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Swirling and Rotating Flows

Many important engineering ows involve swirl or rotation and FLUENT is well-equipped to model such ows. Swirling ows are common in combustion, with swirl introduced in burners and combustors in order to increase residence time and stabilize the ow pattern. Rotating ows are encountered in turbomachinery design, with rotating surfaces introducing rotation into the ow. The information in this chapter is divided into the following sections: Section 12.1: Section 12.2: Section 12.3: Section 12.4: Overview Swirling Flows and Flows with Rotation Flow in a Single Rotating Reference Frame Flow in Multiple Rotating Reference Frames

12.1 Overview

Rotating and swirling ows create a unique set of ow physics for which you must be aware of the special input requirements and solution techniques, as described in this chapter. First, it is essential to classify your problem into one of the following ve categories of ow: axisymmetric ows with swirl or rotation fully three dimensional swirling or rotating ows ows requiring a rotating reference frame ows requiring multiple rotating reference frames ows requiring sliding meshes

12-2

Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows

The rst two categories, which are easily recognizable, are discussed in Section 12.2. The remaining three, which all involve moving cell zones," are discussed in Sections 12.3, 12.4, and 13.1, respectively. Moving Cell Zone The moving cell zone capability in FLUENT provides a powerful set Methods of features for solving problems in which the domain or parts of the domain are in motion. Problems that can be addressed include the following: ow in a single rotating frame ow in multiple rotating reference frames ow requiring sliding meshes The single rotating frame option can be used to model ows in equipment such as turbomachinery and unba ed mixing tanks. The ow in these cases is unsteady in an inertial frame i.e., a domain xed in the laboratory frame because the rotor impeller blades sweep the domain periodically. However, in the absence of stators or ba es, it is possible to perform calculations in a domain moving with the rotating part. In this case, the ow is steady relative to the rotating non-inertial frame, which simpli es the analysis. In many cases, it is not possible to render the computational problem steady by choosing a calculation domain rotating with the impeller. These situations occur, for example, in turbomachinery applications where rotor-stator interaction is important, or in stirred tanks where impeller-ba e interactions predominate. Here, changing to a rotating frame attached to the impeller does not immobilize the stators and ba es, which sweep through the domain periodically, thereby making these problems inherently unsteady. Two di erent options, the sliding mesh approach and the multiple reference frame approach, have been provided to allow you to model this class of problem. With the sliding mesh approach, unsteady e ects can be modeled with complete delity. Here, the mesh attached to a single subdomain rotates with a non-zero speed relative to the mesh attached to another subdomain which is at rest. The two mesh regions are allowed to slide past each other using an unsteady calculation procedure. While the sliding mesh approach permits an accurate simulation of unsteady interactions, it can be computationally demanding. As

c Fluent Inc. May 10, 1997

12.2 Swirling Flows and Flows with Rotation

12-3

an alternative, FLUENT provides the multiple reference frame option. Here, multiple subdomains, each rotating independently, are allowed to interact with each other through a steady transfer of information across pre-de ned interfaces. Since the ow eld is assumed to be steady, the computational e ort is smaller than for the sliding mesh approach.

12.2 Swirling Flows and Flows with Rotation

Axisymmetric Your problem may be axisymmetric with respect to geometry and Flows with Swirl or ow conditions but still include swirl or rotation. In this type of Rotation problem, you can solve a two dimensional problem e.g., the axisym-

Three Dimensional Swirling Flows

Flows Requiring a Rotating Reference Frame Special Physics of Swirling Flows

metric problem but include prediction of the circumferential velocity. It is important to note that the assumption of axisymmetry implies that there are no circumferential gradients in the ow, but that there may be non-zero circumferential velocities with radial and or axial gradients. This type of model is de ned in FLUENT by rst de ning an axisymmetric geometry and grid and then activating the solution of the momentum equation in the circumferential direction by choosing the Swirl W Velocity option in the Models panel or by choosing the W-VELOCITY command in the DEFINE-MODELS text menu. Examples of axisymmetric ows involving swirl or rotation are depicted in Figure 12.2.1. When there are geometric changes and or ow gradients in the circumferential direction, your swirling ow prediction requires a three dimensional model. If you are planning a 3D FLUENT model including swirl or rotation, note the special setup constraints which are listed below. In addition, you may wish to consider simpli cations to the problem which might convert it into an equivalent axisymmetric problem, especially for your initial modeling e ort. Because of the complexity of swirling ows, an initial 2D study, in which you can quickly determine the e ects of various modeling and design choices, can be very bene cial. If your ow involves a rotating boundary which moves through the uid e.g. an impeller blade, a grooved or notched surface, etc., you will need to use a rotating reference frame to model the problem. Such applications are described in detail in Section 12.3. Swirling and rotating ows involve unique ow physics which are important to be aware of when attempting to simulate them using CFD. In swirling ows, conservation of angular momentum rv

or r2 = constant tends to create a free vortex ow, in which the circumferential velocity, v

de- c Fluent Inc. May 10. increases sharply as the radius. r. 1997 . .

83E-03 2.55E-03 4.21E-03 8.99E-02 1.02E-03 1.58E-03 8.40 Fluent Inc.67E-03 5. a Rotating Flow in a Rotor Stator Cavity 2.07E-03 5.43E-03 2.45E-04 -1.76E-02 1.81E-07 Y Z X 2D Rotating Cavity . May 10.1: Typical Swirling and Rotating Flows Predicted by FLUENT c Fluent Inc.10E-02 1.29E-03 6.88E-03 6.24E-03 2.2.87E-02 1.43E-03 7.42E-02 1.12-4 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows 7.05E-03 3.84E-03 2.40 Fluent Inc.814E-07 Jul 03 1996 Fluent 4.19E-02 1.09E-04 4.02E-04 -7. 1997 .692E-03 Min = -1.04E-03 -4.99E-03 3.53E-02 1.62E-03 1.30E-02 1.28E-03 6.70E-03 1.07E-02 9.48E-03 6.86E-03 4. b Swirling Flow in a Gas Burner Figure 12.05E-04 -1.22E-02 2.64E-03 3.45E-03 4.19E-03 -5.219E-02 Min = -5.89E-03 -3.26E-03 4.14E-03 4.332E-03 Jul 03 1996 Fluent 4.41x41 grid Stream Function (M3/S) Max = 7.33E-03 Y Z X Swirling Flow in an Axisymmetric Burner Stream Function (M3/S) Max = 2.69E-03 7.65E-02 1.

12.2 Swirling Flows and Flows with Rotation 12-5 creases with v.

Figure 12.2 depicts the radial distribution of v. nally decaying to zero near r = 0 as viscous forces begin to dominate.2.

r axis Figure 12.2.2: Typical Radial Distribution of V. in a typical free vortex.

the centrifugal forces created by the circumferential motion are in equilibrium with the radial pressure gradient: @p @r = 2 v.g. when there is no radial component of velocity. e. in a Free Vortex In a pure vortex.

In ows which are driven by wall rotation. It is this high degree of coupling between the swirl and the pressure eld that makes the modeling of swirling ows so complex. the form of this radial pressure gradient also changes. driving radial and axial ows in response to the highly non-uniform pressures that result. Thus as you compute the distribution of swirl in your FLUENT model.2-1 Physics of Rotating Flows Turbulence Modeling in Swirling Flows As the distribution of angular momentum in a non-ideal vortex evolves. you will also note changes in the static pressure distribution and corresponding changes in the axial and radial ow velocities. the motion of the wall tends to impart a forced vortex form to the uid v. r 12.

Generally. The Swirl Number can be de ned as the ratio of the axial ux of angular momentum to the axial ux of axial momentum: c Fluent Inc. approaches or exceeds unity. S . these models improve accuracy in modeling devices such as cyclone separators or swirl nozzles in which the Swirl number.to obtain a more accurate ow prediction. the ow near the wall to be transported radially outward Figure 12. =r or = constant. An important component of such ows is the tendency of uid with more angular momentum than the surrounding uid e. May 10.1a. 1997 . you may wish to use the Reynolds-Stress-Model or the RNG k.g.2. If your FLUENT model involves a highly swirling ow.

12-6 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows .

The axis of rotation may be the x-axis or z-axis when your FLUENT model is three dimensional. See Section 5. The z-axis should be used when the equations are to be solved using Cartesian velocity components. = R rvuv dA R v dA R S 12. If you do not obey these constraints during the original de nition of the problem geometry and grid. You should also be aware of the following grid mapping constraint: c Fluent Inc.2b. your velocity inputs and outputs will also be in terms of cylindrical components and the solution process will invoke these velocities which are natural" to the problem physics. you will want to select the option of solving the governing equations using cylindrical-polar velocity components instead of the default Cartesian components. below.6. although it may be useful as a stable. This option is enabled by selecting the Cylindrical Velocities option in the Models panel or by choosing the CYLINDRICAL VELOCITIES command in the DEFINE-MODELS text menu.model is not suited for the simulation of highly swirling ows. When cylindrical velocities are used for the solution process. You should be aware that the choice of rotation axis is also impacted by selection of this option see Setup Constraints. low-cost turbulence model for the early stages of the calculation. The axis of rotation must be the z-axis when your FLUENT model is two dimensional and non-axisymmetric e. In many problems involving swirling or rotating ows. Figure 12. tools are available in the MANIPULATE-GRID menu for swapping the coordinate axes.6 for details.2 describes the use of the cylindrical velocity formulation in more detail.g.3.2-2 Using the Cylindrical Velocity Formulation Setup Constraints for Swirling and Rotating Flows Note that the standard k. You must obey the following coordinate-system constraints when de ning problems that will include swirling or rotating ow: The axis of rotation must be the x-axis when your FLUENT model is axisymmetric. Section 6. The x-axis should be adopted if the governing equations are to be solved using cylindrical velocity components. May 10.. 1997 .

v. Typically. and your FLUENT model will require a very ne grid near a rotating wall.2 Swirling Flows and Flows with Rotation 12-7 Rotationally cyclic boundaries must be de ned at the rst and last planes of constant I index I =1 and I = Imax . r . you can patch the ANGULAR-VELOCITY e. you should be aware of the need for su cient resolution in your grid when solving ows which include swirl or rotation. In axisymmetric or in three dimensional problems. which takes on a unique de nition as the circumferential velocity.6. The W-VELOCITY can be de ned as a function of coordinate direction via pro le-setting. near the centerline of a free-vortex type ow which will require a ne grid for accurate resolution. you can input the W-VELOCITY.12. via a piecewise-linear input. radians second. or via patching. In addition. you can input cylindrical velocity components vr . at inlets or at walls using one of the following procedures: In axisymmetric problems. or in three-dimensional problems using cylindrical velocities. rotating boundary layers may be very thin. grid-index swapping tools are available see Section 5. swirling ows will often involve steep gradients in the circumferential velocity e. In addition to the setup constraints described above. Section 14.9 contains more information on setup of problems using rotationally cyclic boundary conditions. In three-dimensional problems.g. You can de ne the rotational or swirling component of velocity. If your grid is not set up in this manner.7.g.

May 10.2 where these procedures for input of rotational velocities at inlets and at walls are described in more detail. driving a ow in the axial and radial directions which in turn determines the distribution of the swirl or rotation in the eld. A high degree of rotation introduces a large radial pressure gradient.3.6. 1997 .1 and 14. vaxial based on a local coordinate system. Solution Strategies The di culties associated with solving swirling and rotating ows for Swirling and are a result of the high degree of coupling between the momentum Rotating Flows equations which is introduced when the in uence of the rotational terms is large. Grid Sensitivity in Swirling and Rotating Flows Boundary Condition Inputs for Rotating or Swirling Flows See Sections 14. . This coupling may lead to instabilities in the solution c Fluent Inc.

1997 . start the calculations using a low rotational speed. In addition. special settings for the multigrid solver can help to improve convergence. More detail on the step-wise procedure. In general. the gradual increase of the rotational speed. tight coupling between the momentum and turbulence quantities will complicate the solution. ows with a high degree of swirl or rotation will be easier Procedures for to solve if you use the following step-by-step solution procedure. In this procedure. in Rotating Flows which only selected equations are left active in each step.001 if you are using the multigrid solver. solution techniques that may be bene cial in swirling or rotating ow calculations include: Decrease the underrelaxation parameter on the body forces to a value of 0. and multigrid settings for high aspect ratio cells near the axis are described below. If very high aspect ratio cells are created near the axis of the grid often found in cylindrical polar grids with zero inner radius. Obtain a better solution to the pressure and velocity equations before proceeding to the next iteration. May 10. you will use the EXPERT SELECT-VARIABLES command to turn individual transport equations on and o between calculations. begin by solving the ow without rotation or swirl e ects. See Chapter 16 of this manual for details on the procedures used to make these changes to the solution parameters. This approach allows you to establish the eld of angular momentum.12-8 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows process and you may require special solution techniques in order to obtain a converged solution. Use a sequential or step-wise solution procedure. Step-Wise Solution Often.01 or 0. This calculation would c Fluent Inc. If your problem involves in ow out ow. then leave it xed while you update the velocity eld.5 if a rotating reference frame is being used. if you choose to use the RSM for turbulence modeling. If necessary. or by decreasing the termination criterion to 0. increasing the rotational speed gradually in order to reach the nal desired operating condition. in which some equations are temporarily left inactive see below. This is accomplished by increasing the number of sweeps for pressure and velocity if you are using the Line Gauss solver. and then nally to couple the two elds by solving all equations simultaneously.2 0.

one of the most e ective controls you can exert on the solution is to solve your rotating ow problem starting with a low rotational speed and then slowly increasing the rotation up to the desired level. your FLUENT calculations will be less stable as the speed of rotation and the magnitude of these forces increases. Because the rotation de ned via boundary conditions can lead to large complex forces in the ow.2 Swirling Flows and Flows with Rotation 12-9 be performed before any rotating or swirling boundary conditions are de ned. solve the momentum and continuity equations in the other coordinate directions.eld data can be used as a starting guess for the full problem. c Fluent Inc. you may also want to leave the turbulence equations active during this step. 1997 Gradual Increase of the Rotational Speed to Improve Solution Stability . Let the rotation di use" throughout the ow eld. Hence. In a turbulent ow simulation. based on your boundary condition inputs and your input for the angular velocity of the reference frame. Leaving the velocity in the circumferential direction xed. This step will establish the axial and radial ows that are a result of the rotation in the eld. Note the underrelaxation and sweep controls suggested above. The resulting ow. turn on all of the equations simultaneously to obtain a fully coupled solution. if your problem involves turbulent ow. Finally. The rotational speed in this rst attempt might be selected as 10 of the actual operating conditions. The procedure you use to accomplish this is as follows: 1. turn o the momentum equations describing the circumferential motion. you should leave the turbulence equations active during this calculation. In axisymmetric problems or when you are using the cylindrical velocity formulation. Next. this will be the W-VELOCITY equation. Begin the prediction of the rotating swirling ow by solving only the momentum equation describing the circumferential velocity. Set up the problem using a low rotational speed in your inputs for boundary conditions.12. In addition to following these procedures. you may want to simplify your calculation by solving isothermal ow before adding heat transfer or by solving laminar ow before adding a turbulence model. Again. This step will establish the eld of rotation throughout the domain. May 10.

