, ,-._rejects p ,4_'. '" , .

\· 1"




,·; __ .~_-::;-o-,:








• !.._


. '-"





M.e. Sharma, ;M.sc. _

-Sp:siness pX'pmo1iqn_~'urij~ti- '376~'~-e!:lt__ :~{ai_!\1Cll'k~t,Qelfti~ I1tJGQfi-


;4 Projects


: - ..






. -' 7"-'i


~ ',_'


O·····'p-·_,·_·, . _.
. ~.




Am ,_. '.np
... ~-.-.... -.









"k ..... Ji,y~.;

c ei..~~~·'·" -M' S-·c.
~.~U41JllI,f-!,< _,






1J-p:siness ,p{pmoiiQn-lJ'uJ:,~ati- '316t·~;{t __ ~-ai_~~ark~t~;Q_~~ l~QOO(i- .' .

Pubmlletr~f'~ .


@i,~US~S~RQMOnbN::utJt(E!U 4794/23~ harat kam ROOd, i~G8n1 B r NEw DEtitl-lllXm 8/1, Ritcbiestteet, MountRoail; MADRAS--0000iY2: .
+,,,269, Gmraj

BankSttee.t. Ill'DERABAlMOOOOl.

By:.t. same author: Practical Transistor Novelties Simple Audio Projects Practical SCRrrriac Projects Easy to Build Electronic A1aI;J:ns' Usmg Field Ej'fect Transistors
555 TiIqer-Use·and Appfications Build Your Own Test Instruments Understanding and UsmgMultimeten Digital Integrated Circuits-Learning by Experiments Using Semi-eonductor Diodes Power Suppliesfor AllOccas:ions Care 'and Repair of'Electronic Flash Guns CMOS Integrated Circuits-Learning by Ex:peritnents Using Functioin <5enerators and Phase Lock loops



.~ .


'. rublis~ilbyG.Q.lliin.fQ:r'Busmi::ss Prot;ootion Bureau. . .;'S76;~jpatRand!u~t;-ii:Etm-ll0006.
.Photo~tbY'N;~.EN'I'ERP~E~".DmJaganj.,~ewDf:Ihio.UO 002


;'llIaen" IU~~~~""






The Operational Amplifier IC74i" is perhaps one of the most inexpensive IC, available in the market. Yet it is comparable to the best of such Ie's in respect of versatility and superb performance. It is, therefore, natural that there is hardly any electronic magazine in the world which does hot contain a project using this Ie. This book which is now in your hands contains 41 projects emp-loying this Ie. You will find the electrical details of this Ie in the book itself, which make them so versatile. These projects ~vill provide the hobbyist, the experimenter and even the professional, practical experience in making these projects. In this connection, we would like to emphasise two aspects: firstly, good soldering and the use of Ie Sockets. It is not proposed to go into the details of good soldering, but. please bear in mind badly""soldered jqints will invariably disappoint you in the performance, of the pro" ject, no matter how well the circuit is designed or how good are the individual components. Secondly, it is always a .good practice to use an IC,socket, wire it up and then insert the Ie in the socket in the CORRECT way. At this stage, it will be appropriate to indicate that this IC741 is not capable of driving a loudspeaker directly .. Its output is usually connected to an output amplifier stage. At times, however, this IG may be designed to actuate a pair of earphones. . "J'he author Mr. M.C: Sharma is not new to our readers. Suggestions for improvement will be gratefully received by him as wen as ourselves.' . Publishers

INTRODUCTION 2. 4. PRACTICAL PROJECTS 3. Trigger: Pulse Generator 1. AC Motor Control 20. 5. 2. 13. 8. Schmitt Trigger 21. 7.. De Motor Control 19. Pulse Generator 23. 10. 9. Square Wave Generator 22. 1 5 35 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 IO- n Ii 12 _11 ·14 15 13 15~ 16 17 17 20 2Q 23 18 19 21 22 23 . Monostable Muliivibrator 26. 11. 3. POWER SUPPLIES Inverting DC Amplifier Non-Inverting DC Amplifier Inverting AC Amplifier Non-Inverting AC Amplifier DC Voltage FoIIower AC Voltage Follower Xtal Pickup Preamplifier Magnetic Pickup Preamplifier Magnetic Mike Preamplifier Guitar Preamplifier Telephone Pickup Preamplifier Mixer Amplifier Tone Control Signal Tracer 3WAmplifier 16. Multitone Bell 24. 6. 12W Amplifier 18. 12. Electronic Siren 25. 15.CONTENTS 1. ~4. Bistable Multivibrator 27. Intercom 17.

Positive Reference Voltage 35. Analog to Digital Converter 25 25 24 26 27 28 28 29 30 10 31 32 32 33 . Regulated Power Supply 37.28. PM Tuning Indicator 34. Engine RPM Counter 41. Flasher 29. Microampere Meter 40. Power Failure Indicator 32. Timer 30. Light Operated Relay 31. DC Voltmeter 38. Negative Reference Voltage 36. AC Millivoltmeter 39. Touch Controller 33.

-----Fig. Symbol for an Operational Amplifier. A signal applied to this input appears as an amplified but phase inverted signal at the output. A symbol used to represent an operational amplifier in schematics is shown in Fig.. The operational amplifier has two inputs and ooly one output. 1. One input is called the inverting input and is denoted by a minus.. The second input is called a non-inverting input and is denoted by a plus sign. often referred to as an Op Amp.!. The Op Amp is now used as a basic gain element. in electronic circuits. MQdem integrated 'circuit technology and large scale production techniques have brought down the prices of such am plifiers within reach of all amateurs. . is a' very high gain high performance amplifier designed to amplify ac and dc signal voltages. fa ~~---------- ".!. experimenters and hobbyists.. 11 . like an elegant transistor..!.. ! I . . A signal applied to this. sign.input appears at the output as an amplified signal which bas the same phase as that of the input signal.e I I NON-INVSRfING INPUT (+>0-----1 i ~o------.·1 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier.

