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Dictionar RomanEnglez de Termeni Matematici
AĂÂBCDEFGHIÎJKLMNOPQRSŞTŢUVWXYZ
A
abscisă absolut aceleaşi semne acurateţe admisibil aduna adunare afirmaţie algebră algoritm algoritm de divizare algoritmul lui Euclid alternanţă alternare amplasare amplitudine analiza analiză analiză matematică analogic analogie anula aplicată aplicaţie arbitrar arc arccosinus abscissa absolute like signs accuracy admissible to add addition statement algebra algorithm algorithm for division, division algorithm Euclidean algorithm alternance alteration disposition amplitude to analyze analysis calculus analogous, analogical analogy to vanish applicate map, mapping arbitrary arc anticosine, arccosine 2/17/05
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Dictionar RomanEnglez arcsinus arctangentă argument argument al funcţiei arie arie a suprafeţei asemănare asimetric asimetrie asimptotă asimptote ale hiperbolei axa x axă axă de coordonate axă de rotaţie axă orizontală axă principală axă verticală axiomă antisine, arcsine arctangent argument argument of a function area surface area similarity, similitude asymmetric(al), unsymmetric asymmetry asymptote asymptotes of a hyperbola xaxis axis coordinate axis pivot horizontal axis major axis, principal axis vertical axis axiom
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B
bază bază ortogonală bază ortonormată bilion binar bine definit binom bisectoare biunivoc base, basis orthogonal base orthonormal basis billion binary welldefined binomial bisector, bisectrix onetoone
C
calcul calcula calculabil calculul determinantului calculus, computation to count computable evaluation of determinant
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2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez canonic determinarea extremului câmp cât cel mai mare divizor comun cel mai mic multiplu comun cel mai mic numitor comun centru centru de rotaţie centru al unei circumferinţe exînscrise centrul circumferinţei circumscrise centrul circumferinţei înscrise cerc cercuri concentrice cifră cilindru circumferinţă înscrisă circumferinţă unitară circumscris coardă coeficient coeficient binomial coeficient unghiular coincident coliniaritate combinaţie comparare comparaţie con concavă condiţie condiţie iniţială condiţie necesară şi suficientă congruenţă conjugat consecinţă constantă constantă de integrare continuitate convex convexitate  canonical  hill climbing  field  quotient, ratio  greatest common divisor, greatest common factor  lowest common multiple  lowest common denominator  centre, center  pivot  excentre, centre of the escribed circle  circumcenter  incenter  circle  concentric circles  digit  cylinder  incircle, inscribed circle  unit circle  escribed  chord  coefficient  binomial coefficient  slope  coincident  collinearity  combination  comparation  comparation  cone  concave  condition  initial condition  necessary and sufficient condition  congruence  adjoint, conjugate  corollary  constant  integration constant  continuity  convex  convexity
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2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez coordonată coordonate afine coordonate carteziene coplanar corolar cosinus director creşte creştere criteriu criteriu de divizibilitate cuantor cuantor existenţial cuantor universal cub cunoscut cuplu cuplu ordonat curbă curbă concavă curbă convexă curbă cubică curbă integrală coordinate affine coordinates Cartesian coordinates coplanar corollary direction cosine to increase increment criterion criterion for divisibility quantifier existential quantifier universal quantifier cube known pair ordered pair curve concave curve convex curve cubic, cubic curve integral curve
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D
dacă şi numai dacă date decizie deducţie defini definit peste tot definiţie degenerat deîmpărţit deînmulţit delatare demonstra demonstraţie dependent derivabilitate if and only if data decision deduction to define everywhere defined definition degenerate dividend multiplicand dilatation, stretching to prove proof dependent differentiability
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2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez derivată derivată în punct descazut descompunere descompunere binomială descompunere în factori descompunere în factori primi descompunere în fracţii elementare descompunere a unei fracţii descreşte determina determinant deviaţie deviere dezvoltare dezvoltare a determinantului diagonală diagonală principală diametru diferenţă diferenţiabilitate diferit dimensiune direct proporţional direcţie discontinuu discriminant dispărea distanţă distinct divizare divizibil {prin} divizor divizor comun divizor propriu domeniu domeniu de definiţie dreaptă dreaptă numerică drept drepte neconcurente derivative derivative at a point minuend decomposition, expansion binomial expansion factoring, factorization prime factorization partialfraction expansion decomposition of a fraction to decrease to determine determinant deviation deviation expansion expansion of a determinant diagonal main diagonal, principal diagonal diameter difference differentiability unequal dimension directly proportional direction discontinuous discriminant to vanish distance, way distinct division divisable {by} divisor common divisor, common factor proper factor domain, range domain of definition line number line straight skew lines
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Dictionar RomanEnglez dreptunghi drum dual  rectangle  way  dual
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E
echilateral echivalent ecuaţie ecuaţie algebrică ecuaţie a liniei drepte ecuaţie a unei drepte cu coeficient unghiular ecuaţie bipatrată ecuaţie de ordinul întâi ecuaţie exponenţială ecuaţie liniară ecuaţie neliniară ecuaţie omogenă ecuaţie de ordinul doi(patrată) element element {al multimii} element de arie element de arie (al suprafeţei) element diagonal eliminare eliminare prin substituţie elipsă eroare eroare de rotunjire esenţial estimaţie evaluare exact exactitate excepţie exemplu exînscris exponent exponenţial  equilateral  equivalent  equation  algebraic equation  equation of a straight line  slopeintercept form of a straight line equation  biquadratic equation  firstorder equation  exponential equation  linear equation  nonlinear equation  homogeneous equation  quadratic equation  element  member {of a set}  differential of area, element of area  surface element  diagonal element  elimination  elimination by substitution  ellipse  error  rounding error  essential  estimation  evaluation  exact  accuracy  exclusion  example  escribed  degree, exponent, grade, power  exponential
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Dictionar RomanEnglez expresie expresie algebrică expresie de sub integrală extremal extremum absolut expression algebraic expression integrand extremal absolute extremum
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F
factor familie fascicul fascicul de drepte faţă laterală figură circumscrisă figură congruentă figuri congruente flux focar formă generală formă parametrică formă standardă formula binomului formula coeficientului unghiular formula lui Leibniz formula rădăcinilor ecuaţiei patrate formulă formulele jumătăţii unui unghi fracţie fracţie elementară fracţie ordinară fracţie subunitară fracţie supraunitară fracţie zecimală fracţie zecimală finită fracţie zecimală infinită fracţie zecimală periodică fracţii cu numitori egali funcţie funcţie concavă  factor  family  pencil  pencil of lines  leg  circumscribed figure  equivalent figure  congruent figures  flux  focus  general form  parametric form  standard form  binomial formula  slope formula  Leibniz rule  quadratic formula  formula  halfangle formulas  fraction  partial fraction  common fraction  proper fraction  improper fraction  decimal fraction  terminating decimal fraction  infinite decimal fraction, nonterminating decimal  periodic decimal fraction  similar fractions  function  concave function
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2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez funcţie continuă funcţie de mai multe variabile funcţie de o variabilă funcţie de variabilă complexă funcţie descrescătoare funcţie diferenţiabilă funcţie discontinuă funcţie impară funcţie în scară funcţie liniară funcţie monoton crescătoare funcţie monoton descrescătoare funcţie monotonă funcţie pară funcţie periodică funcţie primitivă funcţie raţională funcţie signum funcţie simetrică funcţie trigonometrică fundamental  continuous function  function of several variables  function of a single variable  function of a complex variable  decreasing function  differentiable function  discontinuous function  oddfunction  interstage function, jump function, step function  linear function  monotone increasing function  monotone decreasing function  monotonic function  even function, symmetric function  periodic function  primitive  rational function  signum function  symmetric function  trigonometric function  fundamental
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G
general geometrie geometrie euclidiană grad grad al polinomului general geometry Euclidean geometry degree, grade degree of a polinomial
H
hexaedru hexagon hiperbolă hiperbolic hexahedron, hexaeder hexagon hyperbola hyperbolic
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Dictionar RomanEnglez
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I
identitate imagine impar implicaţie incertitudine include incluziune incompatibil incorect independent independenţă liniară inducţie inducţie completă inducţie matematică inecuaţie inegal infinit inflexiune iniţial integrală integrare prin părţi interdependenţă intersecţie interval interval deschis interval închis interval mărginit interval semiînchis invers invers proporţional ipotenuză ipoteză ireductibilitate identity image, map, mapping odd implication uncertainty to include inclusion inconsistent incorrect independent linear independency induction complete induction mathematical induction inequality unequal infinite inflexion initial integral integration by parts interdependency intersection interval open interval closed interval bounded interval semiclosed interval inverse, vice versa inversely proportional hypotenuse hypothesis irreductibility
Î
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Dictionar RomanEnglez împărţi în două {în jumătate} împărţire fără rest în întregime înălţime înălţime a triunghiului închis înclinare înlocui înmulţi înmulţire înmulţitor înscrie to halve exact division whole height altitude of a triangle closed slope to replace to multiply multiplication multiplier to inscribe
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K
kilogram kilometru  kilogram(me)  kilometre
L
latură {a unui unghi} latură adiacentă lege lege asociativă lege comutativă lege de compozitie lege distributivă legea terţului exclus lemă limită limită inferioară limite de integrare linie de fracţie liniar liniaritate linie dreaptă linie frântă linie punctată side {of an angle} adjacent side law associative law commutative law law of composition distributive law law of the excluded middle lemma limit lower limit limits of integration bar, vinculum linear linearity straightline brocken line dotted line
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2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez linie tangentă loc geometric al punctelor local logaritm logaritm zecimal logaritm natural lungime lungimea arcului tangent line geometric locus local logarithm common logs natural logarithm length arclength
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M
mărime măsură măsurabil matematică matrice matrice de transformare matrice diagonală matrice inversă matrice nulă maxim maximum mediană medie aritmetică medie geometrică metoda eliminării metoda inducţiei complete metru minim minimum modul monom monoton muchie mulţime mulţime de soluţii mulţime de valori mulţime universală mulţime vidă magnitude measure measurable mathematics matrix matrix of the transformation diagonal matrix reciprocal matrix nullmatrix maximum maximum median {of a triangle} mean, arithmetic mean geometric average, geometric mean, mean proportional elimination method principle of complete induction meter minimim minimum module monom monotonous edge set solution set range universal set empty set, nullset
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2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez multiplicare multiplicator multiplu multiplu comun mutual mutual disjuncte multiplicaton factor, multiplier multiple, multiplex common multiple mutually mutually disjoint
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N
necunoscută nedefinit nedegenerat nedescrescător nedeterminare nedeterminat negativ neglijabil neliniar nemărginit neomogen neperiodic nesimetric nod normală normală la suprafaţă număr număr complex număr întreg număr iraţional număr natural număr par număr prim număr raţional număr real număr transcendent număr zecimal număr ordinal numărător numărător al fracţiei numere întregi consecutive unknown undefined nondegnerate nondecreasing indeterminancy, uncertainty indefinite, undetermined negative negligible nonlinear unbounded inhomogeneous nonperiodic nonsymmetric node normal normal to the surface number complex number integer number irrational number natural number even number prime number rational number real number transcendental number decimal number ordinal number numerator term of a fraction consecutive integers
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Dictionar RomanEnglez numere reciproc prime numitor numitor comun numitori diferiţi numitori identici coprime numbers, relatively prime numbers denominator common denominator unlike denominators like denominators, same denominators
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O
oblic octagon omogen ordin ordin al derivatei ordin al ecuaţiei ordine ordonată origine de coordonate orizontal oval oblique octagon homogeneous degree, exponent order of derivative order of equation order ordinate origin {of coordinates} horizontal oval
P
par parabolă parabolic paralel paralelepiped paralelogram parametru paranteze figurate paranteze patrate paranteze rotunde patrat patrulater pătratic pentagon perimertu perioadă even parabola parabolic parallel parallelepiped parallelogram parameter braces square brackets, brackets parentheses quadrate, square tetragon quadratic pentagon perimeter period
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2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez perpendiculară picior al perpendicularei piramidă plan plan tangent plan xOy planimetrie plus poliedru poligoane asemenea poligoane congruente poligon poligon convex poligon înscris poligon regulat polinom posibilitate pozitiv precedent precizie preimagine presupunere primă derivată principal principiul dualitatii prizmă procent produs produs scalar produs vectorial progresie progresie aritmetică progresie geometrică proiecţie proporţie propoziţie proprietate proprietate asociativă punct punct de discontinuitate punct de extrem normal, perpendicular foot {of a perpendicular} pyramid plane tangent plane xyplane plane geometry, planimetry plus sign polyhedron similar polygons congruent polygons polygon convex polygon inscribed polygon equilateral polygon, regular polygon polynomial possibility positive preceding accuracy preimage assumption first derivative principal duality principle prism per cent product dot product crossproduct, vector product progression arithmetic progression geometric progression projection proportion proposition, statement property associative property dot, point point of discontinuity extremum point
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Dictionar RomanEnglez punct de inflexiune punct diametral opus punct focal punct izolat putere point of inflexion diametrically opposite point focal point acnode degree, grade, power
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R
radian radical ramură rang al unei matrici raport raţie a unei progresii aritmetice raţie a unei progresii geometrice raţional rază rază vectoare rădăcină rădăcină dublă rădăcină multiplă rădăcină patrată rădăcină simplă rădăcini conjugate real reciproc reduce reducere termenilor asemenea reductibil regulă regula paralelogramului relaţie relativ repetat reprezenta rest restricţie reuniune rezolva ridica la patrat radian radical, radical sign branch rank of a matrix ratio, relation common difference common ratio rational radius radius vector root double root repeated root square root simple root conjugate roots real vice versa to reduce combine similar terms reducible rule parallelogram law, parallelogram rule relation relative multiplex to represent remainder, rest restriction union to solve to square
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2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez ridica la putere romb rotaţie rotunji to raise to a power lozenge, rhombus, rhomb rotation to round
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S
salt satisface scalar scădere scăzător schemă bloc schema lui Horner schimb de variabilă secantă secţiune secţiune conică secţiune conică centrală secţiune conică degenerată secţiune conică nedegenerată sector circular segment segment de pe axa x segment liniar segmente congruente semicerc semidreaptă semisferă semn semnul adunării semnul rădăcinii semnul scăderii sferă simbol simetric simetrie centrală simplifica simplificare jump to satisfy scalar subtraction subtrahend flow chart Horner's scheme, synthetic division change of variable secant cut conic, conic section central conic degenerate conic nondegenerate conic, nondegenerate conic section sector of a circle closed interval, intercept, segment xintercept line segment, straightline segment congruent segments semicircle ray hemisphere sign addition sign, plus sign radical, radical sign minus {sign} sphere symbol symmetric central symmetry to cancel simplification
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Dictionar RomanEnglez simplu sinusoidă sistem sistem cartezian de coordonate sistem cu mai multe necunoscute sistem de coordonate sistem de ecuaţii liniare sistem neortogonal de coordonate sistem omogen sistem ortogonal de coordonate sistem rectangular de coordonate soluţie admisibilă soluţie aproximativă soluţie completă soluţie exactă soluţie generală soluţie nenulă soluţie netrivială soluţie nulă soluţie periodică soluţie unică soluţiona soluţionare {a unei probleme} spaţiu spaţiu euclidian strict strict monoton substitui substituţie substituţie inversă suma sumă suprafaţă suprafaţă de rotaţie submulţime simple sine curve system Cartesian coordinate system manyvariable system coordinate system system of linear equation nonorthogonal coordinate system homogeneous system orthogonal coordnate system rectangular coordonate system permissible solution, admissible solution approximate solution complete solution exact solution general solution nonzero solution nontrivial solution zero solution periodic solution unique solution to solve solution {of a problem} space Euclidean space strict strongly monotonic to replace substitution backsubstitution to add sum surface surface of revolution subset
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T
tangentă teorema lui Pythagoras  tangent  Pythagorean theorem http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez teoremă teorema fundamentală a aritmeticii teorema lui Bezout teorema lui Thales teorema sinusurilor teoria mulţimilor teorie termen termen al sumei termen general termeni asemenea tetraedru tot transforma transformare de coordonate translare translaţie tranzitivitate trapez trigonometric trigonometrie trisecţia unui unghi triunghi triunghi ascutunghic triunghi asemenea triunghi dreptunghic triunghi echilateral triunghi isoscel triunghi obtuzunghic triunghi scalen triunghiular theorem fundamental theorem of arithmetic factor theorem intercept theorem law of sines, sine rule set theory theory term addend, summand general term similar terms tetrahedron whole to transform transform of coordinates translation bridging transitivity trapezoid, trapezium trigonometric trigonometry trisection of the angle triangle acute triangle similar triangle right triangle equilateral triangle isosceles triangle obtuse triangle scalene triangle triangular
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U
unghi unghi adiacent unghi alăturat unghi ascuţit unghi complementar {până la 90o} angle adjacent angle adjacent angle acute angle complementary angle
 explementary angle http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/roman.html 2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez unghi complementar până la 360o unghi de înclinare unghi diedru unghi drept unghi exterior {al triunghiului} unghi interior unghi înscris unghi întins unghi la bază a triunghiului unghi la centru unghi obtuz unghi plin unghi suplimentar până la 360o unghiuri adiacente suplimentare unghiuri alterne unghiuri alterne externe unghiuri alterne interne unghiuri congruente unghiuri corespondente unghiuri opuse la vârf unghiuri suplimentare {până la 180o} unic unicitate unitate univoc
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 slope angle  dihedral angle  right angle  exteriar angle {of a triangle}  interior angle  inscribed angle  straight angle  base angle {of a triangle}  central angle  obtuse angle  straight ahgle  conjugate angle  adjacent supplementary angles  alternate angles  alternate exterior angles  alternate interior angles, opposite interior angles  congruent angles  corresponding angles  vertex angles  supplementary angles  single  uniqueness  unit  unambiguous
V
valabil valid valoare valoare absolută valoare absolută a numărului complex valoare iniţială valoare medie valoare limită variabilă variabilă independentă valid valid value absolute value absolute value of a complex number initial value average, average value limit value variable independent variable
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2/17/05
Dictionar RomanEnglez vârf vector vector coplanar vector de bază vector normal vector nul vector unitar vector tangent unitar veridicitate verifica vertical viteză volum vertex vector coplanar vector base vector normal vector nullvector unit vector unit tangent vector truth to verify vertical speed, velocity volume
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Z
zecimal zero  decimal  zero Bibliografie
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2/17/05
Dictionar EnglezRoman
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Dictionar EnglezRoman de Termeni Matematici
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
A