May 10. Such grids are generally not a problem if the axis" boundary condition is used at the centerline. Use multigrid for all equations except those related to turbulence. 5. Multigrid Settings for High Aspect Ratio Cells Near the Axis c Fluent Inc.12-10 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows 2. 2. when there are many cells in the circumferential direction. the following multigrid settings can be used to improve convergence: 1. Increase the speed of rotation. until you reach the desired operating condition. Note that you could use time-varying boundary conditions and a time marching solution strategy to accomplish this procedure. Select the termination criteria and residual reduction parameters so that the coarse grid is visited for each equation. See Chapter 16 for details. but convergence can become a problem in cases where the cells near the centerline have a very high aspect ratio i. Set the maximum multigrid level to 2. In such cases. perhaps doubling it. 1997 .. Set the coarse grid spacing for the multigrid solver to the maximum possible value in the circumferential direction equal to the number of cells in that direction and to 1 for all other directions. perhaps using the stepwise solution strategy outlined above. Continue to increment the speed of rotation.e. 6. The use of a cylindrical polar grid for domains that include the grid centerline i. Modify your inputs boundary conditions. following Steps 4 and 5. Restart the calculation using the solution data saved in Step 3 as the initial guess for the new calculation. Solve the problem at these conditions. 4.. 4. Save the new data. a grid with zero inner radius will result in prism-shaped cells near the axis. 3. 3.e. In cases where the cells also have a relatively long length in the axial direction. 1D block correction should be applied for the pressure equation along the axial direction only. Save this initial solution data.

In 3D. the reported velocities will be axial U-VELOCITY. radial. you are modeling the ow in an inertial reference frame e.3. and you can examine shear forces.12. and z-component W-VELOCITY will be the circumferential component. 12. If you have selected to solve the 3D problem using cylindrical velocity components. No other special reporting issues arise in rotating ows. If you are interested in angular velocities.. In axisymmetric problems. 1997 . in which the acceleration of the coordinate system or reference frame is included in the equations of motion describing the ow.. the y-component V-VELOCITY will be the radial component. Applications You will need to use a rotating reference frame whenever your FLUInvolving Rotating ENT model involves a physical situation in which rotating boundReference Frames aries are moving through the uid unless viewed in a rotating reference frame. in a non-accelerating coordinate system.2 illustrates several examples of problems that can be modeled using a coordinate transformation to a rotating c Fluent Inc.3. Such ows are usually most easily modeled in a coordinate system that is riding" on the rotating equipment and thus under constant acceleration in the radial direction. and circumferential W-VELOCITY components.components. in the normal fashion. Figure 12. etc. This class of rotating ows can be treated using the rotating reference frame capability in FLUENT.1 depicts an example of a ow in a rotating reference frame and illustrates the coordinate transformation from the stationary frame to the rotating frame. and circumferential components. you may nd it helpful to create a Post File or Universal File and post-process these Cartesian components into axial. FLUENT is also able to model ows in an accelerating reference frame.3. the x-component U-VELOCITY will be the axial component. the centerline must be along the z axis. and radial V-VELOCITY. Swirl Numbers. so the z-component W-VELOCITY will be the axial component and the radial and circumferential components will be combinations of the Cartesian xand y. May 10. etc.3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame Velocity Components in Rotating or Swirling Flows 12-11 The velocity in your swirling or rotating ow simulations are input and reported using either cylindrical-polar or Cartesian coordinates. when you create a model using FLUENT.3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame 12. Figure 12.1 Overview Generally. heat transfer coe cients. angular momentum. if you are using Cartesian velocities.g. One common occurrence of an accelerating reference frame in engineering applications is that of a ow in rotating equipment.

3.1: Transforming Coordinates to a Rotating Reference Frame c Fluent Inc. 1997 . May 10.12-12 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows Stationary Rotating at speed Ω y Ω x a Original Reference Frame Rotating at speed -Ω -Ω Stationary y1 x1 b Rotating Reference Frame Figure 12.

or by using FLUENT's multiple reference frame model see Section 12.3a. cooling ducts in rotating equipment such as impellers.4 or sliding mesh capability see Section 13. Such problems must be treated by simplifying or reducing the problem geometry so that a single rotational frame can be used.3b or other similar problems Interaction in which a transformation to the rotating reference frame implies that other geometric features are now rotating through the uid cannot be modeled by a simple coordinate transformation to a rotating reference frame.3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame reference frame. c Fluent Inc. etc. the rotating boundaries are represented as stationary in your FLUENT model.12. May 10.3. generators. typical applications include: 12-13 Impellers in unba ed mixing tanks Rotating turbomachinery blades e. Modeling Problems involving rotor stator interaction Figure 12. This boundary condition treatment is discussed in more detail below. 1997 .g.1.3. centrifugal fans or axial impellers Flows in rotating passages e. As illustrated.g. Note that when such problems are de ned in the rotating reference frame. imRotor-Stator pellers in a ba ed tank Figure 12.

2: Applications That Can Be Modeled by FLUENT in a Rotating Reference Frame c Fluent Inc. 1997 .12-14 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows Ω z y x a Rotating Impeller in a Mixing Tank Ω y x b Centrifugal Fan Blades Figure 12. May 10.3.

3.12.2: Applications That Can Be Modeled by FLUENT in a Rotating Reference Frame c Fluent Inc. May 10.3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame 12-15 Ω y z x c Cooling Passages in a Spinning Rotor Ω x z y d Axial Impeller Blades Figure 12. 1997 .

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Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows

Stationary

Rotating

Ω

a Rotor-Stator Interaction

Stationary baffles

Ω

Rotating impeller

b Rotating Impeller in a Ba ed Tank

**Figure 12.3.3: Rotor-Stator Interaction Problems That Require Sliding Meshes or Multiple Reference Frames
**

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12.3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame 12.3.2 Equations in Rotating Reference Frames

12-17

When the equations of motion are solved in an accelerating frame of reference, the acceleration of the uid is augmented by the acceleration of the reference frame itself. In a rotating reference frame, this additional acceleration gives rise to the coriolis and centrifugal acceleration terms which appear in the revised momentum equations in the rotating frame 5 : 12.3-1 Here, vr is the velocity in the rotating frame and is related to the velocity in the non-rotating frame, v, as:

D r

v + 2 v + r r Dt v = vr + r

12.3-2

where is the rotation vector and r is the position vector in the rotating frame. When you solve problems using a rotating reference frame in FLUENT, you are solving the momentum equation in the form of 12.3-1 to predict the velocity vr as de ned by 12.3-2. Note that this velocity is the velocity that you would see if you were observing the uid while riding on" the rotating reference frame. Coriolis and The centrifugal acceleration term, r, when written in Centrifugal Forces a cylindrical coordinate system, leads to the following force in the in Cylindrical radial direction:

Component Form

The Coriolis term, 2 direction:

**12.3-3 vr , yields a force in the circumferential
**

r1

2

2 in Cartesian tensor notation as:

vr

12.3-4

Forces in General In general Cartesian coordinates, where is de ned as !i3, the Coordinate Form additional acceleration terms arising due to rotation can be written

2i1 ,!u2 + i2 !u1 + i1 ,!2x1 + i2,!2 x2 12.3-5 The rst and second terms in Equation 12.3-5 are referred to as the coriolis and centrifugal acceleration terms, respectively.

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Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows

**Time Dependent FLUENT allows you to de ne the rotational speed of the reference Rotational Speeds frame,
**

, as a function of time so that the time dependent acceler @ ation @t r of the reference frame is included in FLUENT's

formulation. Hence, you can model ows in which the acceleration e.g. angular velocity of the reference frame is changing in time.

12.3.3 Problem Setup for Rotating Reference Frames Setup Constraints You must obey the coordinate-system and grid generation con-

Reference Frames

straints noted in Section 12.2 when modeling problems in rotating reference frames. Modeling Inputs When you want to model a problem involving a rotating reference for Rotating frame, you will need to complete the following modeling inputs: Activate the rotating reference frame model; De ne the rotational speed of the reference frame; De ne the boundary conditions in the rotating frame of reference.

No other special input considerations are required. Details describing the menu command you will use for each input are provided below. Activating a You can enable FLUENT's rotating reference frame by setting a Rotating Reference YES input to the ENABLE STEADY CORIOLIS FORCE command in the Frame EXPERT OPTIONS table:

MAIN ,! EXPERT ,! OPTIONS

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**12.3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame
**

MODELING OPTIONS NO ALLOW LINK SETTING NO ALLOW PROFILE SETTING NO SET INLET TURBULENCE QUANTITIES NO ALLOW HEAT FLUX BOUNDARY CONDITIONS NO ALLOW EXTERNAL HEAT TRANSFER WALLS NO ALLOW WALL CONDUCTION NO ENABLE CONVECTION IN CONDUCTING WALLS NO ALLOW HEAT CONDUCTION FOR INLETS NO INCLUDE EXTERNAL RADIATION BC NO SET EMISSIVITY FOR INLETS OUTLET NO ENABLE BOUSSINESQ MODEL FOR BUOYANCY NO ENABLE POROUS FLOW MODEL NO ENABLE FAN RADIATOR MODEL NO ALLOW FIXED PRESSURE BOUNDARIES NO ALLOW SETTING FLOW ANGLES FOR PRESSURE-INLETS YES ENABLE STEADY CORIOLIS FORCE NO ENABLE MULTIPLE ROTATING REFERENCE FRAMES NO ENABLE SLIDING MESH CALCULATION NO ACTIVATE PHASE CHANGE MODELLING NO ENABLE DEFORMING MESH CALCULATION ACTION TOP,DONE,QUIT,REFRESH

12-19

De ning the When the ENABLE STEADY CORIOLIS FORCE command is activated, Rotational Speed you will see table entries requesting the angular velocity of the refof the Reference erence frame in the EXPERT BODY-FORCES table: Frame MAIN ,! EXPERT ,! BODY-FORCES

BODY FORCES YES YES 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 NO 10.5 IMPROVED TREATMENT OF BODY FORCE IN DISCRETE EQNS. INCLUDE BODY FORCE TERMS IN VELOCITY INTERPOLATION GRAVITY ACCELERATION IN X-DIRN - M S2 GRAVITY ACCELERATION IN Y-DIRN - M S2 GRAVITY ACCELERATION IN Z-DIRN - M S2 USER DEFINED REFERENCE DENSITY ANGULAR VELOCITY ABOUT THE X AXIS RAD S ACTION TOP,DONE,QUIT,REFRESH

In the sample table above, the rotational speed of the reference frame has been de ned as 10.5 radians sec 100 rpm about the axis of rotation. Input of a Time To set up a problem with time-varying angular velocity, activate Varying Rotational the TIME-DEPENDENCE option in the EXPERT menu. Then, select the

Speed

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you will de ne a sinusoidal function via input of the amplitude and frequency.12-20 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows ENABLE TIME-DEPENDENT CORIOLIS FORCE command in the EXPERT MODELING-OPTIONS table as shown below: MAIN .REFRESH The next step is to input the angular velocity of the reference frame as a function of time. May 10. When the time-dependent Coriolis force term option is enabled. the BODY-FORCES command will prompt you for the angular velocity as a function of time when you exit the table.QUIT.DONE. When the harmonic pro le is adopted.! BODY-FORCES c Fluent Inc. or harmonic sinusoidal function. Input of the Angular velocity can be speci ed as a function of time using a polyTime-Varying nomial. piecewise linear.! EXPERT . as illustrated below: MAIN . as described below.! EXPERT . 1997 . The Angular Velocity piecewise linear pro le may be conveniently used in the situation of transient ow around an impeller starting up from rest.! OPTIONS MODELING OPTIONS NO ALLOW LINK SETTING NO ALLOW PROFILE SETTING NO SET INLET TURBULENCE QUANTITIES NO ALLOW HEAT FLUX BOUNDARY CONDITIONS NO ALLOW EXTERNAL HEAT TRANSFER WALLS NO ALLOW WALL CONDUCTION NO ENABLE CONVECTION IN CONDUCTING WALLS NO ALLOW HEAT CONDUCTION FOR INLETS NO INCLUDE EXTERNAL RADIATION BC NO SET EMISSIVITY FOR INLETS OUTLET NO ENABLE BOUSSINESQ MODEL FOR BUOYANCY NO ENABLE POROUS FLOW MODEL NO ENABLE FAN RADIATOR MODEL NO ALLOW FIXED PRESSURE BOUNDARIES NO ALLOW SETTING FLOW ANGLES FOR PRESSURE-INLETS NO ENABLE STEADY CORIOLIS FORCE YES ENABLE TIME-DEPENDENT CORIOLIS FORCE NO ENABLE MULTIPLE ROTATING REFERENCE FRAMES NO ENABLE SLIDING MESH CALCULATION NO ACTIVATE PHASE CHANGE MODELLING NO ENABLE DEFORMING MESH CALCULATION ACTION TOP.

