You are on page 1of 12

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Name: ________________________________

Constant Acceleration Model


Unit I Constant Velocity Model Unit III Constant Acceleration Model

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Ramp and Cart Investigations


Sketch and label the setup:

What could we measure? How could we measure it?

Use this space for notes, sketches, etc from the discussion.

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006 !

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Walk-A-Graph
From Minds-On Physics

(1) A marble is rolled at constant speed along a horizontal surface toward the origin. The marble is released at a distance of 1 meter away from the origin. (2) A block sits at rest on a table 1 meter above the oor. Take the origin to be the level of the oor. (3) A ball is dropped from a height of 2 meters above the oor. Take the origin to be the point from which the ball is released. (4) A ball is rolled along a horizontal surface. The ball strikes a wall and rebounds toward the origin. (5) A car is parked on a steep hill.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

A block is dropped from rest with a height of 1 meter above the oor. Take the origin to be at the level of the oor. A marble is released from the top of an inclined plane. Assume that positive x is measured down the plane. A ball is thrown straight up into the air. Take the origin to be at the level of the oor. A ball rolls along a horizontal surface without changing speed. The ball strikes a wall and rebounds toward the origin at approximately the same speed as before. (5) A marble rolls on to a piece of felt, eventually stopping.

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Practice 1: Graphs of Motion with Changing Velocity


1. Consider the velocity-vs-time graphs and describe the motion of the objects. Object A
16 12 8 4 0 -4 -8 -12 -16 16 12 8 4 0 -4 -8 -12 -16

Object B

v (m/s)

v (m/s)

t (s)

t (s)

Determine the displacement between 4 and 8 seconds. Show work!

Determine the average acceleration during the rst 3 seconds. Show work!

Describe the motion in words.

Sketch a motion map. Be sure to include both velocity and acceleration vectors.

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006 !

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

2.

Use the velocity-vs-time graph to analyze the motion of the object. a. Give a written description of the motion.

b. Sketch a motion map. Be sure to include both velocity and acceleration vectors.

c.

Determine the displacement of the object from t = 0 s to t = 4 s.

d. Determine the displacement of the object from t = 4 s to t = 8 s.

e.

Determine the displacement of the object from t = 2 s to t = 6 s.

f.

Determine the objects acceleration at t = 4 s.

g. Sketch a possible position-vs-time graph for the motion of the object. Explain why your graph is only one of many possible graphs.

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Practice 2: Changing Velocities


3. The table shows some position and time data. a. Use the double interval method to calculate the velocity at t = 0.030 s. Show your calculation below. Time (s) 0.000 0.030 0.060 0.090 b. Use the double interval method to calculate the velocity at each time and ll in the rest of the table. 0.120 0.150 Position (cm) 0.0 1.2 2.2 3.0 6.0 8.1 Velocity (cm/s)

(e) Describe the motion in words. Choose from among the following phrases to construct your complete sentence description. speeding up slowing down in the positive direction in the negative direction reverses direction starting from rest

4.

Consider the velocity-vs-time graph. a. During which time interval(s) is the acceleration positive? During which time interval(s) is the acceleration negative? How do you know?
Velocity m s

30 25 20 15 10 5

b. At what time or times is the acceleration zero? How do you know?

20

40 Time s

60

80

100

10. The table below represents the velocity and time coordinates for the motion depicted in the graph of problem 9. Compute the accelerations at each time using the double interval method. Do the accelerations approximately agree with our answers for parts a, b, and c of problem 9? Time Velocity Acceleration (s) (m/s) (m/s2 ) 0 0.0 5 5.0 0.98 10 9.8 15 13.7 20 17.0 0.60 25 19.7 0.48 30 21.8 d. Describe the motion of the object in words. In your complete sentences, you might want to use phrases like 35 23.3 0.25 speeding up, slowing down, in the positive direction, in the negative direction, reverses direction, starting from rest. 40 24.3 0.14 45 24.7 0.03 50 24.6 -0.15 55 23.2 -0.47 60 19.9 65 18.2 -0.25 70 17.4 75 17.1 -0.01 80 17.3 0.09 from Modeling Workshop Project 2006 ! 6 85 18.0 90 20.0

c. Use the tangent slope method to calculate the acceleration at time t = 10.0s.

48 Section 3.4 shown below. along a straight-line track is

1 11. The straight-line track graph for cart moving 5. The acceleration-vs-time graph for a cart moving along aacceleration versus time is shownabelow.
a. Calculate the change in velocity over the rst 3.0 s 0 of motion.
Acceleration cm s2
3

Acceleration cm s2

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

1 2 3 b. Calculate the change in velocity over the entire4 Time s 8.0 s of motion.

2 1 2 3

(a) Calculate the change in velocity over the rst 3.0 s of motion. (b) Calculate the change in velocity over the entire 8.0 s of motion.