abscissa absolute absolute extremum absolute value absolute value of a complex number accuracy acnode acute angle acute triangle add addend addition addition sign adjacent angle adjacent side adjacent supplementary angles adjoint admissible admissible solution affine coordinates algebra algebraic equation algebraic expression algorithm algorithm for division alternance alteration http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html abscisă absolut extremum absolut valoare absolută valoare absolută a numărului complex precizie, exactitate, acurateţe punct izolat unghi ascuţit triunghi ascuţitunghic a aduna, a suma termen al sumei adunare semnul adunării unghi adiacent, unghi alăturat latură adiacentă unghiuri adiacente suplimentare conjugat admisibil soluţie admisibilă coordonate afine algebră ecuaţie algebrică expresie algebrică algoritm algoritm de divizare alternanţă alternare 2/17/05
Dictionar EnglezRoman alternate angles alternate exterior angles alternate interior angles altitude of a triangle amplitude analogous analogical analogy analysis analyze angle anticosine antisine applicate approximate solution arbitrary arc arccosine arclength arcsine arctangent area argument argument of a function arithmetic mean arithmetic progression associative law associative property assumption asymmetric(al) asymmetry asymptote asymptotes of a hyperbola average average value axiom axis unghiuri alterne unghiuri alterne externe unghiuri alterne interne înălţime a triunghiului amplitudine analogic analogic analogie analiză a analiza unghi arccosinus arcsinus aplicată soluţie aproximativă arbitrar arc arccosinus lungimea arcului arcsinus arctangentă arie argument argument al funcţiei medie aritmetică progresie aritmetică lege asociativă proprietate asociativă presupunere asimetric asimetrie asimptotă asimptote ale hiperbolei valoare medie valoare medie axiomă axă
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B
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Dictionar EnglezRoman backsubstitution bar base base angle {of a triangle} base vector basis billion binary binomial binomial coefficient binomial expansion binomial formula biquadratic equation bisector bisectrix bounded interval braces brackets branch bridging brocken line substituţie inversă linie de fracţie bază unghi la bază a triunghiului vector de bază bază bilion binar binom coeficient binomial descompunere binomială formula binomului ecuaţie bipatrată bisectoare bisectoare interval mărginit paranteze figurate paranteze patrate ramură translaţie linie frântă
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C
calculus cancel canonical Cartesian coordinate system Cartesian coordinates central angle central conic central symmetry centre centre of the escribed circle center change of variable chord circle circumcenter circumscribed figure analiză matematică, calcul a simplifica canonic sistem cartezian de coordonate coordonate carteziene unghi la centru secţiune conică centrală simetrie centrală centru centru unei circumferinţe exînscrise centru schimb de variabilă coardă cerc centrul circumferinţei circumscrise figură circumscrisă
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Dictionar EnglezRoman closed closed interval coefficient coincident collinearity combination combine similar terms common denominator common difference common divisor common factor common fraction common logs common multiple common ratio commutative law comparation complementary angle complete induction complete solution complex number computable computation concave concave curve concave function concentric circles condition cone congruence congruent angles congruent figures congruent polygons congruent segments conic conic section conjugate conjugate angle conjugate roots consecutive integers constant închis interval închis, segment coeficient coincident coliniaritate combinaţie reducere a termenilor asemenea numitor comun raţie a unei progresii aritmetice divizor comun divizor comun fracţie ordinară logaritm zecimal multiplu comun raţie a unei progresii geometrice lege comutativă comparaţie, comparare unghi complementar {până la 90o} inducţie completă soluţie completă număr complex calculabil calcul concavă curbă concavă funcţie concavă cercuri concentrice condiţie con congruenţă unghiuri congruente figuri congruente poligoane congruente segmente congruente secţiune conică secţiune conică conjugat unghi suplimentar până la 360o rădăcini conjugate numere întregi consecutive constantă
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Dictionar EnglezRoman continuity continuous function convex convex curve convex polygon convexity coordinate coordinate axis coordinate system coplanar coplanar vector coprime numbers corollary corresponding angles count criterion criterion for divisibility crossproduct cube cubic cubic curve curve cut cylinder continuitate funcţie continuă convex curbă convexă poligon convex convexitate coordonată axă de coordonate sistem de coordonate coplanar vector coplanar numere reciproc prime consecinţă, corolar unghiuri corespondente a calcula criteriu criteriu de divizibilitate produs vectorial cub curbă cubică curbă cubică curbă secţiune cilindru
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D
data decimal decimal fraction decimal number decision decomposition decomposition of a fraction decrease decreasing function deduction define definition degenerate date zecimal fracţie zecimală număr zecimal decizie descompunere descompunere a unei fracţii a descreşte funcţie descrescatoare deducţie a defini definiţie degenerat
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2/17/05
Dictionar EnglezRoman degenerate conic degree degree of a polinomial denominator dependent derivative derivative at a point determinant determine deviation diagonal diagonal element diagonal matrix diameter diametrically opposite point difference differentiability differentiable function differential of area digit dihedral angle dilatation dimension direction direction cosine directly proportional discontinuous discontinuous function discriminant disposition distance distinct distributive law dividend divisable {by} division division algorithm divisor domain domain of definition dot secţiune conică degenerată putere, ordin, grad, exponent grad al polinomului numitor dependent derivată derivată în punct determinant a determina deviaţie, deviere diagonală element diagonal matrice diagonală diametru punct diametral opus diferenţă derivabilitate, diferenţiabilitate funcţie diferenţiabilă element de arie cifră unghi diedru delatare dimensiune direcţie cosinus director direct proporţional discontinuu funcţie discontinuă discriminant amplasare distanţă distinct lege distributivă deîmpărţit divizibil {prin} divizare algoritm de divizare divizor domeniu domeniu de definiţie punct
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Dictionar EnglezRoman dot product dotted line double root dual duality principle produs scalar linie punctată rădăcină dublă dual principiul dualităţii
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E
edge element element of area elimination elimination by substitution elimination method ellipse empty set equation equation of a straight line equilateral equilateral polygon equilateral triangle equivalent equivalent figure error escribed essential estimation Euclidean algorithm Euclidean geometry Euclidean space evaluation evaluation of determinant even even function even number everywhere defined exact exact division exact solution example muchie element element de arie eliminare eliminare prin substituţie metoda eliminării elipsă mulţime vidă ecuaţie ecuaţie a liniei drepte echilateral poligon regulat triunghi echilateral echivalent figură congruentă eroare circumscris, exînscris esenţial estimaţie algoritmul lui Euclid geometrie euclidiană spaţiu euclidian evaluare calculul determinantului par funcţie pară număr par definit peste tot exact împărţire fără rest soluţie exactă exemplu
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Dictionar EnglezRoman excentre exclusion existential quantifier expansion expansion of a determinant explementary angle exponent exponential exponential equation expression exterior angle {of a triangle} extremal extremum point centru al unei circumferinţe exînscrise excepţie cuantor existenţial descompunere, dezvoltare dezvoltare a determinantului unghi complementar până la 360o exponent, ordin exponenţial ecuaţie exponenţială expresie unghi exterior {al triunghiului} extremal punct de extremum
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F
factor factor theorem factoring factorization family field first derivative firstorder equation flow chart flux focal point focus foot {of a perpendicular} formula fraction function function of a complex variable function of a single variable function of several variables fundamental fundamental theorem of arithmetic factor, multiplicator teorema lui Bezout descompunere în factori descompunere în factori familie câmp primă derivată ecuaţie de ordinul întâi schemă bloc flux punct focal focar picior al perpendicularei formulă fracţie funcţie funcţie de variabilă complexă funcţie de o variabilă funcţie de mai multe variabile fundamental teoremă fundamentală a aritmeticii
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Dictionar EnglezRoman
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G
general general form general solution general term geometric average geometric locus geometric mean geometric progression geometry grade greatest common divisor greatest common factor general formă generală soluţie generală termen general medie geometrică loc geometric al punctelor medie geometrică progresie geometrică geometrie grad, exponent, putere cel mai mare divizor comun cel mai mare divizor comun
H
halfangle formulas halve height hemisphere hexagon hexaeder hexahedron hill climbing homogeneous homogeneous equation homogeneous system horizontal horizontal axis Horner's scheme hyperbola hyperbolic hypotenuse hypothesis formule ale jumătăţii unui unghi a împărţi în două {în jumătate} înălţime semisferă hexagon hexaedru hexaedru determinarea extremului omogen ecuaţie omogenă sistem omogen orizontal axă orizontală schema lui Horner hiperbolă hiperbolic ipotenuză ipoteză
I
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Dictionar EnglezRoman
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identity if and only if image implication improper fraction incenter incircle include inclusion inconsistent incorrect increase increment indefinite independent independent variable indeterminancy induction inequality infinite infinite decimal fraction inflexion inhomogeneous initial initial condition initial value inscribe inscribed angle inscribed circle inscribed polygon integer number integral integral curve integrand integration by parts integration constant interstage function intercept intercept theorem

identitate dacă şi numai dacă imagine implicaţie fracţie supraunitară centrul circumferinţei înscrise circumferinţă înscrisă a include incluziune incompatibil incorect a creşte creştere nedeterminat independent variabilă independentă nedeterminare inducţie inecuaţie infinit fracţie zecimală infinită inflexiune neomogen iniţial condiţie iniţială valoare iniţială a înscrie unghi înscris circumferinţă înscrisă poligon înscris număr întreg integrală curbă integrală expresie de sub integrală integrare prin părţi constantă de integrare funcţie în scară segment teorema lui Thales 2/17/05
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Dictionar EnglezRoman interdependency interior angle intersection interval inverse inversely proportional irrational number irreductibility isosceles triangle interdependenţă unghi interior intersecţie interval invers invers proporţional număr iraţional ireductibilitate triunghi isoscel
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J
jump jump function  salt  funcţie în scară
K
kilogram(me) kilometre known  kilogram  kilometru  cunoscut
L
law law of composition law of sines law of the excluded middle least common denominator least common multiple leg Leibniz rule lemma length like denominators like signs limit limit value lege lege de compoziţie teorema sinusurilor legea terţului exclus cel mai mic numitor comun cel mai mic multiplu comun faţă laterală formula lui Leibniz lemă lungime numitori identici aceleaşi semne limită valoare limită
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Dictionar EnglezRoman limits of integration line line segment linear linear equation linear function linear independency linearity local logarithm lower limit lowest common denominator lowest common multiple lozenge limite de integrare dreaptă segment liniar liniar ecuaţie de gradul întâi (liniară) funcţie liniară independenţă liniară liniaritate local logaritm limită inferioară cel mai mic numitor comun cel mai mic multiplu comun romb
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M
magnitude main diagonal major axis manyvariable system map mapping meter mathematical induction mathematics matrix matrix of the transformation maximum mean mean proportional measurable measure median {of a triangle} member {of a set} minimum minuend minus {sign} module monom mărime diagonală principală axă principală sistem cu mai multe necunoscute imagine, aplicaţie imagine, aplicaţie metru inducţie matematică matematică matrice matrice de transformare maximum, maxim medie aritmetică medie geometrică măsurabil măsură mediană element {al mulţimii} minimum, minim descăzut semnul scăderii modul monom
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Dictionar EnglezRoman monotone decreasing function monotone increasing function monotonic function monotonous multiple multiplex multiplicand multiplication multiplier multiply mutually mutually disjoint funcţie monoton descrescătoare funcţie monoton crescătoare funcţie monotonă monoton multiplu multiplu, repetat deînmulţit înmulţire, multiplicare înmulţitor, multiplicator a înmulţi mutual mutual disjuncte
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N
natural logarithm natural number necessary and sufficient condition negative negligible node nondecreasing nondegnerate nondegenerate conic nondegenerate conic section nonlinear nonlinear equation nonorthogonal coordinate system nonperiodic nonsymmetric nonterminating decimal nontrivial solution nonzero solution normal normal to the surface normal vector nullvector nullmatrix nullset number logaritm natural număr natural condiţie necesară şi suficientă negativ neglijabil nod nedescrescător nedegenerat secţiune conică nedegenerată secţiune conică nedegenerată neliniar ecuaţie neliniară sistem neortogonal de coordonate neperiodic nesimetric fracţie zecimală infinită soluţie netrivială soluţie nenulă normală, perpendiculară normală la suprafaţă vector normal vector nul matrice nulă mulţime vidă număr
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Dictionar EnglezRoman number line numerator  dreaptă numerică  numărător
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O
oblique obtuse angle obtuse triangle octagon odd oddfunction onetoone open interval opposite interior angles order order of derivative order of equation ordered pair ordinal number ordinate origin {of coordinates} orthogonal base orthogonal coordnate system orthonormal basis oval oblic unghi obtuz triunghi obtuzunghic octagon impar funcţie impară biunivoc interval deschis unghiuri alterne interioare ordine ordin al derivatei ordinul ecuaţiei cuplu ordonat număr ordinal ordonată origine de coordonate bază ortogonală sistem ortogonal de coordonate bază ortonormată oval
P
pair parabola parabolic parallel parallelepiped parallelogram parallelogram law parallelogram rule parameter parametric form cuplu parabolă parabolic paralel paralelepiped paralelogram regula paralelogramului regula paralelogramului parametru formă parametrică
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Dictionar EnglezRoman parentheses partial fraction partialfraction expansion pencil pencil of lines pentagon per cent perimeter period periodic decimal fraction periodic function periodic solution permissible solution perpendicular pivot plane plane geometry planimetry plus sign point point of discontinuity point of inflexion polygon polyhedron polynomial positive possibility power preimage preceding prime factorization prime number pimitive principal principal axis principal diagonal principle of complete induction prism product progression projection paranteze rotunde fracţie elementară descompunere în fracţii elementare fascicul fascicul de drepte pentagon procent perimertu perioadă fracţie zecimală periodică funcţie periodică soluţie periodică soluţie admisibilă perpendiculară axă de rotaţie, centru de rotaţie plan planimetrie planimetrie semnul adunării, plus punct punct de discontinuitate punct de inflexiune poligon poliedru polinom pozitiv posibilitate putere, exponent preimagine precedent descompunere în factori primi număr prim funcţie primitivă principal axă principală diagonală principală metoda inducţiei complete prizmă produs progresie proiecţie
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Dictionar EnglezRoman proof proper factor proper fraction property proportion proposition prove pyramid Pythagorean theorem demonstraţie divizor propriu fracţie subunitară proprietate proporţie propoziţie a demonstra piramidă teorema lui Pythagoras
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Q
quadrate quadratic quadratic equation quadratic formula quantifier quotient patrat pătratic ecuaţie de gradul al doilea (patrată) formula rădăcinilor ecuaţiei de gradul al doilea (ecuaţiei patrate)  cuantor  cât
R
radian radical radical sign radius radius vector raise to a power range rank of a matrix ratio rational rational function rational number ray real real number reciprocal matrix radian radical, semnul rădăcinii radical, semnul rădăcinii rază rază vectoare a ridica la putere mulţime de valori, domeniu rang al unei matrici cât, raport raţional funcţie raţională număr raţional semidreaptă real număr real matrice inversă
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Dictionar EnglezRoman rectangle rectangular coordonate system reduce reducible regular polygon relation relative relatively prime numbers remainder repeated root replace represent rest restriction rhomb rhombus right angle right triangle root rotation round rounding error rule dreptunghi sistem rectangular de coordonate a reduce reductibil poligon regulat relaţie, raport relativ numere reciproc prime rest rădăcină multiplă a substitui, a înlocui a reprezenta rest restricţie romb romb unghi drept triunghi dreptunghic rădăcină rotaţie a rotunji eroare de rotunjire regulă
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S
same denominators satisfy scalar scalene triangle secant sector of a circle segment semicircle semiclosed interval set set theory side {of an angle} sign signum function numitori identici a satisface scalar triunghi scalen secantă sector circular segment semicerc interval semiînchis mulţime teoria mulţimilor latură {a unui unghi} semn funcţia signum
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Dictionar EnglezRoman similar fractions similar polygons similar terms similar triangle similarity similitude simple simple root simplification sine curve sine rule single single root skew lines slope slope angle slope formula slopeintercept form of a straight line equation solution {of a problem} solution set solve space speed sphere square square brackets square root standard form statement step function straight straight angle straightline straightline segment stretching strict strongly monotonic subset substitution subtraction subtrahend http://math.ournet.md/formule/dic/engl.html  fracţii cu numitori egali  poligoane asemenea  termeni asemenea  triunghi asemenea  asemănare  asemănare  simplu  rădăcină simplă  simplificare  sinusoidă  teorema sinusurilor  unic  rădăcină simplă  drepte neconcurente  înclinare, coeficient unghiular  unghi de înclinare  formula coeficientului unghiular  ecuaţie a unei drepte cu coeficient unghiular  soluţie {a unei probleme}  mulţime de soluţii  a soluţiona, a rezolva  spaţiu  viteză  sferă  patrat, a ridica la patrat  paranteze patrate  rădăcină patrată  formă standardă  propoziţie, afirmaţie  funcţie în scară  drept  unghi întins, unghi plin  linie dreaptă  segment liniar  delatare  strict  strict monoton  submulţime  substituţie  scădere  scăzător
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Dictionar EnglezRoman sum summand supplementary angles surface surface area surface element surface of revolution symbol symmetric symmetric function synthetic division system system of linear equations  sumă  termen al sumei unghiuri suplimentare {până la 180o} suprafată arie a suprafeţei element de arie {al suprafeţei} suprafaţă de rotaţie simbol simetric funcţie simetrică, funcţie pară schema lui Horner sistem sistem de ecuaţii liniare
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T
tangent tangent line tangent plane term term of a fraction terminating decimal fraction tetragon tetrahedron theorem theory transcendental number transform transform of coordinates transitivity translation trapezium trapezoid triangle triangular trigonometric trigonometric function trigonometry trisection of the angle truth tangentă linie tangentă plan tangent termen numărător al fracţiei fracţie zecimală finită patrulater tetraedru teoremă teorie număr transcendent a transforma transformare de coordonate tranzitivitate translare trapez trapez triunghi triunghiular trigonometric funcţie trigonometrică trigonometrie trisecţie a unui unghi veridicitate 2/17/05
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Dictionar EnglezRoman
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U
unambiguous unbounded uncertainty undefined undetermined unequal union unique solution uniqueness unit unit circle unit tangent vector unit vector universal quantifier universal set unknown unlike denominators unsymmetric univoc nemărginit incertitudine, nedeterminare nedefinit nedeterminat inegal, diferit reuniune soluţie unică unicitate unitate circumferinţă unitară vector tangent unitar vector unitar cuantor universal mulţime universală necunoscută numitori diferiţi asimetric
V
valid value vanish variable vector vector product velocity verify vertex vertex angles vertical vertical axis vice versa vinculum valid, valabil valoare a se anula, a dispărea variabilă vector produs vectorial viteză a verifica vârf unghiuri opuse la vârf vertical axă verticală invers, reciproc linie de fracţie
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Dictionar EnglezRoman volume  volum
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W
way welldefined whole  drum, distantă  bine definit  tot, în întregime
X
xaxis xintercept xyplane  axa x  segment de pe axa x  plan xOy
Y
yaxis  axa y
Z
zaxis zero zero solution  axa z  zero  soluţie nulă
Bibliografie
 Pagina principala  Ghidul utilizatorului  Rubrica candidatului  Curriculumurile scolare   Matematica competitiva  Matematica distractiva Formule, dictionare  Avizuri  Pagini din istorie  Examene, teste  Bibliografie  Linkuri  Site map  Cartea Vizitatorilor 
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Dictionar EnglezRoman
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Fraze uzuale
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Dictionar Matematic RomanEnglez de Fraze Uzuale
AĂÂBCDEFGHIÎJKLMNOPQRSŞTŢUVWXYZ
A
abia abordare absolut analog The superscripts are hardly (or scarcely) visible. A more careful approach is needed. In complete analogy with the result, we may prove that ...
