system is proportioned.3. For the minimum required ρh = 0.6 = 3.1 kip 103 kip The number of embedded plates (n) required for a panel is: n = 292/82.2 (ACI 31802 Sec.4 rather than Chapter 14 or 16.0. The Provisions contain the new anchorage to concrete provisions that are in ACI 31802 Appendix D. 11.) = 2.2 per stud)(60 ksi) = 103 kip Provisions Sec 9. The moment resistance is this force times half the length of the panel. which could easily cause failures in the system.10. such as these. If a straight plate 1/4 in. However. these connections will add about 4% to the resistance and ignoring this contribution is reasonable.3.2. and the shear connections would have the unintended effect of more than doubling the flexural resistance.65)(6 studs)(0. a factor of 42 increase over the angles.3. [In the 2003 Provisions.85( 2) 5. D. which yields 212 ftkips. ACI Sec. and with sufficient embedment to avoid the pryout failure mode is governed by the capacity of the steel: φVs = φ n Ase fut = (0. .69 in. Note that the shear strength of wall itself is not governed by the overstrength required for the connection.kips. giving a total vertical force of 17 kips. check the shear strength of the precast panel at the first floor: φVc = φ 2 Acv fc′ hd = 0. 11. the tensile capacity would be 72 kips each. It is instructive to consider how much moment capacity is added by the resistance of these connections to vertical lift at the joint. which would be sufficient.44 in. 11. x 8 in. The plates are recessed to position the #5 bars within the thickness of the panel and within the reinforcement of the panel.3.31252 in. were used and if the welds and foundation embedment did not fail first.1 kip 82.] Capacity in shear for anchors located far from an edge of concrete.2)/4]/(4 in.5 Use four connection assemblies.12 kips There are four assemblies with two loose angles each.3) specifies an additional factor of 0.6 kip 86.5)(12) = 271 kips Because φVc $Vu = 190 kips. the anchorage to concrete provisions have been removed and replaced by the reference to ACI 31802..
W4.Chapter 7. Also. WWF 4×4 . Precast Concrete Design Av = 0. Shear keys in the surface of both panels would be advisable. the number of plates.54(95 + 63.0×W4.12(2) = 0. The design shear.24 in. 745 . compute the shear strength at Level 2. Vu2 = 1.0025(8)(12) = 0.28 Shear connections on each side of the wall at the second and third floors (1. bending is not a concern.5) = 244 kips. it is not necessary to make the shear connection be flexible with respect to vertical movement. therefore.27 for embedded plates Horizontal and vertical edges 1 4 Plate 516x5"x0'8" Shim and drypack Figure 7. one on each face. Yield of the vertical bars will not occur.96. Shear reinforcement provided.0. equally spaced along each side. the shear at this level will be increased using the same amplification factor as calculated for the first story.2/ft Next. Av = 0. See Figure 7. but welded with a straight plate. because of the lack of flexural yield at the joint.4 mm). use two layers of welded wire fabric. Since the end reinforcement at the base extends to the top of the shear wall.24 in.28 shows the shear connection at the second and third floors of the longitudinal precast concrete shear wall panels. n = 244/82. Use three plates. the second floor joint will not open (unlike at the base) and. To be consistent with the seismic force increase from yielding at the base.6 = 2. shear friction could rationally be used to design the connections at this level and above. Figure 7.2/ft As before.0 in = 25. Using the same recessed embedded plate assemblies in the panel as at the base.
5)(12) = 156 kips Similar to the longitudinal direction.5.25)(60 ksi)(13.50 Design shear.5 ft) + (148 kip)(23. Use two plates.5 ft / 2) 3052 ftkip = 1. Use the same plates as in the longitudinal walls. Vu at base is 1.54 in.9. Check the shear strength of the first floor panel as described previously: φVc = φ 2 fc′hd = 0. Provide two connections on each panel.8/82.W4.85( 2) 5.0.28.27).6 kips and the number of connections required is n = 157.2 Transverse Direction Use the same procedure as for the longitudinal walls: M capacity M demand = As (1.6 = 1.25) f y jd + Pmax jd / 2 Mu = (3. The number of plates.9) = 130.6 = 1. n = 130. The connection capacity is 82. Compute the shear demand at the second floor level joint as indicated below. equally spaced. Use the same shear connections as at the base of the longitudinal walls (Figure 7.2. Use the same shear connections for the transverse walls as for the longitudinal walls as shown in Figures 7.8 kips. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 7.2 )(1.6.2. The design shear.0×W4. φVc $Vu = 142 kips. one on each face as in the longitudinal walls.000 ( 8)(13. 746 .50(105 kips) = 157. Vu = 1.FEMA 451.50(52. but Vu $ φVc/2 so provide two layers of welded wire fabric.27 and 7.3+ 34.5/82.5 kips. WWF 4×4 .
The vertical seismicforceresisting system is the precast/prestressed DT wall panels located around the perimeter of the building.3 ONESTORY PRECAST SHEAR WALL BUILDING This example illustrates precast shear wall seismic design using monolithic emulation as defined in the Provisions Sec.] 7. 2003 Provisions Sec.12 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] (ACI Sec. 21.Chapter 7. Precast Concrete Design 7.1. special precast concrete shear walls are permitted if they satisfy experimental and analytical requirements contained in 2003 Provisions Sec. Figure 7. This is because ACI 31802 Sec.3 (ACI 31802 Sec. 21.1 Building Description The precast concrete building is a singlestory industrial warehouse building (Seismic Use Group I) located in the Los Angeles area on Site Class C soils.8 essentially requires special precast concrete shear walls to satisfy the same design requirements as special reinforced concrete shear walls (ACI 31802 Sec.12 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] (ACI Sec.8) or intermediate precast concrete shear walls (ACI 31802 Sec.4 and 9. 9.2.11. The average roof height is 20 ft. 9.1) requires that the precast seismicforceresisting system emulate the behavior of monolithic reinforced concrete construction or that the system’s cyclic capacity be demonstrated by testing.13).4) permits special precast concrete shear walls (ACI 31802 Sec.11.3) for a singlestory building in a region of high seismicity. Here the connections in tension at the base of the wall panels yield by bending steel angles outofplane. For buildings in Seismic Design Category D.21.3. This example presents an interpretation of monolithic emulation design with ductile connections. 21.2.1.2. 21.1.1. For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D.7).31 shows the plan of the building. and there is a 3 ft parapet.1. The center supports for the joists are joist girders spanning 40 ft to steel tube columns. 21.2.1.2. Provisions Sec. The building is located in the Los Angeles area on Site Class C soils. which is regular. 747 . [Many of the provisions for precast concrete shear walls in areas of high seismicity have been moved out of the 2003 Provisions and into ACI 31802.deep prestressed double tee (DT) wall panels. The roof is light gage metal decking spanning to bar joists that are spaced at 4 ft on center to match the location of the DT legs.6. The 2003 Provisions does not differentiate between precast or castinplace concrete for special shear walls. 21. The same connections at the bottom of the panel are detailed and designed to be very strong in shear and to resist the nominal shear strength of the concrete panel. 21. 9. Alternatively. The structure has 8ftwide by 121/2in. 9.
