MEKANIKA FLUIDA ( (TEP201

) )
• Dr. Ir. Erizal, MAgr. • Dr Ir Nora Herdiana Panjaitan DEA Dr. Ir. Panjaitan, DEA. • Dr. Ir. Yuli Suharnoto • Dr. Ir. Roh Santoso

Departemen Teknik Pertanian Fakultas Teknolog Pertanian Institut Pertanian Bogor

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics

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MEKANIKA FLUIDA

Mempelajari tentang fluida yang bergerak atau diam dan akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh fluida tersebut pada tempatnya. tempatnya

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics

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Tujuan I t k i T j Instruksional Umum lU
• Setelah menyelesaikan mata kuliah ini, mahasiswa diharapkan mampu g menguraikan karakteristik fluida baik dalam keadaan diam maupun bergerak dalam kaitannya dengan kegiatan perencanaan, pengelolaan dan perancangan

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics

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JADWAL KULIAH
Selasa 07.00-08.40 / Rabu 07.00-08.40
No. 1 2-3 4-5 6 7 8-9 10-11 12 13 14-15 16 Pokok Bahasan Pendahuluan Fluida Statik Konsep aliran fluida Aliran fluida ideal Aliran fluida kompresibel UTS Aliran fluida nyata di dalam pipa Mesin-mesin fluida Teori lapisan batas Aliran fluida pada saluran terbuka Analisis dimensi dan similitude Pengajar Erizal Erizal Roh Santoso Yuli Suharnoto Nora Panjaitan Nora Panjaitan Roh Santoso Erizal Yuli Suharnoto Yuli Suharnoto

Sebagian bahan kuliah dapat diambil di: http://web.ipb.ac.id/~erizal/mekflud/ ~
TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Topik Pendahuluan.JADWAL PRAKTIKUM No. Pengenalan alat Bilangan Reynold Penentuan koefisien Orifice dan Venturi Head loss karena gesekan dan perubahan diameter pipa Latihan soal 1 Latihan soal 2 Head loss karena belokan dan katup Pengukuran debit aliran udara di pipa Pengukuran debit aliran di saluran terbuka Lompatan hidrolik Latihan soal 3 Latihan soal 4 Ujian praktikum TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 5 .

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 6 . Mahasiswa harap hadir paling lambat 5 menit sebelum praktikum dimulai di Laboratorium Hidrolika dan Hidromekanika Departemen Teknik Pertanian (F-G204). Segala bentuk pelanggaran dapat diberikan sanksi akademik berupa : skorsing praktikum. Laporan perseorangan dan ditulis dengan tangan pada kertas ukuran A4. kemudian 7 L d dit li d t d k t k A4 k di penyerahannya paling lambat sebelum praktikum dimulai pada minggu berikutnya. dan Jum’at) (Selasa Rabu Kamis Jum at). Pelaksanaan praktikum secara kelompok/grup yang terdiri atas 6-7 mahasiswa. Jika berhalangan harus mendapatkan surat izin dari l l dih di i Jik b h l h d tk ti i d i departemen. Pertanyaan sebelum praktikum wajib dijawab dan diserahkan kepada dosen/asisten dosen. 10. Rabu. 8. Kamis. 6. buatlah laporan sementara berisi data hasil pengukuran yang dilengkapi dengan daftar anggota grup/kelompok. 2. Laporan berisi : • • • • • Pendahuluan yang berisi teori singkat dan tujuan praktikum Bahan dan Metode Hasil dan Pembahasan Kesimpulan dan Saran Daftar Pustaka 9. 7.PRAKTIKUM 1. 3. Pada akhir semester akan diadakan ujian praktikum oleh dosen. 2 Praktikum dilaksanakan 4 kali dalam 1 minggu (Selasa. dan lain sebagainya. Praktikum h 5 P ktik harus selalu dihadiri. Setelah praktikum dilaksanakan. 5. 4. tidak diperkenankan mengikuti ujian.