accentua atenţie se accentuiază atenţie asupra In this section, emphasis is placed (or attention is focussed) on autonomous systems. accepta o ipoteză aceiaşi to accept a hypothesis The numbers +8 and +3 have like signs. No two polynomials can have all their roots alike (or the same) unless they differ by a numerical factor. The preceding discussion may be summed up by saying that the arithmetic for complex numbers is much the same as that for real numbers. We now want to let j→∞. For the present we content ourselves with demonstrating the assertions just made concerning the sets G and H. We can now easily show that ... The model fits the process under study adequately. Thus the martingale ψ(t) turns out to be a process with independent increments. This proved to be a bigger problem than originally anticipated. 2/17/05
acelaşi
acum
arăta acum este uşor de arătat că adecvat adeveri se adevereşte că sa adeverit a fi
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Fraze uzuale This value was found to be cos(π/17). admite la fel admite adresa ne adresăm la aduce demonstraţia este adusă aduna adunăm afirma afirmă The function η(t) also admits decomposition of the form (4). We now turn to the task of considering the continuousparameter supermarlingales. The proof of the theorem is given in [8].
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Now write down these inequalities for n, n+1, ..., n+m and add them to obtain the estimation (6). The fundamental theorem of arithmetic asserts that every integer greater than 1 can be factored in one and only one way, apart from order, as the product of positive prime numbers. Bohm [2] claims that there is such a thing as the primacy of metaphysics in connection with biology. A more general statement can be found in [15]. Approaching the limit as N→∞ we obtain the required assertion. The converse of (5) is false. The converse of this statement is known to be false. However, if we are concerned only with versions of a given process, the converse holds in the following sense. We are now in a position to determine (or to find) the value of x*. Thus we arrive at the following conclusion [definition, equation, theorem, assertion, result]. By means of the equivalence relation we get the decomposition of the set of all oriented segments into disjoint classes such that segments in the same class are equivalent and segments in different classes are not equivalent. When formalizing the notions of probability theory, the first fundamental assumption is that the results of experiments can be described by means of a certain 2/17/05
afirmaţie afirmaţie mai generală afirmaţie necesară afirmaţie reciprocă
afla a afla ajunge ajungem la ... ajutor cu ajutorul
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Fraze uzuale
Page 3 of 70 set Ω. The data were obtained with the help (or with the aid) of a digitizer. Both problems are solved by constructing a righthand inverse matrix Sr1 of S.
alt altă
Another way to approach the problem is to take a Taylor series expansion of g(t). Any term may be transposed from one member of equation to the other, provided its sign is changed. The random variable η may have a different distribution. This definition also makes use of the abstraction principle, but in another way. Otherwise speaking [fn(x)] = [gn(x)] if and only if {fn(x)}~{gn(x)}. These operations are discussed in more detail in next section. Both estimates are quite rough. But the functions f and g are both continuous, and thus the two functions coincide. Multiplying the two sides of (4) by cosmx and integrating, we obtain ... The two sides of Young's inequality are equal if and only if b=ϕ(a).
altfel altfel zis
amănunţit mai amănunţit ambele
ambele părţi
ambiguu aminti amintim că
This ambiguity does not lead to misunderstanding. We recall that the compensator γn of the measure of jumps µn is nonnegative. Recall that L is generated by all processes whose trajectories are rightcontinuous and have right limits. To analyse the equation, it is convenient to go over to nondimensional variables. To analyse the equation, it is convenient to go over to nondimensional variables. The sum S is analysed analogously. The proof of (11) is completely analogous to that of (10).
analiza pentru a analiza este analizată
analogic
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Fraze uzuale analogic cu ... We shall introduce distributions in a way analogous to that used in the Cantor theory when generalizing rational to real numbers. The analogue of the Fermat's theorem is also valid. In this particular case only one side of the triangle, namely BC, has traces within the limits of the drawing. If S consists of a single element x, then R(x), namely the smallest subring containing x, is commutative. The extended solutions have the property II, namely of uniform continuity. mathematical apparatus (or tools / techniques) a body of mathematics The process X(t) falls into one of the following three classes depending on its asymptotic behaviour. This equation falls among the socalled renewal equations. This equation contradicts the assumption that G contains points not belonging to D. The problem arises of finding the conditions under which the distribution p(u) is unimodal. Let us apply this result to the case of an increasing process At. Formulas (1) and (2) may be employed on condition that the contour C has no loops. Since p is of the form 1+4m, Corollary 2.5 is applicable and hence p=x2+y2.
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analogie anume
aparatul matematic aparţine aparţine la
care nu aparţine apărea apare aplica să aplicăm pot fi aplicate se poate de aplicat aproape aproape de aproape peste tot aproape toate aproape toţi aproximativ acelaşi
The temperature was observed to be near zero. The angle θ is closed to 45 deg. The Lebesqueintegrable functions are equal if and only if they have the same values almost everywhere. Nearly all scientific problems deal with quantities and relations among them. It is easy to verify that f(x)<C for almost all x. As the numbers of the molecules moving in opposite directions are much the same, it is natural to assume ...
aproximaţie în primă aproximaţie As (or in) a first approximation, x(t) may be chosen http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05
Fraze uzuale to be t2. aranja în ordine crescătoare [descrescătoare] sunt aranjaţi în ordine crescă The jump moments t1, t2, ..., tn are arranged in toare [descrescătoare] ascending [descending] order. arăta arată vom arăta este arătat pentru a arăta că Fig.12 depicts the slope of the line ∆x versus ∆t. We shall show that in this case p must divide b. The slope of the line ∆x versus ∆t is shown schematically in Fig.12. To show that q and r are unique, suppose that q' and r' is any pair of integers for which a=bq'+r', 0 ≤ r' < b. As has been shown above, the process X t is a continuous L2martingale. Let ξ(t) be an arbitrary quasipotential. Suppose this is true for an arbitrary n.
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cum este arătat mai sus arbitrar argument
argumente aritmetică
This is a convincing reason for the study of stochastic equations of the form. This reason suggests that the solution to Eqn (17) is unique. There are doubtful points in the above reasoning. Arithmetic is the elementary branch of mathematics dealing with the properties of numbers and their operations. Property 1o ensures the feasibility of the addition. The MIS furnishes (or supplies) data for management. The error is associated with (or is due to) the inaccuracy in computations. The study is concerned with linear functionals of supercritical processes. The first problem is directly related to partial differential equations. Further extension of the notion of a stochastic integral is connected with the extension of the notion of convergence. The polynomial R(t) corresponding to this function by (6) is almost everywhere nonzero. The space, S2k1, and the projective metric, L(r,s), 2/17/05
asigura asigură
asociat asociată cu (referitoare la)
asociat la
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Fraze uzuale associated with it will play an important part in the future. It is convenient to replace k by a new factor µ related to k by the relation µ=4πk. astfel astfel încât Thus the following theorem has been proved. The factors µ and k are related as follows: µ=4πk. Let X be a space such that from every open cover we can select a finite cover. We break up the component a into several components in such a way that A and B now belong to different components. We select a basis in the underlying space such that ... Specifically, the parameter can be chosen so that the distribution is unimodal. The model is so constructed as to allow further modification and improvement. We take a point on the line such that ... We take a point on the line such that ... Applying Lemma 20.3 k times, we infer that there exists a periodic function G0(x) with G0(k)=g(x). In applications we often come across the socalled Heaviside function. We take a point on the line such that ... Thus, the integral on the righthand side of (5) can be analytically continued to the whole domain. The last formula becomes p(la+mq)=b, so that pb. Every element in T has norm at least equal to 1, so there must be one of them, γ , which is of least positive norm. Since p is of the form 1+4m, Corollary 2.5 is applicable and hence p=x2+y2. Therefore P(x,s,t,A) saitsfies the ChapmanKolmogorov equation. Consequently, ataşa la poate fi ataşat la
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astfel ... ca astfel ... încât
aşa numit aşa ... pentru care aşadar
The process X(t) may be placed (or put) into one of the following three classes depending on its asymptotic behaviour.
atinge atinge maximum [minimum]
The function ψ(x) reaches its maximum [minimum] at x*=3h/2. Let b1(s,w) coincide with the z for which the 2/17/05
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Fraze uzuale minimum of the function  B(s,w) z ,  z =1, is attained and let b2(s,w) coincide with z for which the above function attains its maximum. atinge scopul de a atinge scopul este atins scopul In order to attain the purpose, we shall not avail ourselves of the methods of functional analysis. This aim is attained (or objective is accomplished) by introducing nondimensional variables x' = x/x0 and y' = y/y0.
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atinge se atinge
Evidently, if the inf in (1.5) is attained at a certain point , then the inf Φm(x,um) is also attained at that point. The reader should take notice of the fact that the scale parameter a does not enter into the expression for G (u). It is necessary to pay special attention to the behaviour of F(x) at infinity. Recently much attention (or thought / consideration) has been given to the study of the diffusion processes. To attach a meaning to the solution of this stochastic equation, we must define the measure µ more accurately. Analogous meaning is attached to the notation D [0,∞).
atrage atenţia să atragă atenţia
se atrage atenţia
atribui sens pentru a atribui sens
se atribuie sens
atribui valoarea atribuim valoarea valori pot fi atribuite automat
We assign the value 0 to this state. A variable is a quantity to which an unlimited number of values can be assigned in an investigation. It follows automatically that these Rmsemisimple rings are strongly Rmsemisimple. As a preliminary to the proof of the theorem, we shall discuss several auxiliary assertions. To appreciate the merits (or the advantages) of this theory, it suffices to observe that ... The main (or principal / major) advantage of this 2/17/05
auxiliar avantaj avantaje avantaj principal
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Fraze uzuale approach is that it enables the results of the previous chapter to be extended to the case under consideration. avea avem nu are Since a satisfies (1), we have Y 1=Y 2. For instance, the function has not a derivative at
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poate avea nu poate avea avea dea face avem dea face avea intenţia vom avea intenţia
the point 0. The prime number p possess no factors other than ± 1 and ± p. It follows that the solution can have only a finite number of zeros in D. It follows that the solution cannot have more than a finite number of zeros in D. In this section we deal only with rational integers. In this section we are going to modify our definition of distribution so as to obtain a notion equivalent to that of S. Sobolyev and L. Schwartz. This cannot be, for l/p is not a rational number. This happens to be the case for those equations in which S increases. The function ψ(x) has a maximum [minimum] at the point x*=3h/2. These equations possess a fundamental defect (or demerit / draw back / disadvantage). His hypothesis has limitations of its own. In order to achieve this, we shall need some material from elementary number theory. Equation (3.2) is of the following form ... In applications the following theorem is of great importance.
avea loc această nu poate avea loc această are loc în cazul avea maxim [minim] are maxim [minim] avea neajunsul au neajunsul are neajunsul avea nevoie de vom avea nevoie de avea o formă ... are o formă ... avea o mare importanţă are o mare importanţă avea sens
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Fraze uzuale dacă are sens The symbol , if it is meaningful, always
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nu are sens avea soluţie unică are soluţie unică avea un caracter are un caracter avea valoarea are valoarea
represents a number. If the common part is empty, the difference has no sense. Equation (7) has a unique solution. Noise ω(t) is stochastic in character (or in nature). Noise ω(t) is of a stochastic character (or nature). The derivative F'(x) has the value 0 at the point 0.