Your inputs for angular velocity will be in terms of: W-VELOCITY which is the circumferential velocity component in meter sec. In this approach. ANGULAR-VELOCITY. -1 = HARMONIC ++DEFAULT -1++ Input of Boundary Conditions in the Rotating Reference Frame Entering a positive integer for the NUMBER OF COEFFICIENTS will result in a polynomial function of time.12 provides details on the input of these pro le descriptions. will be given an angular velocity of zero. If a negative value less than or equal to . when you are solving an axisymmetric problem.1 will cause FLUENT to prompt for a sinusoidal pro le. -VE = P.LINEAR. accessed from the PATCH command.0000E+00 0.M S2 GRAVITY ACCELERATION IN Z-DIRN . boundaries that are stationary in the non-rotating frame of reference must now be given an angular velocity equal to that of the rotating frame and in the opposite direction. you will need to specify the velocity boundary conditions as well. INCLUDE BODY FORCE TERMS IN VELOCITY INTERPOLATION GRAVITY ACCELERATION IN X-DIRN .12. boundaries that are rotating in the stationary frame and hence stationary in the rotating frame adopted. W-VELOCITY which is the circumferential velocity component in meters sec. 1997 . One option is to enter the boundary values of the velocity components relative to the rotating coordinates. c Fluent Inc. May 10.0000E+00 0. After specifying the angular velocity.2.M S2 USER DEFINED REFERENCE DENSITY ACTION TOP. On the other hand.DONE..W.QUIT.3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame BODY FORCES YES YES 0.0000E+00 NO D ***II-1 12-21 IMPROVED TREATMENT OF BODY FORCE IN DISCRETE EQNS. with the coe cients requested next. Section 14.REFRESH DEFINE ANGULAR VELOCITY RAD S AS A FUNCTION OF TIME S NUMBER OF COEFFICIENTS +VE = POLYNOM. when you are solving 3D problems using the standard Cartesian formulation.M S2 GRAVITY ACCELERATION IN Y-DIRN .2 is entered. FLUENT will prompt for a piecewise linear pro le. when you are solving a 3D problem and the cylindrical formulation has been adopted see Section 6. Entering .

1997 . boundaries that are stationary in the non-rotating frame of reference are given an angular velocity of zero. May 10.! SETUP-1 . You can also enter velocity boundary conditions with respect to the stationary coordinate system and let FLUENT do the transformation to the rotational reference frame for you. MAIN . Be sure to save any patched boundary conditions or data prior to entering the SETUP-1 menu.QUIT. These conditions can be input as the W-VELOCITY or ANGULAR-VELOCITY. as this information can be lost upon exit back to the MAIN menu. On the other hand. After input of the velocities relative to the stationary frame you will need to instruct FLUENT to transform project these inputs to the rotating reference frame. Pressure boundary conditions are always applied in the rotating reference frame. When this approach is used. You also cannot transform boundary conditions at pressure boundaries. This is accomplished using the PROJECT-VELOCITIES command in the SETUP-1 menu. FLUENT prompts you to de ne the boundaries on which c Fluent Inc.! PROJECT-VELOCITIES Automatic Transformation of Boundary Conditions to the Rotating Frame ! ! SETUP1PROJECT-VEL PROJECT VELOCITIES ONTO ROTATING COORDINATES NO W1 NO I1 ACTION TOP. supplied either through the Boundary Conditions panel or through the BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS command in the text menu. as shown below.12-22 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows Note that the W-VELOCITY inputs can be supplied either through the Boundary Conditions panel or the BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS command in the SETUP-1 text menu or through the PATCH command in the MAIN menu. boundaries that are rotating in the stationary frame are given the angular velocity of the reference frame including any time variation. because such values are always interpreted by FLUENT to be in the rotating frame of reference when you use the rotating reference frame model.REFRESH As shown. You cannot transform boundary conditions that have been patched.DONE.

4 Solution and Postprocessing for Rotating Reference Frames Solution Strategies The di culties associated with solving ows in rotating reference for Rotating frames are similar to those discussed in Section 12. a similar transformation is made at each time step so that the boundary conditions a ected by the time-varying angular velocity are updated accordingly.3. increasing the rotational speed gradually in order to reach the nal desired operating condition see below. 12. This coupling may lead to instabilities in the solution process and you may require special solution techniques in order to obtain a converged solution. Use a sequential or step-wise solution procedure.2.2 0.001 if you are using the multigrid solver. For time-dependent rotation. techniques that may be bene cial include: Decrease the underrelaxation parameter on the body forces to a value of 0. You will have the option to transform your inputs at all WALL and INLET boundaries. May 10. or by decreasing the termination criterion to 0. 1997 .01 or 0. describing Reference Frames swirling and rotating ows. The zone numbers of the boundaries that are to be transformed are stored internally. This is accomplished by increasing the number of sweeps for pressure and velocity if you are using the Line Gauss solver.5. Obtain a better solution to the pressure and velocity equations before proceeding to the next iteration.12.3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame 12-23 the velocities you have input should be transformed from the stationary frame to the rotational reference frame. In general. Begin the calculations using a low rotational speed. the velocities de ned with respect to the inertial coordinates are transformed onto the rotating coordinates before the solution begins. A high degree of rotation introduces a large radial pressure gradient. If very high aspect ratio cells are created near the axis of the grid often found in cylindrical polar grids with zero inner c Fluent Inc. The primary issue you must confront is the high degree of coupling between the momentum equations which is introduced when the in uence of the rotational terms is large. For steady rotation. driving a ow in the axial and radial directions which in turn determines the distribution of the swirl or rotation in the eld. in which some equations are temporarily left inactive see below.

you should leave the turbulence equations active during this calculation. Let the rotation di use" throughout the ow eld. Leaving the velocity in the circumferential direction xed. this will be the W-VELOCITY equation. if your problem involves turbulent ow. you may also want to leave the turbulence equations active during this step. begin by solving the ow without rotational e ects. Again. with rotation. Next. and multigrid settings for high aspect ratio cells near the axis are described below. This approach allows you to establish the eld of rotation.12-24 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows radius. solve the momentum and continuity equations in the other coordinate directions. Rotating Flows in which only selected equations are left active in each step. then leave it xed while you update the velocity eld. May 10. This calculation would be performed before the rotating reference frame option and any rotating boundary conditions are de ned. special settings for the multigrid solver can help to improve convergence. Begin the prediction of the rotating ow by solving only the momentum equation describing the circumferential velocity. In a turbulent ow simulation. ows with a high degree of swirl or rotation will be easier Procedures for to solve if you use the following step-by-step solution procedure. the circumferential velocity is again the W-VELOCITY. c Fluent Inc. The resulting oweld data can be used as a starting guess for the full problem. the gradual increase of the rotational speed. you will use the EXPERT SELECT-VARIABLES command to turn individual transport equations on and o between calculations. This step will establish the eld of rotation throughout the domain. In 3D. In this procedure. Step-Wise Solution Often. See Chapter 16 of this manual for details on the procedures used to make these changes to the solution parameters. In axisymmetric problems. More detail on the step-wise procedure. 1997 . based on your boundary condition inputs and your input for the angular velocity of the reference frame. turn o the momentum equations describing the circumferential motion. if you are solving for velocities using the cylindrical formulation. If your problem involves in ow out ow. and then nally to couple the two elds by solving all equations simultaneously. This step will establish the axial and radial ows that are a result of the rotation in the eld.

May 10. The rotational speed in this rst attempt might be selected as 10 of the actual operating conditions. Set up the problem using a low rotational speed in your inputs for boundary conditions and for the angular velocity of the reference frame. perhaps using the stepwise solution strategy outlined above. Hence. 2. Note the underrelaxation and sweep controls suggested above. Modify your inputs boundary conditions and angular velocity of the reference frame. Continue to increment the speed of rotation. Increase the speed of rotation.. one of the most e ective controls you can exert on the solution is to solve your rotating ow problem starting with a low rotational speed and then slowly increasing the rotation up to the desired level. The procedure you use to accomplish this is as follows: 1. Perhaps the most e ective simpli cation you can make is to begin the problem solution at a lower rotational speed. as detailed below. until you reach the desired operating condition. 5. 3. turn on all of the equations simultaneously to obtain a fully coupled solution. Such grids are generally not a Gradual Increase of the Rotational Speed to Improve Solution Stability the Axis c Fluent Inc. you may want to simplify your calculation by solving isothermal ow before adding heat transfer or by solving laminar ow before adding a turbulence model.3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame 12-25 Finally. In addition to following these procedures. 4. perhaps doubling it. Save the new data. Note that you could use a time-varying speed of rotation to accomplish this incremental solution as described below.e. Multigrid Settings The use of a cylindrical polar grid for domains that include the for High Aspect grid centerline i. 1997 . a grid with zero inner radius will result in Ratio Cells Near prism-shaped cells near the axis. Because the rotation of the reference frame and the rotation de ned via boundary conditions lead to large complex forces in the ow. Save this initial solution data. 6. Restart the calculation using the solution data saved in Step 3 as the initial guess for the new calculation. following Steps 4 and 5. Solve the problem at these conditions. your FLUENT calculations will be less stable as the speed of rotation and the magnitude of these forces increases.12.

FLUENT will report velocities as either cylindrical-polar or Cartesian components in the rotating reference frame. Select the termination criteria and residual reduction parameters so that the coarse grid is visited for each equation. See Chapter 16 for details. 2. This option is available c Fluent Inc. 3. Set the coarse grid spacing for the multigrid solver to the maximum possible value in the circumferential direction equal to the number of cells in that direction and to 1 for all other directions. Use multigrid for all equations except those related to turbulence. No other special reporting issues arise in rotating ows. heat transfer coe cients. 1D block correction should be applied for the pressure equation along the axial direction only. when there are many cells in the circumferential direction. in the normal fashion. etc. May 10. FLUENT provides the option to transform your results back to the stationary frame for post-processing. In cases where the cells also have a relatively long length in the axial direction. and you can examine shear forces. 4. 1997 .e. After you have obtained a solution in the rotating reference frame. In such cases. the following multigrid settings can be used to improve convergence: 1. Using a Time-Dependent Angular Velocity to Converge Steady-State Problems Reporting in Rotating Reference Frames Transforming Results Back to the Stationary Frame The ability to de ne a time-varying angular velocity can be useful to accelerate the convergence of simulations of ows involving a constant angular velocity. This can be accomplished by ramping the angular velocity from an initially low value to the desired steady rotation speed over a period of time. but convergence can become a problem in cases where the cells near the centerline have a very high aspect ratio i. time-marching in combination with a linearly increasing angular velocity with time will generally help convergence by improving the stability of your calculations. When you examine the results of your calculation. When a constant angular velocity is of interest. Cartesian components are reported when you have solved the problem in the default Cartesian components. Cylindrical-polar coordinates are reported when you have elected to solve using cylindrical velocities. Set the maximum multigrid level to 2.12-26 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows problem if the axis" boundary condition is used at the centerline..

OPTIONSTW *.OPTIONS: WRITE-LOG READ-LOG LOG-OFF WRITE-POSTFILE WRITE-HISTORY TRANSFORM-W-VELOCITY QUIT HELP ENTER HELP COMMAND FOR MORE INFORMATION. *MAIN*. In these situations. FLUENT simply alters the current W-VELOCITY v. you can use the TRANSFORM-W-VELOCITY command: MAIN .! OPTIONS .3 Flow in a Rotating Reference Frame 12-27 only if you are solving using cylindrical velocities in 3D or using an axisymmetric model.** COMMANDS AVAILABLE FROM TRANSFORM-W: ROTATING-FRAME STATIONARY-FRAME HELP ENTER HELP COMMAND FOR MORE INFORMATION.12.**WARNING! W-VELOCITY FIELD WILL BE ALTERED. QUIT If you choose the STATIONARY-FRAME command.! TRANSFORM-W-VELOCITY COMMANDS AVAILABLE FROM *MAIN*.

eld as: v.

0 = v.

v. + r where is the angular velocity of the reference frame.

is the 0 circumferential velocity in the rotating frame. and v.

is the circumferential velocity in the stationary frame. the velocity in the stationary frame. After selecting the STATIONARY-FRAME command. 0 v.

You can revert to the velocity in the rotating frame. can be post-processed by referring to the W-VELOCITY eld variable in graphics or alphanumerics menus. . v.

by choosing the ROTATING-FRAME command. . which will restore the W-VELOCITY to v.

for example. 1997 . only the w velocity of the ow is modi ed. as they simply add or subtract r from the current W-VELOCITY eld. May 10. If you want to do particle c Fluent Inc. you should take care not to overwrite your solution data with the transformed velocities. by subtracting r . will add or subtract 2r from your velocity eld. Note that these functions must be used with care. Note that when you use the TRANSFORM-W-VELOCITY command. Furthermore. Using one of the commands twice. as these would be inappropriate for restart of the calculations in the rotating reference frame.

can be computationally demanding. as such. Typical applications include rotor-stator interaction Figure 12. Fluid motion in a rotating region is solved in a rotating frame. an appropriately chosen interface may exist where large-scale transient e ects are not present. May 10.4. In such cases.3. but at di erent speeds. you must disable the Coriolis force in the EXPERT OPTIONS table and rede ne the particle initial conditions to be correct for the stationary reference frame. Clearly the multiple reference frame approach is an approximation. The multiple reference frame approach. FLUENT provides the capability to model multiple reference frames in steady state. It involves a steady-state computational method which permits multiple uid not grid regions to rotate relative to each other. This velocity matching" step implicitly involves the assumption of steady ow conditions at the interface. 1997 .3a and impellers in ba ed mixing tanks Figure 12. is more economical to use. The multiple reference frame option was developed as an alternative to the sliding mesh approach for modeling ow elds in geometries where there are parts that rotate relative to each other as in mixing tanks where the tank and ba es remain stationary and the impeller rotates. it inherently involves a time-dependent calculation and. c Fluent Inc. in contrast.3. You can also use multiple reference frames to model problems in which several parts of the geometry are rotating. such as those encountered in mixing tanks where the impeller-ba e interactions are relatively weak. and the solution is matched at the interface between the rotating and stationary region via velocity transformations from one frame to the other. 12. This feature allows you to approximate an unsteady ow by modeling a time-averaged steady-state ow. but in many situations. While a sliding mesh approach provides a more accurate simulation of these types of problems.12-28 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows tracking.4 Flow in Multiple Reference Frames 12. the multiple reference frame approach can capture precise details of the ow eld in all parts of the geometry since all parts are modeled while keeping the computation time low compared with a full unsteady sliding mesh calculation.3b.1 Overview For problems in which part of the geometry is rotating while another part remains stationary.

and use a stationary frame for the ow outside the impeller region. May 10. This problem would be modeled using three reference frames: the stationary frame outside both impeller regions and two separate rotating reference frames for the two impellers. you can de ne a rotating reference frame that encompasses the impeller and the ow surrounding it. As noted above.4. Figure 12.4 Flow in Multiple Reference Frames 12-29 The multiple reference frame option should not be used if it is necessary to actually simulate the transients that may occur in strong impeller-ba e interactions. Steady-state ow conditions are assumed at the interface between the two reference frames. Figure 12. c Fluent Inc. 1997 . Examples For a mixing tank with a single impeller. the sliding mesh model see Section 13. the dashes denote the interfaces between reference frames. For such cases.1: Geometry with One Rotating Impeller You can also model a problem that includes more than one rotating reference frame.4.4. That is.1 should be used.12.1. An example of this con guration is illustrated in Figure 12. The grid does not move. the velocity at the interface must be the same in absolute terms for each reference frame. The dashes denote the interface between the two reference frames.2 shows a geometry that contains two rotating impellers side by side.

