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Supervisor: Mr Mohamed Mubarak Bin Abdul Wahab Name: 11848 Abdul Halim Bin Abdul Hamid Amirah Raihana Binti Haris Fadzilah 11885 Anis Syafirin Binti Ezhar Calvin Lowrans Mohd Hafiz Azmi Bin Mohamad 11890 11905 12017 11841 Abdullah Sofiy Bin Mansor (Leader)

Group : ETP 06

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 ABSTRACT PROBLEM STATEMENT PROJECT OBJECTIVE BACKGROUND STUDY DESIGN APPROACH/METHODOLOGY 5.1 Procedures 5.2 Plan and Schematic Flow Process 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 5.3 Hardware/Tools and Software TASK ALLOCATION AND ACTIVITIES PROJECT PLANNING REFERENCES SKETCH OF PROJECT 2 2 3 3 5 7 8 9 10 11 12

1.0 ABSTRACT Since the invention of the light bulb its usage till today has led to a fairly large toll on the energy consumption, thus this phenomena is to be curbed besides transcending the lighting system into the next dimension by inventing a lighting system that consumes a minimal amount of energy. Realising that the sunlight is not being utilised optimally, we came out with an idea of visionised 21st century lighting system whereby sunlight is channeled towards and travels inside the fibre optics creating a bright light. The project is kicked-off by studying and discussing the concept of fibre optics and the heliostat mechanism. Researches will be conducted to gather information on the selected topic from sources like internet and books. The data collected will be analyzed as input for calculation, modeling, testing and other designing methods. Project management reference, Gantt chart and.organizational elements such as allocating and distributing tasks are adapted to ensure smooth flow of project development. As a conclusion, we hope that this project will be successful and also be the gateway for the 21st century lighting system. 2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT Ever since Thomas Alva Edison developed a long-lasting practical incandescent light bulb in 1879, the only well-developed advancement in lighting technology is the compact fluorescent lamp. Although both of these artificial lightings have made major contributions in human civilization, they also have a few setbacks which absolutely need to take into account. Compact fluorescent lamps are found to contain small amount of hazardous mercury which can cause toxicity, have more obvious flickering problems and sensitive in low temperature condition which impractical for outdoor lighting. Meanwhile, incandescent light bulbs produce large amount of heat as by-product which can cause burns, relatively short life span which may require frequent replacement and more prone to failure in high vibration environment. But the major setback of both lamps is that they are wasting large amount of electrical energy daily. According to the Reference case projection from the International Energy Outlook 2010 (IEO2010), released on 25th May 2010 by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), world net electricity generation is projected to increase by 87%, from 18.8 trillion kWh in 2007 to

35.2 trillion kWh in 2035. This is mainly caused by the less energy-efficiency lightings, not considering people who actually wasting the energy by letting the lamps always switched on. Instead of artificial lighting, why dont we use the natural lighting, which is the sunlight? Therefore, our problems are how to channel the sunlight into a room of a building and enlighten the whole space. We also want to minimize the usage of electrical energy when there is no sunlight such as at night or when it is raining.

3.0 PROJECT OBJECTIVE 3.1 3.2 3.3 To come out with the improve version of heliostat in order to optimize sun light collection and channeling it more effectively towards the optic fiber To produce a simple but flawless rain-control system to cover the heliostat during raining To integrate solar panel and use it as a mean to charge the batteries for the lighting system during night time 4.0 BACKGROUND STUDY Lighting system plays a major role in human life since the famous American inventor, Thomas Edison invent an incandescent light bulb with a long lasting filament. This is the beginning of the era which people shift from using candles to light bulb. Decades after that, Albert Hull from General Electric manage to patent the first fluorescent bulb in 1927, which is far more energy efficient than the incandescent light bulb. Today, this fluorescent lamp is use every day which basically incorporate the use of electricity to produce mercury vapor. Then, the mercury vapor produce ultraviolet light causing phosphor to fluoresce and the end result is a visible light. We can observe that since 1927, the evolution of the light bulb has been put to a long haul as the next breakthrough which most likely incorporates and solve our energy efficiency and environmental issues havent found its way. The world today is still clinging to a technology that is 84 years back.

