Multiple Access Techniques for Wireless

Communications
2005/07/06
Weng Chien-Erh
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Table of Contents(1)
 Introduction
 FDMA
 TDMA
 CDMA
 SS (Spread Spectrum)
FHSS
DSSS
Hybrid


Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Packet Radio
Pure ALOHA
Slotted ALOHA
CSMA
Reservation Protocol
 Reservation-ALOHA
 PRMA
 NC-PRMA




Table of Contents(2)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Introduction (1)
 Multiple Access:
Enable many mobile users to share simultaneously radio
spectrum.

Provide for the sharing of channel capacity between a
number of transmitters at different locations.

Aim to share a channel between two or more signals in
such way that each signal can be received without
interference from another.
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CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Introduction (2)
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CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Introduction (3)
 In conventional telephone systems, it is possible to
talk and listen simultaneously, called duplexing.
 Duplexing
Allow the possibility of talking and listening simultaneously.
Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
 Provides two distinct bands of frequencies for every user

Time Division Duplex (TDD)
 Multiple users share a signal channel by taking turns in time domain
 Each duplexing channel has both a forward time slot and a reverse time
slot to facilitate bidirectional communication.
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
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Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Introduction (4)
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Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Each transmitter is allocated a channel with a
particular bandwidth.

 All transmitters are able to transmit simultaneously.
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
(1)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
(2)
 Allocation of separate channels to FDMA signals
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Time-frequency characteristic of FDMA
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
(3)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Features of FDMA
If an FDMA channel is not in sue, then it sits idle and can’t
be used by other users.

Transmit simultaneously and continuously.

FDMA is usually implemented in narrowband systems.
 Its symbol time is large as compared to the average delay spread.
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
(4)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
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Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Features of FDMA (Cont.)
For continuous transmission, fewer bits are needed for
overhead purposes (such as synchronization and framing
bits) as compared to TDMA.

FDMA uses duplexers since both TX and RX operate at
the same time.

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
(5)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Transmitter share a common channel.

 Only one transmitter is allowed to transmit at a
time.
Synchronous TDMA: access to the channel is restricted to
regular.
Asynchronous TDMA: a station may transmit at any time
that the channel is free.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (1)
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CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Allocation of time slot in TDMA
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (2)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Time-frequency characteristic of synchronous
TDMA
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (3)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (4)
 Features of TDMA (Cont.)

TDMA systems divide the radio spectrum into time slots.
Each user occupies a cyclically repeating time slot.

Transmit data in a buffer-and-burst method, thus the
transmission for any user is not continuous.

TDMA has TDD and FDD modes.
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 TDMA Frame Structure
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (5)
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CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 TDMA Frame Structure (Cont.)
In TDMA, the preamble contains the address and
synchronization information that both the base station
and the mobiles use to identify each other.

Different TDMA standards have different TDMA frame
structures.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (6)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Features of TDMA (Cont.)

Share a single carrier frequency with several users.

Data transmission is not continuous, but occurs in bursts.

No duplexers is required since users employ different
time slots for transmission and reception.

TDMA can allocate different numbers of time slots per
frame to different users, allowing bandwidth be supplied
on demand to different users.




Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (7)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Combined used of synchronous TDMA and FDMA
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (8)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Asynchronous TDMA: Carrier-Sense Multiple
Access (CSMA)
Allows a transmitter to access the channel at any time
that is not being used by another transmitter.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) (8)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Transmitter may transmit at the same time, in the
same channel.

 Each signal is modified by spreading it over a large
bandwidth.
This spreading occurs by combining the transmitter signal
with a spreading sequence.
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) (1)
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CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) (2)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 example
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) (3)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Features of CDMA
Many users of a CDMA system share the same frequency.

The symbol (chip) duration is very short and usually much
less than the channel delay spread.

The near-far problem occurs at a CDMA RX if an
undesired user has a high detected power as compared to
the desired user.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) (4)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Frequency Hopping (1)
 Frequency hopping is a form of FDMA

 Each transmitter is allocated a group of channels,
known as hop set .

