Q = k A del (T)/(r2 ln(r2/r1)) Q= rate of heat flow/hr k = thermal conductivity of insulation material A= surface area del(T) = temperature difference r2 = outer diameter

r1 = inner diameter h = (A+.005(T(high)- T (low)) T(high) =155C T(surface)=35C T(ambient) = 30C A(steel)=0.32 h = 9.45 k(insulator) =.04 - .05 (mineral wool) heat loss at surface = h A (T(surface) – T (ambient)) For thickness calculation, At steady state, Q(insulation)=Q(surface) r2 ln(r2/r1)=X (k/X) A (T(hot)-T(surface) = h A (T(surface)- T(ambient)) X = (k/h)[(T(hot)-T(surface))/(T(surface)- T(ambient)) X = (0.04/9.45)(155-35)/(35-30) X = 101.5 mm r2 = 845.8 mm t = 845.8 – 750 = 96.2 mm t = thickness of material old heat loss = 9.45*94.28*120 = 106913.52 W new heat loss = .6 * 106.13 * 120 = 7641 W

(for insulation)

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