Pin Confiiurations. 2 The availabIlity of two input terminals simplifies feedback circuitry and makes the operation a] amplifier-a highly 'Versatile device. Amp. the result is a negative feedback which gives a stable amplifier with precisely controlled gain characteristics. the result is positive feedback which-gives oscillators and multivibrators . It is available in 14-pin-dual_ in-line. if the feedback is applied to the non-inverting input. Pin configurations TOP VIEW Fig. 8-pin dual-in-tine or in TO-style. On the other hand.aun these packages are shown in Fig.._.. f TOP VIEW Of the different types of operational amplifiers p. type 741 has achieved a very wide popularity.. Pin Confi.. 'l"OPVI.gJJtations . [fa feedback is applied from the output to the inverting input tenninal.Special effects are obtained by combination of both types of feedbacks.odueed. . 3. 2.. .c:W TO_I" VI~ I"IN4CONNECTE[) TO-<'.A5E Fig.~.•for 741 0". for Type 74'!l Dual Op Amp. packages.

terminal to approximately half the supply voltage b-y Ii voltage divider network.3 nA Mil ·mV mV ± 15 . the de output voltage is zero. However. a small de voltage. Units ±5 1. The 741 <JoE.8- V rnA 500 6. It is too small to be objectionable in normal applications. as done.0 2. Typ. Pin configurations for different packages are shown in Fig.0 0. It has a built-in circuitry that provides full protection against output overloads or eve~ sho_rts to greund for any length of time. Max. 12 etc. or negative. But this does. the output voltage can be set precisely to zero by connecting a 10k potentiometer between terminals marked "offset-null" as shown in figures 4 and S. in figures 11. positive-.3. The operational amplifier needs a dual symmetrical power supply with its centre tap grounded as shown in Fig. Important technical parameters of type 741 are gjven below: Parameter _Supply Voltage Supply Current Input Bias Current Input Resistance Input Offset Voltage Offset Voltage Adjustment Range Min. with respect to ground. Operational amplifier type 741 has many features that have made . because of small internal unbalances..• 3 Integrated circuit type 747 accommodates two type 741 operational amplifiers in a single package. Thi~ enables the operational amplifier to amplify de signals of both polarity. It is possible to operate the 741 on a single railsupply also. not matter because the de can be easily blocked by a capacitor allowing only the ac signal to be passed on to the next stage.7 80 2. 1.. The circuit is so designed that if both inputs are connected to ground.0 ± 18- 2. The output dc voltage in such eases stands at half the supply voltage. For critical applications. _ may appear at the output. This is usually done by raising the standing de input voltage to the Doninverting input. Its frequency response has a smooth roll-ofif at the high end which keeps the circuit fully stable in all feedback configurations. it 50 popular._S not need any external component for phase compeasaaon or adjusting its frequency responsevThis simplifies circuit design and minimises the number of components used.

000 n rnA O.VIps mW The next chapter shows forty-one practical projects using 741. . 200. Units V~ltage Gain Output Resistance Output Short Circuit Current Gain Bandwidth Product.S 50 85 1 MHz . Two or more of these can be combined to meet individual requiremeats. Typ.4 Parameter Min. The experimenter caa Choose the correct one for his project. Slew Rate Power Consumption 20. Chapter 3 gives practical power ·supply arrangements to operate a 741 hom different types of primaIy power sources available.000 75 25 Max.

The input sigal is applied to the 'inverting input terminal of the 741 and the outlntt signal is therefore. A generai-parpo.!!! Rf 100 1 . 4. = -.1.. The maximum output: voltage swing is abOut-± 7 volts. BANDWIDTH lMHZ GAIN =10. INVER11NGDCj\MPL~K . The amplifier gain is decided b} .2· PRACTICAL ~PROJEC'TS 1. phase inverted.KHt Fig. 4.se inverting type of de amplifier 'operating OD_ a dual synunetricalsupply qf ± 9V is &Downin Fig.2 INPUT Z "" INPIIT GAIN OUTPUT 1 -9Y = =. GerieTal Purpose Inverting DC Am:plifi~r. The standing de OdtpUl: I voltage can be' -set exactly to zero by R4.4 1'1. the ratio of the feedback resistors Rl and R2. . »: "" - .

Rt GA. 6. lOOK R2 INPUT Z :> 1M .rpos..6 2.: Inverting AC Amplifier. 5. As befor . INPUT Z = ::: Rf 33K R2 . Since the input signal is applied to the noa-inverting input terminal of the 741. General Purpose Non-inverting DC Amplifier.• -9 Fig. A general purpose non-inverting type of de amplifier operating on a dual symmetrical supply of ±9V is shown in Fig. INVERTING .0 30KHz r J . The standing ou~ut VOltagecan beset exactly to zero by R3. 5.. " 3. NON-INVERTING DC AMPLIFIER. . the gain of the amplifier is decided by the feedback resistors Rl and ~. The input impedance in this case is high but the signal source must provide a de ground path for the input bias current. voltage swing is limited tl1l approximately ± 7 volts.IN oorvur 1 30 BANDWUTH . The outpu. General Pu.GAIN" -1+~ - R1 101 oareor INPln :::: BANDWIDTH 1 1 _ - lMHZ GAIN =10 'KHz Fig. AC AMPLIFIER R2 1M . the output signal has the same phase as that of the input signal.

