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Important questions on Cryptogams

1. Explain the following: (a) Elicitors (b) Rhizophore 2. Describe the following: (a) Economic importance of marine algae (b) Gametophytes in Selaginella (c) Pollenia (d) Female inflorescence in Gnetum (e) Ovule bearing organs of Cycadofilicales (f) Beta taxonomy (g) Distribution of Welwitschia (h) Cytomixis 3. Distinguish between the following: (a) Axile and Parietal placentation (b) Synergid and egg cells 4. Describe different types of Endosperms. 5. Describe the floral characteristics of orchids. 6. Economic importance of Dipterocarpaceae. 7. Discuss the importance of Herbarium. 8. Describe a natural system of classification up to the rank of orders of flowering plants. 9. What are fungicides and how are they applied in standing crops and plants products?

10. Describe the following: (a) Heterocysts (b) Akinetes (c) Water bloom algae (d) Witches' broom (e) Economic importance of blue-green algae. (f) Sporophyte of Selaginella. (e) Equisetum species are not primitive vascular cryptogams. (f) Anomalous secondary growth. (g) Reproductive structure in Lycopodium. (h) External morphology of Ephedra. 11. Write a short note on distribution of William sonia. 12. Write about the reproduction of Taxus. 13. Write an account of Takhtajan system of classification of plants. 14. Write a short note on fungal cell wall. 15. What is a zoospore? Mention its function. 16. Write a note on Heterothallism in Fungi. 17. Write a note on Heterotrichous thallus in Algae. 18. Write short notes on: (a) Types of sexual reproduction in Fungi (b) Palmella stage (c) Telome theory (d) Tracheids

19. Describe the following: (a) Pollen grain in Pinus (b) Structure of ovule in Gnetum (c) Ovule in Cordaitales (d) Leaf anatomy in Cycas 20. Write short notes on: (a) Classification of angiosperms (b) Canada balsam (c) Tapetum (d) Importance of Palynology in Taxonomy (e) Criteria of Phylogenetic classification (f) Taxol (g) Triple fusion 21. Give the phylogenetic considerations of Gnetum. 22. Describe the role of Anatomy in Taxonomy. 23. Discuss Takhtajan's principles in evaluating the relative degree of advancement of flowering plants. 24. Write a note on: (a) Modes of nutrition in fungi. (b) L.S. female receptacle of Marchantia. (c) Blue-green algae as biofertilizers. 25. Differentiate between Strobillus of Lycopodium and Selaginella. 26. Write an account of various types of spores found in algae. Give labelled diagrams. 27. Write a short account of the economic importance of algae.

28. Write notes on: (a) Anatomy of Selaginella root. (b) Stem anatomy of Equisetum (c) Sporocarp of Marsilea. (d) Lenticels-structure and function (e) Cambium-structure and function (f) Principles of numerical taxonomy 29. Give suitable answer on the following: (Draw labelled diagrams wherever necessary) (a) Monosporic embryo sacs (b) Wood anatomy of Pinus (c) Ruminate endosperm (d) Gum arabic and gum ghatti 30. Write what you know on the following: (a) Somatic hybrids and cybrids (b) Asexual reproduction in diatoms (c) Thallus structure in Vaucheria (d) Sexual reproduction in Fucus 31. Why are bryophytes found only in moist habitats? 32. What are the adaptations for effective dispersal of spores of Funarial 33. Write short notes on: (a) Internodal anatomy in Equisetum (b) Phylogenetic affiliations of blue-green algae 34. Draw the basic features of cell structure in prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, and explain the important differences in the cell organisation.

35. With the help of suitable diagrams, describe the life history of Albugo. (No descriptions). 36. Write an illustrated account of the gametophyte and reproductive structures in Anthoceros. 37. Write a short account of the different types of stele found in pteriodophytes. 38. Write a short note on Algae of food. 39. Distinguish between Stomata and Lenticels. 40. Write what you know on: (a) Male germ unit. (b) Embryo development in Paeonia. (c) Classification of angiosperms by Armen Takhtajan. 41. What are the structural features of guard cells which help in opening and closing of stomata? 42. Write a short note on Interxylary phloem. 43. Differentiate between: (a) Ascospore and auxopsore. (b) Archegonium and carpogonium. 44. Write short notes on: (a) Heterocyst in blue-green algae. (b) Interferon. (c) Thallus of Penicillium. (d) Thallus structure of Saprolegnia. 45. With the help of labelled diagrams only, show the evolutionary trend in the steles of Pteridophyta. 46. Discuss the morphological nature of rhizophore of Selaginella. Draw a neat labelled diagram of T.S. of rhizophore. 47. Mention the important work done by the following botanists:

