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Published by Martin hume
Weather Modification - Artificial Ionospheric Mirror - Plasma Layer.
Weather Modification - Artificial Ionospheric Mirror - Plasma Layer.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Martin hume on Jul 25, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The 3D array element antennas must satisfy a number of partially conflicting
performance requirements. They must be sufficiently broadband to allow full-
bandwidth transmission and reception of both up- and down-shifted plasma lines from
a full bandwidth transmitter pulse, they must exhibit the maximum directivity
commensurate with the specified field-of-view of each array but at the same time have
as little gain as possible towards the horizon, they must be capable of generating any
arbitrary polarisation and they must be sufficiently insensitive to climatic effects to
maintain their characteristics even when loaded with snow and ice.

We define antenna bandwidth as the frequency range over which the magnitude of the
antenna feedpoint complex reflection coefficient | s11| < -20 dB. This definition is
appropriate for a transmitting antenna, since for the transmitter to deliver its rated
output power the antenna impedance must be maintained inside a fairly narrow range.
Obviously, the transmitted spectrum can be no wider than the frequency band
allocated to the system by the authorities (229.928 – 236.632 MHz in the present
case). This is therefore also a lower limit on the antenna bandwidth, but more will be


helpful in ensuring that the antenna maintains its basic performance also when loaded
with snow and ice. When used for reception, the impedance-matching requirement is
less stringent, which is a great help for the designer.

In the EISCAT_3D Performance Specification Document [D2.1], the system field-of-
view (FOV) is specified as follows:

“The beam generated by the central core transmit/receive antenna array will

be steerable out to a maximum zenith angle of 40°in all azimuth directions. At

300 km altitude, the radius of the resulting field-of-view is approximately 200

km. In the N-S plane this corresponds to a latitudinal coverage of ±1.80°

relative to the transmitter site.

The antenna arrays at the 3D receiving facilities will be arranged to permit tri-

static observations to be made throughout the central core FOV at all altitudes

up to 800 km.”

This requires that the full opening angle of the Core antennas is at least equal to the
maximum zenith angle, i.e. ± 40o

. At the receive-only sites, antennas with an opening

angle of ± 30o

can be used. As nothing is said in the PSD about how much gain drop
can be accepted at the FOV limits, we have – somewhat arbitrarily – fixed this at the -
1 dB level.

The basic electrical performance specifications can now be summarised as follows:

Centre frequency 235.0 MHz
s11 < -20 dB bandwidth > ± 6 MHz
–1 dB opening angle ± 40o

(core array elements), ± 30o

(receive-only array

Arbitrary polarisation
Gain at angles > 75o

off-boresight as low as possible, ideally at least –16 dB

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