Florence Nightingale: Environmental theory Hildegard Peplau: Interpersonal Relation Theory Virginia Henderson: 14 Basic Human Needs Joyce

Travelbee: Human to Human Relationship Model Betty Neuman: Systems Model Dorothy Johnson: Behavioral System Model Imogene King: Goal Attainment Theory Dorothea Orem: Self Care Deficit Theory in Nursing Faye Abdellah: Typology 21 Nursing Problems Sr. Callista Roy: Adaptation Model Madeleine Leininger: Transcultural Nursing Jean Watson: Philosophy and Science of Caring Patricia Benner: Novice to Expert Myra Estrin Levine: Conservation Theory Ida Jean Orlando: Nursing Process/ Deliberative Nursing Process Theory Martha Rogers: Science of Unitary Human Being Margaret Newman: Model of Health Rosemarie Parse: Human Becoming Theory Anne Boykin & Savina Schoenhofer: Nursing as Caring Theory Lydia Hall: Core Care Cure Theory Carmencita M Abaquin: PREPARE ME Interventions and the Quality of Life Advance Pro gressive Cancer Patients. Sister Letty G. Kuan: Retirement and Role Discontinuities Florence Nightingale: Environmental theory Environmental factors affecting health * Pure or fresh air * Pure water * Sufficient food supplies * Efficient drainage * Cleanliness Light (especially direct sunlight Hildegard Peplau: Interpersonal Relation Theory Phase of Nurse-Patient Relationship 1. Orientation: The initial interaction between the nurse and the patient 2. Identification: The nurse and the patient explore the experiences and the needs of the patient. (relatedness)

3. Exploitation Full values of relationship as the patient moves on from depe ndent role to independent 4. Resolution: Formulates new goals Interpersonal Therapeutic process helps the psychiatric patients is willing to a ccept therapy Virginia Henderson: 14 Basic Human Needs 14 Basic Needs 1. Breathing Normally 2. Eating and Drinking adequately 3. Eliminating body wastes 4. Moving and maintaining a desirable position 5. Sleeping and resting 6. Selecting suitable clothes 7. Maintain normal body temperature by adjusting clothing and modifying the e nvironment. 8. Keeping the body clean and well groomed 9. Avoiding danger and injuring others 10. Communicating with others in expressing emotions needs fear and opinion 11. Worshipping according to ones faith 12. One feels a sense of accomplishment 13. Participation in various forms of recreation 14. Learning the curiosity that leads to normal development and health Nurse-Patient Relationship 1. The Nurse as a substitute for the patient. The nurse acts as a substitute for the patient when they lack knowledge, strength to make him complete again. 2. The nurse as a helper to the patient: The patient cannot meet his basic ne eds the nurse serves as a helper to accomplish them. 3. The nurse as a partner with the patient: The nurse and the patient formula te the care plan together Joyce Travelbee: Human to Human Relationship Model Her theory the burse and the patient undergo the following series of interact io nal phases: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Original Encounter: First impression of the nurse and patient Emerging identities: The nurse and patient getting to know each other Empathy: understanding each other Sympathy: the nurse wants to lessen the cause of the patients suffering. Rapport: the patient trust and has confidence in the nurse

Betty Neuman: Systems Model System Model 1. Client Variables: relation to the environmental stressors experienced by t he client 2. Lines of resistance: it acts to facilitate the coping to overcome the str essors that are present within the individual 3. Normal Line of Defense: reflects the range of responses 4. Flexible Line of Defense: invaded by the stressors thus increasing its pro tection 5. Stressor: identifying the stressors helps nurse to appropriately use acti

ons to help solve the problem 6. Reaction: can be either be positive or negative depending on the client s re action. Prevention Primary prevention: Foreseeing the result of an situation and preventing it its unnecessary effects Secondary prevention: focuses on helping the actual existing effects of an actio n that altered that balance of health of a person. Tertiary prevention: focuses on actual treatments to facilitate the strengthenin g of a person after being exposed to a certain illness. Dorothy Johnson: Behavioral System Model 7 Behavioral Subsystems 1. the attachment subsystem: Strong bond 2. the dependency subsystem: nurturing behavior 3. the ingestive subsystem: Ingestion of food 4. the eliminative subsystem: secretion of waste products from the body 5. the sexual subsystem: imitates behaviors related to reproduction 6. the aggressive subsystem: concerned with defense and self preservation 7. the achievement subsystem: contains behaviors that attempt to control the environment Imogene King: Goal Attainment Theory Goal Attainment 1. Action: Behvaior that are towards the accomplishment of a certain act 2. Reaction: reacting or a response to a certain stimuli. 3. Interaction: wherin the nurse relates and deals with the patient 4. Open system: exchange information without barriers Dorothea Orem: Self Care Deficit Theory in Nursing Universal Self Care Requisites * * * * * * * Maintenance of a sufficient intake of air Maintenance of a sufficient intake of food Maintenance of a sufficient intake of water Provision of care associated with elimination Maintenance of balance between solitude and social interaction Prevention of hazards to human life human functioning and human well being Promotion of human functioning and development