9.c.3048 m).FEMA 451. is not working as the ductile element of the wall panel and is not expected to yield in an earthquake. 748 24LH03 at 4'0" o.5.1.1. 21. door 3 DT at 8'0" = 24'0" 48'0" Figure 7.H. The precast wall panels used in this building are typical DT wall panels commonly found in many locations but not normally used in Southern California.2.c.1 [21. 3 DT at 8'0" = 24'0" 16'0" O. ACI 31899 Sec.2] permits the use of strand in boundary elements of diaphragms provided the stress is limited to 60. Reinforcing bars used in the welded connections of the panels and footings are ASTM A706 (60 ksi). . has been added to the thickness of the deck (flange).5. fc' = 5. the strand.5. Provisions Sec. an extra 1/2 in.0 ft = 0.4] (ACI Sec.5.5 [9.2. The use of thicker flanges is addressed later. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 15 DT at 8'0" = 120'0" 48'0" 12 DT at 8'0" = 96'0" Joist girder (typical) Steel tube columns 24LH03 at 4'0" o. The rationale for this is that the primary reinforcement of the DT. 21.1.31 Singlestory industrial warehouse building plan (1.H. For these wall panels. This design example uses the strand as the reinforcement based on that analogy.000 psi. door 5 DT at 8'0" = 40'0" 16'0" O.000 psi. The concrete for the foundations has a 28day compressive strength.5.2 [21.1]) limits the grade and type of reinforcement in boundary elements of shear walls and excludes the use of bonded prestressing tendons (strand) due to seismic loads.2.000 psi. The wall panels are normalweight concrete with a 28day compressive strength.9. This extra thickness is intended to reduce cracking of the flanges and provide cover for the bars used in the deck at the base. fc' = 4.2.7.
1. these connections resist the shear force equal to the nominal shear strength of the panel and have a nominal strength equal to twice the shear that exists when the actual moment is equal to Mpr 749 .52 D Bearing Walls System Special Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall 5 2.Chapter 7.12 (ACI Sec. Geological Survey seismic hazard maps and the maps have been added to the body of the 2003 Provisions as figures in Chapter 3 (instead of the previously used separate map package).2. 9.5 0. [The 2003 Provisions have adopted the 2002 U. Per Provisions Sec.31.1) [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]. 9.0 1.2.2.2. Precast Concrete Design 7.11.32]) Site Class Fa Fv SMS = FaSS SM1 = FvS1 SDS = 2/3 SMS SD1 = 2/3 SM1 Seismic Design Category Basic SeismicForceResisting System Wall Type * R Ω0 Cd * Value I = 1.2 Design Requirements 7.5 5 Provisions Sec.1 Precast Shear Wall System The criteria for the design is to provide yielding in a dry connection for bending at the base of each precast shear wall panel while maintaining significant shear resistance in the connection.60 C 1.78 1.3. Table 7.3 1.3] requires special reinforced concrete shear walls in Seismic Design Category D and requires adherence to the special seismic design provisions of ACI 318 Chapter 21. 21.] 7.3.2.S.2.1.5 0.3.7. The flexural connection for a wall panel at the base is located in one DT leg while the connection at the other leg is used for compression.2 Structural Design Considerations 7.3.0 0.2 [9.1.3.1.31 Design Parameters Design Parameter Seismic Use Group I SS (Map 1 [Figure 3.0 1.31]) S1 (Map 2 [Figure 3.1 Seismic Parameters of the Provisions The basic parameters affecting the design and detailing of the building are shown in Table 7.
2 [4. the exception in 2003 Provisions Sec. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples (which ACI defines as φ = 1. Alternatively.1 [4.8. The horizontal leg of this angle is designed in a manner to resist the seismic tension of the shear wall due to overturning and then yield and deform inelastically.2 750 . 21.1]).2.0 would not result in more than a 33 percent reduction in story strength or create an extreme torsional irregularity. 5.3. use ρ = 1.4 (ACI 31802 Sec. The largest rmaxx value is along the side with the least number of panels. The metal deck roof acts as a flexible horizontal diaphragm to distribute seismic inertia forces to the walls parallel to the earthquake motion (Provisions Sec.1. rmaxx is the ratio of design story shear resisted by the single element carrying the most shear force to the total story shear.0455 11. if the structure is regular in plan and there are at least two bays of perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal direction. rmaxx is computed as: 12 rmaxx = 11 = 0.2.2. unless the design of special precast shear walls is substantiated by experimental evidence and analysis per 2003 Provisions Sec. The connection requirements are not as clearly defined as in the 2000 Provisions.5) [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions.0 Ax = 96 ft × 120 ft = 11.2 [4. The maximum ρx value is given when rmaxx is the largest value. Careful attention to structural details of these connections is required to ensure tension ductility and resistance to large shear forces that are applied to the embedded plates in the DT and footing. For a shear wall building assigned to Seismic Design Category D.3. The reliability factor.12 (ACI Sec. 21.1.2. the shear in each element is the total shear along a side divided by the number of elements (wall panels).1.4. 9. 9.520 ft2 ρx = 2 − 20 rmaxx Ax = 2− 20 = 2.FEMA 451.10 0.]. [The redundancy requirements have been substantially changed for the 2003 Provisions.3.2.0 as long as it can be shown that failure of a single shear wall with an aspect ratio greater than 1.11.0.] 7.2 Building System Height limit is 160 ft (Provisions Table 5.2.0.520 Therefore. ρ = 1. [Based on the 2003 Provisions.3.3. The connections on the two legs of the DT are each designed to resist 50 percent of the shear. All shear wall elements (8ftwide panels) have the same stiffness. The anchorage of the connection into the concrete is designed to satisfy the Type Z requirements in Provisions Sec.2.2. Therefore. 4. ρ is computed in accordance with Provisions Sec.6.31]).2). 21. 5. The building is regular both in plan and elevation.0455 1.7 requirements for special structural walls as referenced by ACI 31802 Sec. each individual panel should be considered a separate wall with an aspect ratio greater than 1. 21. Along the side with 11 panels. Yielding will develop in the dry connection at the base by bending the horizontal leg of the steel angle welded between the embedded plates of the DT and footing. the design must satisfy ACI 31802 Sec.0 and a steel stress equal to 125% of specified yield).3]. Based on the design procedures for the walls.8.3.