of t~e amplificJ.. NON-INVERTING AC AMPLIFIER R2 • 3._~ INPUT 1 FJg.higher the gaip. R4 be - o~tted.. 7. the output signal is phase inverted. The low-frequency ron". for ac coupling via a capacitor. Amplifier. . OenentiPurpcse -1 BAtDVlO'I'H =- to 30KHz NOD-mvertmgAC Amplifier_ A general purpose Don-inverting type of ac amplifier is sbO\lr"D·in . has th~ same phase as that of the input signal.ff is decided by Cl . the standing de can' be Set exactly to iero by R4.nest stage tbrougb-a J_ capacitor. Th~-giin faUs by 3 dB. -c- . As the input signal is applied to the inverting input terminal.. The amplifier gajn'falls by 3 dB at afrequcncywhere the reactance of Cl becomes-equal to Rl. The inPt. 7.7 Fig.For direct coupling to the next stage..at' a frequency where reactance ofCl e"'}ualsR3.JOK INPUT Z = = = lOOK GAIN . Ii) shows a general purpose inverting type of acamplifier'. The amplifier gain is decided by the ratio of the feedback components R1 and RZ.lt sign@l is applied to the plus input of 741 and ~e output therefore. the lower will be bandwidth.gain can be setto any value by choosing R1 and R2 but~the:. can 4. R4 may be omitted if the amplifier ou~t is to be coupled to the ._'~ provIDes a di: grmmd patJi to ~e bias current.'+ R'2 R1 34 15HZ C1 6 OIITPur ~I'-J'_F_. Fig.

S shown in Fig. 8.DWIDTH == 1 MH~ A direct coupled unity gain voltage foDower is shown in Fig.1 F __ ~ .:...8 5. The frequency response extends up to Ilvfi-Iz. The signal input source must provide a direct path to ground of less than lOOk ohms for io:put bias current. sUl!ply i. Because of hundred"-per cent negative feedback .. DC VOLT AGE FOLLOWER INPUT Z = VERi < . INPuT C2 ~6~+-O~. 8. 1M 1 1'12 r OUfPUT Fig.:JTPUT Z /jIJTPlJr 1 OHM Ii/pur 1 Fig. AC VO~TAGE FOLLOWER +9103()V R1 M Cl ~i~.4~ ~~ 0. AC-Coupled Voltage Fgllower. 6. 9. The circuit is useful for impedance transformation. HIGI-j Oi. The circuit can deliver load current up to 10 milliamperes.• the input impedance is very high. Unity Gain DC Voltage Follower. 1 GAIN BAN.. 9. Voltage divider netwoJ!k of R1 and R2 An ac coupled unity gain voltage follower operating on a single .. and the output impedance isvcry low.

The low-frequency tolJ.electsolytic. ~~3f~f INPur ~~~ 1'12 22K -4 ooreor 1 1 Fig.:{)ff characteristics are-decided by C3.. The smaller is the R4. 1'14 K RS :s.10. 500k ohms-in this case.to the value of R1 and R2 in parallel. 'The circuit is basically a non-inverting ac amplifier (see Fig.1.input of 741. Preamplifier for a Crystal Pickup.. For low quency applications Cl and C2 can be replaced by .i..: capacitors of large values.e.-The output de voltage therefore stands at ha1f the supply voltage. 1) in which the gain is dependent on the feed back resistorR4.nt negative feedback. The output signal swings above and below this value. Beeause ofhundrea per ce. .qllal . . The standing de voltage at pin 6 does not matter because the output is coupled to the next stage via a eapacitor. "'Voltage diYider-networkcomprising of RI. de bias of about half the supply voltage to the non-iaverting . fre-' 1~ XTAL PICKUP PREAMPLIFIER . . the lower will be Ute: gain. 10..9 provides a de voltage equal to half the supply voltage to the 000inverting input of the 741. The input impedaneeis e. R2 and R5 provide a' . A preamplifier operating on a single supply and suitable for use with high impedance type crystal pkku~ is shown in Fig . the output impedance is very Jaw. The de output at pin 6 therefore stands at half'the supply voltage.9K +9 to30V lOf C2 FI + C1.

Preamplifier for MagneticPickup . R4 and R5 form a voltage divider to give a bias of about haJf the supply voltage to the non-inverting input of 741.to compensate for the pickup characteristics. 8. R5 and C3 form a supply line filter to reduce the hum level and also to eliminate motorboating incase the preamplifieris operated on a common supplywitb other circuits. MAGNETIC PICKUP PRlAMPLIFIER .002. 11. The 741 is used as an ae coupled non-inverting amplifier operating on a single supply .F C4 lK R1 '" INPUi '::eo ..10 R5 and C2 form a supply line filter to reduce the hum level as weil as to reduce the chances of motorboatmg when the preamplifier is operated on a common power supply. 1 R3 1M r C-5 OIJTPVr Fig.eompcnenss in which C2 CoDtro~ the low frequencY rolloff characteristics while ~ reduces the ~ at high frequency end. by· the feedback . TIm amplifier gainis decided.. . R3. A preamplifier for magneticpiekups of record players is shown in Fig. The output at pin 6 therefore stands at half the supply voltage. 11.

'l'Qpaone. 12 shows a preamplifier operating on a single supply and suitable for magnetic microphones. / . Preamplifier ""Fig. 11. The output can be accoupled-to the next stage via a capacitor- 10. GUITAR PREAMPL~ Fig. OUTPUT Fig. MAGNETIC MIKE'PREAMPLIFIER Rl 1K 5!}K R2 ItJPlJr 1 RS toox r for Magnetic Mit. Preamplifier for Electric Guitar. 12. The circuit operation is yery similar to that of Fig.11 9. 13.