4. Similarly. such as a cylinder in 3D. In this case. May 10. coupled discrete-phase calculations are meaningless.1 are added to all the governing transport equations. You cannot use the multiple reference frame model for axisymmetric ows. However. stationary region must be circular in 2D or a surface of revolution. unsteady terms as described in Section 6. the boundary shape must be such that the component of the frame velocity normal to the boundary is zero everywhere on the boundary. the use of multiple reference frames is meaningful only for steady ow. 1997 . You should carefully consider whether this will yield meaningful results for your application. Strictly speaking.2: Geometry with Two Rotating Impellers Restrictions The following restrictions apply to the use of multiple reference frames: The boundaries separating a rotating region from an adjacent. In general. the particle tracks displayed are meaningless. however. c Fluent Inc. Particle trajectories and pathlines drawn by FLUENT use the laboratory inertial-frame velocity. FLUENT will allow you to solve an unsteady ow when multiple reference frames are being used. For particles with mass.12-30 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows Figure 12. For massless particles.9. the resulting pathlines follow the streamlines based on the laboratory inertial-frame velocity and are meaningful.

2. the di usion and other terms in the governing equations in one subdomain require values for the velocities in the adjacent subdomain.4-1 where x is the position in absolute Cartesian coordinates and xo is the origin of the rotating frame. 1997 .4-2 where v is the velocity in the absolute stationary reference frame and vr is the velocity in the relative rotating reference frame.3.2 Equations for Multiple Reference Frames 12-31 In FLUENT's implementation of the multiple reference frame feature.4-3 c Fluent Inc. The governing equations in each subdomain are written with respect to that subdomain's reference frame. At the boundary between two subdomains.12. FLUENT enforces the continuity of the absolute velocity v to provide the correct neighbor" values of velocity for the subdomain under consideration. The relative velocity in the rotating reference frame can be converted to the absolute stationary frame of reference using the following equation: v = vr + r 12. The position vector relative to the origin of the rotating frame is de ned as r = x . The velocity gradient is obtained using: rv = rvr + r r 12. After the momentum equations have been updated. xo 12. Velocities in each subdomain are computed relative to the motion of the subdomain. each of which may be rotating with respect to the laboratory inertial frame. The ow in rotating subdomains is governed by the equations presented in Section 12. velocities and velocity gradients are converted from a moving reference frame to the absolute inertial frame as described below. the calculation domain is divided into subdomains.4 Flow in Multiple Reference Frames 12. May 10.4. This approach di ers from typical mixing plane" or circumferential averaging approaches found in the literature.

!OPTIONS EXPERTOP MODELING OPTIONS NO ALLOW LINK SETTING NO ALLOW PROFILE SETTING NO ENABLE NON-NEWTONIAN FLOW MODEL NO ENABLE POROUS FLOW MODEL NO ENABLE FAN RADIATOR MODEL NO ALLOW FIXED PRESSURE BOUNDARIES NO ALLOW SETTING FLOW ANGLES FOR PRESSURE-INLETS NO ENABLE STEADY CORIOLIS FORCE YES ENABLE MULTIPLE ROTATING REFERENCE FRAMES NO ENABLE SLIDING MESH CALCULATION NO ACTIVATE PHASE CHANGE MODELLING NO ENABLE DEFORMING MESH CALCULATION D ACTION TOP. 3. The grid-setup constraints for rotating and swirling ows listed in Section 12. you can skip this step: the multiple reference frames model will be activated automatically as soon as you de ne a reference frame.3 Problem Setup for Multiple Reference Frames When you want to model a problem involving multiple reference frames. De ne the rotation speed for each rotating frame. ! Enabling Multiple The multiple reference frame model is enabled in the EXPERT OPTIONS Reference Frames table: MAIN .! EXPERT .REFRESH If you use the Set Cells panel to de ne the reference frames. Enable the multiple reference frame model. You will need to set up the rest of the problem as usual. 1997 . Only those steps relevant speci cally to the setup of a multiple reference frame problem are listed here. you will need to complete the following modeling inputs.2 apply to multiple rotating reference frames as well. 4. De ne the reference frames.DONE.4. 2.QUIT. May 10. c Fluent Inc. 1. De ne the velocity boundary conditions at walls and inlets.12-32 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows 12.

they will be M2. Note that the stationary reference frame M0 is not displayed in this color. you will de ne M1 as the rotating reference frame.5. 1997 . etc. cyclic cells next to a rotating frame must also be included in that frame. before de ning the reference frames. Starting the M1 frame to the right of the cyclic cells as shown in Figure 12. It is recommended that you set all of your cell types wall. De ning the The default reference frame for all cells is the laboratory stationary Reference Frames frame M0. 2. If the Show Reference Frames option is grayed out. Reference frame boundaries must be de ned such that the boundary between reference frames falls between cells of the same type. It is possible to de ne reference frames at any time.4 Flow in Multiple Reference Frames 12-33 The multiple reference frames model requires the use of the steady coriolis force option.4. you can use the Set Cells panel or the SET-CELLS text command.12. To de ne the reference frames. Figure 12. ! c Fluent Inc. for example. FLUENT will automatically turn on ENABLE STEADY CORIOLIS FORCE for you after you type DO on the action line of the table. so when you turn on ENABLE MULTIPLE ROTATING REFERENCE FRAMES. When this option is active. you will need to specify which cells comprise the reference frame. If your problem involves the stationary reference frame and one rotating reference frame. For example. reference zone M1 extends all the way to the left of the domain. May 10. etc. de ning reference frames at the same time that you are setting cell types may be confusing.4. Here.4. If you have additional rotating reference frames. the boundary between frames cannot occur between live and cyclic cells.inlet. however. Select all the cells to be placed in the rotating reference frame.4 would place the reference frame boundary between the cyclic cells and the adjacent live cells.3 shows a close-up view of the cells on the left in Figure 12. setting some cells to be in a di erent reference frame|following the steps below|will make it available. FLUENT will display the de ned rotating reference frames in a blue-green color. Turn on the Show Reference Frames option and click Display. You are not required to de ne the reference frame after the cell types. For each reference frame that is rotating. The procedure for de ning a rotating reference frame with the Set Cells panel is as follows: 1.

12-34 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows 24 C 23 C 22 C 21 C 20 C 19 C 18 C 17 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M 16 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M 15 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M 14 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M Multiple Impellers in a Cylindrical Tank Jun 05 1996 Computational Grid Fluent 4.3: Correct De nition of the M1 Reference Frame 24 C 23 C 22 C 21 C 20 C 19 C 18 C 17 C M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M 16 C M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M 15 C M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M C M1 M1 in a Cylindrical Tank 14 Multiple Impellers M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M1 M Jun 05 1996 Computational Grid Fluent 4.40 Fluent Inc. 1997 .4.40 Fluent Inc.4. Figure 12.4: Incorrect De nition of the M1 Reference Frame c Fluent Inc. May 10. Figure 12.

5. In the multiple-impeller tank example Figure 12.4.5 have been placed in another rotating reference frame M2.e. May 10. Figure 12. which shows the grid outline for this problem. The display will be updated to show that the selected cells are in a rotating reference frame.4 Flow in Multiple Reference Frames 12-35 ! and would be incorrect. The cells around the impeller at the center of the tank i. or a higher number if reference frame 1 has already been de ned in the ID list.6. that is. you can turn c Fluent Inc.5 have been placed in one rotating reference frame M1. Remember that the boundaries separating reference frames must be surfaces of revolution.5 shows the display for a cylindrical tank with multiple impellers.6 and at the bottom in Figure 12.4.6 and in the square region in Figure 12. The reference frame must either include the walls or be repositioned between two planes of live cells. and those surrounding the other impeller i. In the Set Cells panel. The remaining cells. Click Apply to change the reference frame designation of the selected cells to the speci ed reference frame. In Figure 12. In the same manner. it does not override the speci ed cell type. the cells inside the reference frame boundary for the 1 4 impeller in Figure 12. even though the boundaries are rectangular in the computational grid display in Figure 12.g..4. 4.4. 1997 . the cells inside the reference frame boundary for the complete impeller in Figure 12.4.12.4.4. 3. You can repeat these steps to de ne additional rotating reference frames. they must be de ned such that the component of the frame velocity normal to the boundary is zero.6. at the top of a mixing tank. the physical boundaries are circular arcs. Do not be concerned that you are selecting cells that you have already assigned a cell type such as wall" or inlet. choose MUL-FRAME in the Type list under Zone and the appropriate number 1 for the rst rotating reference frame you de ne.e." The reference frame designation is an additional characteristic of a cell. When you are done de ning reference frames.4. the boundaries of reference frames cannot be between a wall zone and live cells e. the circle around the complete impeller and the arc to the right of the 1 4 impeller at the tank center indicate the boundaries between reference frames. are in the stationary reference frame M0.. which are not colored blue-green..

4. M1 Multiple Impellers in a Cylindrical Tank Computational Grid Figure 12. May 10. Figure 12.40 Fluent Inc.6: Grid Outline for a Multiple-Impeller Tank c Fluent Inc.4.12-36 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows 74 70 60 M2 50 40 30 20 10 1 JI1 10 20 30 40 50 60 72 70 Jun 05 1996 Fluent 4.40 Fluent Inc. 1997 .5: Reference Frames for a Multiple-Impeller Tank reference frame boundaries M1 M2 Y Z X Multiple Impellers in a Cylindrical Tank Outline Jun 05 1996 Fluent 4.

. . You can also use the SET-CELLS command to de ne the reference frames use the MUL-FRAME command in the BOUNDS menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 C . . 70 C . . . . . .Y OR N ++DEFAULT-YES++ Y CELL TYPES: J I= 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 74 CW1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1W1 73 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If you place some cells in a rotating reference frame and then decide that they actually belong in the stationary reference frame M0. . . . . . .LEFT. . .M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2 J I= 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 ACTION RETURN =NEXT. . . . . . . the selected cells will no longer be colored. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2 60 C . . . . . . . . 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See Section 5. . . .4 Flow in Multiple Reference Frames 12-37 ! o the Show Reference Frames option if you want to see the cell types that are underneath the reference frame designations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When the multiple reference frame model is active and you select the LIST-CELLS command to show the cell types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . indicating that they are once again in the stationary reference frame. . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . . . 69 C . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2 62 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RIGHT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2 61 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Be careful not to select the letter O. . . 71 C . . FLUENT will ask you if you want to display reference frames: SETUP1LC L. . . . . . . . When you apply this change. . . . . . . .1 for details about using the SET-CELLS command. . . . . . . . . . . . . .DOWN. . . . . . . . . .M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2 59 C . . . . . . 67 C . . . . . . . 63 C . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .DISPLAY REFERENCE FRAMES? L.M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2M2 58 C . . . . . . . . . 66 C . . . . .: 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 c Fluent Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . you can follow the steps above and select 0 at the bottom of the ID list. . . . . . . . 68 C . . .UP. . . . . . . . . . . .QUIT. . . . . . . . . . . May 10. . . . . . . .

select the appropriate MUL-FRAME and enter the angular velocity components and reference frame origin in the following table: c Fluent Inc. May 10. Each of these axes is parallel to the corresponding axis of the domain coordinate system. and set the components of angular velocity and the origin for the reference frame in the resulting Multiple Reference Frames panel: Set the origin of the reference frame under Reference Frame Origin. In 2D nonaxisymmetric problems. 1997 . In the BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS menu. etc. Reference Frame In the Boundary Conditions panel. Then de ne the angular velocity components about the x. and z axes of the coordinate system with its origin at the Reference Frame Origin. y. MUL-FRAME2. the rotation will always be about the z axis only. select MUL-FRAME-1.12-38 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows De ning the To de ne a reference frame's rotation. you will use the Boundary Rotation of the Conditions panel or the BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS text menu.

May 10. Speci cation of angular velocities is described later in this section. That is. As another example. Speci cation of If you choose to enter the boundary values of the velocity compoRelative Velocity nents relative to the rotating coordinates. and the total pressure is based on velocities relative to the reference frame's rotation.12. 1997 Input of Velocity Depending on the nature of your problem and the location of the Boundary reference frame boundaries. you will need to set the velocity on the outer wall so that it will be stationary in the absolute frame. both of which are stationary. You cannot use the PATCH text command in the MAIN menu to patch relative velocities because all patched boundary conditions are interpreted by FLUENT to be in the absolute frame of reference when you have multiple reference frames. using a rotating frame for the impellers and a stationary frame for all of the tank walls and ba es.REFRESH 12-39 if you are modeling impellers in a ba ed mixing tank with no in ow or out ow boundaries. If you choose a rotating frame that extends to the outer stationary tank wall.4 Flow in Multiple Reference Frames SETUP1BC MF 1 REFERENCE FRAME PARAMETERS 10 ANGULAR VELOCITY ABOUT Z AXIS DIM 0. that your rotating frame extends from the top tank wall to the bottom tank wall. you may or may not need to supply adConditions ditional boundary condition information at this point.0000E+00 X COORDINATE OF REFERENCE FRAME ORIGIN DIM 0. you must use the BoundComponents ary Conditions panel or the BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS text command in the SETUP-1 menu.0000E+00 Y COORDINATE OF REFERENCE FRAME ORIGIN DIM ACTION TOP. but you cannot specify relative angular velocities. It will then be necessary to set the boundary conditions for these walls and inlets from the perspective of the rotating frame. consider a tank that is unbafed in the vicinity of the impeller. no additional inputs will be required. For pressure boundaries. you may specify velocity boundary conditions in either relative or absolute terms. For example. c Fluent Inc. For velocity inlets and walls.QUIT. Suppose. the pressure boundary condition is always applied in the reference frame in which the pressure boundary cells lie. however. Relative Cartesian velocity components can be de ned for all cases. .DONE. the ow direction is relative to the reference frame's rotation.