(a) Prof. S.R. Kashyap (b) Prof. F.E. Fritsch (c) Prof. P. Maheshwari (d) Prof. Birbal Sahni 48. Draw labelled diagrams of the following: (a) L.S. of Pinus female cone. (b) Stem anatomy of Gnetum. (c) T.S. normal root of Cycas. (d) T.S. young root of Ginkgo biloba. 49. Describe the principles governing the construction of mechanical system in plants. 50. With the help of diagrams differentiate between the following: (a) Cranial canals and vallecular canals. (b) Homoiomerous and heteromerous thalli in lichens. (c) Plectostele and dictyostele. (d) Structure of Oscillatoria and Nostoc. 51. Critically examine some authors' concept that the rhizophore can be considered as morphologically a root. 52. With the help of labelled diagrams only depicts the major stages and events in the life cycle of Funaria. 53. Giving suitable examples highlight the economic importance of marine algae. 54. Draw the labelled diagram of stages in sexual reproduction of Penicillium. 55. Describe the salient features of Bentham and Hooker's system of classification. What are its merits and demerits? 56. Write a short note on vegetative reproduction in bryophytes. 57. In what way does a fungal cell differ from an algal cell?

58. Write briefly about the following: (a) Origin and evolution of sex in algae. (b) Columella in bryophytes. 59. Distinguish between the following: (a) Cleistothecium and Apothecium. (b) Gymnosperms and Pteridophytes. 60. Comment upon the process of progressive sterilization of sporogenous tissue in bryophytes. 61. Describe the process of Ascus development in Ascomycetes. 62. Write notes on the following: (a) Progymnosperms (b) Double fertilization. 61. Draw only the labelled diagrams of the following: (a) L.S. of an embryo sac (b) T.S. of Drocaena stem (c) V.S. of Cycas ovule (d) Floral diagram of ASclepiadaceae 62. Give an account of the following: (a) Development of a dicot embryo. (b) Differences between cycadales and coniferales. 63. Differentiate between the following: (a) Prokaryote and Eukaryote (b) Coenobium and Colony 64. Write critical notes on the following:

(a) Hybrid (b) Herbarium (c) Major types of embryos with examples. (d) Anomocytic stomata (e) Cycas and its importance (f) Penicillin (g) Fungicides 65. Draw the scientifically accurate diagrams of the following and label the parts: (a) Synandrous and syngenesious stamens (b) Marchantia capsule-vertical section (c) Bacterial cell-ultrastructure (d) V.S. of Gnetum ovule 66. Compare Bentham and Hooker's system of classification with Hutchinson's system of classification. 67. Discuss the role of Algae in human welfare. 68. Draw a diagram of T.S. of leaf of Typha. 69. Differentiate between normal and abnormal secondary growth in dicot stem. Discuss with suitable examples. Draw labelled diagrams wherever necessary.

Important questions on Phanerogans: Gymnosperms

Ankita Ray

1. Distinguish between protostele and siphonostele. 2. Explain the following: (a) Polarity

(b) Archesporium 3. Descrihe the structure of antheridiophore in Funaria. 4. Distinguish between the following: (a)Perigenous and Mesogenous Stomata. (b)Phyllospermous and Stachyspermous. Describe the following: (a) Distribution of cycads in India. (b) Stamens in Magnoliaceae. (c) Ovule of Tax us. (d) Male organs of Williamsonia. (e) Stamens in Leguminosae. (f) Inflorescence in Euphorbiaceae. (g)Carpels in Ranunciulaceae. (h)Floral formula of Apiaceae 4. Compare the characters of cycadales and Bennettitales. 5. Describe the male "flower" of Ephedra. 6. Mention the botanical name, family and die plant parts used of the following: (a) Rice (b) Lentil (c) Walnut (d) Heeng (e) Clove (J) Fennal (g) Ashwagandh (h) Cocaine (i) Mamla hemp (j) Coir 7. Write short notes on:

