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  • UNIVERSALISM IN THE EARLY CENTURIES Chapter 1 - The Earliest Creeds
  • Teaching of the Twelve Apostles
  • The Apostles' Creed
  • The Oldest Credal Statement
  • Tertullian's Belief
  • The Nicene Creed
  • General Sentiment in the Fourth Century
  • The Niceo-Constantinopolitan Creed
  • Statements of the Early Councils
  • Chapter 2 - Early Christianity, A Cheerful Religion
  • Darkness at the Advent
  • "Sweetness and Light"
  • Oriental Asceticism
  • Wonderful Progress of Christianity at First
  • God's Fatherhood
  • Christianity, a Greek Religion
  • An Impressive Thought
  • Testimony of the Catacombs
  • Early Funeral Emblems
  • Cheerful Faith of the First Christians
  • Dean Stanley's Testimony
  • Meaning of Scriptural Terms
  • Philo's Use of the Words
  • Use of Gehenna
  • Whence Came the Doctrine?
  • Of Heathen Origin
  • The Apocryphal Book of Enoch
  • Catholic Hell Copied from Heathen Sources
  • Early Christianity Adulterated
  • Original Greek New Testament
  • "Mitigation" Explained
  • The Doctrine of "Reserve"
  • What Was Held as to Doctrine
  • Modern Theologians Equivocal
  • Even Lying Defended
  • Chapter 5 - Two Kindred Topics
  • Gospel Preached to the Dead
  • The Gospel of Nicodemus
  • Prayers for the Dead
  • Condition of the Dead not Final
  • Important Thoughts
  • Chapter 6 - The Apostles' Immediate Successors
  • The First Christians not Explicit in Eschatological Matters
  • Views of Clement of Rome
  • Polycarp, a Destructionist
  • The Martyria
  • Barnabas's "Way of Death"
  • The Shepherd or Pastor of Hermas
  • Ignatius Probably a Destructionist
  • Justin Martyr's Views
  • Punishment Not Endless
  • Interesting Exposition of Irenæus
  • The Creed or Irenæus
  • Probably a Universalist
  • Bunsen's View
  • Athenagoras and Theophilus
  • The Basilidians
  • The Carpocratians
  • The Valentinians
  • Phases of Gnosticism
  • Noteworthy Facts
  • The Righteous Pray for the Wicked
  • The Oracles are Early Christian Classics
  • Sir John Floyer's Blunder
  • Pantænus, the "Sicilian Bee"
  • The Alexandrine School
  • Alexandria and its Famous School
  • Alexandria the Christian Metropolis
  • The Alexandrine Teachers
  • Max Muller's Words
  • Clement of Alexandria
  • Clement's Philosophy
  • A Transition Period
  • Clement's Language
  • Further words of Clement
  • Allen's Statement
  • Bigg on Clement
  • Frederick Denison Maurice's Eulogy
  • Early Opposition to Origen
  • Professor Schaff on Origen
  • Gehenna Denotes a Purifying Fire
  • His Critics are his Eulogists
  • The Death of Origen
  • A Christian Philosopher
  • A Bible Universalist
  • The Works of Origen
  • The Final Answer to Skepticism
  • The First of Christian Theologians
  • Quotation of Origen's Language
  • Origen's Exact Words
  • Meaning of Aionios
  • Origen on the Purifying Fire
  • Origen on Gehenna
  • Views of "Foolish Christians" on Fire
  • Mosheim and Robertson
  • The "Dictionary of Christian Biography"
  • Translation of Origen's Language on Universal Restoration
  • Mercy and Justice Harmonious
  • Origen's Grand Statement
  • Blunt on Origen
  • Dr. Bigg on Origen
  • Bunsen on Origen
  • Origen Cruelly Treated
  • Origen's Theology Generally Accepted
  • His Universalism Never Condemned
  • Origen's Contemporaries
  • Ancient Universalist Schools
  • Dr. Beecher's Testimony
  • Origen Misrepresented
  • Dr. Pond's Misrepresentation of Origen
  • Universalism in Good Repute in the Fifth Century
  • Different Opinions on Human Destiny
  • The Tributes of Scholars
  • A Catholic Eulogy
  • Fourth Century Universalists Ideal Christians
  • Hippolytus
  • Dean Wordsworth's Error
  • Theophilus
  • Tertullian
  • Advocates Endless Torment
  • Ambrose of Alexandria
  • The Manichæans
  • Manichaean Doctrines
  • Prof. Shedd's Historical Inaccuracy
  • Several Fathers
  • Epiphanius
  • Chapter 15 - Gregory Nazianzen
  • Bishop of Constantinople
  • The Penalties of Sin
  • Views Defined by Great Scholars
  • Author of Nestorian Declarations
  • Dorner on Theodore
  • Unity in Diversity
  • The Nestorians
  • The Nestorian Liturgies
  • Dr. Beecher on Theodore
  • Instructive Facts
  • Character of Early Universalists
  • "Macrina the Blessed."
  • A Saintly Woman
  • Macrina's Religious Sentiments
  • Her Last Days
  • Macrina a Representative Universalist
  • Basil the Great
  • Basil's Language
  • Cave's Error
  • Eulogies of Basil
  • The Mass of Christians Universalists
  • Gregory Nyssen
  • Gregory's Language
  • Perversion of Historians
  • Opinions in the Fourth Century
  • Words of Titus of Bostra
  • Ambrose of Milan
  • Hilary
  • The Blessed
  • Works of Theodoret
  • Evagrius Ponticus
  • Diodore of Tarsus
  • Chrysologus
  • Maximus 580-662
  • Chapter 19 - The Deterioration of Christian Thought
  • Transition of Christianity
  • Jerome--331-420
  • Jerome's Politic Course
  • A Miserable Story
  • Chrysostom's Views
  • Neander and Schaff
  • Augustine and Origen Contrasted
  • Augustine's Acknowledgment
  • Milman on Augustinianism
  • Augustine Less Severe Than Modern Orthodoxy
  • Decadence and Deterioration
  • Christianity Paganized
  • Augustinianism Cruel
  • Justinian's Views
  • Home Synod Canons
  • The Council Refused to Condemn Universalism
  • Universalism not Condemned for Five Centuries
  • Significant Facts and Conclusions
  • The Ancient Councils
  • Justinian's Suppression of the Truth
  • Justinian and His Age
  • The Divine Light Eclipsed
  • Christianity's Eclipse
  • The Caricatures of Dante and Angelo
  • Re-birth of Universalism
  • The Dawn of Truth

Theodore is said to have introduced universal restoration into the liturgy of the Nestorians, of which sect he was one
of the founders. His words were translated into the Syriac, and constituted the office of devotion among that
remarkable people for centuries. His works were circulated all through Eastern Asia, through which, says Neander,
the Nestorians spread Christianity. This great body of Christians exerted a mighty influence until they were nearly
annihilated by the merciless Tamerlane. He is still honored among the Nestorians as the "Interpreter."


In Theodore's confession of faith he says, after stating that Adam began the first and mortal state, "But Christ the
Lord began the second state. He in the future, revealed from heaven, will restore us all into communion with
himself. For the apostle says: 'The first man was of the earth earthly, the second man is the Lord from heaven,' that
is, who is to appear hereafter thence, that he may restore all to the likeness of himself."5

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