Thus, is where our project comes in as the replacement to the fluorescent lamp. The main idea is to have a totally green technology where independent lighting system is implemented in the standard condition of an existing building. Today, optic fiber is one of the famous ways to transmit information in form of light and it is replacing the conventional copper wires. One of the great advantages of it is that it can transmit light by small degree of reflection angle inside it tube. In a more simple word, it is easy to reflect light through the optic fiber. Since most optic fiber tube is nearly colorless, when light travel it will glow like a normal fluorescent light bulb. Using the glow part of an optic fiber as a lighting system is one step ahead of the normal fluorescent bulb technology which far much simpler and safer. Our challenge is to produce the brightest glow from the optic fiber so that it is enough to make a room bright. In order to achieve that, we will install a high quality side glow type of optic fiber and some mirror reflector in a strategic places to focus the light inside the room. During the day time, the concept of heliostat will be use. We collect rays of sun light by using reflection in order to produce one intense bright light at one spot. This intense bright light will become the light source of the optic fiber. Besides coming out with new idea of simpler heliostat, we will use standard lens to magnify the light. The challenge here is to ensure the simpler version of heliostat works effectively and ensuring the optic fibre is able to withstand the heat from the magnified light. Solar panel on the other hand is used during daytime in order to generate electricity and transfer it to the rechargeable battery. This battery will supply electricity to the light emitting diode (LED) during night time where there is no sunlight. LED will act as the source of light which it can be transmitted through the optic fiber tube. Choosing the right color of LED will determine the brightness of the optic fiber during night time. Besides, we have to ensure that the solar panel is working properly and the rechargeable battery is compatible with the solar panel. It is very important to protect the heliostat from bad weather especially rain drops since it can reduce the heliostat efficiency in focusing the sun light. This is where the rain control mechanism suits it purpose. Using two motors, it will act like an automatic sliding window. Moist

detector is installed to detect raindrop and the rain control window will close automatically when it is rain. Switch also can be installed so that the rain control mechanism can be operated manually. Our concern is to ensure the rain control mechanism can operate perfectly by using the same rechargeable battery which charged by the solar panel. 5.0 DESIGN APPROACH/METHODOLOGY 5.1 Procedures
5.1.1 Brainstorming: The brainstorming session is done by defining the theme assigned. The main target of the project is taken into consideration, all the features and the constraints such as working prototype which includes at least three engineering field, and possess commercial value and feasibility. 5.1.2 Research: Research is essential in order to get informations for the project. Furthermore, we can obtain a deeper understandings and technical explanations for the design. The research is done by surfing to the internet, interviewing people and reading the articles in the books and journals. 5.1.3 Compilation of data: All the research data and ideas from each team members are compiled and discussed. The compilation process involves comparing and analyzing the model mechanism. A conceptual analysis is being performed so that the important and useful ideas to put on the device can be developed. 5.1.4 Identification of need and decision making: In this stage, the constraints, such as working prototype, at least three courses involved, commercial value and feasibility were put into our consideration. All the alternatives were put together in order to develop one outcome. Throughout this stage, we manage to come out with some improving ideas.

5.1.5 Designing and constructing the device: The designing process is initialised based on the conceptual sketches and technical drawing, prototyping and engineering calculations. All the aspects of the design are put under continuous ideas and observations. 5.1.6 Problem identification and resolve: Any problem that occur due to the design specifications were put into critical considerations at this stage. All works have to be reviewed all over again to overcome the problem pertaining to it. 5.1.7 Final design: At this stage, all the mechanisms are put to a testing. The functionality of the mechanisms, the ranges of distance that will be covered by the sensor, the power needed to turn on the mechanism and other things that will ensure the workability of the final prototype are fully tested. During this stage, all the altering to the design specifications was made to encounter the problems that occurred. 5.1.8 Conclusion: The project will be completed by conducting the oral presentation to the supervisors, demonstration of the model and submitting the final report.