6.0D . 5. This exception could be interpreted as applying to this example. continuity. footnote c]).2D The relevant load combinations from ASCE 7 are: 1.4 [5. but sketches of details are provided to guide the design engineer. Precast Concrete Design permits the use of D. which is regular and has more than two wall panels (bays) in both directions.2D ± 1. 5.3 [4. footnote b [4. ρ = 1. 751 .0)QE ± (0.2. L.6]) must be explicitly considered when detailing connections between the roof and the wall panels. 5.7D . This example does not include design of the foundation system.0E + 0.21 and 4.9D ± 1.2SDSD = (1.2)(1.2.4 [4.2.3]).0.6.0E Note that roof live load need not be combined with seismic loads.2.4.2. Orthogonal load combinations are not required for flexible diaphragms in Seismic Design Category D (Provisions Sec.5 [4. 7. There are no drift limitations for singlestory buildings as long as they are designed to accommodate predicted lateral displacements (Provisions Table 5.2.2. the metal deck diaphragm. 5.3 Load Combinations The basic load combinations (Provisions Sec.Chapter 7.3. and anchorage (Provisions 5.4D + QE 1.22]: E = ρQE ± 0.1 through 5.41].72 [4.QE 1.] The structural analysis to be used is the ELF procedure (Provisions Sec.8. This example does not include the design of these connections.0)D = QE ± 0.71 and 5. except that the load factor for earthquake effects (E) is defined by Provisions Eq.5L 0. Into each of these load combinations.QE (will not control) (will not control) These load combinations are for the inplane direction of the shear walls.2.2.1D + QE 0. so the live load term. Ties. substitute E as determined above: 1.51.2. or the nonstructural elements. can be omitted from the equation.2]) as permitted by Provisions Table 5.7) require that seismic forces and gravity loads be combined in accordance with the factored load combinations as presented in ASCE 7.5.
use Cs = 0.0 ) 0. 5.1.23] as follows: Cs = S D1 0.0)(1. sprinkler system etc.11 [5.0) = 0 .2. The total seismic base shear is then calculated using Provisions Eq.4 Seismic Force Analysis 7. 5.044ISDS = (0. W = 138 + 236 = 374 kips 7.75 = 0. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 7.FEMA 451.01 in. 5.4.1.20.189 ( 5 1) where T is the fundamental period of the building computed using the approximate method of Provisions Eq.8 psf = 12.02) ( 20.13 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]: Cs = 0.000) = 138 kips The exterior double tee wall weight tributary to the roof is: (20 ft/2 + 3 ft)[42 psf/1.4.044)(1.7 psf = 0.12 [5.2 psf = 2. the 2003 Provisions. 5.3.11 [5.4.20 R/I 5 1 except that it need not exceed the value from Provisions Eq. Bar joists Joist girder and columns Total The total weight of the roof is computed as: (120 ft × 96 ft)(12 psf/1.21] as: 752 .4.5 psf = 3.8 psf = 1.0 = = 0.52 = = 0.3.3.55 T ( R I ) 0. mechanical.1.1 Weight Calculations Compute the weight tributary to the roof diaphragm Roofing Metal decking Insulation Lights.0 psf The seismic response coefficient (Cs) is computed using Provisions Eq. 5.41 [5.22] as: Cs = S DS 1.2 Base Shear = 2. which is larger than the minimum specified in Provisions Eq.000](120 ft + 96 ft)2 = 236 kips Total building weight for seismic lateral load.4.189 sec Therefore.044 [The minimum Cs value has been changed to 0.4.26]: x Ta = Cr hn = (0.0 psf = 1.
Chapter 7.4. The maximum shear on longitudinal panels (at the side with the openings) is: Vlu = 37.20)(374) = 74. where D1 represents roof joist reactions and D2 is the panel weight. Precast Concrete Design V = CsW = (0.3048 m). 753 . 8'0" 3'0" V lu D1 D1 D2 20'0" 2'0" 2'0" 2'0" 2'0" DT leg Foundation Vlu T C Figure 7.4 kips On each side.1 Longitudinal Direction The total shear along each side of the building is V/2 = 37.3.4.8 kips 7.3 Horizontal Shear Distribution and Torsion Torsion is not considered in the shear distribution in buildings with flexible diaphragms. The shear along each side of the building will be equal. each longitudinal wall panel resists the same shear force as shown in the freebody diagram of Figure 7.4/11 = 3. 7.3.4 kips. based on a tributary area force distribution.0 ft = 0.32.32 Freebody diagram of a panel in the longitudinal direction (1.3.
4/12 = 3. but an explicit check should be made in the design.12 kips Figure 7. 8'0" 3'0" V tu D 20'0" 2'0" 2'0" DT leg Foundation Vtu T C Figure 7. 7.3.33 shows the transverse wall panel freebody diagram.FEMA 451.33 Freebody diagram of a panel in the transverse direction (1.3048 m).4. The chord designed for diaphragm action in the perpendicular direction will normally be capable of fulfilling this function.0 ft = 0. 754 .3.3. Note the assumption of uniform distribution to the wall panels in a line requires that the roof diaphragm be provided with a collector element along its edge.2 Transverse Direction Seismic forces on the transverse wall panels are all equal and are: Vtu = 37. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 7.5 Proportioning and Detailing The strength of members and components is determined using the strengths permitted and required in ACI 318 including Chapter 21.
