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20 Polymers II

20 Polymers II

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Published by Kiran Babu Satuluri

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Published by: Kiran Babu Satuluri on Jul 25, 2012
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Polymers II/ Objectives

1. Explain the basis for polymer crystallinity.

Polymers II/ Objectives
1. 2. Explain the basis for polymer crystallinity. Explain the effects of crystallinity on physical and mechanical properties.

Polymers II/ Objectives
1. 2. Explain the basis for polymer crystallinity. Explain the effects of crystallinity on physical and mechanical properties. Explain the mechanisms underlying elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformation in polymers.

3.

Polymers II/ Objectives
1. 2. Explain the basis for polymer crystallinity. Explain the effects of crystallinity on physical and mechanical properties. Explain the mechanisms underlying elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformation in polymers. Identify the regions of behavior on a TS Modulus/Temperature curve.

3.
4.

Polymers II/ Objectives
1. 2. Explain the basis for polymer crystallinity. Explain the effects of crystallinity on physical and mechanical properties. Explain the mechanisms underlying elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformation in polymers. Identify the regions of behavior on a TS Modulus/Temperature curve. Explain the mechanism of temperature and rate dependence of polymer modulus, and yield.

3.
4. 5.

Polymers II/ Objectives
1. 2. Explain the basis for polymer crystallinity. Explain the effects of crystallinity on physical and mechanical properties. Explain the mechanisms underlying elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformation in polymers. Identify the regions of behavior on a TS Modulus/Temperature curve. Explain the mechanism of temperature and rate dependence of polymer modulus, and yield. Summarize the major environmental variables which impact polymer failure in TP’s and TS’s.

3.
4. 5. 6.

Polymers II/ Objectives
1. 2. Explain the basis for polymer crystallinity. Explain the effects of crystallinity on physical and mechanical properties. Explain the mechanisms underlying elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformation in polymers. Identify the regions of behavior on a TS Modulus/Temperature curve. Explain the mechanism of temperature and rate dependence of polymer modulus, and yield. Summarize the major environmental variables which impact polymer failure in TP’s and TS’s. Describe the basic mechanisms of failure in TP and TS polymers.

3.
4. 5. 6. 7.

Physical Properties of Polymers
1. Non conducting - electrically (except polyacetylene)

Physical Properties of Polymers
1. Non conducting - electrically (except polyacetylene) 2. Good thermal insulators

Physical Properties of Polymers
3. Free volume varies with temp

Physical Properties of Polymers
1. Non conducting - electrically (except polyacetylene) 2. Good thermal insulators 3. Free volume varies with temp 4. Optically crystalline/ semi-crystalline

Heat Capacity
Thermosets Amorphous polymers Tg : cure – exotherm

Heat Capacity
Semi-crystalline polymers Tg : weak Crystallization – exotherm Melting - endotherm

Heat Capacity
General Water vaporization – endotherm Additive vapor – endotherm Decomposition - exotherm

Glass Transition Temp.
1. Breakdown of Van Der Waals Forces

Glass Transition Temp.
1. Breakdown of Van Der Waals Forces 2. Onset of large scale molecular motions

Glass Transition Temp.
1. Breakdown of Van Der Waals Forces 2. Onset of large scale molecular motions 3. Important in amorphous polymers

Glass Transition Temp.
1. Breakdown of Van Der Waals Forces 2. Onset of large scale molecular motions 3. Important in amorphous polymers 4. Upper service temperature

Modulus & Temperature

Effect of Crosslinking on Modulus

Complex Modulus:
E (t) = E ’(t) + i E ”(t) E’ – Storage Modulus (~elastic)

E” – Loss Modulus
(~viscous dissipation)

Transitions from Tan  = E’’/E’
TG

Tan  = E’’/E’
  
Tallest is TG

Tg in Semicrystalline Polymers
1. May show where “brittle” behavior begins

Tg in Semicrystalline Polymers
1. May show where “brittle” behavior begins 2. Not a predictor of service temperature

Tg in Semicrystalline Polymers
1. May show where “brittle” behavior begins 2. Not a predictor of service temperature 3. Crystals maintain high E + SY

Fracture Processes
1. Two Deformation Process for Thermoplastics
a. Crazing (amorphous material )

a. Shear Yielding

Craze Process Zone

Fracture Process Zone: PE

Ductile Thermoplastic Fracture at Different Strain Rates
A

B C

Fracture Processes
2. Thermoset Deformation Process
a. Crazing suppressed b. Shear Yielding only option

Fracture Processes
3. Fatigue
a. Macroscopically brittle b. Same mechanisms c. Viscoelasticity complicates picture

Effect of 2nd Phase Tougheners

Environmental Effects on Polymers
1. Permeable to many gases & H2O vapor

Environmental Effects on Polymers
1. Permeable to many gases & H2O vapor 2. Inorganic Acids & Bases – fairly resistant

Environmental Effects on Polymers
3. Organic Solvents – can be very sensitive -Crosslinks, crystallinity improves resistance -Polarity of polymer & solvent important -Solvents swell, dissolve, crack polymers

Environmental Effects on Polymers
4. Moisture absorption -Polar polymers (PC, Nylon) -lowers modulus and yield strength -problem in processing

Environmental Effects on Polymers
5. UV & Visible light -Chain scission -UV stabilizers may be added

Environmental Effects on Polymers
6. Heat -Chemical Aging -Physical Aging

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