4 Time s

(c) Given that the cart starts with an initial velocity the change inm/s plot the entire 8.0 s of motion. (b) Calculate of + 2.0 velocity over the velocity c. Given that the cart starts with an initial velocity of +2.0 m/s, plot the velocity-vs-time graph for this motion. vs. time graph for this motion and describe thethat the cartin words. an initial velocity of + 2.0 m/s plot the velocity (c) Given motion starts with
(Yep, this is a bit tricky go for it!! Break the a-t graph into useful parts.) and describe the motion in words. vs. time graph for this motion

(a) Calculate the change in velocity over the rst 3.0 s of motion.

8 6

8 6

Velocity cm s

4 2 0 2

Velocity cm s

4 2 0 2 1 2 3

4 Time s

(d) Plot the velocity vs. time graph if the carts initial velocity were +5.0 m/s. Describe this motion in words.

4 Time s

d. Describe the motion of the object in words based on the velocity graph that you drew.

(d) Plot the velocity vs. time graph if the carts initial velocity were +5.0 m/s. Describe this motion in words.

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Stacks of Kinematics Curves


Given the following position vs time graphs, sketch the corresponding velocity vs time and acceleration vs time graphs. For each problem (or part of problem), tell whether the forces on the object must be balanced or unbalanced. If they are unbalanced, say whether they are unbalanced in the positive or negative direction.
x x x x

t
v v

t
v

t
v

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?
x x

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?
x

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?
x

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?

t
v v

t
v

t
v

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )? 8

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006 !

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

For the following velocity vs time graphs, draw the corresponding position vs time and acceleration vs time graphs. For each problem (or part of problem), tell whether the forces on the object must be balanced or unbalanced. If they are unbalanced, say whether they are unbalanced in the positive or negative direction.
x x x x

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?
x x

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?
x

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?
x

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )?

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )? 9

Balanced or Unbalanced (+ / )? from Modeling Workshop Project 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Practice 3: CAPM Ranking Tasks


The following situations illustrate the position of two different balls at different times. The rst ball (a through f) rolls with constant velocity across a horizontal surface, while the second ball (g through l) rolls with constant acceleration down an inclined ramp. Both objects are at position zero at time = 0, and both are at position = d at time = 6 s. ! ! (c) t = 4s
(a) t = 0s, pos = 0m

(b) t = 2s

(d) t = 6s, pos = d

(e) t = 8s

!!

(f) t = 10s

(g) t = 0, x = 0, v = 0

(h) t = 2s

(i) t = 4s

!
(j) t = 6s, pos = d

!
(k) t = 8s

(l) t = 10s

6.

Rank each situation (a through l yes, all 12 together, not two separate lists) according to the position along the surface of the ball at the indicated time. Write your answer on a single line, using the > and = signs to show the relationships. NOTE: The pictures are not drawn to scale, so you cannot rely on them to show which ball is ahead.

Explain the reason for your ranking. Try to make a single, clear statement that applies to every case rather than enumerating the work for each case.

Rank each situation (a through l) according to the instantaneous velocity of the ball at the indicated time. Write your answer on a single line, using the > and = signs to show the relationships. NOTE: The pictures are still not necessarily drawn to scale.

Explain the reason for your ranking. Try to make a single, clear statement that applies to every case rather than enumerating the work for each case.

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006 !

10

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

Practice 4: Apply the Model


7. Read the following three problems and consider if the Constant Velocity Particle Model (CVPM) applies. I. A Mac Truck starts from rest and reaches a speed of 8.5 m/s in 20 seconds. II. A dune buggy travels for 20 seconds at a speed of 8.5 m/s. III. A driver sees a deer in the road ahead and applies the brakes. The car slows to a stop from 8.5 m/s in 20 seconds. a. For each of the three above problems, say whether CVPM applies, whether BFPM applies, whether CAPM applies, or whether none of those models apply, and explain your reasoning.

b. For one problem where CAPM applies, draw at least three diagrams and/or graphs to illustrate the situation. Choose the diagrams and graphs that you nd most useful.

c.

Using the constant acceleration particle model, solve for any unknown quantities. Show your work and use units.

11

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 03 / CAPM

For the following problems, a complete solution will consist of (a) at least three diagrams and/or graphs to represent the situation. (Use the ones you nd most useful.) (b) a determination of the quantities for which it is possible to solve. (c) a clear presentation of the procedure used to produce a numerical answer for each unknown quantity, with units. 8. A car whose initial speed is 30 m/s slows uniformly to 10 m/s in 5 seconds.

9.

A bear spies some honey 10 m away and takes off from rest, accelerating at a rate of 2.0 m/s2.

from Modeling Workshop Project 2006 !

12