You cannot transform boundary conditions at pressure boundaries. Speci cation of When you are using the multiple reference frame model.e. Note that if you use the PATCH text command in the MAIN menu to patch velocity boundary conditions. FLUENT prompts you to de ne the boundaries on which the velocities you have input should be transformed from the stationary frame to the rotational reference frame. You will have the option to transform your inputs at all WALL and INLET boundaries. The velocities de ned with respect to the inertial coordinates are transformed onto the rotating coordinates before the solution begins.REFRESH As shown.12-40 Automatic Transformation of Absolute Velocity Components to the Rotating Frame Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows You can also enter velocity boundary conditions with respect to the stationary coordinate system and let FLUENT do the transformation to the rotational reference frame for you. 1997 .DONE. After input of the absolute velocities i. If you choose to use this option. FLUENT interprets them to be in the absolute frame of reference and will automatically transform them to the rotating frame in the course of the calculation.! SETUP-1 .! PROJECT-VELOCITIES ! SETUP1PROJECT-VEL PROJECT VELOCITIES ONTO ROTATING COORDINATES NO W1 NO I1 ACTION TOP. as shown below. you canAngular Velocity not specify a relative angular velocity nor can you transform an absolute angular velocity to the rotating reference frame. Pressure boundary conditions are always applied in the rotating reference frame. velocities relative to the stationary frame you will need to instruct FLUENT to transform project these inputs to the rotating reference frame. MAIN . May 10.QUIT. The PROJECT-VELOCITIES command therefore has no e ect on patched boundary conditions. you must use the Boundary Conditions panel or the BOUNDARY-CONDITIONS text command in conjunction with the PROJECT-VELOCITIES text command. This is accomplished using the PROJECT-VELOCITIES command in the SETUP-1 menu. The zone numbers of the boundaries that are to be transformed are stored internally.. You must c Fluent Inc.

heat transfer coe cients. When this approach is used.4 Solution and Postprocessing for Multiple Rotating Reference Frames Solution Strategies No special solution strategies are necessary for multiple reference frames. No other special reporting issues arise in multiple rotating reference frames. for a constant angular velocity you will need to set the circumferential velocity to be a function of the local radius. When you examine the results of your calculation. On the other hand. c Fluent Inc.3. in the usual fashion.. compute v in Equation 12. Postprocessing In FLUENT. FLUENT will report velocities as either cylindrical or Cartesian components in the inertial reference frame. and you can examine shear forces.4 Flow in Multiple Reference Frames 12-41 instead determine the corresponding absolute circumferential velocity yourself i. Cartesian velocities will be reported if you have solved the problem using the default Cartesian velocities. You may want to look at the suggestions for single rotating frames in Section 12. only the absolute laboratory frame velocities can be displayed.e. and it is also recommended that you reduce the MINIMUM RESIDUAL SUM in the EXPERT SOLUTION-PARAMETERS table to 1. accessed from the XTENDED-XOPTIONS menu for the PATCH command. 1997 . and cylindrical velocities will be reported if you chose to solve the problem using cylindrical velocities. 12.4.12. etc. This will insure a more converged solution and better stress balance across the reference frame interface. boundaries that are stationary in the non-rotating frame of reference are given an angular velocity of zero.0E-4 or less. boundaries that are rotating in the stationary frame are given the angular velocity of the reference frame. In general.4.4-2 and de ne it as the CIRCUMFERENTIAL-VELOCITY in local coordinates. May 10.

1997 . May 10.12-42 Chapter 12 | Swirling and Rotating Flows c Fluent Inc.

A typical stirred tank is a cylindrical vessel with ba es along its periphery.2: The Deforming Mesh Model The sliding mesh model is ideally suited for problems involving rotor stator interactions and involves two mesh regions. Figure 13. as in applications involving valve motion or piston cylinder ows. a sliding mesh calculation is necessary.g. When the ow situation involves an interaction of stationary stator and moving rotor parts such that the computational domain cannot be made stationary by using a rotating reference frame.1 shows examples of rotor-stator interaction problems that can be modeled using the sliding mesh technique in FLUENT. This model is ideally suited for simulation of the detailed study of impeller performance in ba ed mixing vessels. in which the incoming reactants are mixed by one or more rotating impellers Application of the Sliding Mesh Model to Stirred Tank Reactors . one attached to a rotating geometry e.1.Chapter 13. For example. sliding relative to one another along slipping planes within the uid domain. Mixing of single and multi-phase uids in stirred tanks is very common in the chemical and biotechnology industries. a sliding mesh capability is needed to solve such problems.g.. a rotor and one attached to stationary boundaries of the ow e. Moving Mesh Simulations This chapter describes the models in FLUENT that allow you to simulate ows in which physical boundaries are moving in time.1 The Sliding Mesh Model The sliding mesh modeling approach involves two mesh regions. using a rotating reference frame will not immobilize the computational domain. These models are covered in the following sections: Section 13. 13.1: The Sliding Mesh Model Section 13. one attached to the rotor and one attached to the stator. in a mixing tank where the ba es are stationary and the impeller is moving.. which slide relative to one another along slipping planes within the uid domain. the stator. The deforming mesh model allows the grid to deform in response to moving boundaries.

Figure 13.2a shows the initial position of the two grids. Since the ow is inherently unsteady.13-2 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations Figure 13.1. a time-dependent solution procedure must be used. Figure 13. FLUENT provides the capability to treat this rotor-stator interaction through the sliding mesh capability. process scale-up. 1997 . energy conservation. An arbitrary LagrangianEulerian method is used to describe the general transport equations in both of the grid regions. This unsteady interaction may be quite signi cant in many industrial ows and may play an important part in equipment design. and product quality control. May 10.2b shows the rotation of the rotor grid with respect to the stator grid. alignment of the two grids along the slipping surface is not required. Since the computational domain cannot be immobilized by using a frame of reference rotating with the impeller. The ow patterns in mixing tanks are very complex and the presence of the stationary ba es makes the ow inherently unsteady.1. the mean quantities exhibit a periodic unsteadiness. due to the interaction of the stationary ba e and moving impeller parts.1b.1. The rotor grid slides with respect to the stator grid along the slipping surface. As the rotation takes place. The Sliding Mesh In the sliding mesh technique two grids are employed: one for the Technique stationary components and one for the rotating components. c Fluent Inc.

May 10.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-3 Stationary Rotating Ω a Rotor-Stator Interaction Stationary baffles Ω Rotating impeller b Rotating Impeller in a Ba ed Tank Figure 13.13.1: Rotor-Stator Interaction Problems That Can Be Modeled Using the Sliding Mesh Technique c Fluent Inc.1. 1997 .

May 10.1.13-4 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations a Initial Position of the Rotor and Stator Grids b Sliding of the Rotor Mesh With Respect to the Stator Mesh Figure 13.2: Sliding Mesh Used for Rotor-Stator Interaction c Fluent Inc. 1997 .

once iterations have been performed. Compressible ow cannot be modeled with sliding mesh. c Fluent Inc. Note that the VOF free surface model Chapter 10 can be included.1. with the following restrictions: Species transport and reaction can be modeled but the multicomponent species di usion law cannot be used see Section 7. Radiation heat transfer cannot be included in sliding mesh simulations. The sliding mesh model can be used with most FLUENT models.13.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-5 Restrictions in the Since most rotor-stator interactions involve a cylindrical geometry. You will be able to use all of the commands in the MANIPULATEGRID menu only if the grid is at the initial position at time t = 0. only the SWAP-X-Y-Z. including general curvilinear grids. 1997 . May 10. however. The PDF di usion model and the premixed ame front model are also not available as modeling options when the sliding mesh model is active. Sliding Mesh FLUENT employs a cylindrical-polar coordinate formulation for the Model sliding mesh calculations see Section 6. allowing you to simulate free surfaces in stirred tank reactors. Higher order numerical schemes QUICK. and COPY-CYCLIC-PLANES commands will be available. may be employed as long as the radial slipping plane de nes an arc of constant radius see Section 13.2. The multigrid solver cannot be used with sliding mesh.6. The RSM turbulence model cannot be included in sliding mesh simulations. Note. SWAP-I-J-K. in addition. This does not imply that the grid must be cylindrical in nature: any grid topology. and second order density interpolation are not available with the sliding mesh model. the second order upwind scheme. Phase change Chapter 8 and the Eulerian multiphase model Chapter 9 cannot be included.2. that the sliding mesh model is inherently timedependent and is thus incompatible with the Lagrangian particle tracking model in which the particles are assumed to traverse a steady ow.

1-1 through 13. J is equal to unity. are written in strong-conservation-law form in generalized coordinates. impeller while the other is xed to the stationary geometry e. momentum. tank walls. @ @ @ @xj j j +S 13. d=dt is the total derivative and represents the time rate of change of a variable as seen by an observer riding on the moving mesh. Those control volumes may Interface have an arbitrary number of neighbors and the number of neighbors uj i c Fluent Inc.1 Theory of the Sliding Mesh Model Overview In the sliding mesh approach 101 the basic idea is to employ two grids: one moves with the rotating geometry e. 1997 . vj ui = .. is the di usion coe cient for the scalar quantity Su is the source term for the ui equation S is the source term for the equation These equations are the continuity. vj = @x .. In the sliding mesh formulation.13-6 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations 13.1-2 13. May 10. A conservative interpolation is used to obtain ow variables and face uxes across this surface.g.1-1 t. The moving grid is allowed to slide relative to the stationary grid and grid lines are not required to align on the slip surface.ij + Sui @ @p @ + @x uj . Treatment of the Control volumes near the slip surface must be treated di erently Rotor-Stator from cells not bordering the slip surface. Formulation The equations governing ow in the frame of reference of the moving mesh may be written in Cartesian tensor form as 135 1 1 d J dt J ui d J dt J @ + @x uj . because the rotor mesh is assumed to move as a solid body and hence there is no mesh distortion.1-3.1. respectively. vj = 0 j 13.1-3 is the uid density is the ow velocity component vj is the grid velocity component arising from mesh motion ij is the molecular stress tensor for Newtonian uids t.ij is the Reynolds stress tensor .g. @x + @x ij + j i j 1 where d J dt J + @x uj . together with constitutive relations for a Newtonian uid. and scalar transport equations. Equations 13. The two meshes interact along a surface of slip. J is a measure of the change of material volume as it travels with the moving grid.

For a node P in Zone 1 on the rotor side. The discrete equations for points in each zone involve these ctitious neighbors. Imposition of On the rotor.1. the east E . and cyclic Conditions boundary conditions are applied on the lateral boundaries. however. The north neighbor.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-7 changes with time.3.13. is the ctitious node N in Zone 2 on the stator side as shown in Figure 13.3: Treatment of the Rotor-Stator Interface Calculation of the A conservative interpolation scheme is used to compute the conInterface Flux vective and di usive uxes for control volumes bordering the slip surface.3.2a. The basic methodology depends on the construction of ctitious control volumes on both sides of the interface. Fictitious Control Volume N Zone 2 (Stator) RotorStator Interface W P E Zone 1 (Rotor) S Figure 13. the rotor and stator meshes are aligned along the slip surface. When cyclic conditions are applied on the lateral boundaries.1.1. the velocity of the impeller rotation is speci ed. c Fluent Inc. and south S neighbors are also in Zone 1 Figure 13. 1997 . the neighbor nodes along the slip surface must be correctly identi ed to account for cyclicity on both the moving and stationary meshes. as shown in Figure 13.1. Conservation is guaranteed in both a local and a global sense. west W . May 10. The procedure used is as follows: At time t=0. A Boundary no-slip boundary condition is applied on all solid walls.

the rotor mesh may rotate several mesh spacings past the stator mesh. is described below.2b. and the circumferential direction is the I -direction. Since the sliding mesh option is inherently unsteady. Overview of When setting up a problem to deal with rotor-stator interaction. To account for the fact that line structure is not preserved across the slip surface. Make sure that the Cartesian x-axis is de ned as the axis of rotation. See Section 5.10 for information about ensuring that the cyclic planes are exact copies of one another. based on your input for the number of grid spaces the rotor grid will rotate per time step. or by the code. Sliding Mesh A modi ed line-by-line Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm TDMA is Solution Procedure used for the solution of the nominally linear set of discrete equa- tions.6.2 Problem Setup Using the Sliding Mesh Option A detailed procedure for setting up a problem using the sliding mesh option. The time step can be de ned by you. May 10. Thus. the radial direction is the J -direction. Since the rotor mesh moves like a solid body.1. by the physical rotation of the rotor mesh. and the direction c Fluent Inc. 13. geometric parameters such as the Jacobian of transformation and the cell face areas need not be recalculated. a time-marching algorithm is used to reach periodic steady state. as in any other transient calculation. The direction of the increasing K index must be in the positive x direction. there is no mesh distortion. Make sure that the axial direction is the K -direction. At that point. along with the user inputs. This operation may be done either symbolically by the manipulation of linked lists or in actuality. Modeling Inputs you should follow the procedures below: Set up the grid using a rotationally cyclic grid. If necessary.1. swap the coordinate axes.13-8 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations Over the time step t. as shown in Figure 13. the nominally linear set is assumed solved and the iteration loop continues. 1997 Using the Sliding Mesh . where the rotation is counter-clockwise. The stator neighbors of the over-hanging" rotor control volumes are identi ed by cyclic rearrangement of the mesh. the LGS solver is applied sequentially to the rotor and stator grids until the values at the ctitious node points stabilize.

the axis of rotation should be the Cartesian x-axis. If the ow is turbulent.g. bearing in mind that only the LGS solver is available for sliding mesh calculations. In this approach.. and radial and axial locations of the slipping surfaces as detailed below. the ba ed wall as a W-WALL. Enable the cylindrical velocity formulation see below. Setup Constraints Some restrictions apply to the sliding mesh simulations: for Sliding Mesh Calculations 1.model. Enable the sliding mesh calculation see below. while the middle slice is a live" plane.. Constraints of using the cylindrical velocity formulation apply. 2. De ne the I = 1 and I = Imax boundaries as cyclic planes.13. Note that when a sliding mesh approach is adopted. Use a slip wall symmetry to approximate a uid free surface or consider using the VOF multiphase model to simulate free surface e ects. De ne the moving inner wall e. Note that the rotating elements are assumed to be those with J grid indices less than the J index de ning the radial slipping plane.g. May 10. Choose the time step determining scheme and de ne appropriate parameters for the scheme chosen. the ow becomes inherently unsteady and a time-dependent solution approach must be used see procedures below. These c Fluent Inc.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-9 of increasing J index must be in the positive radial direction. the impeller blade as a Z-WALL and the stationary outer wall e. 1997 . that is. three slices of a two-dimensional grid are created: the top and bottom slices are de ned as symmetry planes. Set the appropriate model parameters angular velocity of the rotor. turn on either the standard k . but you can perform two-dimensional simulations using a pseudo-3D approach. The problem must be modeled as three-dimensional. Choose appropriate solver settings.model or the RNG k . Calculate the rotational Reynolds number based on the tip velocity of the impeller to determine if the ow is laminar or turbulent.