12 [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions] requires that dry connections at locations of nonlinear action comply with applicable requirements of monolithic concrete construction and satisfy the following: 1. the horizontal shear on this connection shall not exceed onehalf the nominal shear strength of the connection.1 Longitudinal Direction Use the freebody diagram shown in Figure 7.4 kips)(20 ft) = 68. For the purposes of this example. The nominal shear strength of the connections at the legs need to be designed to exceed the inplane shear strength of the DT. The maximum tension for the connection at the base of the precast panel to the concrete footing is governed by the seismic overturning moment and the dead loads of the panel and the roof.92 kips Compute the tension force due to net overturning based on an effective moment arm.1.2 1. these two additional requirements are interpreted as: 1.7D: 755 . At the base ME = (3.8 kips 0. 7. A steel angle connector will be provided at the connection of each leg of the DT panel to the concrete footing.4D = 13.5. When tension from the seismic overturning moment causes 1.0 ftkips Dead loads ⎛ 48 ⎞ D1 = (11. which excludes the joist girders and columns. the coexisting shear on the connection shall be no greater than 0. Provisions Sec. 9. For this design. Precisely how ductile dry connections emulate monolithic construction is not clearly explained. Determine the forces for design of the DT connection at the base. 2.3.000 ) ⎜ ⎟ 4 = 1.7 D = 6.73 kips ΣD = 2(1. The dry connections used here do meet the definition of a yielding steel element at a connection contained in ACI 31802.1.2 psf. The maximum is found when combined with 0.89 kips 1.1. The weight for the roof is 11.042(23)(8) = 7. d = 4. Where the moment action on the connection is assumed equal to Mpr.25 times the yield moment in the angle.08) + 7.32.3.0 ft (distance between the DT legs). Precast Concrete Design 7.73 = 9.5.08 kips ⎝ 2 ⎠ D2 = 0. The nominal shear strength for the connection shall not be less than the shear strengths of the members immediately adjacent to that connection. The horizontal leg of the angle is designed to yield in bending as needed in an earthquake. onehalf the total shear will be resisted by the angle at the DT leg in tension and the remainder by the angle at the DT leg in compression.1 Tension and Shear Forces at the Panel Base Design each precast shear panel to resist the seismic overturning moment by means of a ductile tension connector at the base of the panel.Chapter 7.5SnConnection and 2.
Figure 7.34 Cross section of the DT drypacked at the footing (1.5.12 kips)(20 ft) = 62.5. and 0.6.2 Transverse Direction For the transverse direction.73 kips. At the base ME = (3. 21. at least at the bottom of the panel.7D = 5.0.2 S = 3240 in.41.9 kips This tension force is less than that at the longitudinal wall panels. since it is negligible. The section is limited by the area of drypack under the DT at the footing.6.34 shows the cross section used.FEMA 451.3 P M 13.5 kips 7.33. diameter strand.0 in = 25.3. Use the tension force of the longitudinal wall panels for the design of the angle connections.0 ft = 0. The maximum tension for connection at the base of the precast panel to the concrete footing is governed by the seismic overturning moment and the dead loads of just the panel. use the freebody diagram of Figure 7. Each leg of the DT will be reinforced with one 1/2in.3].5.35 shows the location of these prestressed strands.4/4 . The tension force is computed as above for d = 4.4 mm. 240 4'0" M Figure 7. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Tu = ME/d .3.41/2 = 12.2 Panel Reinforcement 21 2" 23 8" 10" Check the maximum compressive stress in the DT leg for the requirement of transverse boundary element reinforcement per ACI 318 Sec.6.3 [21.92/2 = 13.6. Figure 7. Roof live loads need not be included as a factored axial load in the compressive stress check. but the force from the prestress steel will be added to the compression stress above because the prestress force will be effective a few feet above the base and will add compression to the DT leg. 1. The reason to limit the area of drypack at the footing is to locate the boundary elements in the legs of the DT.0 ft (distance between the DT legs): Tu = 62.7. The compressive stress due to the overturning moment at the top of the footing and dead load is: A = 227 in.7D/2 = 68. The flange between the legs of the DT is not as susceptible to cracking during transportation as are the corners of DT flanges outside the confines of the legs.1.4 ftkips The dead load of the panel (as computed above) is D2 = 7.000 ) σ= + E = + = 313psi A S 227 3. No load from the roof is included.0/4 .800 12 ( 68.3048 m). 7. diameter and one 3/8in. 756 average 23 8" 43 4" .
8. strand Leg mesh 6" 43 4" average Figure 7. is less than at the top of footing.57 = 0.3 kips A = 168 in.042)(20. The rationale for using this stress is discussed at the beginning of this example. about 26 in. The strand reinforcement of the DT leg resisting tension is limited to 60.Chapter 7.91( 37.300 ) + = + = 402 psi 168 189 A S Therefore. which is 1000 psi.153 + 0.58fpu Aps = 0.27 = 688 psi.91 in. Precast Concrete Design Deck mesh 21 2" (1) 1 2" dia.4)(26) x 1000 = 27 psi 3. The limiting stress is 0. Reinforcement in the DT for tension is checked at 26 in. above the footing. for the effective stress (fse).0 kips 757 .48 . strand 4" (1) 3 8" dia.000 psi.3 σ= P Pe 37.35 Cross section of one DT leg showing the location of the bonded prestressing tendons or strand (1. This reduces the compressive stress by: (3. D2 = (0. Sb = 189 in.58(270 ksi)[0.300 0.CGStrand = 9. Note the moment at the height of strand development above the footing.0 in = 25. Next.83)(8) = 7.2 fc'.2 e = yb . 240 In each leg. the total compressive stress is approximately 313 + 402 .4 mm). so no special boundary elements are required in the longitudinal wall panels.085] = 37. compute the compressive stress resulting from these strands. use P = 0.
4 kips. but not required in this check. which is the ductile element of the connection.7(7.22 in.4.5.2 The mesh in the legs is available for tension resistance.W2.153 in.2 = 0.83) = 60. First. This angle is a L5 × 31/2 × 3/4 × 0 ft5 in. The steel for the angle and embedded plates will be ASTM A572. diameter and one 3/8 in. which is greater than 2.2 The area of one ½ in. where the connection is. complete the shear calculation for the panel in accordance with ACI Sec. Grade 50. is welded between the plates embedded in the DT leg and the footing. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Pmin = 0. Ash = 0. determine the minimum required shear reinforcement based on ACI Sec.0 for hw/lw = 23/4 = 5. To determine the nominal shear strength of the concrete for the connection design. the reinforcement of the deck is per ACI 318 Sec.2/ft Provide 6 × 6 .49 kips exceeds Vu = 3.2/ft Asv = 0.04 in.4 kips.3.08)) = 6.6 [21.0.2. The prestress force and the area of the DT legs are excluded from the calculation of the nominal shear strength of the DT wall panel.5 × W2. 21. and the legs are like the flanges of a channel. although this is not stated as a 758 .0 welded wire fabric.9(60 ksi)] = 0.5 ( 48 ) 5. 21.2. The prestress force is not effective at the base.0 + 2(1.085 in. which is 3.7].2/ft The nominal shear strength of the wall panel by ACI 318 Sec. which are not effective in shear.2 + 0. 21.4 kips Only the deck between the DT legs is used to resist the inplane shear (the legs act like flanges. Using welded wire fabric.03 in.4.05 in.2].0 kips The area of tension reinforcement required is: As = Tu/φfy = (12.0 kips)/[0.236 in. 7. the required areas of reinforcement are: Ash = Asv = (0.6. 16. The horizontal leg of the angle needs to be long enough to provide significant displacement at the roof.4)(17.5 )( 48 ) ) 2 5. with the long leg vertical. diameter strand is 0. Given that the connections will be designed for a shear of 29 kips.000 where αc is 2.FEMA 451.7.Pmin/2= 12.41 kips ME = (3.0 kips 1.6.75.001)(2.3 Size the Yielding Angle The angle.000 + 0.1 is: Vn = Acv α c ( f c′ + ρ n f y = ( 2. Since Acv f c′ = 2. it is obvious that half the nominal shear strength will exceed the seismic shear demand. The demand on each panel is: Vu = Vlu = 3.1 [21.6 ftkips Tu = Mnet/d .5)(12) = 0.05 ( 4 )( 60 ) = 29. meaning that the area effective for shear is the deck between the legs).000 = 8.