'brilliant" or 'soft' tonal effects .(ersation without . 14. The circuit is basically similar in operation to those shownin figures 10 and 11. Potentiometer R6 forms the tone control. The circuit is basically an inverting: amplifier similar in operation to figure 6. Switch Swl is used to' produce. A preamplifier suitable for amplifying tiny signals picked up by the coil is shown in Fig. . it picks up inductively both sides of telephonic con. Variable resistor R4 sets tbe gain and the circuit delivers sufficient outputto drive an earphone directly. 14. 13. Preamplifier for TeJephone Pickup. 11..any electrical contact. TELEPHONE PICKUP PREAMP:t..12 A preamplifier suitable for use with high impedance type electric guitar pickups is shown in Fig. If a bigh impedance coil with: open magnetic core is placed near a telephone instrument or near one of the telephone wires.IFJER Fig.

17.n ~mitter junction of Tl and 1'2 stabilises the ampJifier de voltages '!lid its gain.sb-. 1be 741 is used as a.isamplified -by a complementary pair Tl and 1'2 to drive :a loudspeaker. The circuit is basically an inverting ~ amplifier operating on a single supply. iO lOOK 6-.. . . 11. The output can be eitherac or dc coupled to the ne~ stage. ".A diooeioputprobe at the input will convert this audio sip) tracer intO an r:f s~cer.. .A preamplifier circuit providing independent Bass and Treble tone controls is sbown in Fig. The tone control network ' is insetted in the negative feedback path.. An overall negative feedback from the COlIUllO..' 10" F 4. .- -Fig. 16.Jli.o9V G1+f . The audio output is enough to serve as a signal traeer .. It provides about 15dB of Bass and Treble cut and boost with respect to the gain at the mldfrequency of 1000 Hz. 14. and . A high gain aolplifier operating on " battery pack of 6 or 9 volts and suitable for use as a signal tracer is shown in Fig.gain nnD-inverting amplifiet its output . & +6.. . Signal Tracer.7K Rl . SIGNAL tRACER -\ ..

INTERCOM 10K r R7 "$WI. The fre-quenc-y response extends to 30 kHz and the circuit needs an input -signal.15 15._-+-. . 3 Watt Audio Amplifier. 16.5 volts for full power output.. L.12volts is shown in Fig. The first 741 isused as a tone. ~ . A general purpose 3 watt audio amplifier f!peniting on '8 single supply of . _.""".._ . -...---. ..control circuit (see Fig.DC blas for the non-inverting input terminals of beth operarioaar amplifiers is provided by R7 and R8. 18. 19.Two position Intei"tQm.3W AMPLIFIER RIO 270~ - 1':7 lK' • • Fig.. The output of second 741 if amplifie<iby cOmplementary transistor pair rt and 12..TALit ~c...of about 0.:.J Flg. 16) and is directly coupled to the next 7... SW2 = PIJSII-It> .§~N~H_ES -.. 18. .___.41. .

T4. The voltage drop across these resistors serves as the input signal to the transistor pairs. Resistors &1 and R2 serve-as individual volume controls. A bridge rectifier and filter capacnnrs C3 and C4 provide the 'dual symmetrical supply. In this circuit. 1'2 and TI. 17. Since R6 is connected to the ground.16 An intercom circuit operating ana dual symmetrical mains operated' power supply is Shown in Fig. 19. the positive or negative signal currents also pass through R4 or R5. A 12 Watt Amplifier. The 741 provides the required gain while the speaker drive is provided by the complementary Darlingtons Tl. 12W AMPLIFIER • 1.'JPlJ r 1 Fig. the speakers serve as microphones also. no coupling capacitor is required for the speaker. 20. . The figure shows ooly two positions but any number can be added in a similar manner. Fig. Hence. The first 741 is used as a microphone preamplifier and the second 741 with Xl and T2 form a power amplifier similar to those shown in figures 17 and 18. 20 shows a 12 watt audio amplifier operating on a dual symmetrical supply of ± 12 volts. The input signals for the Darlingtons are derived from the supply current of the 741. An overall dc negative feedback from the common collector junction of::n and T4 stabilises the dc conditions of the circuit and keeps the junction point at zero volts.

Resistor R7 sets the system sensitivity and PQte~tiometers R2 and R3 control the speed and direction of rotation. T4. T3 and T2.17 18. 22. the circuit is a de amplifier (see Figs. Fig. 21. De Motor Control. AC MOTOR -CONTROL Fig.• Basically. 4 and 5) followed by a direct coupled power amplifier comprising of transistor pairs TI. Speed Control of AC Motor. I 19. Such 'a circuit is suitable for antenna rotators and similar applications . DC MOTOR CONTROL Fig. 21 shows-a circuitfot oontinuous remote control otspeed and direction of rotation of a de motor. .

