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Presented by:

Ajeet Chakraborty Arun Batra Shreya Verma Anoop Anantha Amit Surana Hrishikesh Baruah Shashanka Yerabaty Sumit Shukla Varun Nirola Vinay Kumar

C ONTRIBUTION OF Q UALITY G URU - K AORU I SHIKAWA


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B IOGRAPHY: A B RIEF

Born:
Citizenship: Fields: Institutions:

July 13, 1915; Tokyo, Japan


Japan Quality, Chemical Eng. University of Tokyo, Musashi Institute of Technology

Alma Mater: Known for:

University of Tokyo Ishikawa diagram, Quality Circle

Notable Awards: Walter A. Schewart Medal, Order


of the Sacred Treasures

Died:

April 16, 1989 (aged 73)

C ONTRIBUTIONS TO Q UALITY

User friendly quality control Fishbone cause and effect diagram- Ishikawa Diagram Implementation of quality circles Emphasized the internal customer

Shared vision

C ONTRIBUTIONS

His notion for company wide quality control called for continued customer service With his cause and effect diagram, he made significant and specific advancements in quality improvement. He also showed the importance of the seven quality tools: control chart, run chart, histogram, scatter diagram, Pareto chart and flowchart. Explored the concept of quality circles Believed in the importance of support and leadership from top level management.

C ONTD ..

Emphasized on quality throughout a products life cycle and not just during production.

Customer satisfaction and not standards, is the ultimate source of decision making.
He felt standards to be continuous quality improvement programsthey too should be constantly evaluated and changed.

P LAN -D O -C HECK -A CT M ODEL

Ishikawa expanded the Demings Plan-Do-CheckAct models four steps into following six:

Determine goals and targets

Determine methods of reaching goal


Engage in educating and training Implement work

Check the effects of implementation


Take appropriate action

Demings 4 steps expanded into 6 steps

C OMPANY

WIDE

Q UALITY

Rather than technical contributions to quality, Ishikawa is associated with Companywide Quality Control Movement that started in Japan in the years 1955-1960 following the visits of Deming and Juran.

Features:

Quality control in Japan is characterized by company-wide participation from top management to the lower ranking employees. All study statistical methods, as well as participation by the engineering, design, research and manufacturing departments, also sales, material and clerical or management departments (such as planning, accounting, business and personnel) are involved.

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E FFECTS OF COMPANY WIDE


QUALITY

Product quality is improved and becomes uniform. Defects are reduced. Reliability of goods is improved. Cost is reduced. Quantity of production is increased, and it becomes possible to make rational production schedules. Wasteful work and rework are reduced. Technique is established and improved. Expenses for inspection and testing are reduced. Contracts between vendor and vendee are rationalized.

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The sales market is enlarged.


Better relationships are established between departments. False data and reports are reduced.

Discussions are carried out more freely and democratically.


Meetings are operated more smoothly. Repairs and installations of equipment and facilities are done more rationally. Human relations are improved.

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I SHIKAWA D IAGRAM

Also known as fishbone or cause-and-effect diagram, shows the causes of a certain effect. Common uses of Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation.

Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation.

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B ASIC C ONCEPT

One problem/effect 7 causes lead to the problem/effect The causes are divided into main and side causes The 7 causes are:

Methods Machinery Management Materials Manpower Environment Measurement

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A IM

Find the causes, main and side causes Clarity Interdependence of the causes Improve them for having the wanted effect or eliminate them for solving the problem

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I SHIKAWA D IAGRAMS

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P ROCEDURE

Sketch the diagram and inscript the needed causes Work the main and side causes out

Check the completeness


Weight the main & side causes in terms of meaning & influence

check the selected causes for rightness


The team discusses about the solution

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Q UALITY C IRCLES

A quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers(or even students), usually under the leadership of supervisor (but they can elect a team leader), who are trained

to identify, analyze and solve work related problems present their solutions to management To improve the performance of the organization, And motivate and enrich the work of employees.

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C HARACTERISTICS

Small group of employees optimum of 8-10 members Members are from same work area or doing similar type of job. Membership is voluntary Meet regularly for an hour every week They meet to identify, analyze, and resolve work related problems

Resolve work related problems, leading improvement in their total performance.


Quality circle enrich the work life of the employees

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S TRUCTURE
Top management Steering Committee Coordinator

Facilitator

Leader

Member

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R OLES AND R ESPONSIBILITY

Top management: The success of the quality circles depends solely on the attitude of the Top management and plays an important role to ensure the success of implementation of quality circles in the organization. Steering committee: This is at the top of the structure. It is headed by a senior executive and includes representatives from the top management personnel and human resources development people. It establishes policy, plans and directs the program and meets usually once in a month.

Coordinator: He may be a Personnel or Administrative officer who co-ordinates and supervises the work of the facilitators and administers the programme.

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C ONTD ..

Facilitator: He may be a senior supervisory officer. He coordinates the works of several quality circles through the Circle leaders. Leader: Leaders may be from lowest level workers or Supervisors. A Circle leader organizes and conducts Circle activities. Members: They may be staff workers. Without circle members the programme cannot exist. They are the lifeblood of quality circles. They should attend all meetings as far as possible, offer suggestions and ideas, participate actively in group process, take training seriously with a receptive attitude. The roles of Steering Committee, Co-ordinator, Facilitator, Circle leader and Circle members are well defined.

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THE IMPACT OF QUALITY CIRCLE

Improvement of human relations and workplace morale


Promotion of work culture Enhancement of job interest Effective team work Reducing defects and improving quality Improvement of productivity Enhancing problem solving capacity

Improving communication & interaction


Catalyzing attitude change Promotion of personal & leadership development

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A CHIEVEMENTS

As a member of the committee for the Deming Prize, Ishikawa developed the rigorous audit system that determines whether companies qualify for the prize. As chairman of the quality control National Conference Committee for over 30 years, Ishikawa played a central role in expanding scope of these conferences.
Served as chairman of the editorial board of the monthly Statistical Quality Control and the quarterly Reports of Statistical Applications Research.

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As Chairman of Japans Quality Month committee, he was involved in the selection of Japans Quality Mark and Quality Flag.

Continuous involvement in the Japanese and International Standardization activities since the beginning of 1950s.
In his Shewhart Medal Acceptance speech, Ishikawa called standardization and quality control two wheels of the same cart.

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R ECOGNITION

ASQ (American Society for Quality) established the Ishikawa medal in 1993 to recognize the leadership in human side of quality. The medal is awarded annually in honor of Ishikawa, to an individual or a team for outstanding leadership in improving the human aspects of quality.

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B OOKS A UTHORED

1980: QC Circle Koryo: General Principles of the QC Circle 1985: How to Operate QC circle Activities 1985: What is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way 1990: Introduction to Quality Control. J.H.Loftus (trans.)

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AWARDS

AND

R ECOGNITION

1972: American Society for Qualitys Eugene L. Grant Award 1977: Blue Ribbon Medal by the Japanese Government for achievements in industrial standardization 1988: Walter A. Shewhart Medal 1988: awarded the Order of the Sacred Treasures, second class, by Japanese Governement

Nihon Keizai Press Prize


Industrial Standardization Prize

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R EFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaoru_Ishikawa http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishikawa_diagram http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_Circles

http://asq.org/about-asq/who-weare/bio_ishikawa.html
http://quality.dlsu.edu.ph/chronicles/ishikawa.html http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/ishikawa.as p http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_03.h tm

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