(a) Diatoms (b) Viroids (c) Mycoplasma (d) Proteases 8. Describe the following: (a) Archegoniphore of Marchantia. (b) Sporophyte of Marsilea. 9. Distinguish between the following: (a) Interxylary and intraxylary phloem. (b) Latex-tubes and resin canals. 10. Describe the following: (a) Stamens in Cucurbitaceae. (b) Translators in Asclepiadaceae. (c) Cycadofilicales. (d) Floral diagram in Solanaceae. (e) Carpels in dicots. (f) Hydrosere 11. Write an account of the family Rubiaceae and compare it with that of Verbenaceae. 12. Describe the family Cucurbitaceae, giving floral diagrams and floral formulae. 13. Write about the economic importance of the family Asteraceae. 14. Mention the botanical name, family and plant part used of the following: (a) Teak (b) Heeng (c) Jute (d) Turmeric (e) Sarapgandha (f) Cocoa (g) Cotton (h) Bamboo

(i) Opium (j) Peppermint 15. Describe the following: (a) Structure of Funaria capsule (b) Tetrasporophyte (c) Gemma cups (d) Types of Protosteles 16. Distinguish the following: (a) Compare diagnostic features of Orchidaceae and Liliaceae. (b) Compare Floral structures in Ranunculaceae and Magnoliaceae. (c) Compare pollination in Fabaceae and Poaceae along with their flower structures. (d) Compare Floral formulae of Musa paradisiaca L. and Oryza sativa L. 17. Give the Floral structure in Poaceae. 18. Mention the botanical name, family and plant parts used of the following: (a) Maize (b) Tea (c) Turmeric (d) Marigold (e) Asafoetida (f) Cocoa (g) Ergot (h) Caraway (i) Sugar palm (j) Barley 19. Answer the following: (a) Gametangium of Ectocarpus. (b) An illustrated account of nucule of Nitella. (c) Flagellate apparatus in Chlamydomonas. (d) Outline diagrams showing various parts of pennate diatoms.

(e) Auxospore formation in diatoms. (f) Strobillus of Selaginella. 20. Differentiate between: (a) Oogonium and sporangium (b) Isomorphic and heteromorphic life cycles. (c) Akinete and zygote. 21. With the help of suitable diagrams describe the life history of Oedogonium. (No description) 22. Write an illustrated account of sporophytic phase of Anthoceros. 23. Make a comparative study of the following families giving flora formula and floral diagram. Give important differentiating morphological features only. (a) Musaceae and Liliaceae (b) Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (c) Euphorbiaceae and Malvaceae (d) Solanaceae and Rubiaceae 24. Draw neat labelled diagrams of the following: (No description) (a) T.S. coralloid roots of Cycas (b) L.S. Ginkgo seed (c) L.L. Pinus ovule (d) T.S. leaf of Gnetum 25. Write notes on: (a) Salient features of floral structure of Magnolia grandiflora. (b) L.S. of flower of Rosa species and floral diagram. (c) L.S. of female flower of Cucurbita maxima and its floral formula. (d) Economic importance of the family Orchidaceae.

(e) Anatomy of phyllode. (f) Anatomical differences between C3 and C4 plants. (g) Medicinal importance of Catharanthus roseus (= Vinca rosea). 26. Mention the botanical name, family and the part's of the plant used as shown below: (a) Indian rubber(b) Indigo (c) Sandalwood oil (d) Vanilla (e) Guava (f) Finger millet (g) Cinnamon (h) Agar agar (i) Betel (j)Opium 27. Distinguish between the following: (a) Mature sporophyte of Riccia Marchantia (b) Cleistothecia and Apothecia Ascomycetes. (c) Sexual reproduction in Chlamydomonj and Volvox. (d) Oscillatoria and Anabaena. 28. Write a short note on Morphological natu of sporocarp of Marsilea. 29. Distinguish between Aril and caruncle. 30. Write what you know on Floral characters Asclepiadaceae. 31. Describe the following: (a) Distribution of gymnosperms in India (b)Cyathium (c) Bennettitales (d) Orchidaceae in India 32. What are the diagnostic floral features of Brassicaceae?