5.2 Plan and Schematic Flow Process

Design Stage 1 Sketch ideas 8

Design Stage 2 Finalize the design Material and component selection Manufacturing method solution Design Stage 3 Drawing and Simulation Fabrication of electrical and mechanical component Prototype assembly and testing Modification and finalize prototype Compilation of Final Report and Presentation FIGURE 5.2.1: Flowchart of Plan and Schematic Flow Process

5.3 Hardware/Tools and Software TABLE 5.3.1: List of hardware required

HARDWARE Prisms/fiber optics Solar Cell Rain Detector/Sensor Battery Charger Perspex Light Emitting Diode (LED) Switches Motor Gears Timer Screw and Fastener

FUNCTION Light distribution and collection Charging the battery using sun Detect the droplet of rain Supplying power to all components Charging the battery when not in use Material for building the house Supplying light to home Open and close the system Used in gears motion Used in open/close roof motion Used for motion timer Used to fasten the Perspex TOTAL

COST(RM) 60.00 20.00 15.00 15.00 20.00 50.00 1.00 2.00 4.00 4.00 2.00 5.00 RM198.00

Table 2: List of software required SOFTWARE AutoCAD CATIA Autodesk Inventor Microsoft Office FUNCTION Technical drawing 3D technical drawing 3D technical drawing Report preparation and compilation


Project Director ABDULLAH SOFIY BIN MANSOR Organising &Chairing meetings Planning weekly agenda Coordinating all departments 10 Heliostat Design Division Research & Development

Assistant Project Director CALVIN LOWRANS Assist in Planning weekly agenda Project Goals & Direction Monitor Project progress Task Distribution to team members

Secretary &Electrical Department ANIS SYAFIRIN BINTI EZHAR Keep records of all group activities Minutes of meetings Arrange Appointments Lead the design and development of electrical &electronic components of project L.E.D & Fibre Optics integrated lighting system.

Mechanical Department

ABDUL HALIM BIN ABDUL HAMID Design & Develop mechanical aspects of project
Design the layout and process of prototype

Rain-Control mechanism 3D Design & Analysis of prototype

Material Department MOHD HAFIZ AZMI BIN MOHAMAD Material Selection Design the layout and process of prototype Deal with composition of material used Prototype Exterior Project Publication



Manage the project accounts Estimate the project budgets Research on the strength & suitability of material used

Logistics Officer

Assist in material selection Light Optimisation material design



Weeks Tasks





Ice breaking, brainstorming, research and planning Proposal due Finding raw material, video, picture and lab experiment Progress report Progress report due Environmental Effect Evaluation Preparation of slides and poster Presentation rehearsal Final research Evaluation on Fabrication Demonstration of Prototype or Model Poster Evaluation Group Oral and Individual Presentation EDX Final Report Peer Evaluation TABLE 7.1 : Gantt Chart


30/3 6/4 6/4 6/4



Fluorescent Lamp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2002, November 4). Retrieved February 4, 2011, from Wikipedia: Incandescent Light Bulb - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2002, April 1). Retrieved February 4, 2011, from Wikipedia: Thomas Edison - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2003, January 25). Retrieved February 4, 2011, from Wikipedia: Heliostat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2004, September 28). Retrieved February 5, 2011, from Wikipedia: World energy consumption to grow 49% by 2035 International Energy Outlook 2010. (2010, May 26). Retrieved February 5, 2011, from IM : International Mining: Antony, D. (2009, October 30). Disadvantages for Fluorescent Lamps | Retrieved February 4, 2011, from eHow: Hamel, G. (2009, November 6). Disadvantages of Fluorescent Light Bulbs | Retrieved February 5, 2011, from eHow: Mcginnis, W. (2009, April 15). The Dark Side of CFLs. Retrieved February 5, 2011, from GreenMuze : Green Ideas and Innovations: 9.0 SKETCH OF PROJECT