B
baza pe se bazează pe The proof is based on the ideas of Kunita and Watanabe [36]. The previous analysis proceeds from the assumption that the class M* contains the class M2,∞. It is clear that the definitions and properties given below can be extended to σalgebras. Hence from (6) and the remark concerning the onetooneness of the correspondence, relation (8) yields F=0.
bineînţeles biunivocitate
C
ca de obicei ca şi în ca şi în cazul ... As usual, we use continuous versions of (4). As in the example discussed above, we can easily prove the following proposition. In the same manner as in the case of convergence to a Wiener process, one can easily deduce the following result. In the case of distributions, as in the case of functions, 2/17/05
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Fraze uzuale the following properties hold true. ca urmare calcula sunt calculate cum este uşor de calculat calcula integrală dealungul curbei calcula integrală pe domeniu care Such a solution does not exist in consequence (or on account) of (6) and Remark 4. As is easy to calculate ... The coefficients of expansion (9) are evaluated (or computed) from formulas (5). as is easy to calculate as is easy to evaluate to take the integral along a curve to take the integral over a domain
Page 10 of 70
In classical analysis there have been considered several sequences of functions which are distributionally convergent to δ(x). Choose in D2 any function that tends to infinity as cărui al cărui care este x→0. A variable is a quantity to which an unlimited number of values can be assigned in an investigation. Let A be a strongly positive operator whose domain of definition does not depend on t. Consider the function λ(y), which is a periodical distribution coinciding with δ(y) for  y  < 1/2. This formula can be considered as a particular case of formula (14). In the case under consideration the process α(t) is continuous. Let us generalize equation (6) to the case under discussion. We shall seek a solution to (12) in the form z(t,u) = x(t) y(u). It is convenient, in solving problems, to use letters for the numders which are sought. The soughtfor quantity M is involved in the equation reciprocally. The desired value of m can be determined from conition (4). Consider the equation (3), where f(t) is the function to be found. Here v* is the value of v to be determined.
caz caz particular cazul considerat
căuta vom căuta sunt căutate căutată
care va fi căutată
căutare
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Fraze uzuale în căutarea câteva
Page 11 of 70 In looking (or in search) for the optimal solution we discovered that ... To see this, we shall prove several lemmas. A few words should be said about physical meaning of this parameter. Some other examples of fundamental sequences will be given after the following lemma. There is more than one way to approach the problem. For instance, the Dirac delta distribution cannot be identified with any continuous function, which will be proved in Section 8. The nature of this problem can best be made plain by examples. The greatest common divisor (GCD) of two integers h and k is the largest positive factor common to both h and k. Twelve is the least common multiple (LCM) of 3 and 4. The set of the points of discontinuity of f(t) is at (the) most countable. Formula (7) is true under the hypothesis that at least one of the integrals on the lefthand side is meaningful. the indepth study To determine whether these ideals coincide, we must make a further study of the polynomials. It is required to estimate in the best possible manner the value of a random variable ξ. It is therefore reasonable to ask for which classes of "integers" the fundamental theorem holds, and for which it does not. The process Mt, satisfies the conditions of (1) with the stronger requirement that martingale. be an L2
câteva modalităţi ce
cel mai bine cel mai mare divizor comun (CMMDC) cel mai mic multiplu comun (CMMMC) cel mult cel puţin cercetare cercetare profundă cercetare ulterioară cere se cere se cere întrebarea
cerinţă mai puternică
chiar în cazul când
This example shows that the ordinary derivative does not always coincide with the distributional derivative, even when the ordinary derivative wrists everywhere except at one point. Thus we need not 8, but 9 parameters to describe the system.
ci
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Fraze uzuale ciocni cu ne ciocnim cu cititor clasic
Page 12 of 70
In applications we often come across the socalled Heaviside function. The reader will find it a useful exercise to supply the details of the proof. In classical analysis there have been considered several sequence of functions which are distributionally convergent to δ(x). Clearly, the sum, difference and product of such integers are of the same form. It is clear that a and a are both in the set A. It is clear intuitively that every collection, finite or infinite, of nonnegative integers contains a smallest one. the coefficient of smth. the coefficient multiplying smth. A polinomial is monic if its leading coefficent is 1.
clar este clar că
intuitiv este clar
coeficientul pe lângă coeficientul pe lângă termenul superior coincide coincide cu
For an arbitrary function F(x) satisfying conditions 1) 6) there exists a unique probability measure whose distribution function coincides with F(x). The characteristic through A is the same as the one through B. Completely satisfactory solution of the functional problem is given in [6]. It is assumed that σalgebra F0 is completed (or augmented) by all Pnull sets. The problem of optimization is, in general, more complicated. Integration of equation (3.2) represents a rather involved boundaryvalue problem. From a>b and b>c we conclude that a>c. This result was established in another way under somewhat weaker conditions on the diffusion coefficients. The problem arose of finding the conditions under which the distribution p(t) is unimodal.
complet satisfăcător completa este completată complicat
conclude condiţie condiţia asupra
condiţiile conform cărora
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Fraze uzuale condiţie de convergenţă la condiţie de existenţă şi unicitate a soluţiei condiţii exacte pentru condiţie mai fină condiţii sunt verificate
Page 13 of 70 The condition for convergence to a Wiener process is stated in the next section. Let the coefficients of equation (9) satisfy the condition for the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The exact conditions for equilibria to exist and be stable are examined. The tangent bundle of the manifolds provides a sharper necessary condition. Assume that conditions (5) and (20) are satisfied. If the conditions of Theorem 10 are satisfied and, moreover, A(ϕ,t) is continuously differentiable, then ... Let the conditions of Theorem 4 be satisfied and the function be twice continuously differentiable. The distinction between (14) and (15) is that the variable x entering into (15) depends on ω, other things being equal. Thus, the function f(x) is uniquely determined, provided that it exists everywhere. Any term may be transposed from one member of equation to the other, providing its sign is changed. The abstraction principle can be applied to sets of arbitrary elements provided there exists an equivalence relation ~. These functions are locally Riemannintegrable under (or on) the condition that their values are equal at all points of continuity. Under the conditions of Theorem 6.1 the limit exists and is differentiable.
alte condiţii fiind aceleaşi
în condiţia că
în condiţiile teoremei
conduce conduce la ecuaţia confirma ipoteza conform conform algoritmului conform criteriului conform definiţiei conform ipotezei inducţiei conform lemei conform presurunerii
This reasoning yields a simple equation. to verify a hypothesis The classes can be formed by the FLAMENCO algorithm. By the Eisenstein's criterion, the polynomial xn2 is irreducible over the field of rational numbers. Then, by definition, ... By the induction hypothesis, the theorem is true for f (x). By Lemma 2.3, the sequence {gn(x)} is fundamental. By assumption, E(1)=0. By the assumption of the lemma, the solution to (1) is positive.
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Fraze uzuale
Page 14 of 70 Since ... by hypothesis, (4) is a bounded sequence. By property (4) of norms, every element in T has norm at least equal to 1, so there must be one of them, γ, which is of least positive norm. By Theorem 1.1, we can find q and r so that b=dq+r, 0 ≤ r < d. To complete the proof of the lemma, we use the corollary of Lemma 2. The inequality f(x)≤0 is a direct consequence of the system fi(x)≤0, i=l, 2, ..., n. When an expression contains parentheses within parentheses, they may be removed in succession, beginning with the innermost. Consider the rational number a/b. The problem can be approached in many different ways. Let us now consider the case a>1. Consider now the case a>1. Several other functions, very useful from the practical point of view, are considered in the following section. Some properties of the operator L are dealt with in the next chapter. An integral part of the creative approach to the problem under consideration (or under study) is the analysis of its similarity to and difference from the analogous problems. C (R+) can be regarded as a complete separable metric space under the topology of uniform convergence. The paper deals with the theory of distributions of finite order. We now consider the process η(t). Consider now the process η(t). Consider first the simplest case where a=0. We will first confine our attention to discreteparameter martingales.
conform proprietăţii
conform teoremei consecinţă consecinţă din este o consecinţă
consecutiv
considera considerăm poate fi considerată să considerăm
sunt considerate
considerată
poate fi considerat ca
în lucrare se consideră considera acum considerăm acum considera de la început vom considera de la început
considera util
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Fraze uzuale considerăm util considerabil mai simplu consideraţie We find it useful to define a new concept of conjugacy and to discuss its relation to the old. Theorems IV and VI are considerably simpler than the analogous theorems in the differential calculus.
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We now turn to the task of considering the continuousparameter stochastic processes. The consideration (or discussion) of this problem in more detail shows that ... We must now subject the concept of equivalence to a somewhat closer scrutiny. Further inspection (or examination) of Fig.1 discloses that there are two points of inflection on the curve. The abstraction principle consists (or lies) in the identification of objects (mathematical entities) which have a common property. By a slight change in the method of (7), the construction of such functions is easily carried out. The abstraction principle is often applied in mathematics to construct new notions. In the case under consideration the process α(t) is continuous at every point of the interval (c,d). Ft is continuous from the right (or rightcontinuous) in t if for all t ≥ 0 .
consta constă în ...
construcţie construi pentru a construi
continuu continuă din dreapta după t
contrazice ce contrazice această contrazice contrazice presupunerii
So π is a unit, contrary to the hypothesis. So pL, contradicting the fact that L is prime. This contradicts r ≥ 0. This equation contradicts the assumption that G contains a point not belonging to D. This contradicts the hypothesis that k→∞ and that (6) holds for all l<km. This series of expository presentations of the best thoughts and keenest researches in pure and applied mathematics is intended to contribute to the dissemination of mathematical knowledge. The subgroup Pn is contained in the centralizer of the element p in B.
contribui pentru a contribui la răspândirea
conţine se conţine
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Fraze uzuale conţine proprietăţi convenabil convenabilă The following list contains the fundamental properties of the norm. In some cases the following complex form of trigonometrical series mai convenabil este convenabil va fi convenabil deseori este convenabil conveni vom conveni converge converge absolut converge aproape peste tot converge în medie converge în probabilitate converge uniform convinge ne convingem că
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is advantageous.
It is more convenient to break up the experiment into three phases. It is convenient to call two Gaussian integers associates if α=εβ, where ε is a unit. It will be convenient to define the convergence of fn (x) in the following sense. It is often convenient to establish the position of points by giving their coordinates. We shall agree to write A(x,t)∈S if A(x,t) is a process with independent increments. The series (1) converges absolutely. to converge almost everywhere to converge in (the) mean to converge in probability Thus the series (4) converges uniformly. Make (or be) sure that the coefficients have no common factors other than +1. To complete the proof, check that ... Before applying Theorem 10.7, check to see that there is an α in A such that ... To prove the convergence X n→M, it suffices to make sure that ... The investigator must assure himself that the errors are within the admissible limits. To see that if θ satisfies an equation anxn + an1xn1 + ... + a0 = 0, then there is a rational r such that rθ is an algebraic rational, observe that anθ satisfies (3). To be certain that c is the required element, check that D[c,A]>0. To see this, notice that Powell's frequency function is identical with our function Φb(x).
a se convinge în trebuie să se convingă că pentru a se convinge în ...
pentru a se convinge în aceasta
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Fraze uzuale se poate de convins că este uşor de convins că coordona se coordonează
Page 17 of 70 Then, similarly as has been done in [1], one ascertains that the limit function satisfies the equation (4). It is easy to make sure that ϕ(x) is convex on [c,∞).
The theory checks well (or agrees / is in good agreement) with experiment. The hypothesis fits the experimental data. This conjecture is in line with that of Seidenberg. This definition is correct; since the sequence {pn(m) (x)} is fundamental. To verify the correctness of this definition, we must prove that ... The onetoone correspondence established above makes it unnecessary to distinguish between functions f(x) and distributions [f(x)]. There is an increasing sequence of integers km such that ... Introduce a strictly increasing funstion g(x) defined on [0,∞). Ft monotonically increases in t, that is Fs⊂ Ft, for s<t. Each summand on the right of (12) becomes vanishingty small with (or as) n→∞. When a is used three times as a factor, the product is called the third power of a, or the cube of a. Since, as we already know, all these trigonometrical integrals vanish, we obtain formula (5). The reader acquainted with the Lebesgue integrals can interpret formula (1) in a still wider sense, viz. as the equality almost everywhere. It is well known that for an arbitrary function F(x) satisfying conditions 1)  6) there exists a unique probability measure whose distribution function coincides with F(x).
corect
corectitudinea definiţiei corespondenţă biunivocă
crescător crescătoare strict crescător creşte creşte monoton după t cu ... ce tinde ... cub al numărului cunoaşte cum noi deja cunoaştem cunoscut cu
este cunoscut că
cum este cunoscut As is well known, the nth partial sum of the series is nothing else
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Fraze uzuale
Page 18 of 70
than the Dirichlet kernel este bine cunoscut este cunoscută ca cuvânt cu alte cuvinte
.
It is well known that there exist sequences {Tn} and {Sn} such that ηn=TnSn. This relation is known as the BiotSavart law. To put it in another way, the gross weight W can be represented as W=Wst+We+Wp.
D
da dă The repeated application of relation (2.1) yields ... The following theorem provides the description of the everywhere dense set E. We give (or present) below a synthesis of various approaches available. The martingale approach enables us (or permits) to suggest a new method for constructing solutions of stochastic differential equations. Knowledge of the numerical values of a and b offers a means of (or makes possible) determining ... This method makes it possible to tackle the boundaryvalue problem under discussion. The main advantage of this approach is that it enables the results of the previous chapter to be extended to the case under consideration. Every integer a leaves a remainder r, 0 ≤ r < m, on division by m. In the course of the proof of the theorem we have described the method for determining the functions Φn (x0, ..., xn) if X is locally compact. If this is the case, the deterministic approach is quite suited for this purpose. Hence, it follows that the representation of f(x) in the form (4), if it exists, is unique. dăm da posibilitate dă posibilitate
da restul de la împărţire dă restul de la împărţire dacă
dacă acesta este cazul dacă acesta există
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Fraze uzuale dacă este necesar dacă nar fi dacă nu The integer k can be, if necessary, replaced by any greater integer. Were is not for the discontinous coefficient,the problem would be much simpler. If there is no such ζ, we write max f = ∞. Unless otherwise stated, condition (2) will always be assumed to be in force. Thus, the function f(x) is uniquely determined, provided (that) it exists everywhere.
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dacă numai dacă şi numai dacă dacă şi numai dacă există
R is a realization of η(t) if and only if ... The martingale ξ(t) is uniformly integrable if and only if there exists a random variable η such that E η < ∞ and ξ(t) = E {η  Ft}. Evidently, if the inf in (1.5) is attained at a certain point , then the inf Φm(x,um) is also attained at that point. Unless u is a power of 2, this can always be done. Element ξ belongs to V, whereas (or and) ζ belongs to W. This value is negative — not positive. But then we could proceed from the pair (x, y) to a still smaller in the same way as from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2). With time the number of particles increases, rather than remains constant. the initial (or the input) data Delacherie and Meyer are well known for their book 'Stochastic Processes and Potentials'. Mathematics, due to (or owing to / because of) its abstract nature, finds wide application in most spheres of human activity. For this reason the points belonging to Ω are called elementary events. Conversely, if N=1, we have a+b=1, so that either a=0 or b=0. The last formula becomes p(la+mq)=b, so that pb. Every element in T has norm at least equal to 1, so there must be one of them, g, which is of least positive norm. Observe also that Dn(s) ≤ C logn. From equation (3) we find, as well, . If α and β belong to F, so do α+β, α−β, αβ, and α/β if
dacă ..., atunci dacă ... nu dar
dar atunci dar nu date iniţiale datorită
de aceea
de asemenea
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Fraze uzuale β≠0. de fapt In fact, this follows from the consideration that the sequence gn(x) is bounded for x>0. Since these are continuous processes, we actually have ...
Page 20 of 70
de fiecare dată când
In stating rules, letters are used to represent not only the numbers to be found, but also the numbers that must be given whenever the rule is applied. Applying Lemma 20.3 k times, we infer that there exists a periodic function G0(x) with G0(k)(x)=g(x). Differentiating formula (8) k times, we obtain the equality ... The Arab notation has been in use since the XVI century. Prof. Romanov is giving a course of lectures on chaos and bifurcations in room 406, commencing October 1. In order to start from the very beginning, we introduce first the basic notions and concepts of the theory of measurements. From this time on, the density function decreases. We shall start with the basic notions and concepts of the theory of measurements. Setting (*) we obtain (**), whence, in view of inequality (1), ... The author does not explain from whence the estimate (7) emerges. Applying Lemma 20.3 k times, we infer (or deduce) that there exists a periodic function G0(x) with G0(k)=g (x). We derive (or deduce) the equation for the distribution of cell size at division and the distribution of generation time. Define unit and prime just as we did for the Gaussian integer. The function h(x) is defined at every point of the interval [c,d]. The variable, whose value is determined once the value of the independent variable is given, is called the dependent variable.
de k ori
de la
de unde
deduce deducem
deducem ecuaţia
defini definim definită
bine definită
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Page 21 of 70
The integral
is well defined in
definit anterior pozitiv definit
accordance with the above definition. Using the Haar family {gn} defined above, we introduce functions {hn}. A complexvalued function f(x) is called positive definite if for any n and complex numbers zj
definire în definirea definiţie din definiţie definiţie echivalentă definiţie exactă demonstra demonstrează pentru a demonstra este demonstrată pentru a demonstra
In defining K(x) we have made use of our assumption that b(x)=0 for x<a. In the definition of the mth derivative we can replace the polynomials pn(x) by functions fn(x). From the definition it follows at once that G(u) satisfies condition (2). It is possible to give an equivalent definition of integral (1) as the limit of sums (2). A precise definition is given below. This proves that d is a factor shared by both a and b. To prove the theorem, it suffices to show that ... Since Nρ<Nα, the inequality (3) is established.