1976. Pedoman Praktikum Mekanika Fluida. Theory and Problem of Fluid Dynamic. IPB.A. V.H. Dynamic Schaum’s Series Co New York Vennard.L. John Wiley and Sons. Jakarta. 2007. Schaum s Outline Series. TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 7 . McGraw Hill Book Co. McGraw Hill Book Co. N.K dan R.PENILAIAN & PUSTAKA • • • Praktikum UTS Ujian Akhir : 30% : 30% : 40% Streeter. 1999. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics. Penerbit Erlangga.F dan J. 1994. Ranald V 1994 Giles Ranald. Hydraulics Schaum’s Outline Series. New York Hughes. Elementary Fluid Mechanics. J. New York Erizal dan Panjaitan.B. Brighton. V. W. dan E.L. Giles. Street. Mekanika Fluida. Wylie. 1967.

Tao Xing.Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Fred Stern. Surajeet Ghosh Stern Xing Shao AFD (Analytical Fluid Dynamics) EFD (Experimental Fluid Dynamics) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) ∇•U = 0 1 2 DU = −∇p + ∇ U + ∇ • ui u j Re Dt TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 8 . Jun Shao.

Fluid Mechanics ud a • Fluids essential to life • Human body 95% water / • Earth’s surface is 2/3 water • Atmosphere extends 17km above the earth’s surface • History shaped by fluid mechanics y p y • • • • Geomorphology Human migration and civilization Modern scientific and mathematical theories and methods Warfare • Touches every part of our lives TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 9 .

History Faces of Fluid Mechanics (C. 287-212 BC) Archimedes (1642-1727) Newton (1646-1716) Leibniz (1667-1748) Bernoulli (1707-1783) Euler (1785-1836) Navier (1819-1903) Stokes (1842-1912) TEP201 Fluid Mechanics Reynolds (1875-1953) Prandtl (1886-1975) 10 Taylor .

Significance • Fluids omnipresent p • Weather & climate • Vehicles: automobiles trains ships and automobiles. •E i Environment t • Physiology and medicine • Sports & recreation • Many other examples! TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 11 . trains. planes. etc. ships.

Weather & Climate Tornadoes Thunderstorm Global Climate Hurricanes TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 12 .

Vehicles Aircraft Surface ships High-speed rail Submarines TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 13 .

Environment Air pollution River hydraulics Ri h d li TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 14 .

Physiology and Medicine Blood pump Ventricular assist device TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 15 .

Sports & Recreation Water sports Cycling Offshore racing Auto racing Surfing TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 16 .

Fluids Engineering • Engineers have different kinds of tools available for solving fluids engineering systems • Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD) • Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD) • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) • This class provides an introduction to all three tools: AFD through lecture and CFD and EFD through labs TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 17 .

Analytical Fluid Dynamics • The theory of mathematical physics problem formulation • Control volume & differential analysis • Exact solutions only exist for simple geometry and conditions d di i • Approximate solutions for practical pp p applications • Linear • Empirical relations using EFD data TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 18 .

momentum Continuity momentum.Analytical Fluid Dynamics • Lecture Part of Fluid Class • • • • • • • • Definition and fluids properties Fluid statics Fluids in motion Continuity. and energy principles Dimensional analysis and similitude Surface resistance Flow in conduits Drag and lift TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 19 .

μ Schematic integrate.Analytical Fluid Dynamics ay a ud y a ρUD < 2000 Assumptions: F ll developed. apply boundary conditions (noslip wall) to determine integration constants and use energy equation to calculate head loss 0 • Example: laminar pipe flow Exact solution : 0 ⎡ ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ⎤ Du 0 ∂ p =− + μ ⎢ 2 + 2 ⎥ + gx Dt ∂x ∂y ⎦ ⎣ ∂x u(r) = 1 (− ∂p)(R2 − r 2) 4μ ∂x 8μ du f = 8τ w = dy w = 64 Friction factor: ρV 2 ρV 2 Re p1 p2 L V 2 32 μ LV + z1 = + z2 + h f hf = f = Head loss: γ γ γ D2 D 2g TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 20 . Low Re = A i Fully d l d L Approach: Simplify momentum equation.