33. Describe male gemetes of Ginkgo biloba. 34. Write a short note on diagnostic features of family Euphorbiaceae. 35. Mention the botanical name, family and the part(s) used for each of the following: (a) Cashew (b) Nutmeg (c) Kenaf (d) Oil palm (e) Vetiver oil (f) Cork (g) Annatto (h) Clove (i) Belladonna (j) Ginger 36. Write short notes on: (a) Plurilocular sporangia in Ectocarpus. (b) Hetermorphic life cycle in Phaeophyceae (Give a diagrammatic sketch). (c)Alternation of generations in slime molds (Pictorial presentation of life cycle). (d) Gametophytic phase in Laminaria. (e) L.S. of sporocarp of Marsilea (Labelled diagram only). (f) T.S. of Equisetum stem (Diagram only). (g)Nucule of Chara. (h) Cleistothecium in Erysiphe. 37. With the help of diagrams, describe the structure of Marchantia antheridiophore. 38. Draw neat labelled diagrams of the following: (a) Anatomy of Equisetum cone. (b) Cross-section of the gametophytic thallus of Riccia. (c) Life cycle of Ectocarpus- (Pictorial presentation only). (d) Structure of prothallus of Adiantum.

39. Give F.F. and F.D. of the following families: (a) Euphorbiaceae (b) Asteraceae (Compositae) (c) Liliaceae (d) Rubiaceae 40. Write short notes on: (a) Functions of endosperm. (b) Experimental induction of polyembryony. (c) Causes and significance of apomixis. (d) Draw a neat labelled diagram of a typical organised embryo sac. (e) T.S. of Ephedra leaf. (f) Economic importance of plants belonging to family Umbelliferae. 41. Describe the type of anomalous secondary growth found in the stems of the following (Draw neat labelled diagrams): (a) Aristolochia (b) Bignonia (c) Boerhaavia (d) Dracaena 42. Mention the botanical name, family and plant parts used in the following: (a) Henna (b) Penicillin (c) Ginger (d) Chestnut (e)Indian bow string hemp (f) Camphor (g) Clove oil (h) Sassafras (i) Mulberry (j) Date Palm

43. Write short notes on: (a) Dolipore (b) Pseudoelaters of Anthoceros-the structure and function. (c) Peristomial teeth of Funaria. 44. How are the young sporogonia of Marchantia protected? 45. Present diagrammatic depictions of different life cycle patterns in Saccharomyces spp. What is the trend exhibited. 46. Write short notes on: (a) Plurilocular sporangia of Ectocarpus. (b) Conceptacles of Fucus. (c) Spores of Lycopodium in comparison with those of Selaginella. (d) Sporophyte of Riccia at maturity. 47. Draw the labelled diagram of the following: (a) T.S. of rhizome of Pteridium. (b) Life cycle of Puccinia graminis. (c) Life cycle of Polysiphonia. 48. Describe briefly the following: (a) Egg apparatus in the majority of angiosperms. (b) Kranz Anatomy and its importance with respect of photosynthesis. (c) Practical value of polyembryony. (d) Role of anther tapetum. 49. Give floral formulae and floral diagrams of the following families: (a) Solanaceae (b) Apiaceae

(c) Brassicaceae (d) Liliaceae 50. Draw neat, labelled diagrams of the following: (a) L.S. mature seed of cycas. (b) L.S. female cone of Pinus. (c) Pollen grain of Ginkgo at the time of shedding. (d) L.S. female strobilus of Ephedra. 51. Mention the botanical name, family and plants part(s) used in the following: (a) Kapok (b) Rye (c) Oil palm (d) Cashew (e) Cassava (f) Turmeric (g) Saffron (h) Poppy (i) Vasaka (j) Wormwood 52. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration has been achieved in almost all the important plants. Describe the method of isolation, culture and, regeneration of plants from protoplasts isolated from any model plant species. 53. Characteristic features of reproductive organs of Bennettitales. 54. Distinguish between: (a)Monosporic and bisporic embryo sac. (b)Androecium of Malvaceae and Asteraceae. 55. Write short notes on the following: (a)Magnoliaceae (b)Herbarium (c)Intraxylary Phloem

(d)Androecium of Euphorbiaceae (e)Gynoecium of Solanaceae (f) Botanical names of any five cereal plants. (g) Inflorescence in Asteraceae. (h) Pollen allergy (i) Types of pollination (j) Gynostegium 56. Give botanical name, family and utility of each of the following: (a)Coffee (b)Cardamum (c) Button mushroom (d)Castor (e)Coconut if) Sago (g) Ashwagandha (h) Periwinkle (i) Jute (j) Pumpkin 57. Describe the following: (a)Asteraceae and Liliaceae (b)Rubiaceae and Verbenaceae 58. Write a short note on anatomical structure of Rhynia stem.