 The transmitter transmits data in short bursts,
choosing one of these channels on which to
transmit each burst.
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Time-frequency characteristic of a single
transmitter.
Frequency Hopping (2)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Signal received form a pair of frequency-hopping
transmitters.
Frequency Hopping (3)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Each bit is transmitted as a single pulse, with the
value of j-th bit determined by whether it arrives
before or after the reference time t
j.
Time Hopping (1)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Time Hopping (2)
 TH-PPM
t
T
s
T
c
T
f
( ) ( )
¿¿
÷
=
+
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
i
Ns
j
i c j iN f s tr tr
d T c jT iT t w t S
s
1
0
o
User1 : C
(1)
=[1 0 0 2] d
1
=0
User2 : C
(2)
=[0 1 2 0] d
2
=1
User3 : C
(3)
=[2 2 1 1] d
3
=0
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 A transmission technique in which a PN code,
independent of information data, is employed as a
modulation waveform to “spread” the signal energy
over a bandwidth much greater than the signal
information bandwidth.

 At the receiver the signal is “despread” using a
synchronized replica of the PN code.

 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)

 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)

Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (1)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
A carrier is modulated by a digital code in which the code
bit rate is much larger than the information signal bit rate.
These systems are also called pseudo-noise systems.

Also called code division multiple access (CDMA)

A short code system uses a PN code length equal to a
data symbol.

A long system uses a PN code length that is much longer
than a data symbol.

Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (2)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (3)
 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)

Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Basic principle of DSSS
For BPSK modulation
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (4)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
It divides available bandwidth into N channels and hops
between these channels according to the PN sequence.

Fast hopping

Slow hopping
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (5)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (6)
 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)

Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Modulation
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (7)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (8)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (9)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Performance in the presence of interference
Narrowband interference
Wideband interference
Gaussian noise
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (10)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (11)

Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (12)
 Narrowband interference
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Wideband interference
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (13)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Gaussian noise
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (14)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Hybrid FDMA/CDMA (FCDMA):
The available wideband spectrum is divided into a number of
subspectras with smaller bandwidths.
Each of these smaller suchannels becomes a narrowband
CDMA system having processing gain lower than the original
CDMA system.
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (15)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Hybrid Direct Sequence/Frequency Hopped Multiple
Access (DS/FHMA)
This technique consists of a direct sequence modulated
signal whose center frequency is made to hop periodically in
a pseudorandom fashion.
Having an advantage in that they avoid the near-far effect.
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (16)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Time Division Frequency Hopping (TDFH)
The subscriber can hop to a new frequency at the start of a
new TDMA frame.
Has been adopted in GSM.
Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (17)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (1)
 In packet radio (PR) access techniques, many subscribers
attempt to access a single channel in an uncoordinated (or
minimally coordinated manner.

 Collision from the simultaneous transmissions of multiple
transmitters are detected at the BS, in which case an ACK or
NACK signal is broadcast by the BS to alert the desired user of
received transmission.

 PR multiple access is very easy to implement but has low
spectral efficiency and may include delays.

 The subscribers use a contention technique to transmit on a
common channel.
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (2)
 ALOHA protocols, developed for early satellite systems, allow
each subscriber to transmit whenever they have data to sent.

 The transmitting subscribers listen to the acknowledgement
feedback to determine if transmission has been successful or
not.

 If a collision occurs, the subscriber waits a random amount of
time, and then transmits the packet.

 The performance of contention techniques can be evaluated by
throughput (T), which is defined as the average number of
message successfully transmitted per unit time, and the average
delay (D) experienced by a typical message burst.
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
 Packet Radio Protocols

 , vulnerable period is defined as
the time interval during which the
packets are susceptible to
collisions with transmission form
other user.