To prove this, interchange the order of integration in the double integral in (6), after which all the integrals except (8) can be evaluated exactly by appropriate change of variables. To prove the theorem, note first that neither a nor b can be zero. If pa, there is nothing to prove. nu este ce demonstra se poate de demonstrat că It may be proved that if ... de la început vom demonstra We shall first prove the following two lemmas. înainte de a demonstra Before proving the theorem we illustrate its applications. teorema trebuie să demonstrăm că We must prove that the two factorizations differ at most in the order in which the primes appear. In the course of the proof of this theorem we have made use of the following lemma.
demonstrare în procesul demonstrării demonstraţie
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Fraze uzuale fără demonstraţie denumire deoarece
Page 22 of 70 We shall assume without proof the following theorem. The name 'distribution' is due to L. Schwartz, who developed the theory in 1945 and later. This cannot be, for 1/p is not a rational number. In the theory of distributions a distinction between the trigonometrical series and the Fourier series is unnecessary since each convergent trigonometrical series is an expansion of a periodic distribution. Because (3), we have ... All numbers amn can be arranged in a sequence {bk} convergent to b0, for otherwise it would suffice to neglect a finite number of initial terms a1n, a2n, ..., apn to get a contradiction to property (5). Since the functions w are solutions of this equation, the difference of any two of them may be regarded as the solution of a certain linear differential equation.
deoarece în caz contrar
deoarece ..., atunci
deosebi se deosebeşte prin
The function f(x) differs from F(x)(k1)by a constant. We must prove that the two factorizations differ at se deosebesc prin most in the order in which the primes appear. se deosebesc una de alta prin The equation f'(x) = g'(x) holds if and only if the distributions f(x) and g(x) differ from each other by a constant function. The absolute value of a number a, as distinguished from its algebraic value, is represented by a. As opposed to (or as distinct from / in contrast to) the real case, any polynomial always has a root in the field of complex numbers. In fundamental contrast to M. R. Stein, we have preferred the algebraic approach.
deosebire spre deosebire de ...
deosebit este deosebit de importantă The case of a linear substitution is especially important (or is of particular importance) for us. depinde care nu depinde de nu depinde de alegere depinde esenţial de depinde monoton de t To this end, we establish first that there exists a constant L not depending on s and n such that ... The distribution (1) does not depend on the choice of the indefinite integral ψ(x). In this new definition the fact that the choice of the integer k depends on the interval [a,b] is essential. Let (2) be a family of finite stopping times which are 2/17/05
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Page 23 of 70 monotonically dependent on t and rightcontinuous in t.
deriva deriva ... după x deriva ... în raport cu x derivând derivând de k ori derivând succesiv derivata după x deschide deschide posibilităţi deschiderea parantezelor descompune în factori
To differentiate v(t,x) with respect to x. To take the derivative of v(t,x,u) with respect to x. In fact, by differentiating (3) we obtain ... Hence, by successive differentiation we obtain ... Differentiating formula (8) k times, we obtain the equality ... Hence by successive differentiation we obtain ... A derivative of u(t,x,u) with respect to x. The interpretative approach opens perspectives in that direction. the removal of parentheses to expand the number into factors to factor the number to present smth in a factor form to factor smth into components
descompune în serie descompunem în serie Expand function ϕ(x) in a Taylor series. descompunem în serie în Expand function u(t,x,u) into a Taylor series about x. raport cu x poate fi descompusă în serie Under certain conditions a continuous function can be expanded into a FourierBessel series. Function f(x) can be expanded as an infinite power series. descompunere descompunere în descompunere în fracţii elementare descompunere în serie descrescător descriere formală Any supermartingale ζ(t) has exactly one decomposition of the form ζ(t)=µ(t)α(t). 6 = 2*3 = 3*2 are the only factorizations of 6 into positive prime factors. The decomposition of a fraction into partial fractions. Hence, we obtain the expansion of ctgx: ctgx = 2(sin2x + sin4x + sin6x + ...). Let {an} be a decreasing sequence and {bn} an increasing sequence of numbers. A formal description of the basic notions is usually based on the settheoretical model of probability theory developed by A. N. Kolmogorov in 1929.
descris
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Fraze uzuale descris anterior descrisă de ecuaţie desemna desemnează
Page 24 of 70 We now show how the method described above can be extended to move the existence of µ. We will consider only those systems whose evolution is given by the equation of form (8). The symbol Fn(x)→ will denote that the sequence {Fn(x)} converges almost uniformly to a function. In Fig.11 the planes π1 and π2 are shown as coinciding. In Fig.10 it is seen that ... In this particular case only one side of the triangle, namely BC, has traces within the limits of the drawing. It is possible that the ordinary derivative does not exist, although the distributional derivative has a value at this point. It is necessary to consider this problem in greater detail. The details can be found in most texts on the theory of equations, for example in the book of Thomas listed in bibliography. The Introduction gives details concerning the application of stochastic differential equations in natural sciences. Two sequences {fn(x)} and {gn(x)} determine the same distribution if and only if they are equivalent. The indefinite integral is determined up to a constant. Integrating f(x) k times, we obtain a locally integrable function F(x), which is determined up to a polynomial of degree less than k. The relation of equivalence is then transformed into the usual equality. The last formula becomes p(la+mq)=b, so that pb. With this terminology Theorem 1.5 becomes meaningful for the Gaussian integers. This explains the discrepancy in behaviour of the two functions.
desen pe desen din desen se vede că în limitele desenului
deşi
detaliat mai detaliat detaliile
determina determină determinat cu exactitate de
deveni devine
dezacord diferenţă
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Fraze uzuale unică diferenţă între diferi diferă de diferite de The only difference among them is the order of appearance of the factors.
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The function f(x) differs from F(k1)(x) by a constant. The proof is not like that of Theorem 5.6. Consider the numbers which are different from 0 and ±1. The prime numbers p possess no factors other than ±1 and ± p. It is slightly more difficult to see that
dificil este mai dificil
dificultate dificultate poate fi trecută
This difficulty can be remedied by a slight restatement of the fundamental theorem to include negative numbers. Now we can, once again, use the arguments analogous to those presented in Section II. This inequality can be proved directly (or immediately) using (7) and Lemma 9 in Section 1. The interpretative approach opens perspectives in that direction. With probability 1 ξ(t) has no discontinuities of the first [second] kind. In Chapter 8 we discuss the filtering problem. The validity of this assumption will not be debated here. The onetoone correspondence established above makes it unnecessary to distinguish between functions f(x) and distributions [f(x)]. In the theory of distributions a distinction between the trigonometrical series and the Fourier series is unnecessary since each convergent trigonometrical series is an expansion of a periodic distribution. the joint (or simultaneous) distribution
din nou direct direcţie în aceea direcţie discontinuitate de speţa întâia [a doua] discuta discutăm nu va fi discutată distinge pentru a distinge
distingere
distribuţie comună divide se divid
Then the numbers 1, 2, ..., p1 fall into pairs such that http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05
Fraze uzuale the product of any pair is congruent to 1 modulo p. The procedure is then broken down (or divided / subdivided) into the three steps: ... Nine is a multiple of three. All the terms on the right are divisible by p.
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se divide se divide prin divizibil sunt divizibile prin domeniu de definiţie dori dorit este de dorit după ce
Let A be a strongly positive operator whose domain of definition does not depend on G. Passing to the limit in (6) we obtain the desired result. This is exactly the wanted decomposition. It is desirable in many applications that the function Xt be also measurable. To prove this, interchange the order of integration in the double integral in (6), after which all the integrals except (8) can be evaluated exactly by appropriate change of variables.
E
ecuaţie din ecuaţia ecuaţie cu n necunoscute ecuaţie de gradul n ecuaţie iniţială ecuaţie în raport cu (necunoscuta) x ecuaţie rezolvabilă în raport cu x editarea From equation (2) we find that ... the equation in n unknowns the equation of degree n the input equation the equation in (the unknown) x the equation solvable for x The publication of this monograph was made possible due to ... He has over 70 published works. The calculations can be carried out (or performed) in the same way as in Section 15. On many occasions it is useful to take the Laplace transform of equation (15). The vectors and are equal in magnitude.
efectua pot fi efectuate de a efectua transformarea egal sunt egali
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Fraze uzuale elabora era elaborată elementar
Page 27 of 70
The statistical theory has been developed quite recently. The solution of equation (5) is obtained in an elementary manner by expanding function x(t) in a Fourier series. But here we need only free ourselves of the term V(x) *µ. The most general statement of the problem can be formulated as follows. A more exact answer to the question requires apparently (or evidently) a refinement of the definition of a system. It is obvious (or evident) that Xt is progressively measurable. Obviously (or evidently / apparently), the above theorem hot index set is taken to be a finite interval [0,T ] instead of R+. We note that any subset of Ω is called an event. the sure event The proof of this property is obvious since b=0. Applying Theorem 12.3 to the obvious equality (*) we get ... To avoid possible confusion, the continuity condition will be restated in each case. To avoid misunderstanding, we may call the first kind of intervals (including endpoints) the closed intervals and the second kind the open intervals. To avoid repetitions in future, we present here basic concepts and definitions. Any prime Π divides exactly one positive rational prime p. More precisely, we shall assume that the following condition is satisfied.
elibera să ne eliberăm de enunţul problemei evident
este evident
eveniment eveniment sigur evident
evita pentru a evita confuzii pentru a evita neînţelegeri
pentru a evita repetări în viitor exact exact unul mai exact exactitate cu exactitate de
Then we can write for the divisionsize density function (up to a normalization factor) . The factors in product (4) are determined uniquely except for order. 2/17/05
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Page 28 of 70 Factorization of any positive integer is unique to within the order of factors. The fundamental theorem of arithmetic asserts that every integer greater than 1 can be factored in one and only one way, apart from as the product of positive prime numbers.
excepţie cu excepţia
The function ν possesses the property (1) for all ω and t except for some sets of measure 0. To prove this, interchange the order of integration in the double integral in (6), after which all the integrals except (8) can be evaluated exactly by appropriate change of variables. The second of these possibilities is excluded, for r(x) is in T. This approach excludes the possibility of considering the equations having solutions which belong to a more general class of numbers. Another example of the abstraction principle is the Cantor definition of a real number. Let us first look at some simple examples. For instance (or for example), the coefficient of variation, CV, of size at division is typically 10% and the CV of age at division is typically 20% or more. As an example, let α=5 and β=1+2i. The nature of this problem can best be made plain by examples. We shall explain it by means of examples. We shall construct an interesting example of such a process in this chapter. The polynomials Bn(t) are typical examples of generalized Brownian functionals. Some other examples of fundamental sequences will be given after the following lemma. As an example, consider the primitive polynomials x2+3 and 3x2+7x11. With probability 1 there exists the limit . The existence of the Wiener process follows easily from the Kolmogorov's criterion.
exclude se exclude exclude posibilitate
exemplu
de exemplu
prin exemple
exemplu interesant exemplu tipic unele exemple în calitate de exemplu exista există limita
existenţă explica
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Fraze uzuale vom explica pot fi explicate pentru a explica exponentul puterii
Page 29 of 70 We shall explain the essence of the problem by giving several examples. The variations are greater than can be accounted for by chance. Chance is unlikely to account for so great variations. A figure or a letter placed a little above and to the right of a number is called an index, or an exponent, of the power thus indicated. An expression composed of numbers, letters and signs of algebraic operations and aggregation is called an algebraic expression. To express the solution of equation (2) in terms of w (t), it is sufficient to observe that w(t) satisfies equation (3). I wish to express deep gratitude to O. A. Oleinik for her valuable advice and her interest in my work. The exposition of mathematical subject is set forth in a manner comprehensible not only to teachers and students specializing in mathematics, but to all those taking interest in mathematics and its applications. The definition of a stochastic integral will be further extended to cover the alternating functions. We now extend the definition of a stochastic integral to a wider class of random processes. In §21 we show how to extend the basic definitions and theorems to the case of distributions of infinite order. The main purpose of this section is to extend the results of the preceding section to the processes of a continuous argument. These results can be extended to all other cases. As it is currently being recognized, similar extensions of the notion of entropy are needed in the field of biology.
expresie algebrică
exprima exprima ... prin ...
să exprim recunoştină expunere
extinde va fi extinsă extindem ... asupra de extins în cazul
extinde rezultatele de a extinde rezultatele
rezultatele pot fi extinse extinderile noţiunii de
extrage rădăcină patrată [cubică] To extract the square [cube] root of a number. extragere a rădăcinei extremitate cu extremităţi Evolution may be defined as the process of finding a root of a number, or as the inverse of involution. In every closed subinterval with ends a and b there is at most a finite number of poles. 2/17/05
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Page 30 of 70
F
face de a face făcând ... să facem câteva observaţii referitor face de prisos This helps to make the proofs of all the theorems elementary and very simple. Making (or letting) n→∞ along the subsequence nk, we have ... Before presenting the main results, we want to make a few comments on the notion of entropy. The onetoone correspondence established above makes it unnecessary to distinguish between function f(x) and distribution [f(x)]. To complete the proof, it is sufficient to refer to the Cantor theorem on uniform continuity. For the proof of this theorem, we refer the reader to Theorem 9. For further information the reader is referred to Chapter VI. That such an impression is erroneous, we demonstrate by exhibiting another simple class of "integers" for which Theorem 8 is false. M is a collection (or family / set) of processes mt , t∈T. fi poate fi fi de prisos este de prisos In case of rightcontinuity the condition (2) may be replaced by the requirement (i). In the theory of distributions a distinction between the trigonometrical series and the Fourier series is unnecessary since each convergent trigonometrical series is an expansion of a periodic distribution. When two variables are so related that the value of the first variable is determined when the value of the second variable is given, then the first variable is said to be a function of the second. We are now in a position to prove the fundamental 2/17/05
face referinţă de a face referinţă la facem referinţă la poate să facă referinţă la fals
familie (set)
fi în relaţie sunt în aşa relaţie încât
fi în stare suntem în stare
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Page 31 of 70 theorem stated in the opening paragraph of the chapter.
fi recunoscător ... pentru ... sunt recunoscător ... pentru ... fie
I am particularly indebted to Miss Leila R. Raines for her painstaking assistance in the revision and preparation of the manuscript for publication. Put w=5.7. Set v=t. Let d be the smallest positive number in the set A. Let G denote the set of all Gaussian integers, and J the set of all rational integers. . Now set Let there be given a continuous increasing process ξ (t). Given point A,construct point B symmetrical to the given point A in relation to plane π. Given any ε>0, we fix an index n0 such that  fn(x)  f(x) <ε for all n>n0.
acum fie fie că este dat fie dat
fiecare fiecare dintre care
pentru fiecare din fix acelaşi fixa vom fixa fixat este fixată folosi
Let ξ1, ξ2, ..., ξn be a sequence of random variables each of which is the sum of certain number of mutually independent random variables. M is the set of processes mt for each of which there exists a random variable m such that ... Precisely the same proof is valid for Gaussian primes provided only that we can find one prime. We fix some t∈S. Fix k points 1 ≤ x1 < x2 < ... < xn ≤ 1. Indeed, let c>0 be an arbitrary fixed number. A quantity whose value is fixed in any investigation is called a constant. In the order to construct the solution to (2), we can use (or utilize / make use of / apply / employ) relation (12). The reader can draw on the data from [4]. The Arab notation has been in use since the XVI century. This property is utilized (or exploited) in numerous technical applicarions. The term "information" is sometimes used (or applied) to mean "data".
se foloseşte
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Fraze uzuale Let us now make use of the fact that the trajectory of process is rightcontinuous. The title should be printed in bold type. The numbers 0, 1, 2, ..., p1 form a complete residue system modulo p. to set up (or to formulate / to form / to write) the equation
Page 32 of 70
ne vom folosi acum de ... font aldin forma formează a forma ecuaţia formalizare în formalizarea
When formalizing the notions of probability theory, the first fundamental assumption is that the results of the experiments can be described by means of a certain set Ω. The function η(t) also admits decomposition of the form (4.3). An integral of this form can be evaluated by substitution. Write equation (3.2) as (or in the form) ... To represent the solution of equation (12) explicitly, it is necessary to solve equation (8) for u(t). An equation that states a rule in a brief form is called a formula. More recently some of results were obtained in a simplified form. Let us formulate the conditions under which the statement is valid. The new statement of the Fundamental Theorem is this.
formă de formă
în formă în formă explicită întro formă concisă întro formă mai simplă formula să formulăm formulare formulă formula schimbului de variabilă formulă iniţială funcţie funcţii absolut continue
Apply now the change of variables formula to (1). the assumption formula The class of indefinite Lebesgue integrals of locally integrable functions is the class of absolutely continuous functions. EΩ(x) is the characteristic function of set Ω, equal to unity inside Ω and to zero outside Ω. the inverse function
funcţie caracteristică funcţie inversă
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Page 33 of 70
G
garanta garantează găsi găsim se poate găsi greutăţi mari genera generează generată general mai general From (5), (6) and (7), we find ... The facts used below can be found in [5][7]. The estimation of ν runs into severe (or great) difficulties. Here w(t) denotes the process which generates the current {Ft}. Fs is a σalgebra generated by the events {ξ(s)∈B}. More generally, if a sequence {fn(x)} converges almost everywhere, then it converges also in a distributional sense. If the function f(x) is sectionally continuous, or, more generally, if it is Riemannintegrable, equation (1) is also true except of the points of discontinuities of f(x). To generalize the theorem, it is necessary to modify the definition of convolution. We now show how the method described above can be extended to prove the existence of µ. Theorem 6 can be easily generalized. Let us generalize equation (6) to the case under discussion. This condition ensures (or assures) the uniqueness of the solution.
generaliza pentru a generaliza poate fi generalizat poate uşor fi generalizat generaliza ... pentru cazul
poate fi generalizată pentru This theorem may be generalized to the case of multiplicative error. cazul generalizare grad de gradul n grupa grupăm termenii asemenea pn(x) is a polynomial of degree n. To solve the equation 2x+x=12, unite (or group / collect) similar terms in the first member to obtain 3x 2/17/05 Distributions are a generalization of functions.
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Page 34 of 70 and then divide both members by 3 to find the value of x to be 4.