5 kips. or the shear associated with Tu'. a shorter horizontal leg) will simply increase the demands on the remainder of the assembly. whichever is greater.4 = 21.75 )2 ⎤ ⎥ = 31. Precast Concrete Design requirement in either the Provisions or ACI 318.25 Check the welds for the tension force of 21.36 Freebody of the angle and the fillet weld connecting the embedded plates in the DT and the footing (elevation and section) (1.g. 9.11.75) 2 / 4 = × 1.5 . 1" 759 .9 ( 50 ) ⎢ ⎡ 5 ( 0.0 in = 25.5 − 1. Using Provisions Sec.kips φb M n = 0.6. 21. y y z x My t L5x31 2x3 4x5 (LLV) Tu' Vu' 5" Tu' Vu' 4" CG Mx Mz t Mz yB Mx Fillet weld "t" Vu' Tu' 21 4" k = 11 4" Location of plastic hinge My Fillet weld Tu' Vu' Figure 7.9 kips and a shear force (Vu')of 29.5) [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions]. with its larger vertical load.1.9 kips 3.1.kips 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Providing a stronger angle (e. Thus Tu′ = M n (1. The bearing panel.4) (50)(5)(0.5(3.5 − k 3.5 .25) = 30.1..12 (ACI Sec. The angle and its welds are shown in Figure 7.0/2 = 14.Chapter 7.4 mm). The bending moment at a distance k from the heel of the angle (location of the plastic hinge in the angle) is: Mu = Tu(3.4 in. the tension force for the remainder of this connection other than the angle is based upon a probable strength equal to 140% of the nominal strength.k) = 13.9 Fy Z = 0. will give a larger shear.36.6 in. This will be examined briefly here.
760 . as computed previously. and V = [Tu'(4) + 1. (20 ft to the roof. But before checking the welds.)(0. given the design seismic base shear of 74. will contribute to the overall deformation.5 kips)(3. consider the deformability of the system as controlled by the yielding angle.4 Welds to Connection Angle Welds will be fillet welds using E70 electrodes.4D = 13. For which the limiting stress is φFy = 0.047 in. but now compare with the expectations of the Provisions.76 kips. divided by the 4 ft from leg to leg at the base of the DT. 7. The bending of angle legs about their weak axis has a long history of providing ductility and.8(2)]/20 = 5.19 sec.) The angle deformation will be idealized as a cantilever with a length from the tip to the center of the corner.)3/12] = 0. This translates into a horizontal motion at the roof of 0. long at the angle to embedded plate in the footing: Using an elastic approach Resultant force = V 2 + T 2 = 14.52 + 219 2 = 26. thus. which amounts to: L = 3.75 in. φRn = φ(Fy)ABM. it appears that this dry connection will provide enough deformability to be in the range of expectation of the Provisions.96 in. Given a weight of 374 kips.6)70(0. the diaphragm deformation will overwhelm all other aspects of deformation.) = 0. but other aspects of the connections.9(50) = 45.3 kips . particularly the plate and reinforcement embedded in the DT.t/2 = 3.4D(2)]/20 = [21. The approximate period predicted for a 20fttall shear wall building is 0.0 ksi. This is about 50% larger than the simplistic calculation considering only the angle. These displacements are not very large.9/4 + 13. Also. K Now.707)Aw.19) = 201 kip/in. this would imply a stiffness from the fundamental equation of dynamics: T = 2π W /g ⇒ K = 4π 2W /( gT ) = 4π 2 374 /(386 × 0.5 in. For which limiting stress is 22. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 1.FEMA 451. Size a fillet weld.)3/[3(29000 ksi)(5 in.8 kips.8 kips. (This is not a bad assumption regarding the double tee itself.3 ksi.5. 5 in.8 kip / (201 kip/in. then upward to the level of the bottom of the DT.t/2 + 1 in. the predicted total displacement is 0. Vn for the panel obviously controls. For the weld metal.75 in. this would imply an elastic displacement of δh = 74. but this is not the place to address flexible diaphragm issues.3.37 in.24 in. φRn = φ(Fy)Aw = 0.75 in. Using an elasticplastic idealization. . Ignore all sources of deformation except the angle. For the base metal.75(0. . the vertical deformation at the design moment in the leg is δv = TL3/3EI = (13.) With Cd of 4.
kips Mz My V X Z V Figure 7.2 t = Aw/l =1.5)(3.Chapter 7.18 in.5(2.kips Mz = Vu'(yb + 1.5) = (14.5) = 50.36 for tension and Figure 7.37 the section properties for a weld leg (t) are: A = 13t in.8 in.5) = 21. fillet weld. increasing the strength of this weld by such an amount should not have a detrimental effect elsewhere in the connection. the weld moments and stresses are: Mx = Tu'(3. Given the importance of this weld. Using the freebody diagram of Figure 7.37 for shear.4t in.0) = 54. Now size the weld to the plate in the DT. would be a reasonable step.5) = 76. long across the top and 4 in.37 Freebody of angle with welds. increasing the size to 3/8 in.4 761 . For a 3/4 in. Try a fillet weld 5 in. long on each vertical leg of the angle. top view. Precast Concrete Design Aw = 26.7 in.7 in. With ordinary quality control to avoid flaws.4 Iy = 60.3/22.0t in. = 0. Continue to use the conservative elastic method to calculate weld stresses.24 in.kips My = Vu'(3.18 in.0) = 14.3 = 1.2/5 in. angle leg.9(3.77 + 1.2 Ix = 23. use a 5/16 in. showing only shear forces and resisting moments. For the weld between the angle and the embedded plate in the DT as shown in Figure 7.