.13-10 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations so-called sandwich" domains are a convenient way of modeling the r .

swapping of the coordinate axes will be necessary see Section 5. The slipping plane in the radial direction is assumed to be an arc of a circle. The inner moving wall and impeller are designated. plane forms a circular arc about the centerline and that the axial slipping planes contain J-grid lines that are circular arcs about the centerline. The slipping plane should be below the free surface and the interface between phases should not cross the slipping plane. The slipping planes both axial and radial should be set at least one computational cell away from any solid wall. If the grid is created in FLUENT.6. If the x-axis has not been de ned to be the axis of rotation. 5. Setting Cell Types The moving walls should be de ned using Z-WALL zones and the stationary walls should be de ned using W-WALL zones. No cell deformation is allowed along the slipping faces. with the radial grid lines forming circular arcs about the centerline. and you have requested the cylindrical velocity formulation. May 10. 6. When c Fluent Inc.1. See Figure 13.4. 1997 Grid Generation The sliding mesh grid may be created in FLUENT or using the preRequirements processor of your choice. the axis of rotation is the x-axis and swapping of axes is not necessary. as Z-WALL 1 and the stationary outer wall and ba e as W-WALL 1. The axial slipping planes should be located so that they are contained within a single uid phase when the multiphase VOF free surface model is used. plane in a problem with no axial variation in the ow. for example.6. 4. The rst and last I -planes should be de ned as rotationally cyclic cells. In addition. the sliding mesh formulation requires the Cartesian xaxis to be the axis of rotation. Slip planes in the axial direction should be above and below the impeller region and should be placed several planes away from the walls at the axial ends of the domain. The grid on these axial slip planes should be cylindrical in nature. 3. The cell types Z-WALL 1 to Z-WALL Z should be used to de ne the moving walls the rotor blades. The rotating elements are assumed to be those with J grid indices less than the J index de ning the radial slipping plane. W-WALL 1 to W-WALL Z should be used to de ne the stationary walls. You must ensure that the radial slipping .

FLUENT will give you a warning when you try to QUIT out of SETUP-1 or whenever grid checks are performed: c Fluent Inc.13. FLUENT will ask whether the cyclic boundaries are roBoundary Type tationally or translationally cyclic.! QUIT *LLYES L- DOMAIN HAS CYCLIC BOUNDARY.1. May 10.5b show the cell type de nitions in a 60o sector of a ba ed three-dimensional tank with a rotating impeller. it may be modeled as a slip wall using SYMMETRY cells. IS GEOMETRY ROTATIONALLY CYCLIC? ELSE TRANSLATIONALLY CYCLIC? Y OR N ++DEFAULT-YES++ DEFAULT ASSUMED If you haven't de ned cyclic boundaries. you should de ne the geometry to be ROTATIONALLY CYCLIC: SETUP-1 . At this point.4: Grid Requirements on Slipping Planes the top surface of the domain represents a uid free surface. Selecting a When you QUIT from SETUP-1 or when you de ne cyclic cells using Rotationally Cyclic the GUI.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-11 must be circular arcs on the radial slipping plane must be circular arcs on the axial slipping planes I J K Figure 13. 1997 .1. Figures 13. Alternately.1.5a and 13. you may want to model the details of the free surface using the VOF multiphase model Chapter 10.

1.5: Cell Type De nition c Fluent Inc. 1997 . May 10.13-12 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations Baffle and Outer Wall (W1) Cyclic Planes (C) Impeller (Z1) End Wall (W1) a Outline of Geometry Y X Z b Surface Grid Figure 13.

May 10. **** ********************************************************** 13-13 Using the When the sliding mesh technique is adopted. When this option is en- abled. THE CENTERLINE AXIS MUST BE X AXIS. PLEASE CHECK. FLUENT issues a warning message: ****- !! WARNING !! WHEN USING CYLINDRICAL VELOCITIES. all velocity inputs and outputs will be in terms of cylindrical velocity components. you Rotational should calculate the rotational Reynolds number: Rerot = 2 2 Dt 13. You activate this option using the Velocity CYLINDRICAL-VELOCITIES command in the DEFINE-MODELS text Formulation menu or in the Models panel in the GUI.13. the x-axis should be de ned as the axis of rotation. When the cylindrical velocity formulation is chosen. Computing the To determine whether the ow regime is laminar or turbulent. a more commonly used de nition of the rotational Reynolds number is as follows: Rerot where = N Dt 2 13. the cylindrical veCylindrical locity option must be used.1-5 where is the rotor speed in rotations per second Dt is the diameter of the impeller tip is the density of the uid is the viscosity of the uid N c Fluent Inc. PLEASE VERIFY YOUR COORDINATE SYSTEM AND SWAP AXES IF NECESSARY. using the SWAP-X-Y-Z command in the MANIPULATE-GRID menu. This is easily achieved by swapping the xand z-coordinates. if required.1-4 is the rotor speed in radians per second Dt is the diameter of the impeller tip is the density of the uid is the viscosity of the uid In the mixing community. Reynolds Number As indicated in the warning message. 1997 .1 The Sliding Mesh Model ************************************************************** *** CYCLIC BOUNDARY CONDITION IS EXPECTED FOR **** *** SLIDING MESH CALCULATIONS.

000. depend on the impeller type that you are considering. a simple Rushton turbine may transition much earlier e. 1997 . c Fluent Inc. enable the sliding mesh model using the drop-down list in the Moving Mesh eld: De ne . begin Model by opening the Models panel and enabling time dependence and the cylindrical velocity formulation by selecting the Time Dependent Flow and Cylindrical Velocities check boxes. at Re = 200 500.13-14 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations When this exceeds the transition Reynolds number for your impeller. The Reynolds number at which transition occurs will.! Models. Aerodynamically shaped impellers may transition at a Reynolds number of 10... Enabling the The sliding mesh model is enabled using the Models panel or using Sliding Mesh the EXPERT OPTIONS table in the text interface. while more chaotic mixers e. Next. In the GUI. you should enable a turbulence model noting that the RSM is not available for modeling turbulence in sliding mesh simulations. May 10.g.. however.g..

1997 .! OPTIONS c Fluent Inc. In the text interface. you enable the sliding mesh model by selecting the ENABLE SLIDING MESH CALCULATION command in the EXPERT OPTIONS table: MAIN . May 10.13.! EXPERT .1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-15 Click Apply to enable your selection of the sliding mesh model.

after enabling the sliding mesh model. click the Moving Mesh Parameters button in the Models panel in order to access the Moving Mesh Parameters panel: c Fluent Inc. 1997 . In the GUI.DONE.QUIT.13-16 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations MODELING OPTIONS NO ALLOW LINK SETTING NO ALLOW PROFILE SETTING NO ENABLE NON-NEWTONIAN FLOW MODEL NO ENABLE POROUS FLOW MODEL NO ENABLE FAN RADIATOR MODEL NO ALLOW FIXED PRESSURE BOUNDARIES NO ALLOW SETTING FLOW ANGLES FOR PRESSURE-INLETS NO ENABLE STEADY CORIOLIS FORCE NO ENABLE TIME-DEPENDENT CORIOLIS FORCE YES ENABLE SLIDING MESH CALCULATION NO ACTIVATE PHASE CHANGE MODELLING NO ENABLE DEFORMING MESH CALCULATION ACTION TOP. May 10.REFRESH De ning the Rotor You supply information describing the rotor-stator grid interaction Parameters using the Moving Mesh Parameters panel or using the ROTOR-PARAMETERS command in the text interface.

the NUMBER OF GRID SPACES PER TIME STEP must be non-zero | since a zero value sets the time step to zero i.AUTOMATIC TIME STEP ADJUSTMENT? NO=MANUAL? L. May 10. SETUP-1 .e. ROTOR ANGULAR VELOCITY Angular Velocity: The angular velocity of the rotor must be speci ed in radians second. and not in the MAIN EXPERT menu. 1997 Auto Time Step Adjustment: Selection of this option implies that the automatic . The automatic time step option adjusts the time step so that the grid motion at the sliding planes traverses the number of grid spaces set by the NUMBER OF GRID SPACES PER TIME STEP Grid Space Increment input.! ROTOR-PARAMETERS EXPERTROTOR-PARAMETERS ROTOR PARAMETERS 100 ROTOR ANGULAR VELOCITY RAD S 10 SLIP LINE IN RADIAL DIRECTION 9 SLIP PLANE 1 IN AXIAL DIRECTION 15 SLIP PLANE 2 IN AXIAL DIRECTION 1 NUMBER OF GRID SPACES PER TIME STEP D ACTION TOP.QUIT.! EXPERT .Y OR N ++DEFAULT-NO++ The rotor parameters that you input either through the GUI or through the text interface are: AUTOMATIC TIME STEP ADJUSTMENT time step adjustment scheme will be used.13. Note that the ROTOR-PARAMETERS command is available only in the SETUP-1 EXPERT MENU. The sign of angular velocity follows the conventional right-hand c Fluent Inc. no mesh motion. If you don't select the automatic time step option.1. the ROTOR-PARAMETERS command results in the table shown below. Time marching options for sliding mesh are described in more detail in Section 13. Note that even if you do not choose automatic time stepping.REFRESH L.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-17 The parameters you enter in this table for the sliding mesh model are described below.3.DONE.. the time step must be explicitly de ned by you. In the text interface.

based on the Cartesian coordinate system. Setting Time When you have completed entries in the ROTOR-PARAMETERS table. as discussed below. SLIP PLANE 1 and 2 IN AXIAL DIRECTION Axial Slip Line 1 and 2: The slip planes in the axial direction are the planes that enshroud the moving components: they de ne the axial length of the rotor grid.6 shows the two slip planes that de ne the rotor grid. accessed using the Time Parameters.REFRESH In the GUI. Figure 13. See Section 6.QUIT. the two slip planes in the axial direction are de ned to be planes 2 and 3. will set the time step to zero. Thus..13-18 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations rule. these parameters are input in the Time Dependent Flow Parameters panel.1. Except for the automatic time stepping option described in Section 13. NO. If automatic time stepping is not used. Marching the TIME DEPENDENT FLOW SOLUTION PARAMETERS table appears: Parameters TIME DEPENDENT FLOW SOLUTION PARAMETERS 100 MAX. positive values correspond to counterclockwise rotation about the x-axis. this input should still be non-zero.9..e.0000E-03 SET TIME STEP SECONDS NO AUTOMATIC SAVING NO ENABLE TIME VARYING GRAVITY VECTOR ACTION TOP.0000E-03 MIN.DONE. RESIDUAL SUM DIMENSIONLESS 1. May 10.1. The K -coordinates of the slip planes in the axial direction must be speci ed. the time dependence inputs required for sliding mesh calculations are the same as those for any other unsteady calculation. ITNS PER TIME STEP 1. since a value of zero will stop the blade rotation i. NUMBER OF GRID SPACES PER TIME STEP Grid Space Increment: If you want automatic adjustment of time steps.3. The impeller should be contained in it. SLIP LINE IN RADIAL DIRECTION Radial Slip Line: The slip line is the radial face J -coordinate along which the rotor and stator meshes slide. button in the Models panel. For a pseudo-3D simulation.. you can specify the number of averaged cell spaces that the rotor blade should traverse within each time step with this entry. c Fluent Inc. 1997 .

10 for more information about reference pressure.1. This provides a convenient way for you to save results at successive time steps for later postprocessing. Calculations can be restarted using your initial case le and the latest solution data obtained.2.9. 1997 .3 Solution Procedures for Sliding Mesh Simulations c Fluent Inc.6: Slip Planes in the Axial Direction Reference Pressure When the sliding mesh model is used. FLUENT will ensure that Location the reference pressure location is in the stator part of the mesh by setting it to 2. ! Note that you must read the case le prior to reading a data le when the sliding mesh model is used. Saving Case and FLUENT's automatic saving of data les during transient calculaData Files tions can be used with the sliding mesh model see Section 6.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-19 Slip Plane 2 (K = 10) Slip Plane 1 (K = 5) Figure 13.2. The sliding mesh approach is an inherently unsteady ow calculation. May 10.JMAX-1.1. you only need to save the Case File once. See Section 15. performed on the time scale of the ows induced by the rotorstator interactions. FLUENT provides two alternatives for you to de ne the desired time step for time marching: Automatic time step adjustment User-de ned time step 13. You do not have to save a Case File each time you save a Data File.13.

If a user-de ned time step is used. then the number of time steps in a period can be determined by dividing the time period by the time step. an input of 3 for Grid Space Increment NUMBER OF GRID SPACES PER TIME STEP implies that the rotor grid will rotate 3 grid spaces in each time step. The time period e. 1997 . To determine an order of magnitude estimate for the number of periods or cycles needed to achieve periodic steady state. you will also specify the number of averaged cell spaces that the rotor blade should traverse within each time step. Note that the average ow quantities will achieve periodic steady state faster than individual variables.13-20 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations You may use one or both of these options to solve a given problem. For example. so you can de ne large" time steps in the initial stages. seconds can be calculated by dividing the sector angle of the domain radians by the rotor speed radians sec. then n = Rt can give an order of magnitude estimate of the number of cycles needed to achieve periodic steady state. as described below. A period may be de ned as the time taken by the rotor mesh to start from its initial position and come back to the same position. if the change is less than 5. a periodic steady state has been reached. So if there are 18 grid spaces in the circumferential I direction. if Rt is the radius of the tip of the impeller blade. In the sliding mesh calculations.. it is possible to use an analog of a dissipation time scale. The nal periodic steady-state solution is independent of the time steps taken in the initial stages of the solution procedure. As the solution approaches periodic steady state. you can ignore the Time Step entry in the Models panel or the SET TIME STEP query in the TIME DEPENDENT FLOW SOLUTION PARAMETERS Periodic Steady State Time Steps in a Period Estimating the Number of Cycles Needed q Automatic Time Step Adjustment c Fluent Inc. and is the kinematic viscosity of the uid. If you choose to use the automatic time step adjustment. FLUENT then automatically calculates the corresponding time step. then the rotor will come back to the initial position after 6 time steps. is the angular velocity of the impeller.g. a time-marching scheme is used to reach periodic steady state. Note that when you are using the automatic time step adjustment. Although the solver provides unconditionally stable calculations for time marching. May 10. you should reduce the time step. you should not allow the rotor mesh to traverse more than 10 averaged cell spaces per time step. When the solution eld does not change from one period to the next for example. for a mixing tank problem. For example.