I
imediat Using Lemma 2 we can prove at once that G(u) satisfies condition (ii). It follows at once from 12.4 that ... In proving that Theorem 1.5 holds for the Gaussian integers we shall imitate as far as possible the proof already given for rational integers. This implies the completeness of {hn} in L01[0,∞). imita vom imita
implica această implică important foarte important
In applications the following theorem is of great importance. una din cele mai importante The concept of hierarchy is among the most important in the theory of general systems. The importance of the primes is due to the fact that, together with 0 and ±1, all the other integers can be constructed from them. That such an impression is erroneous, we demonstrate by exhibiting another simple class of "integers" for which Theorem 8 is false.
importanţă
impresie falsă
impune să impunem condiţii asupra In order that the solutions converge, we must impose the following conditions on the coefficients of equations (2). include include (ind. prez. 3 sg.) It is obvious that the set F includes the set of rational numbers. Equation (8) incorporates normal losses. The dictionary contains (or includes) some information about the appropriate use of collocations. Some elements of artificial intelligence are now incorporated in system. The function f(x,y) possesses bounded partial derivatives up to the third order inclusive. Let Ft be a σalgebra of the events observed up to and 2/17/05
sunt incluse inclusiv
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Fraze uzuale including the moment t. independent independent de
Page 35 of 70
mutual independente
By a slight change in the method of [3] the reader can easily prove the theorem by himself. Let θ be a random variable independent of the σalgebra. This is true irrespective of whether E is a Hausdorff space or not. We can always do this, no matter how many points from D are contained in the sphere S. After each moment of regeneration the process X(t) evolves independently of its past. The distance between two points is the same irrespective of the direction in which it is measured. The function ex remains unaltered regardless of the number of times it is differentiated. Let ξ1, ξ2, ..., ξn be a sequence of random variables each of which is the sum of certain number of mutually independent variables. These results indicate (or suggest) that ... It makes no difference whether we say that t is a stopping time relative to {Ft} or {F't}. But this is impossible for any pair of integers a and b is in J. It is impossible to represent 12 as m2 + n2. Many of these questions are difficult if not impossible to answer. We shall prove the theorem by induction. Define the random variables Mn inductively. We shall prove the relation by induction in k. The value of a function f(x) at infinity, written f(∞), is the limit of this function as x →∞. to infinity the infinitesimal (or the infinitesimal quantity / the infinitely small quantity) The limit distribution functions are determined by the fact that they are the limits for sums of an increasing number of independent random variables such that a single summand becomes vanishingly small (or 2/17/05
indica indică că indiferent este indiferent imposibil este imposibil
inducţie după inducţie inducţie după k infinit la infinit până la infinit infinit mic
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Fraze uzuale infinitesimal) with n→∞. iniţial
Page 36 of 70
The distribution of the initial vector converges weakly to a limit as u→0. The reader should be reminded that the initial value of ν was chosen to be ν0=7.18. This example is instructive because it displays the structure of the process µ(P). to integrate by parts the definite integral If g(x) is a locally integrable function and the improper integral exists, then g(∞)=0
instructiv integra prin părţi integrală integrală definită integrală improprie
integrală nedefinită integrant integrare după integrare integrare prin părţi interesant este interesant de observat că intra intră în care intră în ...
provided g(∞) exists. By an indefinite integral of a function f(x) we understood each function ψ(x) such that ψ'(x) = f(x). the integrand (or the expression under the integral sign) Replacing x by x+t in (1), we have, after integration, ... the integration by parts It is interesting to observe that the above formula remains true if the summation is understood according to the method of arithmetic means. This term appears in (or enters into) equation (9) in parentheses. The coefficient a*(x,s) entering into (or involved in) the expression for I t can be assumed to be constant. Introduce the sequence {an}n ∈ N of positive numbers. Allow sinu within the differential sign. Introducing 2n new variables ξi and ζi we deduced 2n equations. The notion of distribution was introduced to mathematics by S. Sobolyev in 1936. Data are entered (or fed) into the computer from the keyboard. 2/17/05
introduce introducem introducând a fost introdusă sunt introduse
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Fraze uzuale intuitiv
Page 37 of 70 The model emerged from the intuition that the notions of hierarchy, complexity, stability, and entropy were to be very important. If the coefficients of equation (2) do not satisfy the Lipschitz condition, then the method of successive approximations is unsuitable for the construction of solutions. Conversely, formula (6) defines a measurable linear functional for any sequence of numbers (z,ek). Observe that if the hypothesis on the existence of values of F(x) at a and b is not fulfilled, the equality may be wrong. The proof might have been arranged in a different way if we had made no hypothesis about the value of G.
inutil pentru
invers ipoteza despre
Î
în în acest scop To this end, we establish first that there exists a constant L such that ... For this purpose (or with this object in view / with this in mind), an attempt will be made to generalize the notion of entropy. EΩ(x) is the characteristic function of set Ω, equal to
în afară în aplicaţii în aşa mod încât
în concordanţă cu în conformitate cu
unity inside Ω and to zero outside Ω. In applications we often come across the socalled Heaviside function. For the new distributions one can define addition, subtraction, multiplication by a number or by a function in such a manner that the fundamental properties are preserved. A variable x is said to vary continuously through an interval [a,b] when x increases from a to b in such a manner as to assume all the values between a and b in the order of their magnitudes. It follows from (1), (2) and (3) that the whole set is decomposed into abstraction classes so that two elements are in the same abstraction class if and only if they are equivalent. In accordance with the law of large numbers, a ≈ mξ = x. In accordance with (or by) the law of large numbers, a ≈ mξ = x. 2/17/05
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Fraze uzuale în continuare în fond în grupe în interior Next, define M∞ as the limit of Mt , as t→∞.
Page 38 of 70
Basically, the difficulty with establishing inequality (6) is that ... The cards may be processed singly or grouped (or in groups). EΩ(x) is the characteristic function of set Ω, equal to
în întregime
în loc de această în mare măsură în realitate în sfârşit în spiritul în totalitate
în totalitate
în vigoare în virtutea
unity inside Ω and to zero outside Ω. All points of Ω lie in the interior of y2<d. We will not attempt here to solve the problem in its entirety. Though the macroscopic properties of the cell population as a whole follow a deterministic growth law, the descriptors of individual ceils (such as size at division and age at division) are highly variable. The contents of this book may not be reproduced either in whole or in part. Instead, we will assume that ... The theory is based, to a large extent, on heuristic considerations. Actually, we shall prove somewhat more that we need for the present. Finally, to prove (5), suppose p is prime. The paper is written in the spirit of the Wilkinson's error analysis. The graphs of these sequences do not intersect and in totality there sequences absorb all jumps of the process Z. The graphs of these sequences do not intersect and in totality there sequences absorb all jumps of the process Z. Unless otherwise stated, condition (2) will always be assumed to be in force. In view of Theorem V, the sequences from Example 2 converge. By virtue of the basic assumptions, ... Rightangle projection is most widely used because of its comparative simplicity. On account of the foregoing remark, the distributions in the earlier sense can be identified with distributions of finite order. By 2.4, the limit of an(x)  gn(x) is also a polynomial of degree less than l. In the case discussed above the lefthand side of (1) can also interpreted as ... In the opposite case the point x0 is said to be singular. 2/17/05
în caz în caz contrar
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Page 39 of 70
în caz general în caz particular
Moreover Np=0, for otherwise p≠0 so that Π=α, contrary to assumption. This derivative is, in general, not a function, but a distribution. In the special (or particular) case where α=1 equation (3) can be solved explicitly. In the specific case of Fig.12 the function B(u) has two extrema. In the special case where the L2martingale is continuous, the variation <M> will also be continuous. In this case ... In case where (or in the case when) a = 4k+3 equation (2) assumes a more simple form. In the case when measure µ is transferred from F into a smaller space F0, the space F0 often turns out to be a linear space. In the case under consideration the process α(t) is continuous. In the case of a negative determinant a quadratic equation has no roots. In the limiting case the stochastic process ν(t) becomes a constant. In the simpler case where α=1 this relation takes the form p=he2/3. In this particular case only one side of the triangle, namely BC, has traces within the limits of the drawing. This problem has received at best only fragmentary treatment. For many purposes (or in many cases / on numerous occasions) we shall need the following assumption. Analogously (or similarly / likewise), it is sometimes useful consider only positive solutions to Eqn (17). This theorem can be proved in much the same way (or manner) as Theorem 1. A similar argument yields ... The plane passing through the vertex A and the vertex C can likewise be constructed. The first term can be made arbitrarily small by an appropriate choice of ε. The variable, to which the values may be assigned at
în caz special în cazul acesta în cazul când
în cazul considerat în cazul dacă în cazul limită în cazul mai sumplu în acest caz particular în cel mai bun caz în multe cazuri în mod în mod analogic
în mod arbitrar
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Page 40 of 70 pleasure, is called the independent variable. The initial values of ξ and ζ may be chosen arbitrarily (or at will).
în sens în sens intuitiv în sens larg
în sens uzual
în sensul
în sensul că
în sensul larg în sensul nou în sensul următor în sensul vechi
întrun anumit sens
Distributions may be, in an intuitive sense, approximated by functions. The reader acquainted with the Lebesgue integrals can interpret formula (1) in a still wider sense, viz. as the equality almost everywhere. A sequence of constant functions converges in the distributional sense if and only if it converges in the usual sense. More generally, if a sequence {fn(x)} converges almost everywhere, then it converges also in the distributional sense. This process is unique in the sense that if {Bt} is any process with properties (1) through (4), then At=Bt for every t. This process is unique in the sense that if {Bt} is any process with properties (1) through (4), then At=Bt for every t. First of all, probabilistic methods are preferable in biological studies in that they allow to take into consideration the variability of the live matter. in a broad (or wide / loose) sense So α has n conjugate in the new sense, but m in the old. The converse holds in the following sense. Sequences fundamental in the earlier sense are equivalent in the new sense if and only if they are equivalent in the earlier sense. So α has n conjugates in the new sense, but m in the old. A minimal, in some sense, current is obtained if one observes nothing else, but the process ξ(t) itself. Here the solution is a nondecreasing function of the drift coefficients and, in a sense, of the jump functions. A new theory has been put forward this year. We were informed that a new idea had been advanced at the closing session. to advance a hypothesis Many roadblocks must still be overcome before all the subgroups of G are described.
înainta a fost înaintată
înainta o ipoteză încă
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Fraze uzuale încă mai mult
Page 41 of 70 These estimates could be further improved by including additional data in the computation. In order to improve the estimates still further, additional data should be included in the computation. Let us formulate one further assumption. To conclude, consider one more example. To find the sum of the series, we start from the known formula (1). Each command begins with a forward slash (/). We first establish the necessity of the condition. First let us define ...
încă unul începe vom începe cu se începe început de la început încheia demonstrarea pentru a încheia demonstrarea îndoială fără îndoială
To complete the proof, it suffices to observe that ...
Undoubtedly (or without a doubt), the introduction of the theory ...
îndrepta atenţia vom îndrepta atenţia asupra Let us take note of the fact that the portions of the straight lines A1A2 and A3A2 are equal. înlocui este înlocuit poate fi înlocuit prin înlocuit ... prin înlocui a prin b F∞ is replaced by Ft if t∈[0,T ]. The integer k can be, if necessary, replaced by any greater integer. Replacing in (2) α by β and afterwards x by αx we obtain ... to replace a with (or by) b to substitute b for a to change a for b In case of rightcontinuity the condition (2) may be replaced by the requirement (3). In the definition of the mth derivative we can replace the polynomials pn(x) by functions fn(x). A(C) denotes the completion of B(C) with respect to µν. The letter M, with subscripts, will denote positive constants. 'ln' signifies the natural logarithm. 2/17/05
se poate de înlocuit putem înlocui prin însemna înseamnă va înseamna
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Page 42 of 70 The expression (a+b)c signifies that the sum of a and b is to be multiplied by c. In this equation X stands for the velocity to be found. The subscript i identifies the number of the group. This means that a is different from any of a1, a2, ..., an. If we try to apply the principle of unique factorization to negative integers, we encounter an obvious difficulty in the possible presence of minus signs in the factors. We turn to the proof of the theorem. We can restrict the variable so that it takes on only values lying between a and b. Denoting by p(x) the polynomial within (or between) the signs   on the lefthand side of (3), we can write ... It is asked what properties the limit distribution function must possess. These ideas can bring advantages in attacking the problem under consideration, over the usual theories. The distribution δ2π(x) is the derivative of the function E(x/2π), where the symbol E(a) denotes the greatest integer not exceeding a.
această înseamnă că
întâmpina dificultăţi întâmpinăm dificultăţi
întoarce ne întoarcem între
întreaba se întreabă întrebare considerată întrece care nu întrece
înţelege înţelegem prin ... vom înţelege ...
Practically it suffices to understand integrability in the sence of Riemann or of Lebesgue. By the integral of the Pmeasurable function f we mean the LebesgueStiltjes integral. By the product of a distribution f(x) = [fn(x)] by a number λ we understand the distribution [λfn(x)]. By an indefinite integral of f(x) we mean a function of the form (2). A current is understood to be an increasing family of σalgebras such that ...
prin ... se înţelege înţelegere profundă
This information is needed for a fundamental understanding of (or a deep insight into) the properties of ...
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J
jos mai jos de mai jos juca un rol va juca un rol decisiv joacă un rol important just The operations introduced below will be identical with the usual operations on functions. The definitions given below are for the processes defined on R+. The following fact will play a decisive role in the proof. The class of normal functionals plays an important role from the viewpoint of the causal calculus. Let us formulate the conditions under which the statement is valid (or true).
L
la fel la fel ca în cazul la fel ca şi This is proved in the same manner as in the case of discreteargument submartingales. But then we could proceed from the pair (x,y) to a still smaller pair in the same way as from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2). The rest we leave to the reader. The slight change in the original proof which is needed here will be left to the reader. The estimation of ν runs into (or entails) great difficulties.
lăsa lăsăm va fi lăsată cititorului lega este legat de limita ne vom limita la Not striving for the greatest generality, we shall confine ourselves to he study of martingales with continuous characteristics. In this section, we shall restrict our attention to integration over processes µ(t) with continuous characteristics. For the present we shall content ourselves with http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05
Fraze uzuale
Page 44 of 70 demonstrating the assertions just made concerning the sets G and H. We will first confine our attention to discreteparameter supermartingales. We will restrict ourselves to the simplest case of λ=0. Accuracy is limited only by that of the original data. We shall restrict ourselves, in this paper, to the case ...
este limitată de ne vom limita la cazul
limită în limită In the limit, as n→∞, the last term in (8) vanishes. limită inferioară de integrare the lower limit of an integral limită superioară de integrare the upper limit of an integral literal lua în consideraţie luăm în consideraţie In the term 4x2y the numerical multiplier of the literal part is the coefficient.
If we consider (or take into consideration) that the series is a series of positive terms, we have ... The analysis has been made without reference (or fără a lua în consideraţie ... without regard) to heat losses. Regardless of the last term which is sufficiently small, equation (9) may be solved in radicals for x. The statement becomes apparent when it is dacă se ia în consideraţie că considered (or if it is remembered) that ... The statement becomes apparent when it is considered (or taken into account) that ... trebuie de luat în consideraţie One should keep in mind (or it should be kept in că mind / it should be remembered) that the partial sums of the series (2.2) are the Fourier transforms of functions Bn(t). to put (or to enclose) in parentheses [brackets, braces]
lua în paranteze rotunde [patrate, figurate]
M
mai mai ales mai mic decât mai mult ca atât This chapter deals mainly (or chiefly / predominantly) with semigroups. Now p is in T and has norm less than N(π). Moreover, every solution of (9) may be represented in the form (3).
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Fraze uzuale mai mult decât ... mai multe ... decât
Page 45 of 70 Over (or more than) two thousand scientists took part in the 1st World Congress. The set B contains much more elements than the set A. The set B contains twice as many elements as the set A. the greatest lower bound the least upper bound applied mathematics Finite mathematics is considered as superior tool to use, over differential equations. pure mathematics In order to achieve this, we shall need some material from elementary number theory. This volume presents a wealth of material on stochastic integrals. the inverse matrix We denote by xmax the point at which the function f(x) has a maximum (or is at its maximum). Any polinomial of degree n ≥ 1 has at most n distinct roots. We shall make the most (or the best use) of the notation proposed by Dynkin in [8]. We can restrict the variable so that it shall take on only values lying between a and b. The sequence gn(x)=1/(1+enx ) is bounded by number 1. The investigation of the magnitude of this error is connected with profound properties of the geometry of numbers. Any term may be transposed from one member (or side) of equation to the other, provided its sign is changed. The first thing to notice is a wide variety of concepts of entropy in the scientific literature. We note that any arbitrary subset of Ω is called an event. 2/17/05
margine margine inferioară exactă margine superioară exactă matematică matematică aplicată matemitică finită matematică pură material material bogat despre matrice inversă maxim maximum
mărgini putem mărgini mărginit
mărimea erorii
membru al ecuaţiei (parte a ecuaţiei) menţiona în primul rând trebuie de menţionat menţionăm
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Fraze uzuale Observe that (ξt ,Ft) is a potential. vom menţiona că It should be observed here that this definition of equality is usually adopted in the theory of the Lebesgue integral. the method of successive approximations
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metoda aproximărilor succesive minuţios modifica puţin modificând modificând puţin metoda modificare a metodei moment din acest moment
The results reported by Dr. Evans need thoroughly be checked. We shall modify slightly the definition of ... By a slight change in the method of (3) the reader can easily prove the theorem by himself. This is a modification (or an adaption) of the method of steepest descent. From now on, we assume B to be a complete separable metric space. From this time on, the density function decreases. Define the σfield of events prior to a moment (or a time / an instant) τ as Let Ft be a σalgebra of events observed up to and including the moment t. Up till now no assumptions have been imposed concerning the convergence of ψ(t). Let a(t,x) be a velocity of the particle at time t at point x. Twelve is a multiple of three. 12.6 is a whole (or an integer) multiple of 4.2. The σalgebra A is generated by the Pnull sets. We will assume in the future that the σalgebra, N, contains all singleelement sets.
până la momentul
până la acest moment în momentul t în punctul x multiplu multiplu întreg mulţime mulţime de măsură 0 mulţime dintrun singur element
N
neajuns neapărat nu neapărat http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05 To appreciate the demerits (or disadvantages) of the theory, to observe that ...
Fraze uzuale In general, φe and φ* need not be identical.