5 Tension and Shear at the Footing Embedment Reinforcement to anchor the embedded plates is sized for the same tension and shear.36.4t A Ip ⎝ t ⎞ ⎟ ksi ⎠ σy =− Tu′ M z xL 21..7)(2.4 yb = 2.4t 23.3 = 0. t = 11.67/22. The welded reinforcement is sloped to provide concrete cover and to embed the bars in the central region of the DT leg and footing. 9.38.11.5E) = 16.5 in.62 in.93) 2 + (0. The shear bars in the footing will be two #4 placed on an angle of two (plus)toone.8)(2. say 9/16 in. 21.FEMA 451.77 in.67 ⎞ (2.75(0.1.3.6.9 (54.77) ⎛ 2.12 (ACI Sec.45 in. per Provisions Sec.5) ⎛ 0.5. To check the weld. Field welds are conservatively sized with the elastic method for simplicity and to minimize construction issues.9 ( 60) cos26.2 o φ f y cosθ 0. 7. The maximum stress is at the lower right end of the inverted U shown in Figure 7. Reinforcement in the DT leg and in the footing will be welded to embedded plates as shown in Figure 7.1. and the development lengths are lengthened by an additional 30%.77) == 60.93 + = + =⎜ 13t 83.5 (54)(2. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Ip = Ix + Iy = 83.045 ⎞ + =− + =⎜ ⎟ ksi 13t 83.7)(2.3) 2 = ⎜ ⎟ ksi t ⎝ t ⎠ Thus.5 ( ) Use two #5 bars (As = 0. xL = 2. The resultant shear resistance is: φVn = 0.2)(2)(60)(cos 26.5) [not applicable in the 2003 Provisions].2 ) at each embedded plate in the footing.4t A Ip ⎝ t ⎠ M y xL Iy M x yb (50. The tension reinforcement area required in the footing is: As.Sloped = Tu′ 21. stresses are computed at all four ends (and corners).5) (76.4t in.0t Ix ⎛ 11. σx = Vu′ M z yb 14.9 = = 0.3 ⎞ ⎜⎟ ksi ⎝ t ⎠ σz = − − 2 2 2 σR = σx +σ y +σz = 1 ⎛ 11.045) 2 + (−11.1 kips 762 .52 in.
Precast Concrete Design (2) #4x48" (See Fig 7. concrete footing " 2'6 1 2 Figure 7. The same embedded plate used for tension will also be used to resist onehalf the nominal shear.I.3 Two #4 bars are adequate. In this case they will be extended 22 in.39) (2) #4 with standard hooks 9 1 9 (2) #4x24" (see Fig 7.5 in. This shear force is 14. which develop tension as the angle bends through cycles is: As = Tu′ 21. Note that the bars in the DT leg are required to extend upward 1. 763 .6 kips > 14.5 kips.5 kip demand.3 times the development length.P.39) Plate 1 x 6 x 0'10" DT 2 16 4 9 16 5 L5x31 (LLV) 5 3 2x 4x5 (2) #3 with standard hooks weld on #4 16 5 Plate 6x41 2x1 2 2'6 " (2) #4x 1 Interior slab L6x4x1 2x10" (2) #5 2 C.6 Tension and Shear at the DT Embedment The area of reinforcement for the welded bars of the embedded plate in the DT. The available bearing area is approximately Abr = 4(0.)(5 in.9(60) cos 6.9 = = 0.(available)) = 10 in. which totals about 48 in.408 in. 7. The transfer of direct shear to the concrete is easily accomplished with bearing on the sides of the reinforcing bars welded to the plate.0 in = 25.38 Section at the connection of the precast/prestressed shear wall panel and the footing (1.4 mm).3.2) = 27.65)(0.2 and the bearing capacity of the concrete is φVn = (0.5. Two #5 and two #4 bars (explained later) are welded to the plate. which would be 22 in.Chapter 7. past the point of development of the effective stress in the strand.85)(5 ksi)(10 in.2 o φ f y cosθ 0.
21 in. With Asx = 0.9 ( 60 )( 9.3.2 .20 + 0.FEMA 451.95)(5 in.) For the #4 bar. The #4 bars are effective in resisting Mx.75)(0. (Refer to the PCI Handbook. the weld capacity is φVn = (0. Check the DT embedded plate for My (50.7 Resolution of Eccentricities at the DT Embedment Check the twisting of the embedded plate in the DT for Mz.7).2)(0.0 kip).2.95)(5 in. Each component is strong enough. The weld is a flare bevel weld. The vectorial sum of shear and tension demand is 15.4 in.8 in.3 kips/in.11 + 0. so the proposed bars are satisfactory.2)(60 ksi)(0.kips. Use Mz = 54.9)(0. assume a triangular shaped compression block in the concrete. φMnx = φAs fy jd = (0.)(2) = 6. The tension demand is the larger of 1.3 in.6)(70 ksi)(0.21 in.kips) and Mx (76.0 ) Use one #4 bar on each side of the vertical embedded plate in the DT as shown in Figure 7.4 kip. the minimum length of weld is 15.2 times the bar diameter along each side of the bar.7 in.20/2 = 0. with an effective throat of 0. The shear demand is prorated among the four bars as (14. For My assume that the effective depth extends 1 in.39). and then compute the resisting moment.20/2 = 0.2)(60 ksi)(0.4 / 6.8). Begin by assigning onehalf of the “corner” #4 to each component.kips) using the two #4 bars welded to the back side of the plate near the corners of the weld on the loose angle and the two #3 bars welded to the back side of the plate near the bottom of the DT leg (as shown in Figure 7. and one each of the #3 and #4 bars are effective in resisting My. 7. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples The weld of these bars to the plate must develop both the tensile demand and this shear force.kips (>50. φMny = φAs fy jd = (0.5. It is quicker to make a reasonable assumption as to the bars that are effective and then compute resisting moments about the X and Y axes.25 fy on the bar (15 kip) or Tu/2 (11.) = 54 in.39.3 = 2.11 in. 764 .) = 77 in. It is relatively straightforward to compute the resultant moment magnitude and direction.kips (>76.5 kip.5 in.5 kip)/4 = 3.2 φ f y ( jd ) 0. With Asy = 0. As = Mz 54. beyond the edge of the angle (equal to twice the thickness of the plate).7 in.30 in. This approximate method is demonstrated here. This is the same bar used to transfer direct shear in bearing.7 = = 0. Thus.9)(0.