13. Starting from this steady ow solution. by starting from an initial steady ow obtained on a nonsliding mesh. in some cases. User-De ned Time When you want to de ne the time step manually.DONE. This initial transient calculation can also be accelerated. input the Time Step you want to use in the Models panel or using the SET TIME STEP entry in the TIME DEPENDENT FLOW SOLUTION PARAMETERS table: SETUP-1 .REFRESH Accelerating the Sliding mesh simulations are intrinsically time-dependent calculaTime Marching tions and may require a long time to reach periodic steady state. 1997 . small time steps are again used in order to ensure time accuracy of the periodic transient ow. the rotor is modeled in its own frame of reference using a rotating reference frame without the presence of the stator.AUTOMATIC TIME STEP ADJUSTMENT? NO=MANUAL? L. NO.0000E-03 MIN.Y OR N ++DEFAULT-YES++ NO Next. disable the Auto Step Time Step Adjustment option in the Moving Mesh Parameters panel or respond NO to AUTOMATIC TIME STEP ADJUSTMENT text query when exiting the ROTOR-PARAMETERS table: L. the solution can be transformed back to the stationary frame using the RELATIVE-TO-ABS-CONVERT command in the EXPERT menu. RESIDUAL SUM DIMENSIONLESS 0. In this approach. Procedure You can accelerate the calculation by using large time steps during the early phase of the time marching procedure. This approach involves using a large time step to march through the initial transient time period in order to quickly establish the major ow characteristics. ITNS PER TIME STEP 1.! TIME-DEPENDENCE TIME DEPENDENT FLOW SOLUTION PARAMETERS 15 MAX. the stator Starting Sliding Mesh Calculations From Rotating Reference Frame Solutions c Fluent Inc.QUIT. The nal periodic ow is independent of the time step taken during the early transient stage. May 10.! EXPERT . After obtaining an initial ow solution in the rotating frame. During the nal stages of the calculation.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-21 table.5 SET TIME STEP SECONDS NO AUTOMATIC SAVING NO ENABLE TIME VARYING GRAVITY VECTOR ACTION TOP.

you enter the SETUP-1 menu and and Grid then QUIT back to the *MAIN* menu.QUIT. May 10. Iterations per Time The maximum number of iterations per time step should be deterStep mined by you such that convergence is achieved within each time step. This approach provides an initial condition in which the ba es. in the of study of formation and decay of tip vortices the number of iterations for each time step should be set such that tight convergence is achieved at each time step.Y OR N ++DEFAULT-NO++ c Fluent Inc.Y OR N ++DEFAULT-NO++ L. Use of the LGS The multigrid linear equation solver is currently not availSolver able for sliding mesh calculations. it is advisable to use multiple sweeps for each equation to facilitate information updates across the sliding faces.. 1997 .REFRESH Resetting the Data If. the following inputs might be used: MAIN . as in the case of any unsteady calculation.! SWEEPS-OF-SOLVER NUMBER OF SWEEPS SWEEP DIRECTION 15 PRESSURE-CORRECTION 4 U-VELOCITY 4 V-VELOCITY 4 W-VELOCITY 3 SOLVER MARCHING DIRECTION I=1. Adequate convergence is required. K=3 1 SWEEP DIRECTION I=1. the ow eld before it has reached periodic steady state is not of interest. all of the equations use the LGS solver and the options for using the multigrid solver do not appear in the LINEAR-EQN-SOLVER menu. to avoid the accumulation of errors that may eventually cause divergence.e. after doing a few calculations. Thus. absolute convergence of the early time steps is not critical.g. the following messages will appear in sequence: L. however.! EXPERT . If the startup transient ow eld i. J=2. rather than the impeller..DONE.DISCARD EXISTING SOLUTION DATA? L. K=3 YES ALTERNATE SWEEP DIRECTION WITHIN MARCHING PLANE ACTION TOP. are impulsively added when the sliding mesh simulation is started. When the initial period of the ow is of interest e. J=2.13-22 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations and the sliding mesh model are added.! LINEAR-EQN-SOLVER .RESET GRID? L. For example. When using the LGS solver.

. However. This is most easily accomplished using the READ-CASE-DATA text command or via the Read Case & Data.1. however. FLUENT provides this option in the VECTOR-PARAMETERS command: VIEW-GRAPHICS . FLUENT calculates and reports the velocity components based on this inertial frame.4 Postprocessing Sliding Mesh Results During the time dependent calculation procedure. RESET GRID clears the current grid topology and resets the rotor grid to the initial unmoved" position.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-23 These questions have the following meanings: DISCARD EXISTING SOLUTION DATA clears the existing data eld and allows you to start from scratch. Note. command in the File pull-down menu. the command to read the le must be preceded by the command to read the case le in which the sliding mesh information is stored. 13. you will have stored many data les containing the rotor-stator ow eld results. When you are ready to view these results you will read individual data les and perform any required postprocessing. that whenever you read a sliding mesh data le.13. from time to time it is of interest to display velocity vectors in the rotating frame of reference.. Vector Display in The sliding mesh formulation is written with respect to the inertial the Rotating Frame or laboratory frame of reference.! VECTOR-PARAMETERS c Fluent Inc. This should be used whenever the data is reset and you intend to restart the calculation from time t = 0. 1997 . May 10.

Setting this option to YES results in a vector display in the rotating frame of the impeller. May 10.0000E+00 VECTOR SCALING FACTOR DIM YES DRAW ARROWHEADS YES DRAW U-COMPONENT OF VECTORS YES DRAW V-COMPONENT OF VECTORS YES DRAW W-COMPONENT OF VECTORS 1 DRAW VECTORS ON EACH NTH I DIRECTION CELL GIVE N 1 DRAW VECTORS ON EACH NTH J DIRECTION CELL GIVE N 1 DRAW VECTORS ON EACH NTH K DIRECTION CELL GIVE N NO COLOR CODE VECTORS WITH A SCALAR NO SET VECTOR RANGE NO CONSTANT LENGTH VECTORS NO USE ROTATING REFERENCE FRAME The default input of NO for USE ROTATING REFERENCE FRAME implies that vectors will be plotted in the stationary or laboratory frame. 3 cyclic repeats will display the full geometry. Note that this option to control the reference frame for vector plotting is only available in the text interface.1. Figure 13.8a shows a grid on a quarter of the geometry and Figure 13.1.1. 1997 .1. For example. To get a complete picture of the full cross-section of the mixing tank.13-24 VIEW-GRAPHICSVP Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations VECTOR DRAWING PARAMETERS 1.8b shows the full cross-section of the mixing tank generated using cyclic repeats.7b shows the same velocity eld in the stationary reference frame. use the CYCLIC command in the MANIPULATE VIEW menu or the Cyclic Repeats input in the Views panel. if your model represents one quadrant of the a cylindrical geometry. Figure 13. c Fluent Inc.7a shows a velocity eld in the rotating reference frame and Figure 13.

May 10.1 The Sliding Mesh Model 13-25 Y Z X a Rotating Frame Y Z X b Stationary Frame Figure 13.1.13. 1997 .7: Velocity Vector Display in Rotating and Stationary Frames c Fluent Inc.

13-26 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations Y Z X a Single Sector Model Y Z X b Graphical Display of 4 Cyclic Repeats Figure 13.1. 1997 . May 10.8: Illustration of Cyclic Repeats c Fluent Inc.

Hence the boundary motion must be explicitly included in the problem solution procedure and the solution becomes inherently time dependent in nature. and inDeforming Mesh clude: Model Valve opening closing Piston motion in a cylinder Motion of submerged objects Note that these applications include moving boundaries which cannot be converted to stationary boundaries through a transformation of the reference frame. Figure 13. Applications of the Applications of the deforming mesh model are widespread. The motion induced by the boundary motion contributes to the time varying ow prediction.2 The Deforming Mesh Model 13-27 13. a prescribed boundary and grid deformation is provided as part of the problem de nition. 1997 . c Fluent Inc.2. In this model.1 shows an application of the deforming mesh model for the simulation of the closing of a poppet valve.13. May 10.2 The Deforming Mesh Model The deforming mesh model allows you to model ows in domains whose shape changes in time.

04E-01 4.17E-01 3.46E-01 8.30E-01 2.48E-01 -2.149E+00 Time = 2.32E+00 1.14E-01 -8.80E-01 3.43E-01 1.27E-01 -7.65E-01 6.319E+00 Min = -3.56E-01 4.20E+00 1.56E-01 6.15E-01 5.06E-01 -2.335E-03 Dec 16 1994 Fluent 4.65E-01 -3.08E+00 1.79E-02 -1.67E-01 9.003 seconds 1.2.04E-02 -8.88E-01 -9.29E+00 1.001E-02 Dec 16 1994 Fluent 4.39E-01 3.05E-01 -1.26E+00 1.91E-02 -1.14E+00 1. 1997 .01E-01 -8.52E-01 7.78E-01 5.53E-01 -5.79E-01 -3.30 Fluent Inc.50E-01 7.91E-01 5.91E-02 -1.1: Instantaneous Streamlines at Two Times During Closing of a Poppet Valve c Fluent Inc.08E-01 8.15E+00 Y Z X POPPET Stream Function (M2/S) Max = 1.37E+00 1.374E+00 Min = -1.74E-01 6.06E+00 -1.92E-01 -2.11E+00 1.03E+00 9.63E-01 2.20E+00 1.32E-01 6.83E-02 -3.40E-01 -6.30 Fluent Inc.04E-01 1.24E-01 -3.98E-01 4. b Streamlines at t = 0.66E-01 -4.82E-01 Y Z X POPPET Stream Function (M2/S) Max = 1. a Streamlines at t = 0.13-28 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations 1.02 seconds Figure 13.91E-01 7.824E-01 Time = 3.75E-01 -1. May 10.70E-02 2.39E-01 8.22E-01 2.03E+00 9.

In addition. the deforming mesh model is incompatible with the following FLUENT models: the sliding mesh model the phase change model the Eulerian multiphase model the Reynolds stress turbulence model dispersed phase particle tracking using the Lagrangian particle model since this model is applicable only in steady ows Grid Deformation The deforming mesh model requires that the time variation of the During Deforming grid be prescribed as part of the problem de nition. This implies a practical limit on the degree of deformation that can be simulated.g. the starting. c Fluent Inc. Thus the initial grid must deform as the physical boundaries move. and ending grid descriptions and allowing FLUENT to interpolate to nd the grid position at in-between times calculation of the grid position at each time point using userde ned subroutines. This domain Mesh Simulations discretization at each time step can be prescribed by one of the following methods: reading the grid positions from a le at each time step reading a series of grid les e. Note that new control volumes are not created as the boundary moves and the basic grid topology remains unaltered throughout the calculation. where the boundary motion must be predicted based on the uid ow and vice versa. since the deformation of the mesh should not proceed so far as to generate a highly twisted or skewed mesh.13.2 The Deforming Mesh Model 13-29 Limitations of the When you use the deforming mesh model.. 1997 . May 10. the boundary motion and Deforming Mesh the grid deformation are prescribed. the motion of a free-surface cannot be predicted using the deforming mesh model but can be predicted using the VOF model described in Chapter 10. The deforming mesh model is Model unable to predict the boundary motion and is consequently unable to solve problems involving uid-structure interaction. Similarly. intermediate.

2-4 @t t i where the superscripts n and n + 1 denote discrete time values. c Fluent Inc. d=dt is the total derivative and represents the time rate of change of a variable as seen by an observer riding on the moving mesh. The conservation equations are thus augmented by an additional conservation law describing the volume change of the system and relating it to the control volume boundary velocities 28 . @J is the uid density uj is the ow velocity component vj is the grid velocity component arising from mesh motion ij is the molecular stress tensor for Newtonian uids t. May 10.2 Using the Deforming Mesh Model The overall procedure that you will follow to set up and solve a deforming mesh problem in FLUENT is: Read the initial grid grid at t = 0 and de ne the problem boundary conditions and uid properties. @x + @x ij + j i j 1 where d J dt J + @x uj . Si is the ith boundary segment of the control volume surface. 1997 .13-30 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations 13. momentum. V = viSi 13. J is a measure of the change of material volume as it travels with the moving grid: i n+1 n X 13.1 Theory of the Deforming Mesh Model When mesh deformation is included in your model. the conservation equations are modi ed so that the convective uxes are evaluated relative to the velocity of the control volume. and scalars become 135 : 1 1 d J dt J ui d J dt J @ + @x uj . @ @ @ @xj j j +S 13.2-2 13.ij + Sui @ @p @ + @x uj .ij is the Reynolds stress tensor . The basic conservation equations for mass. and V is the volume of the deforming mesh element. is the di usion coe cient for the scalar quantity Su is the source term for the ui equation S is the source term for the equation Here.2.2-1 t.2-3 = V . vj = @x . vj ui = .2. vj = 0 j 13.

2 The Deforming Mesh Model 13-31 De ne the moving wall boundaries as Z-WALL boundary zones and set their velocity using either Cartesian or cylindricalpolar velocity components. In the GUI. Enable time dependent ow Enable the deforming mesh capability De ne the time varying grid.. enable the deforming mesh model using the drop-down list in the Moving Mesh eld: De ne . either by reading a series of grid les containing instantaneous grid positions or by supplying a user-de ned subroutine Perform the transient simulation in the usual way.! Models. The boundary velocity may vary in time if required. Model begin by opening the Models panel and enabling time dependence by selecting the Time Dependent Flow check box.g. Details regarding this input procedure are provided below. Next. Enabling the The deforming mesh model is enabled using the Models panel or Deforming Mesh using the EXPERT OPTIONS table in the text interface. normal velocities can also be de ned through patching of boundary conditions. c Fluent Inc.13. choosing a time step that is consistent with the number of instantaneous grid descriptions provided.. 1997 . Grid-oriented velocity components e. May 10..

1997 .13-32 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations Click Apply to enable your selection of the deforming mesh model. In the text interface. May 10.! OPTIONS c Fluent Inc.! EXPERT . you enable the deforming mesh model by selecting the OPTIONS command in the EXPERT menu: MAIN .