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Let α(t) be an increasing (but not necessarily adapted) integrable process. necesar necesară este necesar este necesar ca Hence one of the factors of f(x) necessarily has the same degree as g(x). We are going to show that the function F(x) has the required property. In some problems of the filtering theory, it is necessary to work with Wiener processes on R. In order that two triangles be congruent, it is necessary that two angles of the first triangle be equal, correspondingly, to those of the second triangle. G(x) is the time needed for a cell to grow from size a to size x. By Theorem 2.1 it suffices to prove the necessity. the unknown the unknown quantity the soughtfor (or the desired) quantity A number whose value is to be found is called an unknown number. Thus we obtained an equation in two unknowns. The comparison theorem for diffusion equations asserts that the solution of these equations is a nondecreasing function of the drift coefficient. Let be pdimensional cycles, no linear combination
necesar pentru ca necesitate necunoscut
cu două necunoscute nedescrescător
nici nici o ... a cărei nici un nici ... nici ..., nici ... nota vom nota să notăm prin We denote by Λ the set of all points of discontinuity of F(x). Let us denote by C the completion of S in this norm and by C* the corresponding conjugate space. Denote the points by P1, P2, ..., Pn. The area of the triangle FGH is denoted by S. This volume is designated as V. Variables are denoted usually by the later letters of the alphabet. The symbol f(x) is used to denote a function of x. of which is homologous to zero. No s∈D is an element of Γ. is homologous to zero. No linear combination of The number 0 is neither positive nor negative.
este notat prin sunt notate prin pentru a nota
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Fraze uzuale notaţie Let us introduce the following notation where ψ'(x) = f(x). The Arab notation has been in use since the XVI century. The following designations are used: α=1/a, β=c/a, and γ=b/a. the standard notation
Page 48 of 70
notaţie standardă noţiune
noţiuni şi definiţii de bază nu
When formalizing the notions of probability theory, the first fundamental assumption is that the results of experiments can be described by means of a certain set Ω. basic concepts and definitions The line L does not intersect A or B. Last time we were not appealing to Theorem 7. But nothing in this definition indicates from whence the class [x] is obtained. This shows that this method cannot give all solutions of the equation. It is not a mere academic exercise to pick out the cases of equality in such an inequality as Gronwall's. Never did mathematicians worry much about the foundations in algebra. If there is no such ξ, we write max f = ∞. Thus we need not 8, but 9 parameters to describe the system. The Roman system uses seven capital letters to express numbers, viz.: I(1), V(5), X(10), L(50), C(100), D(500), and M(1000). We must prove that the two factorizations differ at most in the order in which the primes appear. Only then we can proceed to the limit in (14). It was not until the beginning of this century that the Euclidean geometry became completely axiomatized. This fact was not known until 1947. The process X(t) depends solely on u(t) and is independent of µ(t) and ω(t). Algebraic means alone is not sufficient to prove the fundamental theorem of algebra. In stating rules, letters are used to represent not only the numbers to be found, but also the numbers that must be given whenever the rule is applied. These factorizations differ not merely in the order of the factors, but in the factors themselves.
nu ..., ci ... numeraţie roman
numai
nu numai
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Fraze uzuale număr număr întreg număr la cub număr la pătrat numi vom numi se numeşte
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A unit or an aggregate of units is called a whole number, or an integer. A number a3 is read 'the cube of a', or 'the third power of a'. A number a2 is read 'the square of a', or 'the second power of a'. Let 1 and 1 be called units. We shall call r the radius of the set D. Such an instant of time is called (or is termed) a random time. Occasionally it is referred to as a random variable independent of the future, as a Markov moment or as a stopping time. Occasionally a stopping time is referred to as a random time. The method will be termed the method of imbedding. This portion of the curve will be called (or be named) the stable section.
se va numi
O
oare We don't know whether the limit law exists for such a process. If f(x) and g(x) are locally integrable functions, then the symbol f(x)+g(x) has the same meaning whether we interpret them as functions or as distributions. In the case where the distribution is a function, this definition coincides with the usual one. Notice that U is not unique. It may be noted that the problem lies actually in finding an α such that M(t) ≤ Cα for all t. To prove 2o, observe that ... Observe that s is not uniquely determined. . Note that for s<t este util de observat că It is useful to remark that the integer k which occurs in the definition of fundamental sequences can be, if necessary, replaced by any greater integer. Observe first that ...
obişnuit observa observaţi că se observă că
de la început observăm că
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Fraze uzuale trebuie de observat că
Page 50 of 70 It is worth noticing that, in accordance with the law of large numbers, a ≈ mξ = x. It should be noted that R(t) is almost everywhere nonzero. Identifying equivalent oriented segments we obtain the notion of free vector. Hence, by the induction hypothesis, we infer that a1=...=an=0. Thus we arrive at a factorization m=p1p2...pn, where each pi is positive and prime. This function is obtained by application to expression (4) a nonlinear differential operator Π. In this case equation (7) becomes (or takes the form / assumes the form) ... After k similar steps we finally obtain ... Let f(x,t) take on (or assume) values in Rm. Two lines may occupy the following relative positions in space: 1) they may be parallel, 2) they may be intersect or, 3) not intersect. The prime numbers occupy a special position among integers.
obţine obţinem
se obţine obţine forma obţinem în rezultat obţine valori ocupa ocupă poziţie în spaţiu
ocupă un loc special omite putem omite
omitem
este omis operaţie operaţii aritmetice asupra
Since and n > 200, we may drop the last term on the right of (19). It would take us too far afield to give a proof of this theorem, so we omit it and content ourselves with demonstrating some applications of the theorem. The proof is omitted here. It follows immediately from the definition of convergence that the arithmetic operations on limits of sequences of distributions can be performed in the same way as on sequences of functions. Evolution may be defined as the process of finding a root of a number, or as the inverse of involution. Division is the inverse of multiplication. Numbers may be added in any order. To prove this, interchange the order of integration in the double integral in (6).
operaţie inversă
ordine în ordine aleatoare ordinea integrării
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Fraze uzuale oricare nar fi Whatever (or no matter what) t (may be), one can always find a sufficiently large N to satisfy the inequality ζN>t. Let ε be an arbitrary however small value. For each ω∈Ω, the function τ→Ξτ(ω) is called the sample path. For every number ε>0 there exists an index n0 such that  am  an <ε for all m, n>n0.
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oricât ar dori orice pentru orice
P
pagină la pagina paranteză în paranteze Powell's carrier distribution, C(τ) on page 245, is our distribution fm(T).
When numbers are collected by the sign of aggregation ( ), they are commonly said to be in parentheses. The expression between (or in) the brackets is precisely the Laplace transform of the function ϕ*(t). paranteze rotunde [patrate, The signs of aggregation are the parentheses (), the figurate] brackets [] and the braces {}. When an expression contains parentheses within paranteze pot fi deschise parentheses, the parentheses may be removed in succession, beginning with the innermost. If x goes through the values 1, 2, ..., p1, then, by Theorem 2, ax goes through a complete residue system modulo p, excepting 0. An integral part of the creative approach to the problem under consideration is the analysis of its similarity to and difference from the analogous problems. The righthand side of equation (12). The integer (or whole) part of a real number is the greatest integer not exceeding the number. The lefthand side (or member) of equation (12). The fractional part of 5.6 is 0.6.
parcurge parcurge valorile
parte parte componentă
parte dreaptă parte întreagă parte stângă partea fracţionară
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Fraze uzuale în partea dreaptă în partea stângă pe de altă parte partiţie patrat al numărului păstra păstrează vom păstra
Page 52 of 70 The term on the righthand side (or on the right) of (12) vanishes as k→∞. The term on the lefthand side (or on the left) of Eqn (12) vanishes as k→∞. On the other hand, if [fn(x)] = f(x), then the first two conditions of Theorem 1 are satisfied. Let tk, k =1, ..., m, be a partition of the interval (s,t) into subintervals of equal length. When a is used twice as a factor, the product is the second power of a, or the square of a. Absolute constants retain the same value in all problems. Since distributions are a generalization of the notion of functions, we shall retain for them the usual notation of functions, i.e., f(x), g(x), etc. For the new distributions one can define addition, subtraction, multiplication by a number or by a function in such a manner that the fundamental properties are preserved. It should be observed that this definition of equality is usually adopted in the theory of the Lebesgue integrals. The height of the triangle is taken to be 12m. For this purpose we select first the Gaussian integers. To this end it suffices for the first term in (1) to have the distribution F(x) and for the others to be zero with probability 1. In order that the last property be valid, it is sufficient that ... In order to achieve this, we shall need some material from elementary number theory. To formulate the corresponding result, we consider the following conditions which are the strengthened versions of conditions of Theorem 8. It is therefore reasonable to ask for which classes of "integers" the fundamental theorem holds, and for which it does not. For convenience we define a continuous locally increasing process to be an adapted process which has properties (1) through (4). The function cannot be constructed for any value of x.
sunt păstrate
primi fi primit
pentru pentru aceasta
pentru ca
pentru care
pentru comoditate
pentru nici un
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Fraze uzuale pentru simplitate periodică cu perioada peste peste tot peste tot densă
Page 53 of 70 For the sake of simplicity, consider the concentration of particles at height x above a horizontal barrier. We say that a function f(x) is periodic with a period α, if f(x+α) = f(x). By the Eisenstein's criterion the polynomial xn2 is irreducible over the field of rational numbers. The function H(p(x)) is everywhere equal to 0. To determine IT (Ft), it is sufficient to describe the everywhere dense set IT2(Ft). We will describe a radically (or fundamentally) new approach to the problem. With probability 1 there exists the limit . By a polinomial in x1, x2, ..., xn we mean a sum of the form (6). The derivative F'(x) has the value 0 at the point 0. The stochastic integral (4) possesses finite moments up to the (2m)th order inclusive. The function ν possesses the property (1) for all ω and t. We are going to prove that the limits exist and the function F(x) has the required property.
principial nou probabilitate cu probabilitatea
polinom de poseda posedă
posedă o proprietate
posibil posibilă
este posibil ca
este întotdeauna posibil de făcut practic precedent precedentă
To avoid possible confusion, we shall use this notation ... The error, if any, will be allowed for by visual estimation. It is possible that the ordinary derivative does not exist, although the distributional derivative has a value at this point. This we can always do by choosing s and t as rational integers nearest to A and B respectively. Practically it suffices to understand integrability in the sense of Riemann or of Lebesgue.
On account of the foregoing remark, the distributions in the earlier sense can be identified with distributions of finite order. 2/17/05
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Fraze uzuale
Page 54 of 70 This follows from the previous theorem. Here X(t) is the number of paths, by which we go from the preceding levels of a hierarchy to the new level t. Using this technique we can calculate the phase as well as the amplitude of the process at time t. I think that my project is only tentative and subject to continuous revision as the work makes a progress. It is assumed that σalgebra F0 is completed by all Pnull sets. All stochastic processes considered in this book will be assumed to be measurable. {Ft} is assumed to be rightcontinuous. We assume that F*G=H, the operation * being defined by F*G=RS, where R=TV. Suppose Xt is a continuous process. Suppose that the theorem is true for k1. Suppose the conclusion of the theorem to be true for all f(x) of degree between 0 and n1 inclusive. Suppose the contrary.
nivele precedente precum şi preliminar presupune se presupune că
vom presupune că
presupunem contrariul presupunere presupunerea că
In defining K(x) we have made use of our assumption that b(x)=0 for x<a. This equation contradicts the assumption that G contains points not belonging to D. presupunerea conform cărei The assumption under which formula (10) is valid can be somewhat weakened. The following assumptions are made concerning the presupuneri sunt făcute random process ξ(t): 1) the process is Ftadapted and 2) it satisfies condition (1). Up till now no assumptions have been imposed concerning the convergence of ϕn(t). Any potential ζt can be represented in the form ... Of interest also are the induced statistics. The results have encouraged (or aroused) a more serious interest in precision methods of control. I hope this paper will be of interest to you. To prove the existence of <a,a>t, the following lemma, which is of interest in its own right, will be required. Another theoretical approach of great interest consists 2/17/05
prezenta în forma poate fi prezentat în forma prezenta un interes prezintă un interes
va prezenta un interes prezintă un interes aparte care prezintă un mare
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Fraze uzuale interes prin prin alegere probabil puţin probabil probabilist problemă de bază proces coordonat in looking at the evolution toward equal phenotypic fitness.
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This we can always do by choosing s and t as rational integers nearest to A and B respectively. These conditions are unlikely to occur in practice. There is presented below a glossary translating settheoretic notions into probabilistic notions. We are now in a position to state the basic problem of algebraic number theory. A random process ξ(t), t ≥ 0, is said to be adapted to a current of σalgebras {Ft}t 0 if for every t the random
≥
variable ξ(t) is Ftmeasurable. provine provine de la provin de la punct în punct
The word 'school' has its origin in the Greek word 'schole' meaning 'leisure'. The arithmetic symbols were derived from the Arabs and the Hindus. The function has no a
în puncte
derivative at the point 0. Such an identification can be extended to a wider class of functions which have the poles at some points and are locally integrable elsewhere. x and y are
punct ce se mişcă dealungul In the equation of straight line
the variable coordinates of a point moving along the line. punct de vedere din punct de vedere logic From the logical point of view, this generalization is exactly of the same type as the generalization of rational numbers in the Cantor theory. Several other functions, very useful from the practical point of view, are considered in the following section. Here the starting point is the notion of fundamental sequences of rational numbers. Approximation is our starting point for the definition of distributions. The operator θ, assigns to (or associates with) any 2/17/05
din punct de vedere practic punct de referinţă
pune în corespondenţă operatorul pune în
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Fraze uzuale corespondenţă este pusă în corespondenţă purta numele poartă numele putea nu putem nu se poate function from D a function from D(−∞,0]. A probability is assigned to each outcome.
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It is instructive to study the Ito's method of defining the stochastic integral that now bears his name. If n=1, we cannot impose this condition. If n=1, this condition cannot be discarded. As regards the solution of equation (3), it may not be argued that it satisfies Condition 2. If a is used n times as a factor, the product is called the nth power of the number. This definition will be somewhat generalized below. The assumption under which formula (10) is valid can be somewhat weakened.
puterea a na a numărului puţin
R
raţionament There are doubtful points in the above reasoning. Following the argument of N. N. Bautin, we can now easily show that ... Reasoning similarly we convince ourselves that the solution to Eqn (7) is also unique. Reasoning as in the proof of Theorem 7, we can prove, under suitable assumptions, that relation (1) holds for s>Nα. 2 is the third, or cube, root of 8. indicates the nth root of a. When the factors of a number are all equal, any of the factors is called the root of the number. 5 is the square root of 25. It therefore remains only to verify that At is uniformly integrable. Much remains to be done in this area. This relation remains valid when one passes from functions to their differentials. raţiona raţionând analogic raţionând ca
rădăcină rădăcină cubică din rădăcină de ordinul n din rădăcină din număr rădăcină patrată din rămânea rămâne
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Fraze uzuale rămâne de demonstrat
Page 57 of 70 Theoretically, it still remains to prove for each particular system considered that an equilibrium actually exists and is stable. Theorem 4 and Lemma 9.5 remain true. This result holds true if we proceed from the group G to any of its subgroups. The answer to the question must be postponed until later. Because of its great importance in this book, we recall the definition of a normal distribution. The reader is reminded that the conjugates over F of a number α algebraic over F are the roots of the minimal polynomial of α over F. It should also be recalled that R(t) is almost everywhere nonzero. Equal chords cut off equal arcs, and the converse. This fact reduces the construction of the solution to (2) to that of a process such that is a martingale.
rămâne în vigoare
răspuns reaminti reamintim reaminteşte că
trebuie de reamintit că reciproc şi reciproc reduce reduce la
se reduce la
Under these conditions equation (3) reduces to (4). This investigation amounts (or boils down) to finding the operator Uγ such that Uγµ=UγUµ. to reduce the equation to the form ... To solve the equation 2x+x = 12, unite (or group / collect) similar terms in the first member to obtain 3x and then divide both members by 3 to find the value of x to be 4. The Henry's Law refers only to the effect of pressure. Evidently the Einstein's restriction does not apply to the case under consideration. We now state a number of results concerning ordinary differential equations. As regards (or in regard to / in respect to) the solution of equation (3), it may not be argued that it satisfies Condition 2o. 2/17/05
reduce ecuaţia la formă reduce termenii asemenea reducem termenii asemenea
referi se referă la nu se referă la care se referă ceea ce se referă
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Fraze uzuale As for property (ii), suppose first that a is a unit. regulă The rule for differentiation of a product. The rule for the change of variables in integral calculus. As regards (or in regard to / in respect to) the solution of Eqn (3), it may not be argued that it satisfies Condition 2. The process ξ(t) is a supermartingale with respect to the family of σalgebras (Ft) t≥0. Given point A, construct point B symmetrical to the given point A in relation to plane Π. For the present we content ourselves with demonstrating the assertions just made concerning the sets G and H. In relation to Ω, an experiment is completely characterized by a certain class of events. It is relevant to remark that the diffusion corresponds to the increase of entropy.