Faye Abdellah: Typology 21 Nursing Problems 21 Nursing Problems 1. to maintain good hygiene and physical comfort 2. to promote activities 3. to promote safety 4. to maintain good body mechanics and preven and correct deformity 5. to facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all body cells 6. to facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells 7. to facilitate the maintenance of elimination 8. to recognize the physiological responses of the body to disease conditions 9. to facilitate the maintenance of the regulatory mechanism and functions 10. to facilitate the maintenance of sensory function 11. to identify and accept positive and negative expressions feelings and reac tion 12. to facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance

13. to identity and accept interrelatedness of emotions and organic illness 14. to facilitate the maintenance of effective verbal and non verbal communica tion 15. to promote the development of productive interpersonal relationships 16. to facilitate progress toward achievement and personal spiritual goals 17. to create or maintain a therapeutic environment 18. to facilitate awareness of self 19. to accept the optimum possible goals in the light of limitations 20. to use community resources as an aid in resolving problems 21. to understand the role of social problems Sr. Callista Roy: Adaptation Model Adaptation Level Regulator subsystem: response to stress Cognator subsystem: responds to stimulus Innovator subsystem: allows the person to change to higher levels of potential Nursing Process 1. Assessment of Behavior 2. Assessment of Stimuli 3. Nursing Diagnosis 4. Goal Setting 5. Intervention 6. Evaluation Madeleine Leininger: Transcultural Nursing Forms of Culture- Specific Care 1. Culture care preservation or maintenance: 2. Cultural care accommodation and negotiation 3. Cultural care re-patterning Jean Watson: Philosophy and Scarce of Caring 7 Assumptions of caring 1. Caring can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally 2. Effective caring promotes health 3. caring responses accepts a person 4. a caring environment is one that offers the development of potential 5. caring is more healthogenic than is curing 6. the practice of caring is central to nursing Patricia Benner: Novice to Expert From Novice to Expert * * * * * Novice Advance Beginner Competent Proficient Expert

Myra Estrin Levine: Conservation Theory Four levels of response 1. fear 2. stress 3. inflammatory 4. sensory Conservation of energy- refers to balancing energy intake and output to avoid Conservation of structural identity- refers to maintaining the structure of the body to promote healing and prevent breakdown Conservation of personal integrity- refers to maintaining sense of identity and self worth Conservation of social integrity- refers to recognizing the patient as a social being.

Ida Jean Orlando: Nursing Process/ Deliberative Nursing Process Theory MAJOR DIMENSIONS OF THE THEORY * * * * * Function of professional nursing - organizing principle Presenting behavior - problematic situation Immediate reaction - internal response Nursing process discipline investigation Improvement - resolution

Martha Rogers: Science of Unitary Human Being Four Basic Concepts 1. Energy fields: Fundamental unit of living and non-living. 2. Openness: Openness is a characteristic of both humans and environment 3. Pattern: Changes continuously 4. Four-dimensionality: Energy fields (man and environment) are not bound by time or space. Margaret Newman: Model of Health Assumptions 1. Health encompasses conditions heretofore described as illness, or, in medical terms, pathology 2. These pathological conditions can be considered a manifestation of the total pattern of the individual 3. The pattern of the individual that eventually manifests itself as pathology i s primary and exists prior to structural or functional changes 4. Removal of the pathology in itself will not change the pattern of the indivdu al 5. If becoming ill is the only way an individual's pattern can manifest itself, then that is health for that person 6. Health is an expansion of consciousness. Rosemarie Parse: Human Becoming Theory Human Becoming Theory includes Totality Paradigm o Man is a combination of biological, psychological, sociological and spiritua l factors Simultaneity Paradigm oMan is a unitary being in continuous, mutual interaction with environment Originally Man-Living-Health Theory Anne Boykin & Savina Schoenhofer: Nursing as Caring Theory Transformational Model 1. persons are caring by virtue of their humanness 2. persons are caring moment to moment 3. persons are whole or complete in the moment 4. personhood is living life grounded in caring 5. person hood is enhanced through participating in nurturing relationships with caring others 6. nursing is both a discipline and a profession

Lydia Hall: Core Care Cure Theory the core (using the self in relationship to the patient) the care (hands on bodily care ) the cure (applying medical knowledge ) Carmencita M Abaquin: PREPARE ME Holistic Nursing Intervention

Prepare Me 1. Presence: being with another person during the times of need 2. Reminisce Therapy: recal of past experiences 3. Prayer: 4. Relaxation: techniques to encourage relaxation for the purpose of decreasing undesirable signs 5. Meditation: purpose of altering patients level of awareness 6. Values Clarification: assisting anotherindividual to clarify his own values a bout health and illness. Sister Letty G. Kuan: Retirement and Role Discontinuities 1. Health Status refer to physiological and mental state of the respondents, cla ssified as either sickly or healthy. 2. Income (economic level) refers to the financial affluence of the respondent which can be classified as poor, moderate or rich. 3.Work Status 4.Family Constellation means the type of family composition described either clo se knit or extended family where three more generations of family members live u nder one roof; or distanced family, whose member live in separate dwelling units ; or nuclear type of family where only husband, wife and children live together. 5. Self-Preparation 12 Core blah 1.safe&quality nursing care 2.management of resources&environment 3.health education 4.legal responsibility 5.ethico-moral responsibility 6.personal&professional development 7.quality improvement 8.research 9.record management 10.communication 11.collaboration&teamwork 12.customer service(only in MMC)

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