Fig. -23. this stage converts the square waves into triangular waveforms whjch is almost as suitable as a sine wave for driving the motor. 20. circuit shows two distinct signal input le_veisjor turning the circuit 'on' and 'off. A Schmitt trigger. Complementary transistor pair Tl and 1'2 provides the required drive to the motor.6K .18 TIle speed of an ae motor depends on tile frequency of supply voltage. Fig S. TIle first 741 is used as a square wave generator (see Fig.capacidve negative feedback. the speed of an ac motor can be controlled by varying the frequency. Schmitt triggers are useful in converting slowly rising waveforms into fast-rising ones and in relay like applications. The circuit operates on a single power supply. The second 741 is used as an integrator. lienee. '24) whose frequency ean be varied by Rl. SCHMITI TRIGGER 1'<1 10CI( - o- RB 5:6K . A Schmitt Trigger. within limits. The-difference between the Vonind Voff voltages is called 'hysteresis'. Because of heavy . -6 OlJrPlJT ~3 100K ~--~------------~~----------~----~--o_ ov Fig. 22 sho\V~ a circuit which can control the speed of a small 10 volt ae motor by varying the supply frequency from 30 Hz to 120 Hz..

a'?z). 24 . "Let us Presume that the output is high and the capacitor Cl is completely discharged.tickly to the fully positive output value. R6 and R7 for fast Switching.OlpF rOHz 'QOHz' 10K a.terminal to halfthe'sHpply The-circuit shown in Fig. The fre- .1}'F .ratio of R6 andR7.19 _R5.ircuit switches back qt. 2.. The amount of positive feedback depends on the. SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR R2 ~ FR~QUEiJCY MIN 1 Hz CI I MAX 25". When the voltage across Cl rises above that at the junction of R3 and R4. the output quickly switches tofuUy negative voltage.50/lz 2.5 K/'Iz IO/(/'Iz pOF lOOK R4 .24: Wide Range Square WaV¢Generator. Voltage dividers R8 and _R9 set the -de input voltage to the non-inverting input.Se$ positive feedback for Schmitt trigger action and negative feedback for timing of the waveform. when the negative voltage across Cl falls below that at pin 3. the c:. Cl now starts charging via R2 and RI. 500Hz Fig_. Again. 23 uses a 74Jwith positive feedback via voltage. The table in the figpre gives the relationship between the .0. "21. The larger the ratio. .:~ues of Cl and th~ frequency ranges covered. the smallerwllI be the ~hysten:sisshown tiy the circuit. A wide range square wave generator using a 741 is shown in Fig.. The circuit D. Potentiometer R2 sets the de voltage to the inverting input terminal and thus sets the threshold voltage at which the signal will trigger the circuit. Clnow starts discharging and charges in the opposite direction. The cycle repeats endlessly.3 rtJLIL Of/TP-UT 0. The input signal can be applied to either of the two input terminals.

C1 Fig.ltr:>lled to produce pulses of any duty ratio and repetition fate by choosing Cl correctly and adjusting R2 and R3 properly. The period for which the output is 'higlt' or 'low' can now becontrolled independently by lt2'and R3.26. . the output is a synimetrical square wave.2D queney range can be changed by altering the-ratio af R3 and R4. MULTITONE BELL A multitone call bell saves -up and down trips by distinguishing between calls made from the front door or back door or a side entrance. R3 and D2. A Wide RangePulseGenerator. A three-tone circuit using a741 is shown in Fig. Since th~ capacitor Cl ebarges and discharges.R 1 and discharges through Rl. 25. through the same resistors. 22. 23. The wide range pulse generator shown in Fig. Thus the pulse width and the time interval between the pulses can bec. R2 and. PULSE GENERATOR... 24 ex&pt that the charge and discharge paths of Cl have been separated by diodes Dl and D2. Cl therefore charges tbrough Dt... 25 is similar in operation to the square wave generator of Fig.

. C2 O. tOol< Rl . 26. Multitone Bell. 27: Electronic Sir-en. The output of amplified by a complementary transistor pair T1 and 1'2 to give tone in.21 LS a~ Hg.Olyf 1'14 .1jf R5 tOOK 1(101< c. 24) in tones 741 is a loud 24. . 101<. the speaker. 100~ II~~ fI~ 1'19 lOOt< 1001< O. Fig. ELECTRONIC SIREN 1M '12 4-12\1 'I'. R2 and R3 produce different when any of the three call buttons is pressed.. The circuit is basically a square wave generator (see Fig.(. which the three resistorsRl.

----<.uT0Ji.5 Fig..n. d!e siren will be turned on and off periodically..$ C2 . C2 and R6.Dlal value.. remains high for a predetermined 'period and then falls back to its npJ. MONOStlBLE MULTIVIB_. the output at pin 6 stands at its fUlly negative value. quickly goes fully positive and capacitor C2 starts charging through R2. the ontputof whicb modulates the high frequenay tone produced by the second 741 multivibrator. The output ther.~ F 10 m. A Monostable Multivibrator.. Normally. A monostable multivibrator using a 741 and operating' GO a dual symmetricel power supply is shown in Fig. Rl keeps the de voltage at pin 2 higher than tbat on pin 3 and hence. 25. The periods for different values of C2 and R2 are shown in tne table.__ __ + 5 15V R2 . For example if the value of Clis made large.--. 28. Tt and the loudspeaker. . Such circuits are useful in timing applications. The first 741 is a low frequency multivibrator.$ 0·5 0.01 so 5 0. =r4!l" \100 INPur 0. Different and interesting tones can be obtained by changing the frequency determining components viz· Cl. 0. 24) is the electronic siren shown in Fig. ready to be triggered by the next inpU:~ pulse.efote..22 Another application of the square wave generator (see Fig.5 0'1 .asfuUy chatged. to .'at I i .. 28. The final output is amplified and converted into a loud siren sound by. 27.. the charging current drops and the circuit quickly retu~ to its normal position.. when triggered once. A sharp negative going pulse at the input tenninallowers the voltage at pin 2 to a value below that pin 3. The output of a monostable multivibrator. R2.. The voltage developed across R2 by the charging current maintains the output to its high value: Wlien C2l:J.

