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  • UNIVERSALISM IN THE EARLY CENTURIES Chapter 1 - The Earliest Creeds
  • Teaching of the Twelve Apostles
  • The Apostles' Creed
  • The Oldest Credal Statement
  • Tertullian's Belief
  • The Nicene Creed
  • General Sentiment in the Fourth Century
  • The Niceo-Constantinopolitan Creed
  • Statements of the Early Councils
  • Chapter 2 - Early Christianity, A Cheerful Religion
  • Darkness at the Advent
  • "Sweetness and Light"
  • Oriental Asceticism
  • Wonderful Progress of Christianity at First
  • God's Fatherhood
  • Christianity, a Greek Religion
  • An Impressive Thought
  • Testimony of the Catacombs
  • Early Funeral Emblems
  • Cheerful Faith of the First Christians
  • Dean Stanley's Testimony
  • Meaning of Scriptural Terms
  • Philo's Use of the Words
  • Use of Gehenna
  • Whence Came the Doctrine?
  • Of Heathen Origin
  • The Apocryphal Book of Enoch
  • Catholic Hell Copied from Heathen Sources
  • Early Christianity Adulterated
  • Original Greek New Testament
  • "Mitigation" Explained
  • The Doctrine of "Reserve"
  • What Was Held as to Doctrine
  • Modern Theologians Equivocal
  • Even Lying Defended
  • Chapter 5 - Two Kindred Topics
  • Gospel Preached to the Dead
  • The Gospel of Nicodemus
  • Prayers for the Dead
  • Condition of the Dead not Final
  • Important Thoughts
  • Chapter 6 - The Apostles' Immediate Successors
  • The First Christians not Explicit in Eschatological Matters
  • Views of Clement of Rome
  • Polycarp, a Destructionist
  • The Martyria
  • Barnabas's "Way of Death"
  • The Shepherd or Pastor of Hermas
  • Ignatius Probably a Destructionist
  • Justin Martyr's Views
  • Punishment Not Endless
  • Interesting Exposition of Irenæus
  • The Creed or Irenæus
  • Probably a Universalist
  • Bunsen's View
  • Athenagoras and Theophilus
  • The Basilidians
  • The Carpocratians
  • The Valentinians
  • Phases of Gnosticism
  • Noteworthy Facts
  • The Righteous Pray for the Wicked
  • The Oracles are Early Christian Classics
  • Sir John Floyer's Blunder
  • Pantænus, the "Sicilian Bee"
  • The Alexandrine School
  • Alexandria and its Famous School
  • Alexandria the Christian Metropolis
  • The Alexandrine Teachers
  • Max Muller's Words
  • Clement of Alexandria
  • Clement's Philosophy
  • A Transition Period
  • Clement's Language
  • Further words of Clement
  • Allen's Statement
  • Bigg on Clement
  • Frederick Denison Maurice's Eulogy
  • Early Opposition to Origen
  • Professor Schaff on Origen
  • Gehenna Denotes a Purifying Fire
  • His Critics are his Eulogists
  • The Death of Origen
  • A Christian Philosopher
  • A Bible Universalist
  • The Works of Origen
  • The Final Answer to Skepticism
  • The First of Christian Theologians
  • Quotation of Origen's Language
  • Origen's Exact Words
  • Meaning of Aionios
  • Origen on the Purifying Fire
  • Origen on Gehenna
  • Views of "Foolish Christians" on Fire
  • Mosheim and Robertson
  • The "Dictionary of Christian Biography"
  • Translation of Origen's Language on Universal Restoration
  • Mercy and Justice Harmonious
  • Origen's Grand Statement
  • Blunt on Origen
  • Dr. Bigg on Origen
  • Bunsen on Origen
  • Origen Cruelly Treated
  • Origen's Theology Generally Accepted
  • His Universalism Never Condemned
  • Origen's Contemporaries
  • Ancient Universalist Schools
  • Dr. Beecher's Testimony
  • Origen Misrepresented
  • Dr. Pond's Misrepresentation of Origen
  • Universalism in Good Repute in the Fifth Century
  • Different Opinions on Human Destiny
  • The Tributes of Scholars
  • A Catholic Eulogy
  • Fourth Century Universalists Ideal Christians
  • Hippolytus
  • Dean Wordsworth's Error
  • Theophilus
  • Tertullian
  • Advocates Endless Torment
  • Ambrose of Alexandria
  • The Manichæans
  • Manichaean Doctrines
  • Prof. Shedd's Historical Inaccuracy
  • Several Fathers
  • Epiphanius
  • Chapter 15 - Gregory Nazianzen
  • Bishop of Constantinople
  • The Penalties of Sin
  • Views Defined by Great Scholars
  • Author of Nestorian Declarations
  • Dorner on Theodore
  • Unity in Diversity
  • The Nestorians
  • The Nestorian Liturgies
  • Dr. Beecher on Theodore
  • Instructive Facts
  • Character of Early Universalists
  • "Macrina the Blessed."
  • A Saintly Woman
  • Macrina's Religious Sentiments
  • Her Last Days
  • Macrina a Representative Universalist
  • Basil the Great
  • Basil's Language
  • Cave's Error
  • Eulogies of Basil
  • The Mass of Christians Universalists
  • Gregory Nyssen
  • Gregory's Language
  • Perversion of Historians
  • Opinions in the Fourth Century
  • Words of Titus of Bostra
  • Ambrose of Milan
  • Hilary
  • The Blessed
  • Works of Theodoret
  • Evagrius Ponticus
  • Diodore of Tarsus
  • Chrysologus
  • Maximus 580-662
  • Chapter 19 - The Deterioration of Christian Thought
  • Transition of Christianity
  • Jerome--331-420
  • Jerome's Politic Course
  • A Miserable Story
  • Chrysostom's Views
  • Neander and Schaff
  • Augustine and Origen Contrasted
  • Augustine's Acknowledgment
  • Milman on Augustinianism
  • Augustine Less Severe Than Modern Orthodoxy
  • Decadence and Deterioration
  • Christianity Paganized
  • Augustinianism Cruel
  • Justinian's Views
  • Home Synod Canons
  • The Council Refused to Condemn Universalism
  • Universalism not Condemned for Five Centuries
  • Significant Facts and Conclusions
  • The Ancient Councils
  • Justinian's Suppression of the Truth
  • Justinian and His Age
  • The Divine Light Eclipsed
  • Christianity's Eclipse
  • The Caricatures of Dante and Angelo
  • Re-birth of Universalism
  • The Dawn of Truth

Origen considered philosophy as necessary to Christianity as is geometry to philosophy; but that all things essential
to salvation are plainly taught in the Scriptures, within the comprehension of the ordinary mind. "Origen was the
prince of schoolmen and scholars, as subtle as Aquinas, as learned as Routh or Tischendorf. He is a man of one
book, in a sense. The Bible, its text, its exposition, furnished him with the motive for incessant toil." (Neoplatonism,
by C. Bigg, D.D., London, 1895, p. 163.) The truths taught in the Bible may be made by philosophers themes on
which the mind may indefinitely wander; and those competent will find interior, spiritual, concealed meanings not
seen on the surface. Yet he constantly taught "that such natural attraction and similarities exists between Christianity
and human reason, that not only the grounds, but also the forms, of all Christian doctrines may be explained by the
dictates of philosophy. That it is vastly important to the honor and advantage of Christianity that all its doctrines be
traced back to the sources of all truth, or be shown to flow from the principles of philosophy; and consequently that
a Christian theologian should exert his ingenuity and his industry primarily to demonstrate the harmony between
religion and reason, and to show that there is nothing taught it the Scriptures but what is founded in reason."

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