 Packet A suffer a collision if
other terminals transmit packets
during the period to
p
V
1
t
1
2 t t +
Packet Radio (3)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (4)
 Assume that packet transmissions occur with Poisson
distribution having mean arrival rate of packets per second
and is the packet duration in seconds. The traffic occupancy
or throughput R is given by .

 R is the normalized channel traffic (measured in Erlangs) and if
R > 1, then the packets generated by the users exceed the
maximum transmission rate of the channel. For reasonable
throughput, 0 < R < 1.

 Under normal loading, the throughput T is the same as the total
offered load L.

 The load L is the sum of the newly generated packets and the
retransmitted packets that suffered collisions.

R ìt =
ì
t
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (5)
 The normal throughput is given as the total offered load times
the probability of successful transmission, i.e.


 The probability that n packets are generated by the user
population during a given packet duration interval is assumed to
Poisson distributed and is given as



 The probability that zero packets are generated (i.e., no
collision) during this interval is given by

Pr[ ] Pr[ ] T R nocollision nocollision ìt = =
Pr(0)
R
e
÷
=
Pr( )
!
R
e
n
n
÷
=
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (6)
 Type of Access
Contention protocols are categorized as:
 Random Access: there is no coordination among that users and
the messages are transmitted from the users as they arrive at
the transmitter.

 Scheduled Access: based on a coordinated access of users on
the channel and the users transmit messages within allotted
slots or time intervals.

 Hybird Access: a combination of random access and scheduled.
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (7)
 Pure ALOHA
The pure ALOHA protocol is random access protocol used for
data transfer and a user accesses a channel as soon as a
message is ready to be transmitted.
After a transmission, the user waits for an acknowledgment on
either the same channel or a separate feedback channel.
In case of collisions, the terminal waits for a random period of
time and retransmits the message.
For pure ALOHA, the vulnerable period is double the packet
duration: ,

Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (8)
 Slotted ALOHA
In slotted ALOHA, time is divided into equal time slots of
length greater than the packet duration .
The subscribers each have synchronized clocks and transmit
a message only at the beginning of a new time slot.
The vulnerable period of slotted ALOHA is only one packet
duration, since partial collisions are prevented through
synchronization.
The probability that no other packets will be generated
during the vulnerable period is .
The throughput for the case of slotted ALOHA is thus given
by .
t
R
e
÷
R
T Re
÷
=
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (9)
 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
CSMA protocols are based on the fact that each terminal on
the network is able to monitor the status of the channel
before transmitting information.

In CSMA, detection delay and propagation delay are two
important parameters.
 Detection delay is a function of he receiver hardware and is the
time required for a terminal to sense whether or not the
channel is idle.
 Propagation delay is a relative measure of how fast it takes for
a packet to travel from a BS to a MS.
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (10)
 Several variations of the CSMA strategy
1-persistent CSMA

Non-persistent CSMA

p-persistent CSMA

CSMA/CD

Data sense multiple access(DSMA)
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (11)
Reservation Protocols
 Reservation ALOHA (R-ALOHA)
 R-ALOHA is a packet scheme based on time division multiplexing.
 Two phase: contention phase and transmission phase
 Mobiles contend the channel in reservation phase (slotted-ALOHA)
 Mobiles that succeed in making reservation can transmit without
interference
ACK
Frame N
. . .
B-M B-M
M-B M-B
ACK
. . .
Reservation
phase
Transmission
phase
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (12)
 PRMA (Packet Reservation Multiple Access)
 A combination of TDMA and reservation ALOHA
 Ask channel resource in the talkspurt
 Release channel resource in the silent gap
 Permission probability Effect of voice activity detector
Frame N
B->M ACK B->M B->M ACK ACK
...........
M->B M->B
...
M->B
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
Packet Radio (13)
 NC-PRMA (Non-Collision Packet
Reservation Multiple Access)
 The existing users inform the
BS about their demands in a
non-collision manner (time-
frequency signaling scheme)

I
i : Information slot
CM
i : Control minislot
C : Control slot
UID : Uplink user identifier
DID : Downlink user identifier

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