Ol/TPI/. BISTABLE MUI. TRIGGER"PULSE GENERATOR R2 lOOK . A Bistable Multivibrator.:_~F"'t-.widt~ Pul s e widti1 ~--_~~~±OV 10 10K P.01]1 ('. 30. L_..-----------t_R3 100l( R2 470K Hi Fig..to its previous position.J 0----11--"" --Rl L. The ~cuit output wiU remain latched in that position tifl the next pulse of the proper polarity is applied. Similarly.F = 11')]1 )ec. 'the latching action is obtained by a small amount of positive' feedback provided byR2 and ro.----------_. C2 =... A negative trigger pulse at input-l or a positive pulse at input-z will change the output from low to high. Such circuits are useful in centrol applications. 29....TIVIBRATOR Cl ~1-5.pc_ Fig. .. 29. 17. Positive and Negative Pulse Generator. a positive pulse atlnput-lor anegativepulse atinput-2 will change the output state from high to low.. R6 RS -9 ~rIY'- -4 F Pulo.2 = ·OOly. high (output fully positive) or low (output fully negative) till the 'state is changed by a trigger pulse .23 26.-_+9 to 15V OUrp"T 10'1<.. INPI/T-. = 1 y.". The output in this case remains latched . IIiPI/T-. __ --. A bistable muhivibrater using a 741 is shown in Fig..

A circuit that provides sharp positive or negative going pulses repetitively is shown in Fig. 31. The 741 is used as a square wave generator (see Fig. FLASHER Fig. .5 shown in Fig. 24j w. If an LED is connected to the output as shown in the figure. Dl and R9 to give a positive going pU:lse. . 32. For tlashing230 volts lamps. 30. 31.nose frequency is controlled by R1. D2 R8 to give a negative going pulse. and 28".via R5 and a zener diode. Resistor R4 sets the flashing 'rate. 24) operating on a single supply.and by CZ. In tbe electronic flasher shown in Fig. The output pulses can be used to trigger multivibratots either directly or through coupling capacitors. omit R6 and the LED and connect transistors Tl and T2 in a compound emitter follower configuration. the 741 is used as a square wave generator (see Fig. the circuit becomes a tiny flasher. provides sufficient drive to the lamp. The output of741 is directly coupled to Tl. The output at tbe collector is differentiated by C2. replace the lamp in the emitter circuit of T2 by a relay and a diode combination 3. Electronic Flasher. For making a high power flasher.24 the monostable and the bistable multMbrators require sharp pulses for their triggering. 1'2.

33 will SWitch'offa relay When the light falling on the LDR (Light Dependent Resist-or) falls below a certain intensity. the input.e arrangement is' suitable for battery operation. Blectronic Thner. . L . The supply to the 741 is applied either through the START switch or through the Kl... It can be used as an obstacle When tbdight intensity is low" the LDR resistance is high and so. th.. r In the timer circuit of Fig. ooot'acts' of a DPDT relay. LIGHT OPERATED RELAY The light operated circuit shown in Fig. The ciremt IS now ready for next timing cycle. When the light intensity increases above a ccrt. When the voltage across CI exceeds that at pin 3. 30.t.~th~ ~UP-W.Uo value.S. the output of 741 goes to ~bnOstzero an d th. voltage at pin 2. The output at pin 6 is.. At this time.~-- 25 29. the 741 is used as a voltage comparator. the voltage at pin 2 falls below that at pin 3 and. Capacitor Cl now charges slowly through Rl and R2 . and the voltage at pin 3 is about 2/3 of the supply voltage . The stand-by power consumption of the circuit is zero and hence.edThiS. . .e ~l. interru. is zero because ci is completely discharged. A momentary touch on the START switch applies powerto the 741... because of alarm.therefore almostze. P Iy line and Cl quickly discharges through D1 and Tl..ay is de-ene . 32. 32. is the voltage at pin 2.ro and the relay is open. The output of 741 is therefore fully positive and the relay latches. TIMER Fig.. .rgi.

This energises the relay..-0 I I I ---. 23) and the consequent hysteresis eliminates the relay chatter. the output quickly rises to fully positive value....26 ~-----r----~--------.URE INDICATOR RESEr 0=1 01 lN40()1 Fig. if required. -ov Fig. 31. positive feedback. The dotted lines-show theeonnections for a latching action.R5 introduces a . 34... Power Failure Indicator..-~------~ I ~-9'to24V I I I ______ .-- n U ~-- v' J I . The diode in parallel with the relay protects the transistor from hl~voltages induced in the -relay coil . 33. . 'The positive feedback via. I I I "ELAV_' 700 .. the circuit can be de-energised by interrupting the _supplyline momentarily.. In that case.. Light Operated Relay.. POWER FAn.:. .during switch ott...Schmitt trigger action (see Fig.

The circuit stays in tbis state till the reset button is pressed. It may beused to drivea variety of vcltage-eontrolled circuits such as voltage-controUed oscillators! volta. holds the voltage at the non-inverting input low. The LED is therefore not lit. When the . ~--~--------~-------------?----------~+ 6 . Upon festoration of the supply the inverting input is immediately pulled up to its previous voltage. Touch Control1er~ The simple touch c{)ntroUer shown in Fig.ge-controlled attenuators an~amplifiers.. The output of 741 therefore swings low thereby lighting the LED. 34 indicates power failure by a glowing LED. Ct being uncharged. However. especiaUy digital systems must have a continuous power supply to ensure correct operation.27 Manyctrcuits. When the supply is interrupted all voltages fall to zero. 35. again . via D1. For example. Th~ circuit. .6 volts lower than the supply voltage.. Positive feedbac$ via R2 makes the circuit latch in this state. the voltage at pin 2 of741 is 0. Pressing the reset button makes pin 3 voltage-higher than that at pin 2 and the output swings high .! Fig.supply is switched OQ. 35 gives a de output voltage which can be varied by touchingtwo pairs of touch contacts.024V Pt~rt'5 1M R1 rOIlCH '00:1( R. a digital clock owner must know that the clock has to be'reset 10 correct time. in Fig.