. The total number of instantaneous grid descriptions grid les and interpolated grids between les dictates the number of time values that can be considered. you will be asked to supply the following pieces of information: The number of instantaneous grid les to be considered not including the grid description used to initiate the simulation. with 5 time steps speci ed between c Fluent Inc.QUIT. the number of time steps you input is uniquely tied to your choice of time step for the time-marching solution procedure. The grid les may be formatted or unformatted les: FLUENT will determine which they are when it reads them.REFRESH 13-33 Supplying the As noted above. Note that the grid les are labeled not by their time value but by the number of time steps to be considered between each pair of les. the domain discretization i. If you choose to describe the grid deformation using a series of grid les. if 2 grid les are considered.DONE. The name of each grid le The number of time steps grid interpolations which will be used between the preceding grid le and the grid description in the le. For example.13. Each grid le or interpolated grid between les will de ne the geometry at successive time steps.2 The Deforming Mesh Model MODELING OPTIONS NO ALLOW LINK SETTING NO ALLOW PROFILE SETTING NO SET INLET TURBULENCE QUANTITIES NO ENABLE POROUS FLOW MODEL NO ENABLE SETTING OF WALL ROUGHNESS NO ENABLE FAN RADIATOR MODEL NO ALLOW FIXED PRESSURE BOUNDARIES NO ALLOW SETTING FLOW ANGLES FOR PRESSURE-INLETS NO ENABLE STEADY CORIOLIS FORCE NO ENABLE TIME-DEPENDENT CORIOLIS FORCE NO ENABLE SLIDING MESH CALCULATION NO ACTIVATE PHASE CHANGE MODELLING YES ENABLE DEFORMING MESH CALCULATION ACTION TOP. 1997 . the grid is required Time Variation of at each point in time during the deforming mesh calculation.e. You the Grid can supply this grid information using a user-de ned subroutine Subroutine NEWMSH or through a series of les containing the instantaneous grid at successive time points. Hence. May 10.

after enabling the deforming mesh model. specify the Unit Conversion Factor Applied to Grid File. select the mode of grid input using the Read Grids From Files checkbox. If the unit of length in the grid les is not meters. If the grid information will be accessed from grid les.. button in the Models panel in order to access the Moving Mesh Parameters panel: First. keep this option selected. only 5 time steps should be considered in the transient calculation. c Fluent Inc. Note that this number should be the number of grid les that you will read. deselect this checkbox and then click Apply and close the panel. You supply the instantaneous grid information to FLUENT using the Moving Mesh Parameters panel or using the DEFORMING-MESH-OPTIONS command in the text interface. May 10. click the Moving Mesh Parameters. In the GUI.13-34 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations the les. not including the initial grid le used to describe the domain at time t = 0.. Next. If the unit of length is meters. input the total number of grid les you have used to de ne the mesh deformation using the Number of Grid Files input box. 1997 . If you intend to use a user-de ned subroutine to supply the instantaneous grid data.

! EXPERT . you will need to enter 0. if the grid was created using millimeters as the length unit.0254. the grid description is supplied using the DEFORMING-MESH-OPTIONS command: MAIN . In the text interface. For example. as follows: Select the index of the grid le in the Grid File counter Type the lename of the grid le in the Grid File Name eld Enter the number of time steps that will precede this grid le description i.e. if the unit of length in the grid les is inches. When you have entered all of the grid information. you will need to enter 0. since no conversion is required. Increment the Grid File counter and continue this process until the total number of grid les have been described. 1997 .. the number of interpolations of the grid which should be performed between the preceding grid and the grid in this le. click Apply and close the Moving Mesh Parameters panel.001 as the conversion factor. Next. May 10.2 The Deforming Mesh Model 13-35 retain the default value of 1. enter the information about each grid le using the Grid Files eld entries in the Moving Mesh Parameters panel. Similarly.! DEFORMING-MESH-OPTIONS c Fluent Inc.13.

++DEFAULT 1++ 2 *.APPLY UNIT CONVERSION TO GRID FILE? L.GRID2 I.NUMBER OF TIMESTEPS BETWEEN INITIAL GRID I.13-36 EXPERTDEFORMING-MESH-OPTIONS Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations L.++DEFAULT 1++ 5 These inputs correspond to those in the Deforming Mesh Parameters panel described above.AND VALVE.++DEFAULT 1++ 5 2ND GRID FILENAME? S.DEFAULTVALVE. May 10.NUMBER OF GRID FILES TO BE READ I.GRID1 *.GRID1 I.Y OR N ++DEFAULT-NO++ Y I. c Fluent Inc.CURRENT FLUENT UNITS FOR LENGTH ARE M L.Y OR N ++DEFAULT-NO++ N 1ST GRID FILENAME? S. 1997 .AND VALVE.DEFAULTVALVE.GRID2 *.GRID WILL BE READ FROM FILES? L.NUMBER OF TIMESTEPS BETWEEN INITIAL GRID I.

13. the time step you intend to use t uniquely determines the number of time steps used between grid les that describe the domain at two de ned instants in time. you have instructed FLUENT to perform 10 time steps between two grid les. Next.5 sec Grid 3: t = 2. and these les describe the grid at times which are 1. Finally. 1997 . Start the transient calculation with a small time step use a relatively large number of time steps between the initial grid description and the rst grid le description. FLUENT requires a unique instantaneous grid description at each time step. The number of time steps between grid les should also be based on the following guidelines: Use a minimum of 2 time steps between any pair of grid les. for example.2 The Deforming Mesh Model Choosing the Number of Time Steps Between Grid Files 13-37 The number of time steps considered between instantaneous grid les is explicitly tied to the time step you will use to solve the transient deforming ow eld. if you chose to solve the problem with a uniform time step value of 0. you must use a time step during this portion of the calculation of: t = 1:5=10 = 0:15sec Stated inversely. May 10. The initial grid Grid 1 is used to de ne the problem at the starting point and would not be included in this total.5 seconds apart.1 sec for example you would request the following grid le inputs: c Fluent Inc. Similarly if the time scale of your transient process is T .0 sec Your inputs for this system would begin by de ning the total number of additional grid les equal to 2. the time step should be chosen so that the time accuracy of the calculation is adequate. you might choose a time step equal to 1 50 of this. Increase the time step gradually with time. For periodic ows with a period T this might imply a time step of T =50 seconds. If. Example: Grid File Suppose that your deforming mesh will be represented by interpoInputs for a lating the mesh between instantaneous grids at the following time Deforming Mesh points: Simulation Grid 1: t = 0 Grid 2: t = 1.

1997 . You can change the time step at any point in time between two grid les.5 t t = 0.1 second during 0 t 1.5 t 2. that you intend to perform the transient calculation between Grid 2 and Grid 3 of the preceding example by using the following time marching procedure: t = 0. that the time variation is expected to be more signi cant during the nal portion of the transient and you have decided to use the following time step values: t = 0.0 seconds In this case the number of time steps associated with each grid le would be: Grid 2: 15 Time Steps Grid 3: 10 Time Steps This example emphasizes that the number of time steps between grid les depends entirely on the time step you intend to use for solution during the interval of time described by the les. the domain discretization given by the three grid les in the preceding example might be considered using variable time steps. When you intend to do this. Suppose. using the procedures detailed in the following section. the time step value of 0.5 seconds t = 0.75 1.75 5 time steps t 2. The time step used between two grid les need not be constant over the entire time interval between the two grids.05 seconds for 1. the number of time steps you initially enter for the grid les should be based on the initial time step that you intend to use over the time interval in question. Suppose. for example. you would do the following: c Fluent Inc. In an alternate approach. May 10.025 seconds for 1.13-38 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations Grid 2: 15 Time Steps Grid 3: 5 Time Steps Finally.0 10 time steps Selecting the Number of Time Steps with Non-Constant Time Steps With this plan in mind.1 second would be de ned using the Time Dependent Flow Parameters panel.05 second during 1. for example.

When the monitor is active.5 seconds between the two les. This input is based on using the initial time step value of 0. This is because the case le contains the current grid and the grid changes as the calculation proceeds. 13. 1997 . Perform the transient calculation out to a time value of 1. you can enable the monitor of the solver using the Deforming Mesh MONITOR SOLVER command in the EXPERT SOLUTION-PARAMETERS Calculation table and obtain information on the grid at the beginning of each time step. containing the grid as it existed prior to any time stepping.2 The Deforming Mesh Model 13-39 Begin with an input of 10 time steps between the les in the Moving Mesh Parameters panel or in the DEFORMING-MESH-OPTIONS command.025 seconds using the TIME-DEPENDENCE command in the EXPERT text menu and resume the transient calculation. FLUENT will begin each time step with a report which includes the reading of the grid le if relevant and the number of time steps remaining between the current grid les: c Fluent Inc. is required if you want to restart the calculation at time t = 0.05 seconds over the entire period 0. FLUENT will automatically complete the time period between the two les using the appropriate number of time steps 10. ! You should save your deforming mesh case le prior to performing any calculations.75 seconds. The time step value and the convergence criteria within each time step are set as for any time dependent ow but you should make special note of the relationship of the time step value to the number of time steps between grid les described in the preceding section. Thus the initial case le.3 Performing Deforming Mesh Calculations Deforming mesh simulations are inherently time-dependent and use FLUENT's standard implicit time marching algorithm during the solution process. May 10.2.13. Change the time step to 0. Monitoring the When desired.

333E-02 7. you can alter the time step using Grid Files the TIME-DEPENDENCE command in the text interface. May 10. you will be asked if you want to alter the number of the time steps: MAIN . you will want to use this report only for checking the time stepping procedure.138E-04 4. MAXIMUM RESIDUAL = 1.*** 9 1.452E-05 4.784E-02 10 1. 18.*** CALCULATING GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS. 16.E.IS EQUAL TO 10 **.! EXPERT .299E-04 4.433E-05 1. 18. 1 PRESSURE MAXIMUM RESIDUAL = 1.489E-02 8. 1997 .712E+00 AT 34..13-40 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations *.907E-03 6.682E-03 2. 14.318E-04 *.. 1 V-VELOCITY MAXIMUM RESIDUAL = 1.218E-02 Since the monitor will yield copious information about residuals within each time step.103E-02 1.617E+00 AT 34. 16.027E+00 AT 34..570E-05 4.*** CALCULATING GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS. 1 10 1. VALVE_T1.587E-05 1.676E-02 AT 34.345E-03 5.*** U-VELOCITY MAXIMUM RESIDUAL = 1.NUMBER OF TIMESTEPS LEFT TO BE DONE UNTIL . Changing Time If you have completed some but not all of the time steps you reSteps Between quested between two grid les. 1 DISSIPATION MAXIMUM RESIDUAL = 6.273E-04 1.! TIME-DEPENDENCE c Fluent Inc..GRD *.318E-02 1..763E-03 1. If there are remaining time steps before the next grid le.147E-04 1. 1 TURBULENCE K.671E+03 AT 34.488E-04 9 1.

NUMBER OF TIMESTEPS UNTIL VALVE.Y OR N ++DEFAULT NO++ Y I.AND VALVE.9. You can also save time history les describing the variation of selected variables in time as described in that section.QUIT. as described in Section 6. If you intend to reduce the time step by a factor of 2.REFRESH *. FLUENT will then provide a message.GRID2 IS RESET TO 19 Saving and Restoring Deforming Mesh Files In this example. The time step was doubled after completing 1 of these time steps.NUMBER OF TIMESTEPS UNTIL VALVE.DO YOU WANT TO CHANGE *. yielding a total number of time steps between les of 1 completed + 18 remaining = 19. as in the example dialogue above.TOTAL NUMBER OF TIMESTEPS BETWEEN VALVE. 1997 . you can ask FLUENT to automatically store data les at every Nth time step.0005 SET TIME STEP S NO AUTOMATIC SAVING NO ENABLE TIME VARYING GRAVITY VECTOR D ACTION TOP.DONE. During the time dependent deforming mesh calculation.++DEFAULT 9 18 13-41 The default number of time steps remaining until the next grid le will be reported as the default.0000E-03 MIN.13. Note that in order to display the solution graphically at intermediate time points you will require that the data les were saved at these intermediate times.GRID1 *. NO.2. These data les can be those which you saved c Fluent Inc.2 The Deforming Mesh Model TIME DEPENDENT FLOW SOLUTION PARAMETERS 1 MAX.GRID2 I. RESIDUAL SUM DIM 0. telling you the new total number of time steps between the two grid les based on the new time step value over the entire interval: *. the user had initially requested 10 time steps between the two les. FLUENT will use its standard automatic transient data saving procedures to do this. ITNS PER TIME STEP 1. May 10.GRID2? L. you should request twice the default for the remaining number of time steps.

MSH. This is very useful when you want to rede ne the grid les to be used for the remainder of the transient calculation. Only a single initial case le describing the deforming mesh problem setup is required. Four of the requested time steps between the les remain to be computed. Determining the If you have saved a case le at a particular instant in time during a Time Value of Case deforming mesh calculation. you should take care not to overwrite the case le that you used to start the simulation at t = 0 or any other previous time les that you may want to revert to. based on the current case le as the starting condition. FLUENT will then report the status of the grid in the current case le: EXPERTDEFORMING-MESH L. 1997 .Y OR N ++DEFAULT YES++ Y *. This can be accomplished by turning on the monitor of the solver and then entering the DEFORMING-MESH-OPTIONS command in the EXPERT menu. as it exists at the time that the le is saved.NUMBER OF TIMESTEPS LEFT TO BE DONE UNTIL GRID3. Note that the case le you save will contain the current grid. Therefore. you may decide to save a case le at selected time values and this can be done from the user interface at any time that the calculation has been interrupted.GRID WILL BE READ FROM FILES? L. ! In addition to saving the data for postprocessing. May 10.MSH and GRID3. you may need to query FLUENT in orFiles der to determine the time value associated with the le. c Fluent Inc. the case le was saved midway between grid les GRID2.IS EQUAL TO 4 *- In the example above.MSH *.13-42 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations manually or those that FLUENT saved using the automatic saving of transient data les.LAST GRID READ: NUMBER = 1 NAME = GRID2.MSH *. This information allows you to compute the time value of the current case le if you are uncertain of it. All restarting of calculations and all postprocessing can be accomplished by reading the initial case le and the appropriate data le which was stored at a speci ed time level. When the monitor is on.

4 Postprocessing Deforming Mesh Simulations 13-43 You can postprocess the results of deforming mesh simulations in the same way that you do any transient simulation i.. May 10. 1997 . The velocities reported are those observed by a stationary observer.2. c Fluent Inc.e.13.2 The Deforming Mesh Model 13. by reading in a stored data le and then using relevant graphical or alphanumeric reporting options.

13-44 Chapter 13 | Moving Mesh Simulations c Fluent Inc. May 10. 1997 .

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