4 mm).0 in = 25.39 Details of the embedded plate in the DT at the base (1. 765 .4 mm). Precast Concrete Design 3" 2" 3" #4 (2) #4 with standard hook For 1.25 Fy Plate 10"x6"x1 2" 2" 3" 1" (2) #3 with standard hook Plate 41 2"x6"x1 2" with 5 8" slot at center 10" Figure 7.Chapter 7. DT Plate at each DT leg L4x3x1 4x continuous Metal deck Bar joists DT corbel at each leg Figure 7.0 in = 25.311 Sketch of connection of loadbearing DT wall panel at the roof (1.
with an appropriate connection at the joist girder. if connections are installed along the vertical joints between DT panels to control the outofplane alignment.3048 m). the deck may be used but the laps should be detailed appropriately.6.0 in = 25. 766 .311 show the connections at the roof and DT wall panels. 5. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 7. Figures 7.5. consideration may be given to using vertical connections between the wall panels to transfer vertical forces resulting from overturning moments and thereby reduce the overturning moment demand. 1. These types of connections are not considered here.0 ft = 0.2. In a practical sense.310 and 7. In precast double tee shear wall panels with flanges thicker than 21/2 in.4 mm.1] requires specific force minimums for the connection and requires continuous ties across the diaphragm.3. this means the chord for the roof diaphragm should not be a part of the panels. Note that the continuous steel angle would be expected to undergo vertical deformations as the panels deform laterally.310 Sketch of connection of nonloadbearing DT wall panel at the roof (1. These connections are not designed here.2. as the continuous cross ties.2 [4.6. Because the diaphragm supports concrete walls out of their plane. Plate at each DT leg Deck straps as needed Metal deck #4 continuous weld to plates L4x3x1 4 continuous Bar joist 2'0" Figure 7.FEMA 451. they should not constrain relative movement inplane. In that direction. it specifically prohibits use of the metal deck as the ties in the direction perpendicular to the deck span. Therefore. since the uplift force is small relative to the shear force and cyclic loading of bars in thin concrete flanges is not always reliable in earthquakes.3.. Also. Provisions Sec. In the direction parallel to the deck span. the designer may wish to use the top chord of the bar joists.8 Other Connections This design assumes that there is no inplane shear transmitted from panel to panel.
. The Provisions set forth a wealth of opportunities for designing composite steel and concrete systems. Ph. The design of partially restrained composite (PRC) connections and their effect on the analysis of frame stiffness are the aspects that differ most significantly from a noncomposite design. Ph.E. is presented. v. in particular AISC Seismic. Colorado. Foothill Ranch. Updates to the reference documents. although a check on drift from wind load is included. In addition. it has been annotated to reflect changes made to the 2003 Provisions. Rutz. a method is presented by which a designer using readily available frame analysis programs can account for the effect of the connection stiffness on the overall frame. There are not any general technical changes to other chapters of the 2003 Provisions that have a significant effect on the calculations and/or design example in this chapter of the Guide with the possible exception of the updated seismic hazard maps. P. Part II. [ ]. The RISA 3D analysis program. indicate both organizational changes (as a result of a reformat of all of the chapters of the 2003 Provisions) and substantive technical changes to the 2003 Provisions and its primary reference documents. This system is referred to as a “Composite Partially Restrained Moment Frame (CPRMF)” in the Provisions.4. The example covers only design for seismic forces in combination with gravity.E. The structure is analyzed using threedimensional static methods. the design examples and calculations have not been revised to reflect the changes to the 2003 Provisions. Chapter 10 in the 2003 Provisions has been expanded to include modifications to the basic reference document. AISC Seismic. California) is used in the example. This chapter illustrates application of the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions to the design of composite steel and concrete framed buildings using partially restrained composite connections. Annotations within brackets. An example of a multistory medical office building in Denver.8 COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE James Robert Harris.. Although this volume of design examples is based on the 2000 Provisions. Some types of PRC connections have been studied in laboratory tests and a design method has been developed for one in particular. P.5 (Risa Technologies. have some affect on the calculations illustrated herein. While the general concepts of the changes are described. but this is the only one illustrated in this set of design examples.D. and Frederick R. 81 .D. which is illustrated in this example. These modifications are generally related to maintaining compatibility between the Provisions and the most recent editions of the ACI and AISC reference documents and to incorporate additional updated requirements.
Chicago: AISC.S. However. Customary U. 1999. American Institute of Steel Construction. In addition to the 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions (referred to herein as the Provisions). AISC LRFD AISC Manual AISC Seismic AISC SDGS8 ASCE TC ASCE 7 The shortform designations presented above for each citation are used throughout. 1999. 1997. including Supplement No. Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings. the above referenced documents. Load and Resistance Factor Design. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Steel Design Guide Series 8.. 1998. Detroit: ACI.FEMA 451. 1996. Partially Restrained Composite Connections. The symbols used in this chapter are from Chapter 2 of the Provisions. 2nd Edition. or are as defined in the text. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples Where they affect the design examples in this chapter. Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. Volumes 1 and 2. “Design Guide for Partially Restrained Composite Connections. units are used. October 1998. some minor changes to the 2003 Provisions and the reference documents may not be noted. significant changes to the 2003 Provisions and primary reference documents are noted. American Society of Civil Engineers Task Committee on Design Criteria for Composite Structures in Steel and Concrete. Manual of Steel Construction. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. 82 . Reston: ASCE. 1998. the following documents are referenced: ACI 318 American Concrete Institute.” Journal of Structural Engineering 124(10). American Institute of Steel Construction. Chicago: American Institute of Steel Construction. Standard ACI 31899. 2 (2000). American Institute of Steel Construction. American Society of Civil Engineers. Chicago: AISC. ASCE 798. Chicago: AISC.
2 and in AISC Seismic. Composite Steel and Concrete 8.0 ft = 0. and it is an appropriate choice for buildings with lowtomoderate seismic demands. The floor slab is composite with the floor girders and the spandrel beams and the composite action at the columns is used to create moment resisting connections. N W E 25'0" S 12'6" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 12'6" 20K5 at 3'11 2" o.2.Chapter 8. Figure 84 shows the typical connection. The structure is free of irregularities both in plan and elevation. This connection has been studied in several research projects over the past 15 years and is the key to the building’s performance under lateral loads. (typical) 25'0" (ty W1 pi 0 ca l) W18x35 (typical for EW beams) 25'0" 12'6" 12'6" Figure 81 Typical floor plan (1.1 BUILDING DESCRIPTION This fourstory medical office building has a structural steel framework (see Figures 81 through 83). This is considered a Composite Partially Restrained Moment Frame (CPRMF) per Provisions Table 5.c. The floors and roof are supported by open web steel joists.3048 m). which depend on the building as well as the ground shaking hazard. W21x44 (typical for NS beams) 25'0" 83 .
but some internal storage loading and Site Class E are used in this example to provide somewhat higher seismic design forces for purposes of illustration.3048 m). NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" Roof 4 at 13'0" = 52'0" W18x35 (typical) 4 3 2 North and South End Elevation Figure 82 Building end elevation (1.0 ft = 0.0 ft = 0.FEMA 451. The building is located in a relatively low hazard region (Denver.3048 m). 12'6" 12'6" 25'0" 25'0" 25'0" 12'6" 12'6" Roof 4 at 13'0" = 52'0" W21x44 (typical) 4 3 2 East and West Side Elevation Figure 83 Building side elevation (1. Colorado). 84 . and to push the example into Seismic Design Category C.