The-input terminals can be connected directly in place of the meter.33. ar action in the opposite direction takes place when the upper pair contacts is bridged by a finger. The output voltage therefore stands at half the supply voltage. by R2. For long term stability. to input bias current of 741 the output voltage will tend to drift with time. FMTuning'Indicator. like S356C. the voltage at . A s' . 36.0 pairs: of contacts. The net effect is that the output The 741 is used as an invettingmtegrator. Fjg. An example to use the output voltage for making a voltage controlled attenuator using a lamp and an LDR is·also shown in the figure. Hence.'The non-iDvertinginput ci bf voltage can be controlled by the fOuch on the tw. keep the voltages at pins 2 'and 3 equal. . the output . . If the lower pair of touch centacts is bridged by a finger. Due. 36 shows a circuit that can replace a centre-zero tuning indicator meter in FM receiver. replace 741 with aFET input op-amp . The reference voltage can be set to precise values by R2. The integrating action of the Ie tries. an 34.28 is held at half the supply vQItage by R2 and R3. POSITIVE REFERENCE VOLTAGE Fig. Correct tuning h indicated when both the LED's are off. FM TUNING iNDICATOR R2 :BOK II/PI'" 1 Fig.indication sensitivity is set. The .pin 2 oftbe Ie falls.voltage rises and' the charging curreat ~jUgh ~d Rl tries to. to keep tbis vtiltage equal to that at pin 3. 37 shows a variable positive voltage reference supply.

Rl -~-- Fig.ce Supply. the 'output voltage 'is determined by the formula given in the figure. 37. 38 operates' in a manner similar to that in Fig.w Z~I)~r + RtF. Within Ibnits. thecircuit is a dc ~plifi.29 3. Basically. 31. Negative Voltage Refel'eo.er (see Fig..E eosrnv« ourpuT 1~!.3V. The formula for the de output is . POiitive Volta~ Refere~ee Supply. 4 and S) in which the negative feedback 'is via a zener diode.E. except that it operates on a negative supply and provides: iii negative reference voltage output. 38.C.I'ICI! oarrur I VO"'" _"R!+R2 n.!'REN. 4O:O". The circuit shown in Fig.~ +5 '1Q ourrur t .I: out = Fig. 3. NEG" TlVE REFERENCE VOLTAGE NEf. also given in the figUre.5.E IIEFEi?.A TIV.

If the Joad current exceeds lA.6 volts and 1'3 starts conducting. compound emitter follower T1. _ a "37•. The voltage regulated Power supply shown in Fig. All the load eurrent flows through R6. This bypasses the supply to T1 and T2'and the regulating a~'On stops. The non-inverting input terminal of 741 is given a stable voltage by R3 which is the control to set the output. A fraction of the regulated output isfed back via·R4 andR5 to the inverti. DC ·'vQLTMETER A high impedance de voltmeter using a 741 is shown in Fig.ng input terminal.Voltage Regulated DC Power Supply. Rectifier diodes D 1 and D2 along with filter capacitor Cl provide the main unregulated supply. The operational amplifier adjusts its output voltage so as to keep the voltage at the input terminals equal. D3.and 1'2. Any of the output terminals can be grounded to get positive or anegative voltal{e with respect to the ground. The output of 741 is amplified by a . Thus the output gets regulated. 39 provides an adjustable voltage output at a load current up to lAo The supply has it built*in overload protection. 3~. C2. REGULATEDPOWE'RSUPPLY BV126 D1 Fig. R8 and a zener diode provide a negative voltage supply for the 741. 40. The operational amplifier is usedas a non-inverting deamplifier (see . The output voltage therefore starts falling when the load current exceeds lA.)0 36. the voltage drop across R6 exceeds 0.

~" soo« . AC MILLIVOLTMETER 1'<2 F'!. Since R6 is 100 ohms. Fig. ACMiUivoltmeter. High Impedance DC V-ohmeter. The at J. The operational amplifier output overcomes the.1 193 R2 R3 10K 111 . Choice of Rl and R2 for getting different voltage ranges are shown in the tabJe.Ilillivoltmeter shown in Fig. 5) in which the negative feedback is through a de meter requiting lmA for full scale deflection.1I5t:G/~ V"/t. 41 uses a 741 as an inverting amplifier.1'001( tOOK 11'2 Full $<"'~ VQII<i. 41..1 volts.0"" IV fOV ~C 1M Fig. 40. viz 0. Diodes Dl arid 02 protect the Ie from accidental excessive input voltages and diodes D3 and D4 protect the meter from overloads.or 1~F INPUT Rt IK 10K TOOK 112 1M 1M 1M 1M 1"mV . barrier voltage of .3.g ~~ (". The negative feedback is through a bridge rectifier and R2. 38. the meter will show full scale reading when the de input voltage to pin 3 is equal to the voltage drop across R6.OM rOM n lev '01711 to -9V I( Fig.