5) ⎛ U −u r⎞ + 5 = f ⎜ 1 − ⎟ y > 10 * u r0 ⎠ ⎝ 3. 2. 3 Outer layer (turbulent shear dominates) O t l (t b l t h d i t ) Assume log-law is valid across entire pipe: u (r ) u* = 1 κ ( r0 − r ) u* + B ln ν Integration for average velocity and using EFD data to adjust constants: 1 = 2l ( Re f 1 2 ) − .41. B=5.Analytical Fluid Dynamics y y • Example: turbulent flow in smooth pipe( Re > 3000) Three layer concept (using dimensional analysis) y p ( g y ) u + = u u* 1. y + = yu * ν u* = τ w ρ Laminar sub-layer (viscous shear dominates) u+ = y+ u+ = 1 0 < y+ < 5 20 < y + < 105 Overlap layer (viscous and turbulent shear important) κ ln y + + B ( =0.8 2log R 8 f TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 21 .

5 < K+< 70. hydraulically smooth (no effect of roughness) . K+<5. fully rough (independent Re) For 3. using EFD data to adjust constants: u+ = 1 κ ln y + 8.7 f TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 22 . K+> 70.5 ≠ f ( Re ) k Friction factor: k D 1 = −2log 3.Analytical Fluid Dynamics • Example: turbulent flow in rough pipe Both laminar sublayer and overlap layer are affected by roughness Inner layer: u+ = u+ ( y k ) + Outer layer: unaffected O e ap aye Overlap layer: y u = ln + constant κ k 1 Three regimes of flow depending on k+ 1. y y ( g ) 2. transitional roughness (Re dependent) 3.

51 ⎤ = −2log ⎢ + 12⎥ ⎣ 3.7 Re f ⎦ TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 23 .Analytical Fluid Dynamics • Example: Moody diagram for turbulent pipe flow Composite Log-Law for smooth and rough pipes is given by the Moody diagram: 1 f 1 2 ⎡k D 2.

to achieve the test objectives within allowable uncertainties.Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD) p y ( ) Definition: Use of experimental methodology and procedures for solving fluids engineering systems. uncertainty analysis. data acquisition and data reduction). including full and model scales. and dimensional analysis and similarity. large and table top facilities. • Integration of UA into all test phases should be a key part of entire experimental program • test design • determination of error sources • estimation of uncertainty • documentation of the results TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 24 . measurement systems (instrumentation. similarity EFD philosophy: • Decisions on conducting experiments are governed by the ability of the expected test outcome.

substantiate and validate a theory (hypothesis) • Research & Development: document a process/system.Purpose • Science & Technology: understand and investigate a phenomenon/process. equipment. calibrate instruments. product liability. and facilities • Industry: design optimization and analysis. and acceptance • Teaching: instruction/demonstration TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 25 . provide benchmark data (standard procedures. procedures validations). provide data for direct use.

Applications of EFD Application in science & technology Picture of K Pi t f Karman vortex shedding t h ddi Application in research & development Tropic Wi d T T i Wind Tunnel has the ability to create l h th bilit t t temperatures ranging from 0 to 165 degrees Fahrenheit and simulate rain TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 26 .

Applications of EFD (cont’d) pp ( ) Example of industrial application NASA's cryogenic wind tunnel simulates flight conditions for scale models--a critical tool in designing airplanes. Application in teaching pp g Fluid dynamics laboratory TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 27 .

Full and model scale u a d od a • Scales: model. and full-scale • Selection of the model scale: governed by dimensional analysis and similarity TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 28 .

Measurement systems • Instrumentation • • • • • • • • • Load cell to measure forces and moments Pressure transducers Pitot tubes Hotwire H t i anemometry t PIV.Labview • Data acquisition • Data analysis and data reduction • Data reduction equations • Fast Fourier Transform TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 29 . LDV Serial port devices Desktop PC’s Plug-in d l data acquisition boards b d DA software .

PIV 30 .Instrumentation u a o Pitot tube Load cell Hotwire TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 3D .

Labview TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 31 .Data acquisition system a a a qu o y Hardware Software .

using FFT. z w a SM .z ) ra SM i SM j Fast Fourier Transform FFT: Converts a function from amplitude as function of time to amplitude as function of frequency Example of data reduction equations Example of FFT application li ti Free-surface wave elevation contours F f l ti t 0. around a surface piercing strut.05 0 0 Aim: T Ai To analyze the natural unsteadiness of l th t l t di f the separated flow.Data reduction methods r = F(T ) w w ra = F(Ta ) Q = F(Dz DM ) f = F(r . r .15 0.1 A(f) 0. TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 1 2 3 4 f [Hz] 5 6 7 Typical amplitude spectra of the wave elevations 32 . Q) = gp D 2 5 8LQ 2 rw (z .

.P J J MEASUREMENT OF INDIVIDUAL VARIABLES r = r (X .P 1 1 X 2 B ...P 2 2 X J B.Uncertainty analysis Rigorous methodology for uncertainty assessment using statistical and engineering concepts ELEMENTAL ERROR SOURCES 1 2 J INDIVIDUAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS X 1 B .. P r r EXPERIMENTAL RESULT TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 33 ... X ) 1 2 J DATA REDUCTION EQUATION r B.. X .

m = number of important dimensions. F = functional form. r = n – m ). t. TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 34 . etc. A2. Vortex shedding behind cylinder Examples of dimensionless quantities : Reynolds number. n = number of dimensional variables. L. Thereby the number of experiments required to determine f vs. then f(Π1. • Helps in understanding physics • Useful in data analysis and modeling • Enables scaling of different physical dimensions and fluid properties Example Drag = f(V. Π2.) From dimensional analysis. • Why is it used : y • Reduction in variables ( If F(A1. c. … Πr < n) = 0. F is reduced. … . Πj = non-dimensional parameters. Euler number. Ai = dimensional variables. etc. r. Strouhal number. m. where. T. e.Dimensional analysis • Definition : Dimensional analysis is a process of formulating fluid mechanics problems in in terms of non-dimensional variables and parameters. An) = 0. Froude Number.

• Kinematic Similarity : homologous (same relative position) particles lie at homologous points at homologous times. • Dynamic Similarity : in addition to the requirements for kinematic similarity the model and prototype forces must be in a constant ratio ratio.e. TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 35 . select most important Π and accommodate others as best possible. • Πi model = Πi prototype i = 1 • E bl extrapolation from model to full scale Enables l i f d l f ll l • However. or Fr.Similarity and model testing • Definition : Flow conditions for a model test are completely similar if all relevant dimensionless parameters have the same corresponding values for model and prototype. i. often it is necessary to use Re.. • Types of similarity: • Geometric Similarity : all body dimensions in all three coordinates have the same linear-scale ratios. Therefore. complete similarity usually not possible. or Ma scaling.

Perform calibrations 6. Setup Data Acquisition using LabView 5.EFD process p • “EFD process” is the steps to set up an experiment and take data 1. Setup equipment 4. I t ll 2 Install model d l 3. U 7 Uncertainty A l i t i t Analysis 8. Documentation and Reporting TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 36 . Setup facility 2. Comparison with CFD results 9. Data Analysis and Data Reduction 7.

EFD – “hands on” experience a d o p Lab1: Measurement of kinematic viscosity of a fluid ki ti i it f fl id Lab2: Measurement of flow rate. Lab3: Measurement of surface pressure distribution and lift coefficient for an airfoil TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 37 . friction factor and velocity profiles in smooth and rough pipes.

finite differences.). (solvers differences and grid generations. • R id growth in CFD technology since advent Rapid hi h l i d of computer ENIAC 1.Computational Fluid Dynamics • CFD is use of computational methods for solving fluid engineering systems. including systems modeling (mathematical & Physics) and numerical methods (solvers. 1946 IBM WorkStation TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 38 . etc.

layer evolution) TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 39 . solve it. stellar evolution).Purpose • The objective of CFD is to model the continuous fluids with Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and discretize PDEs into an algebra problem.radiations. validate it and achieve simulation based design g instead of “build & test” • Simulation of physical fluid phenomena that are difficult to be measured by experiments: scale simulations (f ll i l ti (full-scale ships. airplanes). prediction planetary boundary layer. physics (weather prediction. h l hi i l ) hazards d (explosions.pollution).

Reynolds approximation. velocity/pressure inlet/outlet) • Flow conditions: Geometry approximation domain. Rayleigh equation).g. DES). LES. equation). and Mach Number. etc. continuity equation. multi-phase flows(e. pressure Poisson equation. TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 40 . equation ideal gas law combustions (chemical reaction law. free-surface. symmetry. • C di t Coordinates: C t i Cartesian. and turbulent models (RANS. zero-gradient.Modeling g • Mathematical physics problem formulation of fluid engineering system g g y • Governing equations: Navier-Stokes equations (momentum). cylindrical and spherical coordinates li d i l d h i l di t result in different form of governing equations • Initial conditions(initial guess of the solution) and Boundary ( g ) y Conditions (no-slip wall. domain Number. energy equation.

Narayanan) TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 41 ..Modeling (examples) Developing flame surface (Bell et al.3 with respect to the vortex time scale (C. 2001) Free surface animation for ship in regular waves Evolution of a 2D mixing layer laden with particles of Stokes Number 0.

TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 42 .DNS. Re=105. vorticity magnitude of turbulent flow around NACA12 with angle of attack 60.J. Re=21. LES of a turbulent jet.J.Modeling (examples. cont’d) 3D vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder (Re 100.Dijkstra) DES.DNS.000 (D. Glaze). Back wall shows a slice of the dissipation rate and the bottom wall shows a carpet plot of the mixture fraction in a slice through the jet centerline.Dijkstra) (Re=100.

algebraic methods and differential equation methods • Solvers: direct methods (Cramer’s rule. LU decomposition) and iterative methods (Jacobi.Numerical methods y • Finite difference methods: using numerical scheme to approximate the exact derivatives in the PDEs P − 2 Pi + Pi − 1 ∂2P = i +1 ∂x 2 Δx2 P − 2 P j + P j −1 ∂2P = j +1 ∂y 2 Δy2 jmax j+1 j j-1 Δx Δy o i-1 i i+1 imax x • Grid generation: conformal mapping. SOR) Slice of 3D mesh of a fighter aircraft TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 43 . Gauss elimination. Gauss-Seidel.

Report: time history of convergence of variables 6.CFD process • “CFD process” is the steps to set up a problem and run the code 1. medium and fine meshes 4. Mesh: coarse. vectors). viscous modeling and properties boundary conditions 3. Solve: different solvers and numerical methods 5. Post-Processing: visualizations (contours. Geometry: Create the geometry you want 2. validation and verification TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 44 . 2 Physics: fluid properties.

Gridgen: http://www.com 2.com 3.com // fl 2.cd-adapco.fluent.gridpro.cfdrc.com 4.amtec.pointwise. CFDRC: http://www. 2 GridPro: http://www gridpro com http://www.com/cfx • Grid Generation software 1.com • Visualization software 1.com TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 45 .ilight. Fieldview: http://www.Commercial software • CFD software 1.com 2.software. CFX/AEA: http://www. Tecplot: http://www. STAR-CD:http://www cd-adapco com 3 STAR-CD:http://www.aeat. FLUENT: h http://www.

“Hands-on” experience using FlowLab 1.1 (pipe template) TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 46 .

1 (airfoil t ( i f il template) l t ) TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 47 .“Hands-on” experience using FlowLab 1.

57:020 Fluid Mechanics • Lectures cover basic concepts in fluid statics. and complementary EFD/CFD labs p y • EFD/CFD lab materials Lecture EFD Lecture Other Docs EFD UA Report Lab Report instructions Lab 1: Viscosity Pre EFD Lab1 EFD 1 Lab 1_UA Instructions_UA None Lab 2: Pipe Flow Pre EFD Lab2 EFD 2 Lab2_UA Instructions_UA Pre CFD lab1 CFD lab1 Lab 3: Airfoil Pre EFD lab3 EFD 3 Benchmark Data Instructions_UA Pre CFD lab2 CFD lab2 CFD Lecture Lab report instructions TEP201 Fluid Mechanics 48 . Homework assignments. control volume. tests. and differential equation dynamics control-volume differential-equation analysis methods. and dynamics. kinematics.

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