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relativ
relativ la remarca este cazul de a remarca repeta poate fi repetată repetată reprezenta reprezentat în formă
This procedure can be repeated with q2, q3, ... until all the prime factors on one side are exhausted. The repeated application of this procedure proves the assertion. Any potential ζt can be represented in the form (3).
poate fi reprezentată în formă By the wellknown Weierstrass approximation theorem, every distribution can be represented in the form [pn(x)], where pn(x) are polynomials. de a reprezenta ... ca ... To prove this statement, it suffices to present the integral as a limit of . respectiv respinge o ipoteză restrânge generalitate fără a restrânge generalitate The largest Πfactors are ν1 and ν2 respectively. to reject the hypothesis
We shall also assume, without restricting the generality, that z0=s0=0. We can assume, without any restriction of 2/17/05
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Fraze uzuale
Page 59 of 70 generality, that all numbers amn can be arranged in a sequence {bk} convergent to b0. In our discussion we may assume, without loss of generality, that M is a subset of the set of natural numbers.
restricţie
With this additional restriction the problem just posed received an exhaustive solution in the papers of Bawty and Khinchin. to solve the equation for x explicitly [implicitly] to solve for x It is convenient, in solving problems, to use letters for the numbers which are sought. The result follows from the induction hypothesis. The term R/n results from the Bohr theory. Much of the utility of the theorem stems from the properties of the binomial coefficients. The proof follows immediately if we observe that ... Since u(t) is continuous, it follows at once that x(u (t),t) satisfies condition (ii). This results from the following lemma. This follows from the fact that e πi/2 = i. From what has been said it follows that ... It follows from what has been said that T>0 almost surely on the set B. It follows from (1), (2), and (3) that the whole set is decomposed into abstraction classes without common elements so that two elements are in the same abstraction class if and only if they are equivalent. From this it follows that A is consistently defined except on a Pnull set. This implies that ... It follows from this that ... It follows that R(s) is a commutative ring. It follows directly from the definition that ... This assertion follows immediately from relation (2). to raise to the nth power to cube a number to square a number 2/17/05
a rezolva ecuaţia în raport cu x explicit [implicit] rezolva în raport cu x rezolvare la rezolvare problemei rezulta rezultă din
rezultă imediat rezultă nemijlocit această rezultă din din cele spuse rezultă că
din ... rezultă că
de aici rezultă că
nemijlocit rezultă din
ridica ridica la puterea n ridica un număr la cub ridica un număr la patrat
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Fraze uzuale
Page 60 of 70
ridicarea la putere
The process of finding any required power of a number is called involution.
S
satisface se satisfac condiţiile sau ..., sau schimb schimb de variabilă Condition (4) is equivalent to the following conditions being satisfied. Since a satisfies (1), we have that either a=1 or a=p1. Relation (8) follows from the general rule of the change (or the substitution) of variables in integral calculus. the change of a variable in integration
schimb de variabilă la integrare schimba schimbăm ordinea de integrare fără a schimba este schimbat semnul schimbare schimbare mică schimbarea ordinii de integrare fără schimbări
To prove this, interchange the order of integration in the double integral in (6). The introduction of locally integrable allows us to strengthen Lemma 6.8 without changing its proof. Any term may be transposed from one member of equation to the other, provided its sign is changed. A slight change in the original proof will be left to the reader. The main point of the proof is to justify the interchange of the order of integration in (8.4). With this transform the first term in (4) vanishes, whereas the last one remains unaltered (or unchanged).
scoate în afară parantezelor scoatem în afară parantezelor Now factor out of the expression in parentheses the largest positive factor common to all the bi. Now take the largest positive factor out of the brackets. scop (obiectiv) The purpose (or objective) of this monograph is to make available elementary parts of classical algebraic number theory. The aim of this section is to define the stochastic integral for a wider class of predictable integrands 2/17/05
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Fraze uzuale
Page 61 of 70 and, at the same time, to relax the restrictions on M. The purpose of this paper is to present the elementary exposition of the theory of distributions. The purpose of introducing real numbers is to make it always possible to carry out certain operations, e.g., the evaluation of roots or logatithms. The function F(x) can be written in the form ... Then we can write for the divisionsize density function (up to a normalization factor) . Writing down these inequalities for n, n+1, ..., n+m and adding them we obtain the estimation ... Write down the coordinates of the points A, B and C. If there is no such G, we write max f = 0. Write the equation as (or in the form) (2). In writing numbers, the figures are separated into groups of three figures each, called periods. Subtracting any number is equivelent to adding it with its sign changed (or with reversal of its sign). The numbers +2 and 2 have unlike signs. The number 2 is opposite in sign to +2. The products under the sign of Σ are the products of continuous functions. under the integral sign In the last formula the symbol 0 has two different meanings: on the lefthand side it denotes the number zero and on the righthand side the zero distribution. the absolutely [conditionally] convergent series I wish to express gratitude to O. A. Oleinik for her valuable advice. Progressive measurability of an Svalued process is defined similarly. Reasoning similarly, we convince ourselves that the solution to Egn (17) is also unique. The definition is the same as the one given above, but with R instead of [0,T ]. Simplify 4a(2a2b). Thus the introduction of distributions makes the 2/17/05
scopul acestei lucrări scopul constă în ...
scrie se poate de scris în formă putem scrie
scriind vom scrie scriem ... în formă scriere în scrierea semn cu semn opus semnul opus sub semnul sub semnul integralei sens
serie absolut [condiţional] convergentă sfat similar
similar ca simplifica simplificăm simplifică
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Fraze uzuale calculation easier. To simplify the equation, make the substitution u=2x21. This equation can be simplified by the substitution u=2x21. To reduce the fraction by the factor a.
Page 62 of 70
pentru a simplifica poate fi simplificată simplifica fracţie prin a simplifica prin putem simplifica prin sistem sistem de notaţii sistem zecimal
We can divide out (p1)! from each side to obtain the conclusion. the system of notation The Arabic system, which is a decimal system, employs ten figures to express numbers, viz.: naught, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, and nine. This quantity may take on any values, however closely spaced. Hence, we can weaken condition ϕ in the following way. The aim of this section is to define the stochastic integral for a wider class of predictable integrands and, at the same time, to relax the restrictions on M. Equation (7) has a unique solution. A function ξ:Ω→S is called an Svalued stochastic process and S is called the state space of ξ. C (R+) can be regarded as a complete separable metric space under the topology of uniform convergence. The values of ξ(t) are sometimes called the states of a stochastic system Σ and the space S, the phase space of the system Σ. As has been stated (or specified) above, the functions pm(x) defined by (1.6) are bounded. We agree to assume, unless otherwise specified, that all processes are adapted. Unless otherwise stated, condition (2) will always be 2/17/05
situa situate aproape slăbi putem slăbi pentru a slăbi restricţiile referitor ... soluţie soluţie unică spaţiu spaţiu de stări spaţiu metric separabil complet spaţiufază
specifica cum a fost specificat mai sus dacă nu este specificat contrariul
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Fraze uzuale assumed to be in force. spune spune (ind. prez. 3 sg.)
Page 63 of 70
se spune vom spune vom spune că ... spunând spunând mai exact din cele spuse mai sus stabili stabileşte stabilim a fost stabilit a fost stabilită de a stabili condiţii
The principle of mathematical induction says: "If P is true ..." The second law states (or reads): "If the same current flows ..." The theory holds (or states) that ... Stated in a simple form, the hypothesis runs as follows. If conditions (i) and (ii) are also fulfilled, then the current is said to satisfy the 'ordinary' conditions. If the members of a pair are equal, say to a, then a2=1 (mod p). We shall say that two integers a and b are relatively prime if they share no factors except ± 1. The function F is, so to say, the optimal cost of the continuation of control. To put it more exactly, ... From what has been outlined (or said) above the following conclusions may be drawn. This requirement places (or sets) the upper limit on the admissible error. We first establish the necessity of the condition. This fact was ascertained (or established) from experience. The average value was found to be 16 ± 3. Theorem 1.6 allows to lay down the conditions under which the solutions to equations (6) are continuous in parameter z. Approximations, strictly defined, is our starting point for the definition of distributions. The experiments studied in probability theory are carried out when a certain set of conditions Y is satisfied. For this we make the substitution tx=s. Substituting these numbers into (or in) (1), we find that ... to make the substitution of b for a to carry out the change of a for b the substitution of b for a
strict studia studiat
substitui substituim substituind ... în substitui a cu b substituţia b cu a
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Fraze uzuale suficient suficient de mare
Page 64 of 70 This equation determines a sufficient condition. Whatever t may be, one can always find a sufficiently large N such that ... Now ECt < ε/2, if n is taken large enough. The term can be made sufficiently small by makingthe partition of the interval [0,T ] fine enough. By theorem 2.1, it suffices to prove the necessity. It suffices to show that if α is a Gaussian integer, so is β and hence α+β. Suffice it to say that ... It suffices to say that ... It is enough to say that ... In order that the series (1) of independent random variables converge, it is sufficient that the series (2) and (3) converge. To this end it suffices for the first term in (1) to have the distribution F(x) and for the others to be zero with probability 1. A series is said to be convergent if the
suficient de mic
este suficient este suficient de arătat că ... este suficient de spus că ...
este suficient pentru ca
pentru această este suficient ca suma parţială
sequence of its partial sums fn(x) = g1(x) + ... + gn(x) converges. sumar supune se supune legii A survey of the general theory of stochastic processes can be found in [4]. The distribution of errors adheres to the law of probability. The kinetics of the system obey (or follow) the ideal gas law. It the coefficients on the right of (2) satisfy the Lipschitz condition, then the function w(t) obeys the equation (3.1). The equilibrium distribution of particles in a gravitational field adheres to (or is governed by) the Boltzmann equation. It is easy to see that the relation of equivalence defined above has the following properties. The integral is welldefined in
se supune ecuaţiei
sus mai sus de mai sus
accordance with the above definition. The definition is the same as the one given above, but http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05
Fraze uzuale with R instead of [0,T].
Page 65 of 70
T
tăia taie târziu mai târziu teoremă teorema despre valoare medie teorema probabilităţii totale teoremă preliminară teoremă reciprocă teoretic Equal chords cut off equal arcs, and the converse. We shall show later on that this generalization contains also class of noncontinuous functions.
the theorem of the mean the theorem of total probability Some preliminary theorems will be established first. The converse theorem in not true. Theoretically, it still remains to prove for each particular system considered that an equilibrium actually exists and is stable. the theory of games the theory of numbers (or the set theory) the theory of numbers (or the number theory) the theory of probability the theory of stochastic processes the unified theory Continuous functions on a fixed interval are the starting point for the theory to be developed here. Any term may be transposed from one member of equation to the other, provided its sign is changed. Roughly speaking, each convergent series can be differentiated term by term (or termwise). This completes (or concludes) the proof of Lemma 4 and also that of Theorem 2. Then r=s and we are done. {Ut} is the 'dual predictable projection' in the terminology of Dellacherie and Meyer [42].
teorie teoria jocurilor teoria mulţimilor teoria numerilor teoria probabilităţilor teoria proceselor stocastice teorie unitară teoria ce va fi dezvoltată termen termen cu termen termina termină am terminat terminologie în terminologia
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2/17/05
Fraze uzuale timp în timp ce
Page 66 of 70
Thus 5 and 9 are relatively prime, whereas 6 and 9 are not. As the point x tends to a, the function g(x) approaches the value g(a). Each summand on the right of (12) becomes vanishingty small with (or as) n→∞. to let smth approach (or to let smth go to) infinity to tend to (or to approach) infinity The limit distribution functions are determined by the fact that they are the limits for sums of an increasing number of independent random variables such that a single summand becomes vanishingly small with n→∞. Summing up these conditional probabilities over all the newborn particles in the sample, we find that ... Thus the integral on the right side of (5) can be analytically continued to the whole domain. The class of functionals of degree n covers the entire space Hn(n). When the factors of a number are all equal, any of the factors is called a root of the number. Every succeeding (or subsequent) member an must be less than aN. However, not all distributions can be represented in the form [f(x)], i.e., not all distributions can be identified with continuous functions. The function ν possesses the property (1) for all ω and t. to rearrange the equation Let us transform (1) to the form (2). to become infinite the inverse transform The problem must be solved as soon as possible. To ensure the existence of a solution to (14), additional assumptions need be made. Much needs to be done to complete the theory. It should be particularly emphasized that condition (*) 2/17/05
tinde la când ... tinde la când ... tinde la infinit tinde la infinit tinde la zero (ind. prez. 3 sg.)
toate după toate tot (în întregime)
toţi toţi următorii nu toţi
pentru toţi transforma a transforma ecuaţia să transformăm la formă a se transforma în infinit transformare inversă trebui trebuie
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Fraze uzuale
Page 67 of 70 is not essential and was introduced solely for the sake of convenience. To comprehend the main idea of my talk, it is essential (or necessary) that the students be familiar with the generalized Galois theory. In stating rules, letters are used to represent not only the numbers to be found, but also the numbers that must be given whenever the rule is applied. But p is of the form 1+4n, so that a p=l+im, as required. It follows that the points C1 and C2 lie on the line of
care trebuie
ceea ce trebuia ceea ce trebuia de demonstrat
intersection of the planes α and β, which is what had to be proved. However, by condition m>n/2 one has q>2, q.e.d.
trece trecând la limită
de a trece la limita poate fi trecut dintro parte a ecuaţiei în altă trecere trecerea de la ...
Approaching the limit as k→∞ and utilizing Fatou's lemma we obtain (8). Proceeding (or passing) to the limit in equality (5) we convince ourselves that this limit is a solution of equation (2). To obtain equation (3), it is necessary to pass to the limit in relation (1). Any term may be transposed from one member of equation to the other, provided its sign is changed.
trecerea la limită la trecerea la limită
The identification of equivalent elements consists in the passage from the elements of the set in question to the abstraction classes. This equation is obtained from relation (3) by passing to the limit. Inequality (7) becomes the exact equality if one passes to the limit. When passing to the limit, inequality (7) becomes the exact equality.
Ţ
ţine minte ţinând seamă trebuie să ţinem minte că It is to be remembered (or it should be borne in http://math.ournet.md/formule/fraze/fraze.html 2/17/05 Considering (or taking into account) that the series is a series of positive terms, we have ...
Fraze uzuale
Page 68 of 70 mind) that the specific properties of the limit distribution functions are determined by the fact that ...
U
unul şi numai unul unde uneori Hence there is one and only one x which satisfies the congruence. We assume that F*G=RS, where R=TV. Occasionally a stopping time is referred to as a random time. Sometimes a current is understood to be an increasing family of σalgebras. The element q is unique. If S consists of a single element x, then R(x) is commutative. This set of conditions uniquely determines the results of the experiment. Thus, the function f(x) is uniquely determined provided it exists everywhere.
unic
univoc univoc determinată urma această urmează din
This follows from the Fundamental Theorem of arithmetic. cum urmează din cele spuse As appears from the above, the cycle C determines a curve L. Such an element is unique. Making the change of variables x=acosϕ and ϕ=ωt+θ the following relation may be obtained . The new statement of the Fundamental Theorem is this. It is not difficult to establish the existence of an infinite number of rational primes. This property of martingales may be useful when proving the existence theorems for stochastic differential equations. The following result will be very helpful in proving the theorems of this chapter.
următorul următoare
este următoare uşor este uşor de ... util
utiliza putem utiliza metoda
In order to construct such a process, we can take such 2/17/05
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Fraze uzuale
Page 69 of 70 an approach. We shall prove below a very useful result which will be constantly used in our work. Using condition 2) of the theorem and commonly employed estimates we assure ourselves that ...
va fi utilizat permanent utilizate de obicei
V
valoare cu valori The value of a function f(x) at x=x0 will be denoted by f(x0). The problem of interpolation consists in approximate evaluation of a function f(x) at a given point x1<x*<xn from its values on a finite set of points x1, x2, ..., xn. Let β(ϕ,t) be a random function with values in Rm. The Dirac function δ(x) has the value 0 at each point x≠0 and has no value at the point x=0. The absolute value of b is greater that of a. These numbers are equal in absolute magnitude. Let θj , j=1, 2, ..., n, be mutually independent identically distributed random variables. See, for example, the deduction of inequality (11) in the proof of Theorem 1. It is easy to see that {gn} is complete in L1[0,1]. It will readily be seen that that for any δ>0 the sequence Z(nδ,ω) forms a GaltonWatson process. As is easily seen, there exists a Borel function θs such that ...
cu valori în valoare în punct valoare absolută după valoarea absolută variabile aleatoare cu acelaşi repartiţie vedea vedeţi este uşor de văzut că
cum este uşor de văzut verifica se verifică
sunt verificate
In the case of distributions the following identities are valid. Since inequality (4.8) holds true, the function ϕ(x) is nonnegative. Since the conditions (1), (2) and (3) are fulfilled,the set of all fundamental sequences gets decomposed into disjoint abstraction classes.
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Fraze uzuale verifică cetinţe pentru a verifica este uşor de verificat că The functionals L and M satisfy (or meet) the aforementioned requirements. To verify that h(t) is the desired solution, observe that ...
Page 70 of 70
It is easily verified that the polynomial xn2 is irreducible over the field of rational numbers. The experiments studied in probability theory are dacă o serie de condiţii este carried out when a certain set of conditions F is verificată satisfied. verifică condiţia Assume that the function B(ϕ,t) satisfies the local Lipschitz condition. We shall prove that the function F(x) satisfies (or verifică ecuaţie fulfils) equation (1). vom verifica ipoteza despre ... We shall test the hypothesis that ... viitor în viitor In what follows the notation 'mn' means 'm divides n'. Here and in the sequel the ai denote positive constants. Henceforth we shall adhere to the following model of the probability theory. In the future σn will always be assumed to be bounded. In the future, when continuous local martingales are discussed, the σ n will always be assumed to take values from T. This method is too cumbersome (or awkward / unwieldy). The results of the experiments will, generally, be different. Generally, Eqn (10) may have no solution.
voluminos vorbind în general
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