The floor slabs serve as horizontal diaphragms distributing the seismic forces.Chapter 8. 4. There are no foundations designed in this example. and the roof snow load is taken as 30 psf. Architectural considerations allowed an extra column at the end bay of each side in the northsouth direction. 2. and the stiffness for serviceability in wind is a factor in the design. Dead loads are relatively high for a steel building due to the 4. Composite Steel and Concrete Concrete Headed stud Rebar Girder Double angle web connection Column Seat angle Figure 84 Typical composite connection. but they are not required for this design. The exterior frames in the northsouth direction have momentresisting connections at all columns. Material properties in this example are as follows: 1. Assessing the flexibility of the connections 3. The frames in each bay in the eastwest direction have momentresisting connections at all except the end columns.5 inches thick on form deck. which is useful in what is the naturally weaker direction. Wind loads per ASCE 7 are also checked. except in 3 internal bays on each floor where medical records storage imposes 200 psf. the typical foundation would be a drilled pier and voided grade beam system. For this location and system. Structural steel beams and columns (ASTM A992): Structural steel connection angles and plates (ASTM A36): Concrete slab (4. and by inspection they are stiff enough to be considered as rigid. Incorporating the connection flexibility into the analytical model of the building 85 . Load combinations for composite design 2. This arrangement is illustrated in the figures. The main purpose here is to illustrate the procedures for the partially restrained composite connections. Composite connections to the weak axis of the column are feasible.5" normal weight concrete slab used to control footfall vibration response of the open web joist system and the precast concrete panels on the exterior walls. This example covers the following aspects of seismic design that are influenced by partially restrained composite frame systems: 1. The typical bay spacing is 25 feet. 3. which would provide flexural restraint for the strong axis of the columns at their base (very similar to the foundation for a conventional steel moment frame). normal weight): Steel reinforcing bars (ASTM A615): Fy = 50 ksi Fy = 36 ksi fc' = 3000 psi Fy = 60 ksi The floor live load is 50 psf.
A reasonable preliminary design procedure to develop member sizes for a first analysis is as follows: 1. 4. Column stability does need to account for the flexibility of the connection.5 is suggested for preliminary design. Design of the connections 8. If stiffness is selected. The member properties of the composite beam are altered to become an equivalent prismatic beam that gives approximately the same flexural stiffness in the sway mode to the entire frame as the actual composite beams combined with the actual connections. Proportion other composite beams. For this example. 3.3. For this example another method is illustrated. such as the strong column rule. 2. an approximate effective column length factor of K = 1. a dummy member can be inserted at each end of each beam that mimics the connection behavior. keep the column’s contribution to story drift to no more than onethird of the target. Once an analytic model is constructed. but the AISC LRFD and the Provisions approaches considering second order moments from the translation of gravity loads are essentially the same. the member and connection properties are adjusted to satisfy the overall drift limits and the individual strength limits.FEMA 451. it is also a good idea to examine behavior at service loads. Proportion columns based upon a simple portal analogy for either stiffness or strength. 86 . this resulted in W18x35 beams to support the open web steel joists. which is consistent with the overall requirements of the Provisions for linear analysis. NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 4. such as the spandrel beams in this example. Even for software that does not. based upon judgment. The key difference is that the flexibility of the connection must be taken into account in the analysis. or even nonlinear.1 below. There are multiple ways to accomplish this. Those final design checks that are peculiar to the system are explained in detail as the example is described. The further checks on details. the partially restrained composite frame system affords an opportunity to create a seismicforceresisting system in which many of the members are the same size as would already be provided for gravity loads. This is much like seismic design for any other frame system. For this example.3 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 8. Given the nature of the connection. but there are not truly standard criteria for this. the first trial was made using the same W18x35 beam. Also check that the moment capacity of the column (after adjusting for axial loads) is at least as large as that for the beam. are also generally familiar. Select a connection such that the negative moment strength is about 75 percent of the plastic moment capacity of the bare steel beam. Prudence in the use of this simplification does suggest checking the behavior of the connections under gravity loads to assure that significant yielding is confined to the seismic event. Some analytical software allows the explicit inclusion of linear.1 Provisions Parameters The basic parameters affecting the design and detailing of the buildings are shown in Table 8. Proportion composite beams with heavy noncomposite loads based upon the demand for the unshored construction load condition.2 SUMMARY OF DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR COMPOSITE PARTIALLY RESTRAINED MOMENT FRAME SYSTEM For buildings with low to moderate seismic demands. 8. If strength is selected. springs at each end of the beams.
] The frames are designed in accordance with AISC Seismic.2. 8.5 Fa 3. Provisions Table 5.2.6.2.50 SMS = FaSs 0.3 Building Weight and Base Shear Summary The unit weights are as follows: 87 . Given the need to determine the flexibility of the connections.5.33 SDS = 2/3SMS 0.2.3.5 Fv 0.4 is permitted.025 times the story height.20 Ss (Map 1) 0.2 Moment Frame R 6 3 Ω0 Cd 5. 5. 5. however this is not unique to this system and therefore is not explained in this example.6).5 [The 2003 Provisions have adopted the 2002 USGS probabilistic seismic hazard maps.Chapter 8.21 SM1 = FvS1 0. the seismic forces are low enough that conventional stiffness rules for wind design actually control the stiffness. Sec. Orthogonal effects need not be considered for Seismic Design Category C. provided the structure does not have a plan structural irregularity (Provisions Sec.14 SD1 = 2/3SM1 Seismic Design Category C Frame Type per Composite Partially Restrained Provisions Table 5. AISC SDGS8 and ASCE TC describe this particular system in detail. 8. 5.5. Although the Cd factor is large.2). 8 (Provisions Table 5.8) is 0. The story drift limit (Provisions Table 5.2.3. 5.1 indicates that use of the Equivalent Lateral Force procedure in accordance with Provisions Sec.2 Structural Design Considerations Per the Provisions The building is regular both in plan and elevation. Part II.2).2. Diaphragms must be designed for the required forces (Provisions Sec. and the maps have been added to the body of the 2003 Provisions as figures in Chapter 3 (instead of the previously used separate map package). it would be difficult to design such structures without reference to at lea