40.A -9V 100. The current to be measured is passed through a known resistance' R and the voltage drop across it is measured. The 741. acting as. 40.into square waves by Dl and D2. The microampere meter shown in Fig.1\. Capacitor Cl differentiates these square waves and sharp pulses are applied to the inverting input of 741.a pulse stretcher.f:J/~ aUFr. Zener diodes D3 and DAprovide a regulated supply to the IC as welJ as provide a mid point fOI giving half the supply voltage to the non-inverting' input terminal. 42. .MICROAMPERE METER II lOOK 10K IK FgII S€.".. 43 indicates the RPM of an engine on a meter. The input signal is taken from the contact points of the engine. The eircuit gives full seale deflection for 0. ENGINE RPM COUNTER by deflection The analog meter shown in Fig. Microammeter. Choice of Rl and R2 for getting different ranges are shown in the table. I)' A 10jlA 100pA I". 39. R4 100 Fig. Calibration control R7 is set by applying known voltage at the input and adjusting R7 till the meter reads the correct voltage. The table in the figure shows the relationship between different values of R and the current that will give full scale deflection. the voltage acrossthe contacts is converted . 42 is basically a de millivoltmeter similar to that shown in Fig.32 the diodes and gives linear rectification characteristics.1 V input. As the contacts make and break. gives a pulse of fixed amplitude .

43. ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER- G l" I I I C'\J I ~ I L... For some particular setting.N T"<AN5ISTOR SYMBOL OF f'<l(lGRAM MABLE UNUUNCTION ' TRANSISTOR J.. Symbol for Put and Put Equivalent. These pulses are rectified by D5 and D6 and the average current through the meter is directly proportional to the engine RPM._. and fixed duration for each input pulse. M.33 1<5 330-"+12V 4. urr.QN TI'lAN.are measured by a stroboscope and R6 is set till the meter reads the same RP]I....f I > _ K UtJI.Q'IoIIV"L£NT CIRCUIT OF PROGRAMMABLE l:INf. the engine RPM .lJNctIQ.15TOR Fig.7V 03 l°:t:r CJ 132 5~ V l_ ~----~ L_ ----~--~--- oX Fig.1.. 41. RPM COunter. .)UNCTI.

can be set to a desired value by 'application of a_Be voltage to the. . The capacitor s:hargingeurrent is given by Vio/tll. Analog to D~gital Converter. 44) is a certain. Fig. When -a negative de input signal is applied to the inverting input via R'l. thflrefol'e the frequency of the output signal is directly pro pertien a1to the input signal voltage. Two complementary transistors can also be connected in a regenerative manner to give Pl}T like operatiorr characteristics.count~r diFeedy-indicates tbe input voltage. As soon as the voltage across the capacitor C2 reaches a certain value. the PUT fires.alteredand. R4 is used to "Set'tbeinput signal tbreshofd to reject noise etc. the output voltage at pin 6 falls to zero and the-cycle starts again. The symbo Ifor a PDT is shown in Fig.fraction of the total supply voltage (Vl+vi). 45 the 14115 used as an integrator. As the circuit uses a PUT (programmable Unijunctfon Transistor). 44. the output' voltage starts rising linearly and capacitor C2st_artscbarging. hi Fig. 45. Patentieraeter R8 is-set to give a convenient multiplier s~ 100 or 1000 so that a digita1. IB a_PUT this fraction can be.gate of the PUT. 45. let us see bow a PUT works. This fraction is the characteristic of the UJT -and is specified by the manufacturer .34 The analog-to-digital converter shown in Fig.gives a saw tooth output signal whose frequency is directly proportional to -the ma@itude ordc input voltage. A unijunctton transistor fires when the 'voltage Vi between its emitter and base two (see Fig.

. +15V to".: POWER SUPPLIES In most of the applications.o . 46. L -For mains operation different circuit configurations are given below: 01 Fig. the operational amplifiers require a dual supply. 47. Half Wave Rectifier. The current drawn by a 741 under no load conditions is about 3 rnA only and the sinrptest power supply for its operation is a pack of two batteries connected as -shown in Pi'g. '" -I5V lamo txl~F ±ov Fig.3 . Full Wave Rectifier.

. 48. provides enough regu'ia~on economically.__~~--------_o-~ (b) V Fig. +~--~---------~--------_o+~ 2 lK &---+----. 48b. ] Fig.36 46 _A full-wave rectifier using . a bridge connected as shown in Fig. ment can be used to give a dual low current supply from a high voltage ' ". A dual supply using two zener diodes as -'regulatorS/ as wen as splitters is shown in Fig. A similar arrange- de-supply as shown in Fig. 49. A floating supply can be split up in two voltages. 47 gives lesser hum and better load and supply regulation. 48a by a resistive divider. as shown in Fig.+0---__1'--_o+ 1K A simple half-wave rectifier giving a dual output is shown ip Fig. Zener RegulatedDua1 Supply. 50. A much better arrangement consuming very little stand-by power is to use an operational amplifier as shown in Fig. positive and negative with respect to ground. Fpr low current requirements a zener diode. 49. Voltage Splitters.

.. High Voltag~ DC Source.1W- :Jaov oa 3...c_. 51.20 Fig.1NI/ 15V Fig. - 250Jl.Fi: - 70' ~F='" +ov i '-.Op Amp" Supply.. 37 10K S'W 10K SW 1K lW ..? 2.32j. .5 V . lSV. Op Amp. 50... Supplytfom High Voltage AC Source.F~ 7DV ~--~--~~--~M---'_--------~-15V BY1.f-1' +lSV + !II RUT 15V. Sucharrangements are good only for low current requirements.~ZM".from a. Fig 51 shows a transfottnerless dsal low voltage power sl1pply for operational amplifiers. A series eapaciser is used as a voltage dropping device in place of a resistor.. ~ ~r!Zril'lJ. +15V . .". '..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful