NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND VALUE ADDITION TO JACK FRUIT SEED FLOUR

Thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of

MASTER OF HOME SCIENCE

in

FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION

By SAMATA AIRANI

DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION COLLEGE OF RURAL HOME SCIENCE, DHARWAD UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, DHARWAD – 580005 NOVEMBER, 2007

ADVISORY COMMITTEE
Dharwad NOVERMBER, 2007 Approved by: Chairman : ______________________ (RAMA K. NAIK) Members : 1.____________________ (PUSHPA BHARATI) 2.____________________ (BHARATI .V. CHIMMAD) 3.____________________ (HEMLA NAIK) (RAMA K. NAIK) MAJOR ADVISOR

CONTENTS
Sl. No. CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF PLATES 1 2 INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Nutritional composition of seed flour 2.2 Functional properties of seed flour 2.3 Nutritional quality 2.4 Value additions to seed flour 3 MATERIAL AND METHODS 3.1 Preparation of seed material 3.2 Nutrient composition 3.3 Physical and functional qualities of seed flour 3.4 Nutritional quality of the seed flour 3.5 Shelf life of seed flour 3.6 Utilization of seed flour in convenience food 3.7 Statistical analysis Chapter Particulars Page No.

Contd….. Sl. No. 4 RESULTS 4.1 Physical and functional properties of seed flour 4.2 Nutrient composition of seed flour 4.3 Nutritional quality of jack seed flour 4.4 Storage quality of jack seed flour 4.5 Value added convenience food of jack seed flour 5 DISCUSSION 5.1 Functional properties of seed flour 5.2 Chemical composition of seed flour 5.3 Shelf life of flour 5.4 Utilization of seed flour in convenience foods 6 7 SUMMARY REFERENCES APPENDICES Chapter Particulars Page No.

.LIST OF TABLES Table No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Level of incorporation of flours Functional properties of jack seed flour Viscosity of jack seed flour Proximate composition of jack seed flour (g/100 g) Nutritional quality of seed flour Dough characteristics Physical parameters of biscuits Physical characteristics of jack seed flour incorporated biscuits Colour values of jack seed flour biscuits Consumer acceptability of seed flour based biscuits Computation of composition in different levels of incorporation of jack seed flour with refined wheat flour Title Page No.

1 Colour values of Minolta color meter 2 Yield of jack seed flour 3 Moisture content of stored jack seed flour 4 Sensory scores of jack seed flour based biscuits (initial trials) 5. Title Page No. 1 Jackfruit seeds 2 Processed jack seed products 3 Jack seed (40%) based biscuits . Sensory scores of jack seed flour based biscuits LIST OF PLATES Plate No.LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title Page No.

I Score card for evaluation of value added products II Yield of jack seed flour III Moisture content (%) of stored jack seed flour IV Sensory scores of jack seed flour based biscuits (initial trials) V Sensory profile of jack seed flour based biscuits . Title Page No.LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix No.

fructose. oval.42. The ripened fruit is a normally fibrous and composed of sugars like glucose.004 ha with a production of 2. The interior of ripe fruit consists of large. . In Karnataka. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh besides. In India too. The seed is 2-4 cm long and 1. Barret (1928) Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. 2003) and jack tree is largely grown in southern states viz. jack fruit is grown on an area of 10. 2001). massed among narrow ribbons of thin. pleasant flavoured yellow sweet bulbs (fully developed perianths). The pump (bulb) colour ranges from thin white. The seeds are also rich source of carbohydrates and proteins and good source of fibre and B-complex vitamins. The total area under jack fruit cultivation is around 32. xylose. the jack seed is an important ingredient in antidote preparation for heavy drinkers. jelly due to the presence of pectin and used in the preparation of inumerous value added products. yellow to bright orange.. both for value addition and to blend with other grain flours without affecting the functional and sensory profile of the final product. Moreover. As jack fruit is highly seasonal and seeds have shorter shelf life.1. The size of the fruit lets ranges widely from small to big and thickness of pulp ranges from thin wafery to as thick as 0. Bihar.) belongs to the family Moraceae. Maharashtra and West Bengal. Jack fruit is largely propagated by seed and being a highly heterozygous and cross-pollinated crop. The yellow hard wood of the tree is valued timber for making of furniture’s. hence go waste during the seasonal glut. Jackfruit tree is native to India and popular in several tropical and sub-tropical countries and the fruit is known as the ‘poor man’s fruit’ in eastern and southern parts of India. The tender jack fruit is a popular vegetable and used in making soup and pickles.O. shape and quality of fruit and period of maturity. which can be stored and utilized.S. INTRODUCTION “The jacks…. has resulted in immense variation in the population for yield. and gulf countries. The juicy pulp of the ripe fruit is eaten fresh or preserved in syrup and has wide potential for preparing jam. The seeds are generally eaten in boiled or roasted form or used in many culinary preparations. pepper and cardamom plantations. There may be 100-120 or upto 500 seeds in a single fruit comprising 5-6 per cent of the total fruit. So. the incorporation of seed flour to deep fat fried products has found to reduce the fat absorption to a remarkable extent (Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna.296 tonnes per annum (Anon. Jackfruit appears in the market in spring and continues until summer. Tamil Nadu. Jackfruit trees are also grown for shade to betel. in other states like Assam. Cutting a jackfruit may seem quite a challenging task but once cut opened. the seed flour can be an alternative intermediatory product.. Orissa.5 – 2. U. as big as one weighing 20-50 kgs similarly the tree height also ranges from 50 to 60 ft.5 cm thick.W. light brown seed (endocarp) covered by a thin white membrane (exocarp). the rest is easy and enjoyable. Each bulb encloses a smooth. but also in arid plains of south India making it as one of the most suitable fruit crops for dryland horticulture.600 ha (Swamy. cream. The latex from the bark .K. Chips and papads are also prepared from ripe and unripe pulp. Kerala. rhamnose. size. arabinose and galactose. The pulp flavour ranges from very mildly scented to strongly scented and the size of the whole fruit ranges from 8 inches to 3 ft. There is good market for these processed products in U. the texture of the pulp ranges from soft to crispy. Jackfruit tree grows well not only under humid and warm climates of hill slopes. 1999). Chinese consider the jack fruit pulp and seeds useful in overcoming the effects of alcohol. as it contains similar compositions as that of grains.. The rind or skin of the fruit and leaves are excellent cattle feed. Are such large and interesting fruits and trees so well behaved that it is difficult to explain the general lack of knowledge concerning them’. is a fairly large sized tree and bears the largest fruit among the edible fruits. though undeveloped perianths and a central pithy core constitute 25-30 per cent of the total fruit.5 cm while the sweetness ranges from slightly insipid to very sweet.

contains resin which is used sometimes to plug holes in earthern vats and in other products. The latex from the leaves has got capacity to kill bacteria. To assess the physical and functional qualities of seed flour. 1. the study was undertaken with jack seed with following specific objectives. To evaluate starch and protein digestibilities of seed flour and 4. Hence. To determine the nutrient composition of jack seed flour 3. The utilization of jack seed flour in an industrial level is important for product market strategy. jackfruit also helps in alleviating the pancreatic ailments and aid in blood purification. 1987). the major protein from the jack seeds has proved useful tool for the evaluation of immune status of patients infected with HIV (Morton. 2. With all these medicinal values and efficient ingredients in value added products the utilization of seed flour in convenience food has a long way to utilize the flour with value addition for marketability and to create employment among rural women for economic empowerment. vitamin C and pectin. . To study the shelf-life of seed flour and to utilize the seed flour in convenience food. Jacalin. Being a good source of vitamin A.

60 per cent.44%).10 per cent carbohydrates and 0. The mean values of moisture (9. seed flour also recorded significant amounts of vitamins. Hence.40%).20 and 3.1 NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SEED AND SEED FLOUR Literature related to the proximate compositions viz. Though jack seeds are utilized at domestic level. phosphorus (690). respectively.4 and 19. respectively followed by oleic acid (18:1).16 µg/g) and niacin (35. Jack seeds contained 61.80%). hull-free kernels contained protein (28.60%) and ash (8. tannins (0.00%).20%).40 and 3.90 %).00%) and Mg (205. calcium (354). crude fibre. Bara and Serewe. ash.80%). carbohydrates and mineral contents of the seed and its forms are presented in this section.. an attempt is made here to put together some of the closely related findings about the seed in general from other fruit or vegetable sources and has been reviewed in this chapter with special reference to jack seed. respectively. 37.00 %). Besides. crude protein (32. Fruits are consumed by all sector of community irrespective of age and gender but. ash (3. sodium (110) and ferrous (17) were reported.1 percentage of ash and crude fibre. The seed kernels constituted 5 per cent protein (g).70 and 30. The defatted flour contained protein (53. Bobbio et al. the seeds are used in some local dishes.50 per cent crude lipids.21%).60%).40 %) and carbohydrates (3. protein. sulphur (580).00%) and stearic acid (39. Nutritional and fatty acid contents of pumpkin and melon seed flour was documented by Lazos (1986). crude fat (22. respectively.00%).40 and 37. fat.50 and 256. In the year 1975. crude oil (45.10 and 15. 25. (1978) reported the proximate composition of jack seeds. total ash (4. crude fibre (2. A study was conducted by Akobundu et al. higher levels of crude fibre (3.10 and 64.8 and 20.19 0. crude fibre (2. magnesium (300).00%).50 and 6.30 and 25. P (852. The seeds contained 24. respectively.. . scientific literature related to seed and its utilization is limited.1 per cent fat. Egusi seed flour had good quantities of minerals (mg/100g) viz. (1982) to analyse the chemical compositions of egusi (cucurbitaceae) seed kernels. REVIEW OF LITERATURE A conceptual framework for the study based on the ideas and concepts gathered from review work of existing literature of both theoretical and empirical nature will facilitate planning the study in a comprehensive manner. 12. 6-7 per cent crude fat (g). Fleming et al.00%). Jackfruit is a tropical fruit appears in the market in spring and continues until summer.40 µg/g) Dingra and Kapoor (1984) documented the composition of mango seed kernel.00%). George and Boskou (1975) analysed the chemical composition of tomato seeds. (1976) determined the composition of sunflower seed flour. Study revealed that.10%).85g%). 2.65 and 3. oleic acid (42.2. 28. Higher mineral contents (mg/100 g) for potassium (780). Mineral content (mg) indicated rich sources of K (1111. Calcium (160).20g%). crude fibre (18. (1981) investigated the nutritional composition of tomato seed. The data obtained for pumpkin and melon seeds on a dry basis were. It also helps to know the previous research work carried out in the area and acts as a torch for new research.30 per cent protein.40g%) and ash (4.90%) were documented. 5. especially thiamine (4.00 and 557.60 % ).30%) and crude protein (33. The major fatty acid of both oils was linoleic acid (18:2).20%).5 per cent protein. Oyenuga and Fetuga evaluated the nutritive value of two local varieties of watermelon seed flour. Carlson et al. crude fat (1.20 and 56.9 per cent of total sugars (as glucose). respectively. 2.50 per cent moisture.68%) and carbohydrate (8.00 and 1288. crude fibre (12. the two local varieties documented good amount of protein ( 35.10 per cent. potassium (1442) and phosphorus (1950). in concentrations of 43. ether extract (54. lipid (52.70%).

27 and 1. A study was conducted by Kumar et al. In the year 2004.60%).20. Giami and Bekebian (1992) investigated the nutritional properties of pumpkin seed flour. total ash and crude fibre contents were 2. Total lipid (g) in the kernel of alphonso mango extracted.00%) and carbohydrates (62. fat (0.16g %).30%) were documented. respectively.75 and 6.90 for moisture.20. Abundant minerals (mg/100g) constituted were K.70).67%). The calorific value of both Kathari and Bharat Baramasi were found as 146. ash (4. In a review.50 and 140.80 and 4. Mg.00. crude fat.43 %). fat (11. (2002) reported the chemical compositions of jackfruit seed flour. Zn. Vishwanathan et al. and carbohydrates (62. crude fibre and carbohydrates. 2.70). 42. The mean values of proximate compositions (g %) were moisture (5. 4.10. Iron and total phosphorus contents recorded were 4. The seeds contained moisture.80 and 1. protein. protein (17.40 K. crude fibre (2. ether extract.00. crude protein (25.67%).30 and 12.calories per 100grams of seed flour. (1999) analysed the compositions of Teramnus labialis spreng. The calorific value was noted as 419. protein (6.Cal/100g.30). fat (7. (2006) assessed the compositional characteristics of cashew nut flour.00 mg/100g. respectively.40 per cent.80%).06 and 140. and ash with the mean values (g).00 g per cent moisture.17%).80 percentages. respectively. (1988) on the proximate composition of jackfruit seed flour.69g %) and carbohydrates (63.90 per cent of polar lipids which comprised 2. respectively. . 13. The major components of the flour were carbohydrates (82. Total lipid consisted of 96. The flour documented the proximate compositions (g) such as moisture (8. Tananuwong et al.89g %) and ash (1. total ash.01 and 26. respectively. compared to the Bharat Baramasi variety on the basis of most of the constituents analysed. The mean values (g %) were 4.78 and .calories. respectively. fat (2.20).80%).85g %).30.15 per cent. (1986) analysed the chemical composition of amaranth seed flour. The carbohydrate content was noted as 24. crude fibre and carbohydrates. Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna (1999) studied the nutritional profile of the jack seed flour.40). The kernel flour contained 20. The mean values (g) for moisture (9. and carbohydrate (26.80). Aremu et al. Amino acid analysis revealed that cashew nut flour contained nutritionally useful quantities of most of the essential amino acids.73g %).10. respectively. ether extract (36. ash (2.86. Nagaraj evaluated the nutritional value of defatted cashew kernel flour. 47. In the year 2001. 28.00g %).50.00 per cent of phospholipids.80%). (1987) studied the polar lipids of Alphonso mango kernel.62 and 58. 3. respectively. The seeds of Kathari and Bharat Baramasi varieties of jackfruit were found good sources of carbohydrates (28.80 per cent fat. respectively. fat.40 per cent. Hemavathy et al. carbohydrate and sugars. protein (21.10 per cent. 6.30g per cent protein.15%) fibre (3. 3. protein (11. seeds flour documented (g) crude protein.30g %).60 and 2.99%) and crude fibre (1.00g percentages of ash. crude fibre (5.60 per cent of the dry kernel. Na and Ca while least were Cu. The mean values (%) were 63. The total starch and amylose contents were analysed and the values recorded as 77. Kathari variety was observed to be nutritionally excelling.90 for protein.83g %).76 and 32.90 per cent protein.05 g/100g.90 per cent glycolipids and 1. respectively. ash (2. The seeds documented 6. lipid (0.90g per cent crude fat and 3. Further Akubor (2005). 6. total ash (2. Singhal and Kulkarni (1988) reported the compositions of amaranthus seed flour. The flour contained the moisture (4. 20.00 per cent moisture. 8. ash and nitrogen free extracts constituted 22. crude fibre. amounted to 11. The calorific value was 2243 KJ/100g and fatty acid content was noted as 29. The calorific value of 100grams dry matter of seed material was 379 K. A study by Amoo (2005) was conducted on the proximate compositions (g) of cashew kernel flour. crude protein. 29.10 and 12. Akubor conducted a study to investigate the compositions of melon seeds.25%).20.34%). 6.Yanez et al.33 K. 54. crude fibre (1.10 per cent of neutral and 3.69%).25g %). evaluated the chemical composition of breadfruit seed flour.30%). and Fe.50%). protein (2.

The puffed seed flour registered the higher water and fat absorption capacities (384 and 189. the viscosity of the flour increased to reach a peak value (450 AU).4 cps. Further the least gelation concentration in terms of per cent w/v was noted as 10. respectively.6 and 247. Very thin and thick emulsions were formed with 80 and 196 ml of oil. Singhal and Kulkarni (1991) evaluated the functional properties of amaranths paniculates seed flour. The viscosity of the unpuffed flour at 5. The viscosity (cps) of the flour was increased exponentially at different concentrations (5-20 w/w) of the flour (Fleming et al.5ml and 7. On the other hand.7 ml/g indicating the level of hull per cent in the flour had no influence on its water holding capacity. The foam capacity and stability was observed higher in raw fluted flour found as 9.2 FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF SEED FLOUR Functional properties of seed flour viz. Suspensions of egusi seed flour formed two types of emulsions with in the pH range of 2. bulk density. 214 and 159. foam capacity and stability related literature from other fruit or vegetable sources are reviewed in this section. A study was conducted to characterize the viscosity and water absorption properties of sunflower seed flour.43 gg ) registered -1 higher fat absorption capacity compared to raw fluted pumpkin flour (0. Increase in the viscosity was observed between the pH 5. Water holding capacity of the flour recorded as 226. Gel did not develop synersis during storage at 4ºC for 5 days.28 to 2. The bulk density of the seed flour was recorded as 0.5.6 and 2. respectively) indicated that. At different pH levels viz. Further. water and oil absorption capacities. A study was conducted to characterize the functionality of jack seed flour by Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna (1999).5 g/100g) compared to unpuffed seed flour (102. The raw fluted seed flour was significantly higher in water absorption capacity (3. Bobbio et al.3 per cent. Giami and Bekebain (1992) reported the functional characteristics of pumpkin seed flour. the bulk density of the raw fluted pumpkin flour was observed higher -1 -1 as 0.3 cps . respectively compared to germinated fluted flour (4. At 94 C. 240. germination and fermentation did not improve foam capacity and stability of raw fluted pumpkin flour. respectively) which could be due to changes in starch caused by dextrinization. The starch granules were not susceptible to ° breakdown by thermal or mechanical shear.1ml at 30min. 4. the germinated fluted pumpkin flour (0.. respectively indicating the decrease in water absorption capacity with increase in pH levels.0 and 8. 150 cps.4ml. 6 and 7 the water absorption capacities (ml /100g) were found 325.0in unpuffed flour and was higher in puffed seed flour (12..20 gg ) . Badifu and Gabriel (1999) documented the functional properties of defatted flour of melon seed flour. which . respectively and it decreased in puffed amaranths seed flour (45.20 in terms of gml compared to fermented fluted ( 0.3 and 3. (1978) documented the gel rigidity of jackfruit seed flour using an Exchange Ridgelimeter. 1976).50 and 91.2ml) and fermented fluted flour (4. The sunflower seed flour had the water absorption in terms of gH2 0/g between 1. The oil absorption capacity for the hull free and 10 per cent hull containing flour were found 2. Carlson et al. 5. respectively. The water holding capacity for both hull free and 10 per cent hull containing flours was 0. (1981) studied the functional properties of tomato seed flour.. The starch (8%) of the seed formed a highly rigid gel that had no particular odor and was extremely firm with practically no sag value.0).7 ml/g.0 and 7.0 and it could be related to the degree of soluble protein in the suspensions.3 and 144.75 g/ml. respectively.2.40gg 1 -1 ) compared to germinated fluted pumpkin flour (2.0 and 1. The viscosity of the flour was noted.75 depending upon the duration of mixing between 1 to 10min.00 g/100g). indicating that jackfruit seed starch would swell readily withstanding severe thermal conditions.18 gml ) and germinated fluted -1 pumpkin flour (0.20 gg ).5 per cents were 69. (1982) to assess the functional characteristics of egusi seed flour.50gg )and fermented fluted pumpkin flour -1 -1 (1. least gelation and emulsification capacities.11gml ). while it was decreased in puffed seed flour (0. The flour had a very low solubility at acidic pH.5-10. A study was conducted by Akobundu et al.37gg ) and fermented -1 fluted pumpkin flour (0.48).

The flour had good capacities of water absorption (205.0 attaining a maximum value of 95 per cent. respectively.61gml .00 per cent. respectively. 2. A study by Nagaraj (2001) evaluated the functional properties of defatted cashew kernel flour. Water and oil absorption capacities were found as 2. Cucurbita meal proteins indicated very high solubility (17. where as in dehulled samples the digestibility documented an increase of 5 per cent. The flour had the 15 and 92 per cent of foam capacity and stability. Bulk density of the flour was documented as 1.39 g/ml.00 to 86.18 g/g.0 and 8.00 gml-1 after 120min.8 mlg flour at pH 4. water and fat absorption capacities were found as 210 and 160 ml/100g.68 and 8. The lower breakdown of viscosity during heating cycle of jack seed starch as compared to that of tapioca and corn starch indicated good stability of the starch paste and bonding forces within the starch granules. Water absorption capacity of sapium meal (2. respectively. The pasting properties of 8 per cent jack seed starch were studied along with tapioca and corn starches for comparision. Water and oil absorption capacities were recorded as 56. evaluated the processing effects on in-vitro protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin seed flour. The boiled samples were most digestible followed by the fermented samples while the raw and germinated samples were least. Fat absorption capacities of sapium and cucurbita meals were noted as 3.10 -1 gml and found gradually decreased to 2. In the year 2005.The foam capacity of the flour was noted as 7.0 and 33. It is important to introduce new products using underutilized food ingredients which are available abundantly.8 gg-1. The water and oil absorption capacites in terms of g/kg were recorded as 1300 and 700. Emulsification activity (g/kg) was recorded as 620 and emulsification stability of the flour was 710 per cent. Maximum nitrogen solubility of the flour noted 40. it also enhances the shelf life of food materials in processed form. An emulsification capacity of -1 -1 flour was observed as 6. A systematic study was conducted by Odoemelam (2005) to evaluate the functional properties of jack seed flour.84%) at pH 4. a study was conducted by Tananuwong et al. and it increased slowly with increase in pH showing maximum solubility 8. to analyze the functional properties of jack seed flour.0. The kernels had a good digestibility of 90. Bulk -1 density of the flour recorded as 0. solubility of sapium meal protein was minimum (0.exhibited a steep rise between pH 4.6 per cent at pH 10. Fagbemi et al. analysed the in-vitro digestibility of melon seed kernels. The bulk density (g/cm-3) and least gelation concentration (w/v) of the flour were 0. respectively. Foam stability of the flour was achieved between the pH levels 3.8 per cent. which is also the pH of minimum nitrogen solubility.30 mlg-1 and 2. Foaming and emulsification capacity of the flour were 53.81 per cent at pH 12.3 and 128. .4 VALUE ADDITION TO SEED FLOUR Value addition not only enhances proper utilization during glut.00%). The protein digestibility of fluted pumpkin recorded as 72. Akubor (2005) documented the functional properties of melon seed flour. respectively.16 g/g). 2.58 %) at pH 12 and least value was 2. respectively.40 mlg at pH 1 and was gradually decreased to 4. Hulled seed flours gave a digestibility increase of 6 per cent compared with raw flours.3 NUTRITIONAL QUALITY Digestibilities of nutritive components reveal the quality of food. The flour had the 16 per cent (w/v) least gelation concentration.00.00%) and oil absorption (93. In the year 2002. respectively.7 per cent. Adeyeye (1997) assessed the in-vitro protein digestibilities of the flours of six colour varieties of African yam bean made from both hulled and dehulled seed flours. Amita and Saroj (2002) studied the functional properties of defatted sapium and cucurbita seed flour.0 and 8. Protein solubility profile of sapium and cucurbita meals at different pH values indicated that.80 g/g ) was slightly higher than cucurbita meal (2.80 per cent.68 and 2. respectively. Khalil (2006).23 per cent at pH 4.

00%). Naik (2007) incorporated 10 to 50 per cent jack seed flour in 50:50 blend of wheat flour (maida and full wheat flour ) for the preparation of cookies. Upto 10 per cent substitution with bread fruit seed flour produced bread with crust colour. Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna (1999) assessed the use of jackfruit seed in product formulation.Carlson et al. Overall quality of the bread was found decreased with increase in the tomato meal replacement. crumb colour. Study revealed that.63 to 5. The addition of tomato seed to the bread had a positive effect on loaf volume with the high concentration of crude fat present in the tomato seed and improved the overall quality of the bread. evaluated the possibility of substitution of jack seed flour in bread preparation. A study by Gaimi and Amasisi (2003) noted the performance of African bread fruit seed flour in bread preparation. the water absorption capacity increased and bread dough peak time and dough stability time were reduced. evaluated the balady bread fortified with tomato seed meal. Tananuwong et al.00%) of the bread. Yaseen et al. while 50 per cent incorporation though was acceptable had hard texture. For the presence of off flavour and after taste. extensibility and mechanical work for deformation of doughs. less than 5 per cent of wheat flour can be replaced with jack seed flour in the bread preparation. The product at 20 and 30 per cent incorporation were acceptable with good sensory profile. The responses were significant with higher proportion of jack seed to the products. In the savoury product none of the sensory attributes were affected. With increasing level of replacement. where as in sweet product the quality of texture and flavour was affected. The protein and fibre content of the bread were increased to 14.71 to 16. crumb texture. karasev and jamun revealed that. 10 per cent of replacement with both whole and defatted tomato seed meal was successfully accepted. (1981) studied the influence of tomato seed addition on the quality of wheat flour breads. Thus it can be concluded from the above studies that the replacement of seed flour up to 5 to 30 per cent is possible in various products depending upon the composition of flour and functional quality for better utilization or end use..10 per cent in the replacement of wheat flour with whole tomato and defatted tomato seed meal. Supplementation with tomato seeds at a replacement level slightly above 10 per cent was recommended for nutritional as well as for functional considerations. . resulted in the reduction of these quality attributes. There were no significant differences between wheat flour and blends containing 5 to 10 per cent of African bread fruit seed flour in the alveograph values for resistance to extension. while the addition of defatted tomato seed meal lowered the fat content (1. The specific baking volume of the bread was reduced by 51 per cent at 5 per cent replacement with jack seed flour. loaf height and loaf volume similar to the control. In the year 1991. Use of higher levels (15-25%) however. It was observed that. The addition of whole tomato seed meal to wheat flour resulted increase in the fat content (4. respectively.22 per cent and 4. it was important to bring down fat absorption to a remarkable extent. no significant responses were obtained. On incorporation of jack seed to two deep fat fried products viz. In the year 2002.

2 NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF JACKFRUIT SEED FLOUR 3. soaking in 3 per cent sodium hydroxide solution for 3-5 minutes to remove the thin brown spermoderm which covers the cotyledons. 3.1 Moisture Five grams of powdered seed sample was weighed into a previously weighed moisture cup and dried in an oven at 60°C till a constant weight was attained (Anon.1 PREPARATION OF SEED FLOUR 3. The spermoderm layer was removed by rubbing the seeds between the hands and washing thoroughly under running water. The crude protein content was calculated by multiplying with factor 6.2.60° C to a constant moisture. MATERIAL AND METHODS The present investigation on “Nutritional and functional quality and value addition to jackfruit seed flour” was carried out during the year 2006-2007. All the analysis were done in triplicates on moisture free basis except crude protein content. in–vitro protein and starch digestibility..2. shelf life status and utilization in convenience food.3 Preparation of jackfruit seed flour The lye peeled seeds were sliced into thin chips and dried at 50.1.1. 3. 3. physical and functional profile. The dried chips were powdered in a flour mill.2.007 × 6. 3. crude protein.1990). 1990 ) Initial weight (g) – Final weight (g) Moisture % = ------------------------------------------× 100 Sample weight (g) 3. crude fat.2 Seed treatment The jackfruit seeds (4 kgs ) were cleaned manually and white arils (seed coat ) were manually peeled off. Seeds were lye peeled.3. with jackfruit seed flour nutrient.2 Crude protein The nitrogen content of flour was estimated by Microkjeldahl method in Parnas and Wagner apparatus (Anon.25 ------------------------------------------------------------. The material and methods adopted for the study are recorded in this section.1. moisture. 3. Protein % = (Titre—Blank ) × Normality of HCL × 14..1.× 100 Sample weight (g) .1 Proximate composition The seed flour was analysed for proximate composition viz. crude fibre and total mineral matter and expressed in percentage.1 Procurement of seed material The jackfruit seeds were collected from the local market of Dharwad and North Canara districts during the season. passed through 105 µ mesh sieve and packed in polyethylene pouches and stored in a refrigerator (<10° C) for further analysis.1..25 and expressed on per cent basis.

Plate 1. Jackfruit seeds .

. As the sample was burned.1.4 and 9 respectively and expressed as K calories per 100 grams of seed flour.2.5 Total mineral matter Total mineral matter ( ash ) was determined by igniting samples in muffle furnace at 600°c for 3 .× 100 Weight of crucible with sample (g) 3. . PHYSICAL AND FUNCTIONAL QUALITIES OF SEED FLOUR Physical and functional qualities of jackfruit seed flour were determined and recorded. Sample was ignited electrically.1. Per cent crude fat was calculated by difference (Anon. Rest of the calculation was done according to the method referred in the manual.6 Carbohydrates The carbohydrates content was calculated by deducting the sum of the values for moisture.2.4 Crude fibre Fat free seed flour sample was hydrolyzed with dilute sulphuric acid (0.2. The calorific value of jack seed flour was also determined by using Bomb Calorimeter (Model Toshiwal digital bomb). The principle of operation is mentioned below A known amount of the sample was burned in a sealed chamber (BOMB). A knowledge of the water equivalent of the calorimeter assembly and of the rise in temperature enables to calculate the heat of combustion of the sample.2. the amount of heat produced by burning the sample must be equal to the amount of heat absorbed by the calorimeter assembly.3. 1990).313 N) to estimate crude fibre by employing the methods of Mayanard (1970). crude protein.1 Physical characters Physical characters such as number of seeds per fruit and seed flour yield were documented. heat was produced. Since barring the loss of heat.3 Crude fat Moisture free sample was weighed in moisture free thimbles and crude fat was extracted by refluxing in soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether as solvent.1.255 N) and dilute alkali (0.. Weight of crucible with ash (g) Total mineral matter % = -------------------------------------------. crude protein and crude fat with the factors 4. 1983 ). crude fat..1. The total mineral matter was expressed as per cent. Weight residue with crucible (g) – Weight of ash with crucible Crude fibre %=-------------------------------------------------------------------. The air was replaced by pure oxygen.1.2.×100 Weight of fat free sample (g) 3. 3. Crude fat % = Initial weight (g) – Weight after extraction (g) --------------------------------------------------------. 3. The rise in temperature was measured.3.7 Calorific value The calorific value was computed by summing up the values obtained by multiplying the values of carbohydrate.× 100 Sample weight (g) 3.4 hours ( Anon.3. crude fibre and total mineral matter in 100 ( Raghuramulu et al. 3. 1990).

the total flour was weighed and expressed as percentage. Then it was dried at 105°C in a hot air oven till constant weight was attained and cooled in a descicator and again weighed the petriplate with dry solids (W 5).1.2. 3. 3. About 500 milligrams (W 1) of jack seed flour was taken in a centrifuge tube and weighed the centrifuge tube with sample (W 2) and 20ml (VE) of distilled water was added. per cent solubility.3. Fat absorption capacity of the seed flour was calculated as: Weight of sample Weight of sample after centrifugation – before centrifugation % Fat absorption capacity = ----------------------------------------------------------.× 100 Weight of original sample taken 3.2. The per cent solubility of the supernatant was calculated by.2 Functional qualities Functional qualities such as water and oil absorption capacities.× ------W1 VA . The swelling power of seed flour per gram was calculated by the formula: (W 3—W 2) × 1 Swelling power (g/g) = ------------------W1 Where. 3.. The contents were cooled and centrifuged at 5000rpm for 10min. (W 5 – W 4) 100 % solubility = -------------.3. 3. 1971).2 Fat absorption capacity One gram of seed flour sample was taken in a centrifuge tube and weight was recorded.2 Flour Yield Hundred grams of jack seed was considered for yield calculation. The supernatant was carefully decanted in a test tube. Free oil was decanted and weight of the centrifuge tube was noted (Sosulki.3 Swelling power and per cent solubility of seed flour Swelling power and per cent solubility of seed flour was determined according to the method of Schoch (1964). 1962). Six milliliters of refined oil was added to the flour and centrifuged at 4000rpm for 25min.1 Water absorption capacity Twenty grams of seed flour was taken and required quantity of water added to get a dough of moderately stiff consistency. The amount of water required was noted and expressed in percent ( Austin and Ram. W 1 = Weight of seed flour sample W 2 = Weight of the centrifuge tube with seed flour sample W 3 = Weight of the centrifuge tube with swollen material For per cent solubility of seed flour.).1. flour dispersibility and viscosity of the seed flour were analysed. Then it was allowed for 30min in a boiling water bath at 100°C. The water adhering to the sides of centrifuge tube was wiped well and weight of the centrifuge tube was taken with swollen material (W 3). swelling power. After the processing steps (3.1 Hundred grams of jack seeds were weighed and number of seeds were counted and recorded. the dried petriplate was weighed (W 4) and 10ml of supernatant (VA) was pipetted into the petriplate.3.3.3.1.3.2.3.3.

Where. 3. UAS) 3. and 0.5mg of amyloglucosidase was added and incubated at 37°C. then 25ml of phosphate buffer containing 6mg of pancreatin was added and incubated for 24hours at 37°C.5mg of pancreatin and 7.1N HCl containing 19..5.2 In-vitro starch digestibility Sample of 500mg in 25ml of distilled water was cooked on boiling water bath for 15min. Brooke field viscometer.2N sodium hydroxide was added and volume made upto 100ml.2.05M phosphate buffer containing 7. W 1 = Weight of seed flour sample W 4 = Weight of the petriplate W 5 = Weight of the petriplate with dry solids VE = Volume of water added VA = Volume of supernatant taken 3.1 In-vitro protein digestibility Sample containing 100 milligrams of protein was treated with 0. Distilled water added to the volume of 100ml.3. The procedures followed are given below.4.4 NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF THE SEED FLOUR In-vitro protein and starch digestibility of the seed flour was carried out by enzymatic method described by Moulishwar et al (1993). The volume was made upto 100ml with distilled water and 50ml of the aliquot was treated with 10per cent trichloroacetic acid and left overnight to precipitate the proteins. 1965 ).5N sodium hydroxide.. of incubation and reducing sugars released were determined by Nelson Somogy’s method (Hawk et al .2. (RTV model. 1993). Ten milliliters of this aliquot was taken. 3. 2006 to May. The contents were neutralized with 0.3.5 milligrams of pepsin at 37°C for three hours.1. Digested protein = Total protein – Undigested protein Thus. The suspensions were centrifuged and residue was analysed for protein by microkjeldahl method . 3. stirred vigorously and allowed to settle for three hours. obtained values of digested protein were expressed in percentage.5. the amount of protein digested was calculated as. The samples were withdrawn at 30 and 60min. . 2007) both in refrigerated and ambient conditions.1 Packaging and storage Twenty five grams of seed flour was weighed and packed in food grade polyethylene pouches (80 gauge) and heat sealed. The volume of settled particles was subtracted from 100 and the difference was reported as percentage dispersibility.1 Storage quality 3. To the cooled sample 0.4. Glucose was used as standard and degree of hydrolysis was expressed as milligrams of glucose liberated from food after correction for blank values (Moulishwar et al. The storage quality was assessed for 6 months (November.5 Viscosity Cold and hot paste viscosities of seed flour was tested at 5 and 10 per cent slurry concentrations (100ml) using Viscometer at 100 rpm with spindle number two.5 SHELF LIFE OF SEED FLOUR 3.4 Flour dispersibility Dispersibility was measured by placing 10 grams of seed flour sample in 100ml stoppered measuring cylinder. 3.

UAS.5. Dharwad.3. salt. The wheat flour.1. salt (3g) and baking powder (1.5 cm Different shaped pieces were cut out using biscuit cutter Placed in the baking trays and baked at 150˚C for 10.1. Hundred girls aged between 18-25 years were considered for the evaluation of biscuits by scoring method using 9 point Hedonic Scale.6. non-katai biscuits at different proportions to assertain the acceptable level of incorporation.2.5. The most acceptable proportion of jack seed flour biscuit was considered for the consumer acceptability trail. The evaluation was achieved by selected partially trained judges from Department of Food Science and Nutrition. . The experiment was conducted in duplicates.. The biscuits were prepared using the standardized method of Bakery Unit.1 Sensory evaluation of biscuits The biscuits were evaluated for organoleptic characters like appearance. Dharwad. The detailed protocol of biscuits of standard recipe is mentioned below: Refined wheat flour (100g) was weighed Kneaded with 40g of hydrogenated fat Other ingredients viz.12 min Biscuits were allowed to cool at room temperature for 8-10 min Packed in the polyethylene cover and sensory evaluation was done after 24 hrs 3. aroma and overall acceptability by scoring method using 9 point hedonic scale.1 3. The judges were given a score card (Appendix I).2 Consumer acceptability The accepted proportion of jack seed flour biscuit by the panelists was considered to assess the level of consumer acceptability. fat. instructed individually and requested to evaluate the biscuits.5g) were mixed well Homogeneous mass was prepared using curds to form required consistency Batter was rolled out to the thickness of 0.. colour. UAS. baking powder and sugar were procured from local market. taste.6. according to the procedure outlined in 3. 3. sugar (7g). 3.2 Sensory Quality Any change in the visible sensory parameters of the stored seed flours was evaluated by expert panels and changes if any were recorded.2 Analysis of stored samples The stored samples were drawn at monthly intervals for six months and moisture percentages were determined.6 UTILISATION OF SEED FLOUR IN CONVENIENCE FOOD The jack seed flour was utilized in the preparation of convenience food viz. texture.

3. 1. Completely randomized design (CRD) was applied to test the storage quality and significant difference in quality parameters. Level of incorporation of flours Treatments Control I II III IV V Refined Wheat Flour 100 90 80 70 60 50 Jack seed flour 10 20 30 40 50 Fig. 1960).05 and P = 0. The limit of probability fixed for the test significance was P = 0. the significant result was obtained. Colour values of Minolota Colour meter 3. weight.7 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The data collected on physical properties. chemical composition.1).Table 1. whenever.. the critical test was used (Steel and Torrie. thickness.3 Physical characters of biscuits Physical characters viz.01.6. spread ratio and colour of the biscuits was determined before and after the replacement of jack seed flour using Vernier Callipers and Minolta Colour meter (Fig. . diameter. functional qualities of seed flour were statistically analysed.

The lye peeled and dried seeds were milled into flour.90 ml/100g) was recorded for oil absorption capacity.4. 2. the weight of the flour recorded 78 grams. The total crude yield of the flour.3 NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF JACK SEED FLOUR In-vitro studies are the appropriate methods for analyzing the nutritional quality of any food material. The total carbohydrates documented was 70. It is evidenced that. There are several direct and indirect methods employed in assessment of nutritional quality. the weight of the seeds reduced to 98 grams conversely.cal) was recorded when energy was analysed using Bomb Calorimeter. in-vitro digestibility. 4. This property helps in the food applications. A good source of protein and carbohydrates. storage quality. calories when computed using Atwater figures.2 NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SEED FLOUR Jack seed has a great potential in the product formulation. The functional properties are important in the food systems for the creation of new products.40 %) at ambient temperature.1. c the 5 per cent slurry was less viscous (19.03 per cent of crude protein. 4. Data in Table 4. brown spermoderm and handling losses represented 78 per cent.80 %) slurry.00ml/100g where as. two per cent reduction in seed weight was observed. The mean value for the water absorption capacity of the flour recorded 112. the seeds have several potentialities for value addition. 4. The moisture content recorded a mean of 14. documents the range and mean values for proximate composition of jack seed flour. where as higher value (376 K. In the present investigation the nutritional quality was assessed in terms of .07 per cent.1 Yield The observations related to the yield data of jack seed flour is presented in the Fig. The calorific value per 100 grams of jack seed flour was documented as 327 K.1 PHYSICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF SEED FLOUR The physical and functional parameters considered are as follows.20 % ) than the 10 per cent (40.80 %). a difference of 10 per cent in viscosity was observed at both 5 and 10 per cent concentrations. 100 grams of jack seed consisted of 21 fresh seeds. the cold pastes got the higher viscosity values compared to hot slurries. Results of the experiments to assess the water and oil absorption capacities. It is interesting to note that when temperature was considered as a variable. the cooked paste viscosity of 5 per cent jack seed flour paste got lower value (27.25 per cent of crude fibre and of 3. 1.62 g/g ) of the seed flour was higher than the per cent solubility (1. the values of 9. 2 and Appendix II. RESULTS Jackfruit is considered as poor man’s fruit. 4.01 per cent total mineral matter were recorded. exclusive of weight of the white arils. Similar observations were also prevailing at hot temperature (90° ).2 Functional properties of jack seed flour Seeds are generally processed to yield typical functional.1. 4.10 % ) compared to 10 per cent paste (51. nutritional or organoleptic characteristics in the resultant flours. higher value (126. Observations of Table 3 shows that. On the other hand. The results of the studies on jack seed flour in terms of physical and functional properties. swelling power and per cent solubility of jack seed flour is depicted in the Table 2. standardization and consumer acceptability of value added product are presented in this chapter. Therefore. the total yield of the flour was recorded as 68 per cent. thus reducing the seed weight to 90 grams. The dispersibility of the seed flour noted 30 per cent.26 per cent. The swelling power (3. dispersibility. nutritional composition. As expected. The viscosity is an important determinant of knowing pasting temperature at which the first detectable gelled starch is measured using Brooke field viscometer. The weight of the brown spermoderm recorded eight grams. After removal of white arils.10 per cent of fat.

Yield of jack seed flour .Weight after removal of white arils Weight after removal of brown spermoderm Crude Passed 8.34 13.46 Fig. 2.16 2 13. 2. Yield of jack seed flour Fig.

90 ± 0.02 Per cent solubility (%) 1.20 Swelling power (g/g) 3.00 ± 0. Functional properties of jack seed flour Properties Values Water absorption capacity (ml/100 g ) 112.20 Oil absorption capacity (ml/100 g) 126.60 Dispersibility (%) 30.A – Dred jack seed chips B – jack seed flour Plate 2.62 ± 0. Processed jack seed products Table 2.80 ± 0.20 * Average of three replications .00 ± 0.

1 51.17 starch 30 min 57.09 3.28 60 min 69.09 1.55 ± 0. Nutritional quality of seed flour % 14.2 40.03 ± 1.07 ± 0.04 9.01 ± 0.11 2.8 In vitro digestibility Percentage Protein 78. Table 5.01 70. Proximate composition of jack seed flour (g/100 g) Composition* Moisture Protein (g) Fat (g) Crude fibre (g) Total mineral matter (g) Total carbohydrates (g) Calorific value (K.26 327 376 cps 384 816 % 19.Table 3. cal) Computed Analysed * Mean of triplicates Expressed on dry weight basis.30 * Mean of triplicates .6 541 1028 27.10 ± 0. Table 4. Viscosity of jack seed flour Concentrations Hot slurry (90°C) 5% 10% Cold paste (25°C) 5% 10% * Average of triplicates.

00) for its very god texture as that of control.03%) months of storage at ambient temperature.78. the ‘F’ .1 Moisture Moisture content is one of the important parameters which interferes in the quality of the flour during the storage. However. In the Figure 3 and Appendix III. 7. but extends the shelf life of seeds in processed form. there was an increase in the moisture content from the initial value (7.31. In the first phase.03 per cent in ambient temperature and 7. taste.00 with good texture profile. 4. Though. standardization of control biscuit trials were conducted.33) was recorded by 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits.63. The basic experiment approach consisted of developing satisfactory level of jack seed flour incorporated non-katai biscuits based on organoleptic qualities in terms of colour and appearance.55. 8. 7. 5th (9.81. 75 and 100 per cent jack seed flour in terms of sensory parameters. The colour and appearance of 25 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits scored highest (8. the control biscuits scored 7. Value addition not only enhances proper utilization during glut.00) value for its extremely good colour and appearance whereas.64 %) and 6th (11. it is clearly depicted that. Ingredient proportions were modified to develop satisfactory product using 25. However. a gradual increase in moisture level was noticed in the samples stored under refrigerated condition.33) moderately good texture profile whereas the 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the higher value (7. respectively with the intervals of a month.17 per cent. On the other hand. the 75 and 100 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored the similar value (7.16 %) to 8.64 and 11. aroma and overall acceptability as assessed by expert and trained panelists on 9 point Hedonic scale. 100 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits scored the least value of 5. Significant difference was observed between the ambient and refrigerated condition (P < 0.03 and 8. Conversely.4.66) moderately good texture.04. The 75 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented (5. The starch digestibility of the seed flour observed was higher (69. 8. 7. 9. very good score (7. The protein in-vitro digestibility documented 78.2 Sensory profile of stored jack seed flour The increase in moisture level in the stored samples did not reveal any change in sensory profile in terms of colour. The sensory profile of biscuits are depicted in the Figure 4 and Appendix IV. In the present investigation storage property of jack seed flour considered for six months. Similarly.04 %).5.13.01).00) for their very good colour and appearance.28 %). texture. the statistical test revealed that the mean scores of biscuits with different levels of incorporation of jack seed flour were not significant at 5 per cent level of significance. To enhance the utility and to make them available year through seeds can be processed into flour which can be used in different value added products.30 %) at the withdrawal of 60 minutes compared to withdrawal of sample at 30 minutes (57. 4.4 STORAGE QUALITY OF JACK SEED FLOUR The existence of any product without any change in the quality and sensory profile of the product can be analysed by the process of storage study. 4.4. 4.5 VALUE ADDED CONVENIENCE FOOD OF JACK SEED FLOUR Jack seeds are perishable and season bound. Peak increase in the moisture level was observed at 1st (8.66.in-vitro digestibility of starch and protein using enzymatic method and documented in the Table 5. The 25 per cent jack seed flour incorporated biscuits recorded (6. 8. flavour and texture during six months. 4. 50.39 per cent in refrigerated conditions. 8.41.1 Preliminary trials A study on the standardization of jack seed based biscuits was conducted in two successive stages.

12 Ambient condition (24-26° C) Refrigerated condition (8-10° C) 10 8 Moisture (%) 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 Months 4 5 6 Fig. 3. 3. Moisture content of stored flour . Moisture content of stored flour Fig.

Sensory scores of jack seed based biscuits (initial trials) . 4.9 8 7 6 8 7 6 Sens ory p arameters Sensory param eters 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 4 3 s 2 1 0 control 25 50 Level of incorporation 75 100 control 25 50 75 100 Level of incorporation Colour and appearance Texture 8 8 7 7 6 6 4 Se n s o ry p a r am e te r s Se n s o ry p a r am e te r s 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 control 25 50 Level of incorporation 0 75 100 control 25 50 Level of incorporation 75 100 Taste Aroma 8 7 6 5 Sensory parameters 4 3 2 1 0 control 25 50 Level of incorporation 75 100 Overall acceptability Fig.

the biscuits with varied proportion of jack seed flour exhibited similar trend of increase in weight with increase in jack seed flour in the product.2. The 10 per cent seed flour based biscuits weighed 157 grams with 1. The 75 and 100 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the scores.07. 4. Similarly. respectively with 4.38. 6.18 per cent. The 10 per cent seed flour incorporated dough absorbed 21 ml of curds (4. The taste of control biscuits scored highest value of 7.66 with very god aroma as that of control (7. the 20 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the weight of 159 grams. respectively.5. thickness and colour (top and bottom). 165 and 167 grams.23 per cent increase in the weight of fresh dough. 4.5.51 per cent increase in the baked weight. 40 and 50 per cent seed flour based dough absorbed the curds 23.00 and 1. 4.35 per cent increase in the weight.3 Standardization of jack seed flour incorporated biscuits Preliminary trials indicated that.66 for their poor and very poor aroma. Similarly. The 10 per cent seed flour incorporated dough documented 221 grams with 1. 40 and 50 per cent seed flour incorporated dough documented the weight of 228. There was a visible trend observed that an increase in fresh weight of dough with increase in the proportion of jack seed flour.66 and 1.66.33 and 1.test revealed that the mean scores of biscuits with different levels of incorporation of jack seed flour were not significant at 5 per cent of significance level.66 for their very fair and poor overall acceptable quality.11 per cent increase in the weight.27 per cent increase in the weight (Table 7).5. 33. The 25 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored 6.2 Dough forming properties of jack seed flour The observations related to the dough forming properties of jack seed flour at different levels of incorporation is presented in the Table 6. Hence.04.30 and 37.03 and 7. There was clear evidence of increase in the weight of the fresh dough with an increase in the seed flour incorporation level. Further. further experiments were planned to incorporate jack seed flour between 10 to 50 per cent with an intervals of 10 per cent. The 25 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the value of 6. 30.1 Weight of biscuits Similar to seed flour incorporated dough characteristics. . 23. With respect to aroma of biscuits. Biscuits were evaluated for sensory attributes and physical parameters such as diameter.33 for its good aroma. The 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the good taste with the value of 4. with 3. the control biscuits scored higher value (7.50 per cent absorption levels. 40 and 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits documented the weight of 162.00 compared to different levels of jack seed flour incorporated biscuits. 2. The 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits documented the score. The absorption of curds by control dough was lower (20 ml) compared to all other Seed flour incorporated doughs. The sensory profile of the biscuits with an incorporation level of 10 to 50 per cent with jack seed flour were shown in Figure 5 and Appendix V. with 2. The 75 and 100 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded very fair and poor taste with the values of 3.00). the 30. The 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits recorded the value of 5.33 for its moderately good acceptability.06 and 7. The overall acceptability of biscuits showed that. 30 and 32 mililitres. 26. respectively.66. 232 and 235 grams. 30. The 75 and 100 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits recorded the values of 2.33) with very good acceptability. 6. The weight of fresh dough of control was recorded as 218 g. respectively with 13. incorporation with jack seed flour to obtain acceptable biscuits is possible only below 50 per cent. The baked weight of the control biscuits recorded 155 grams.66 for their good taste. 25 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored the value of 6. respectively with increase in the baked weight of biscuits 4. 4.76% absorption) followed by 20. Further.66 with good overall acceptability.32. the 20 per cent seed flour based dough recorded the weight of 225 g.

The statistical test revealed that. The statistical test revealed that significant difference was observed between the control and 30 per cent seed flour based biscuits. The texture scores of biscuits with 10 per cent seed flour recorded the similar value of 6.76 13. The 10 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits scored the value of 6. Further.85 for its moderately good colour and appearance. The 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored the value of 5.50 235 7.14 and 10 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented the value of 7. respectively) but recorded very good colour and appearance as that of control.30 221 225 228 232 1. the statistical test revealed that.04 23. there were no impact of substitution of jack seed flour upto 50 per cent and all the proportions of biscuits are not significant with each other at 5 per cent level of significance.38 6.51 4.23 Table 7. Similarly. the 20 and 30 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the values of 6. It is interesting to note that the 20 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored .18 19 The colour and appearance of control biscuits recorded the highest value of 7.32 6.42 and 5. The 20 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented the moderately good (6.27 2.00.85.14 for their moderately good and good taste.00 and 4.14 for its very good colour and appearance.07 33. The taste of 10 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits recorded the similar value of 6. respectively and recorded fair texture profile. Further. respectively.85 for their fair taste. The 20 and 30 per cent and 30 and 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits were not significant with each other at 5 per cent level of significance. Dough characteristics % incorporation of jack seed flour 10 20 30 40 21 23 26 30 4.28 for its moderately good acceptability. Though the 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored the least value of 3.71 as that of control biscuits.03 Variable Absorption of curds (ml) % increase in curds Weight of fresh dough (g) % increase in weight Control 20 218 - 50 32 37. The aroma of control biscuits recorded the highest value of 7.00 for their very good aroma. significant difference was observed between control and 30 per cent seed flour based biscuits. Further. It is interesting to note that the 30 and 40 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits recorded the similar value of 6.85 recorded the fair aroma as that of 40 per cent seed flour based biscuits.14 and 5.42 and recorded moderately good acceptability. Even though 10 and 20 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored the lower values (6.35 3.06 18 18 18 19 Variable Weight of biscuits (g) % increase in the weight of biscuits Number of biscuits Control 155 18 50 167 7. The 40 and 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented the values of 4.00. the significant difference was observed between the control and 30 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits.28) aroma. The statistical test revealed that.57 and 7.14 for their good and fair aroma. The overall acceptability of biscuits showed that. the 20 and 30 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the values of 6.Table 6. The non-significant difference was observed between 20 and 30 per cent and 30 and 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits. the 30 per cent and 40 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits recorded the value of 5. respectively for their moderately good and good texture.71 and 3.14 and 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored the value of 3. However. the control biscuits scored the highest overall acceptability value of 6. The 40 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the value of 4. the significant difference was observed between the 20 and 40 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits.71 as that of control for their very good texture profile.57 for their very good colour and appearance. Physical parameters of biscuits % incorporation of jack seed flour 10 20 30 40 157 159 162 165 1.11 4.

8 8 7 7 6 6 S en so ry pa ra m eters 4 S en sory para m ete rs 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 control 10 20 Level of incorporation 0 30 40 50 control 10 20 Level of incorporation 30 40 50 Colour and appearance Texture 8 8 7 7 6 6 Sen so ry p ar am eter s 4 S en so ry p ar am eter s 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 control 10 20 Level of incorporation 0 30 40 50 control 10 20 Level of incorporation 30 40 50 Taste Aroma 7 6 5 Sensory parameters 4 3 2 1 0 control 10 20 Level of incorporation 30 40 50 Overall acceptability Fig. 5. Sensory scores of jack seed based biscuits .

78. It is interesting to note that.13cm) as that of control. The spread ratio of the biscuits gradually increased as the seed flour incorporation level increases.04cm) higher thickness compared to control. With respect to top side the 10 per cent jack seed flour based biscuits scored the higher ‘l’ values (71. The 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits scored highest ‘a’ value (3. the statistical test revealed that. 20 and 30 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits. the top layer of 20 and 40 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the same ‘a’ value (1. 4.71) than the control and 10 per cent jack seed flour based biscuits. the 30 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored ‘a’ value of 1. All the seed flour incorporated biscuits differed significantly differed with control.04) with light brownish colour compared to other levels of seed flour incorporated biscuit.81cm) compared to that of control and other different levels of seed flour incorporated biscuits. There was non-significant difference was observed between 40 and 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits.68 and 5.83 and 68. the thickness of biscuits with different proportions of jack seed flour were not significant with each other at 5 per cent significance. the 40 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented the lower ‘l’ values (68.88cm) of thickness as that of 30 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits. diameter.even though the lower value (5. It is observed that. It is observed that the 40 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored the same value (4.21. 40 and 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits documented the values as 4.. The observations related to the colour (top and bottom layer) of biscuits incorporated with jack seed flour at different levels is presented in the Table 9. 4. thickness and colour (top and bottom) of biscuits incorporated with different levels of jack seed flour were determined and the results are presented in this section. It is observed that 10 per cent jack seed flour based biscuits documented (1. The observations related to the diameter and thickness of biscuits incorporated with jack seed flour at different levels is presented in the Table 8. The 10. 4. 20 and 30 per cent jack seed flour incorporated biscuits documented lower diameter scores of 4. the statistical test revealed that. respectively. a. The diameter of the biscuits gradually increased with increase in the proportion of jack seed flour.06. the 20 and 30 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded the thickness of 0. respectively. Further. the significant difference was observed between control and 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits. However.28 for its very fair acceptability.58) compared to 20 and 30 per cent seed flour based biscuits (72. The top side of 10 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits documented the lower ‘a’ value (1.88 cms. recorded the moderately good acceptability. the ‘F’ test revealed that.38.46 and 72. It is interesting to note that the 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented higher value (4. the 30 per cent and 40 per cent seed flour based biscuits recorded good over all acceptability with the values of 5.09cms. The top ‘l’ coluor values of biscuits were not significant with each other upto 30 per cent seed flour incorporation. respectively) with lesser whitish colour. The top layer ‘a’ colour values of biscuits with 20 per cent seed flour based were not significant with control. Significant difference was observed between 40 and 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits and these differed significantly with rest of the biscuits. the mean scores of diameter of biscuits with different levels of incorporation of jack seed flour were not significant at 5 per cent significance level.00 cm). 30. The 10 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented lower (3. the 40 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits scored the same value (0. The 20.63. The 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented the least value of 3.19 cm. b colours compared to bottom side of biscuits. However.67. Further. However.93 and 0. Further. 4. respectively.21cm) compared to control.08 and 4.55). The control biscuits documented the diameter of 4.64. The top side of all different levels of jack seed flour incorporated biscuits documented the higher values with respect to l. Similarly.90 cm) spread ratio than the control (4. 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented lower thickness (0. respectively. The thickness of control biscuits recorded 1.13 cm. 30 .05) with darker brownish colour compared to rest of the samples.03cm. respectively)with less whitish coloured compared to 10.5.4 Physical parameters of jack seed flour incorporated biscuits The physical parameters viz.23 and 4. Further.

30.13 1. the 30 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored the higher ‘l’ value (68. Physical characteristics of jack seed flour incorporated biscuits Particulars Diameter Thickness Spread ratio Control 4. The statistical test revealed a non-significant difference between 40 and 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits.96) was documented by 30 per cent seed flour based biscuits with light brown coloured bottom layer.97. 20 and 40 .51.81 5.78.33.93 4.21 0. The 10 per cent seed flour based biscuits were not significant with 30 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits. The least ‘a’ value (3. Further. The bottom ‘a’ colour value of control biscuits statistically significant with rest of the seed flour incorporated biscuits.98 and 23. the 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits scored the ‘a’ value of 5. The 10 and 40 per cent.06 1.12 0. The 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits were significantly differed with rest of the seed flour incorporated biscuits. The bottom ‘l’ colour values of control and 30 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits showed significant difference with other seed flour based biscuits.99 and 6.64 40 4.08 0.09 0. 23. 25.00 with dark yellowish in colour compared to 10. respectively) with dull whitish colour.88 4. respectively.88 4. The control and rest of the seed flour incorporated biscuits significantly differed with each other. Similarly.04 3.62) with whitish bottom layer. the 10 and 20 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits documented the ‘l’ values of 62.20.00 10 4. It is observed that the 40 and 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored lesser ‘l’ values (58.03 4.33) of 20 per cent seed flour based biscuits was higher with dark brownish in colour compared to all other seed flour incorporated biscuits. respectively.72.38 30 4.68 50 4.88 and 58. Jack seed (40%) based biscuits and 40 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits.11. The 40 and 10 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored the ‘a’ values (7. The ‘a’ value (8.90 20 4.Table 8.40 and 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits with ‘b’ values 26. respectively) with light brown colour. The 10 and 20 per cent and 40 and 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits were not significant with each other.79 and 61. With respect to bottom layer. The top layer of 20 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented the ‘b’ value of 27.19 A – Top layer of biscuits B – Bottom layer of biscuits Plate 3.

02.11d 5.04 for its very good colour and appearance. It is observed that the taste and aroma of biscuits scored very good score (6.96 and 6.52b 72.04b 26.12a 72.90.00 . presents the consumer acceptability scores in terms of sensory parameters of 40 per cent seed flour based biscuits.97b 8.per cent. 27.79b 6.60d -1.11d 76. respectively).15 6.11.99ab 26. Table 10.20b 62.00.96 6.83b 1.63c 3.90 7.55a 27.33b 29. Identical alphabets denote non-significant differences between means. The texture of the biscuits documented moderately good score (6.85 and 23. 40 and 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits with ‘b’ values of 28.72b 68.55a 23.67a 1.88d 7.96d 27.33ac 28. 20 and 40 per cent seed flour based biscuits were significantly differed with each other.58a 1. The bottom ‘b’ colour value of control. Consumer acceptability of seed flour based biscuits N = 100 Biscuits Colour and appearance Texture Taste Aroma Overall acceptability • 9 point Hedonic scale.51cd 23.05d 23.52) with dark yellowish in colour compared to 10. Table 9. The bottom layer of 20 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits documented the highest ‘b’ value (29.15). 30.04 6.00c 61. 26.31e • Average of six biscuits. The 10 and 30 per cent and 30 and 40 per cent seed flour based biscuits were not significant with each other at 5 per cent level of significance. Colour values of jack seed flour biscuits Level of jack seed flour incorporation 20 30 40 50 Biscuits layer Top L A B Bottom L A B 10 Control 71. respectively.78d 58.21ab 25.96e 21.12.46a 1. 40% seed flour incorporated 7.62c 3.85c 63. Data in Table 10. The colour and appearance of biscuits recorded the score of 7.48a 72. 10 and 50 per cent and 30 and 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits were not significant with each other at 5 per cent level of significance. The biscuits were accepted with very good overall acceptability score of 7.62a 18.83a -0.02ac 68.98d 58.

00ml/100g) was much lower than the value cited by Odeomelam. left over ones are used as animal feed or wasted. Protein.00 ml/100g).(2002) reported lower value (92.60 %) than the value of present investigation. The tender jack fruit is utilized as vegetable in curries. Limited studies have been conducted to utilize seeds from vegetable and fruits sources for nutrient enhancement and value addition in product development.00 ml/100g) to jack fruit seed flour cited by Akubor (2004). The fat absorption is an important property in food product development because it imparts flavour and mouth feel to foods. the seeds are utilized for industrial purposes based on the composition. The results of the present study revealed 67-50 per cent recovery of flour inclusive of handling losses. (2002) documented much lower yield (36. Conversely.. However. are generally boiled or roasted for consumption at domestic sector. which are found varied in different studies. 340 per cent (Gaimi and Bekebain. Kumar et al. thus the difference. The important results are critically discussed in the present section. The variation in observation may be attributed to processing. Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna. (2002) and Odeomelam (2005) to be a good source of carbohydrates.00 ml/ 100g) and Tananuwong et al.e. The oil absorption capacity of jack seed flour in the present study registered lower value (126.1 FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF SEED FLOUR The functional properties of food depend on its components such as protein. being rich in protein and carbohydrates it is pertinent to convert seed into flour to be used in several convenience foods. There is a need for studying the functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacities which determines its utilization in developing convenience foods. Due to jack seed’s compositional benefit i. The fruit is also adequately exploited for value addition in terms of chips. it is interesting to note that. the fruit is used in varieties of dishes. 325 ml/100g (Carlson et al. 1999 (210. (205 ml/100g). the composition of seed has been investigated by several authors. there is potential opportunity for utilizing the seed in the form of flour for value addition in the industrial sector. in the present study the flour was recovered in 105 micron mesh. conversion to flour follow several steps such as lye peeling to remove spermoderm and to prevent flour becoming brown in colour and adequate drying and milling and obtaining desired particle size flour. Tananuwong et al. pulp. The noticeable differences observed may be due to variety and particle size of the flour. (1978). As fairly large jack fruit is embedded with 200-300 seeds. fat. suitable to the pallet of residing population. 1999. the flour was passed through 70 micron mesh while. Tananuwong et al. DISCUSSION The seeds are the main produce of a plant containing large number of nutrients. 1992) registered much higher water absorption ratio. papads. (2002). preserves. carbohydrates and fibre are the major constituents of seeds. 5. Hence. . However.90 ml/ 100g) than reported value of several authors (280 and 160 ml % according to Odeomelam. 1981) and pumpkin. The jack seed being seasonal and perishable. The results of water absorption of the flour in the present study (112. Tananuwong et al. As seeds are bland with no untoward flavour. need proper processing protocol for its extended shelf life. Generally. If jack seed needs to gain revenue. Bobbio et al.2005 (230. Nevertheless. the water absorption property of melon seed flour was nearer (130. Recently. this may be due to differences in chemical composition of flours.. it is required to add value for commercial produce. However. (1988). Though lye peeling procedure followed was similar. 2005 and Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna. concentrates and leather etc. fat and carbohydrates and play an important role in sensory profile of the product.40 %) of jack seed flour. protein and energy. respectively).5. seeds are utilized as boiled or baked and restricted to domestic usage. As seeds are perishable. particle size and varietal differences of the jack seed flour. Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna (1999). These nutrients interact with each other during product development and play an important role in determining the final quality of the products. at an industrial sector.chemical properties of seed with specific objective of utilizing as a convenience food. an investigation was undertaken to determine the physico. the seed flour of tomato.

(2002) documented the values of 0. black gram dhal (1. 52.e. On the contrarily Kumar et al.56. Conversely.80.00 %) than jack seed flour as reported by Dingra and Kapoor (1984). respectively. The composition of other seed flour are known to vary from jack seed flour such as tomato seed in terms of fat content. (1982). The data on jack seed flour on the above parameter is not available.00 per cent according to Carlson et al. the analysis of protein content of jack seed flour by Tananuwong et al.70 %) as reported by Guria Punita (2006). Like jack seed. Egusi seeds recorded 28. The analysis of fat content of jack seed flour by Bobbio et al. which was much lower than the documented values of Quality Protein Maize (71. the viscosity increased with increase in concentration of the jack seed flour as expected (Table 3).. as the seed is from different sources. two per cent more than the value of present study.5.90 % ) much higher than rest of the fruit seed as reported by Gabriel (1999). Similarly. Oyenuga (1975) and Akubor (2004). jowar (10. crude fibre (2.30 %) and wheat (11-12 % ) documented slightly higher content compared to jack seed flour except rice and ragi according to Gopalan et al.. ragi (1.00 %) than other fruit seed flours but higher than the jack seed flour (Dingra and Kapoor. 0.00 to 28. (1981) and George and Boskou (1975).40%). cashew nut kernel flour recorded the protein content of 20-25 per cent by Amoo (2005) and Aremu (2006).01 %). the fat content of cereals viz. These variations are obvious.. several fruit seeds have been explored for utilization in product development and nutrient composition of these seeds are investigated by several scientists.00 %) as documented by Lazos (1986) and Gaimi and Bekebain (1992). respectively which are slightly lower than the value of present study. However. carbohydrates (70. values are higher than the jack seed flour. 1984). The above all values of protein from different seeds are nearly three times higher than the protein value observed in the jack seed. Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna (1999) documented extraordinarily high (21.00 %) and DMH-2 maize variety (68. However. ragi (7. Conversely. These variations may be attributed to processing and varietal variations. rice (6. green gram (1.10 %) documented the values which are on par with jack seed flour.78 and 0. In general. It was observed that.17 % ) i. Kumar et al. it is interesting to note that. On the similar line.40 %). Oyenuga (1975) and Akubor (2004).The property of dispersibility determines the tendency of flour to move apart from the water molecules and reveals its hydrophobic action.36 per cent according to Lazos (1986). Viscosity is a property of flour to resist free flow tendency.00 per cent. Similarly.40 %). The mango seed which has documented much lower fat content (7. the Amoo (2005) and Aremu (2006) documented the fat content of cashew kernel flour as 42.30 %) and pulses viz. However. The jack seed flour can be comfortably incorporated in cereal/pulse based products to enhance the nutritional quality. the commonly used cereals in India viz.. The dispersibility of jack seed flour recorded 30 per cent.44 per cent of protein as reported by Akobundu. Further.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SEED FLOUR The composition analysis of jack seed flour reveals its importance as a source of protein (9. However it is interesting to note that Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna (1999) documented much higher (2.73 %) value than the others. (2002) documented higher (11. Tomato seed documented 22. (1978).00 to 28.30 %) protein content in jack seed flour. (1988) reported lower value of 6. the pumpkin seed flour recorded higher fat content (45.00 per cent of protein according to Gaimi and Bekebain (1992) and Lazos (1986). However. The melon seed flour documented the fat content (53. There are few seeds like mango seed which has documented much lower protein value (5. the . 5.75 per cent of protein in jack seed flour. maize (11.03 %).30 %). the values are much higher than the jack seed flour.80 and 52. The above values of fat from different seeds are much higher than the jack seed flour. Lazos (1986). The pumpkin seed flour documented 32.00 -47.26 %). The protein content of melon seed documented 25. the egusi seed flour documented the fat content.25 %) and total mineral matter (2. moth bean and peas (1.00 per cent as reported by Akobundu (1982). (1988) and Tananuwong et al. However. there were no reported studies for comparison in terms of the concentration or nature of flour.40 %).99 per cent of fat. the protein content of all the pulses was double than documented value of jack seed flour. (1989).

Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna (1999) documented the value of 2.higher fat per cent has been recorded by maize (3.70%). 1982.70 to 4.50 %) than the jack seed flour. Gabriel (1999).40 as recorded by George and Boskou (1975) and Carlson et al.50 %) and lower values of fat documented by rice (0.70 %) and red gram dhal (1. maize (1. (1981). The melon seed flour recorded slightly higher (i.80 per cent according to Amoo (2005) and Aremu (2006) than the value of jack seed flour in the present study.00%) recorded the values which are on par with jack seed flour except jowar. bajra (67. . It is interesting to note that.90 %). (2002) which is slightly higher than the value presented in the study. bengal gram (3.10 %). wheat (1.e.. jowar (1. The cashew nut kernel flour recorded much higher value of carbohydrate than the above seed flours and at the same time recorded much lower value ranged between 24.40 to 4.85 per cent as recorded by George and Boskou (1975) and Carlson (1981). tomato seed flour recorded much higher total mineral matter value ranged between 5.20%). jowar (1.80 %) recorded higher crude fibre content except black gram dhal (0. (1989).27 per cent which are lower than the value of present study.50%). The commonly used cereals and millets viz.. Lazos (1986) and Oyenuga (1975). the commonly used cereals and millets viz. Kumar et al.20 %).. ranging between 2.40 to 1. With respect to pulses. Other fruit seeds which are documented much lower values of total carbohydrate content viz.55 to 12. rice (0. Conversely. jowar (72.50%). Lazos (1986) and Oyenuga (1975) than the jack seed flour. All the above values of crude fibre are on par with value of jack seed flour as recorded in the present study.85) than the value in this study. black gram dhal (3..90 %).01 to 25.65 per cent according to Gaimi and Bekebain (1999) and Lazos (1986). The lower value of crude fibre recorded by cashew nut kernel flour ranged between 1.20 %). Gabriel (1999) and Akubor (2004). green gram (4.60 %). The other fruit seeds which are explored for their utilization viz.70 %) and ragi (3. The cashew nut kernel flour documentd 2.60%).20 per cent recorded by Gabriel (1999). wheat (71. most of them viz.10)..20 per cent according to Amoo (2005) and Aremu (2006).50%) and pulses viz.92 per cent by Tananuwong et al. The other fruit seeds viz.60 %) recorded slightly lower values of crude fibre compared to jack seed flour except maize and ragi according to Gopalan et al. cowpea (3.40 to 3..40 to 3.60 %) and soybean (19.20%). green gram (3.10 per cent of total carbohydrates than the value presented in this study. these difference may be due to the procedure applied for the isolation of starch or varietal differences or maturation of seeds. (2002) documented 12 per cent higher value (82.30 to 21. Further.60%) and rice (79.00%) recorded slightly higher values of carbohydrate compared to jack seed flour except maize and bajra.20 %).90 per cent as per the values documented by Lazos (1986) and Gaimi and Bekebain (1992). Further. pumpkin seed flour which recorded 5. Whereas. The crude fibre content of jack seed flour documented the value of 1.75 according to Akubor (2004).70 per cent of crude fibre as recorded by Akobundu in the year.. Further. (1978) documented much lower values which ranged between 28. the pumpkin seed flour documented the total mineral matter values of 4.. (1988) and Bobbio et al. tomato seed documented much higher crude fibre value of 18. The composition analysis of total mineral matter of jack seed flour documented the value of 3.50 %) compared to jack seed flour. the common cereal and millets viz. bajra (1. maize (2. wheat (1. Bengal gram (3..10 to 26.80 to 4. It is observed that.10 per cent and 2. (1988) recorded the value of 1.69 per cent crude fibre in the jack seed flour. Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna (1999) documented higher value of 5. egusi seeds documented 2.80 to 17. lentil (0. The total carbohydrate content of jack seed flour recorded by Tananuwong et al. The melon seed flour also documented much lower per cent of carbohydrates which ranged between 2. 1%) values of total mineral matter ranged between 2.20%) and ragi (72. (2002) was slightly lower (<1%) than the value of present study. maize (66. Conversely. horse gram (5. Rajarajeshwari and Jamuna (1999) documented six per cent lower value (63.40 per cent of total mineral matter as per the values of Amoo (2005) and Aremu (2006).00%). The pumpkin and melon seed flour documented the crude fibre content.67 per cent as recorded by Tananuwong et al.00 per cent and Kumar et al. ragi (2. maize and wheat.40 %) and horse gram (0.10 to 3.25) than the value in the present study.30 %) and cowpea (3.10 per cent according to Lazos (1986) and Gaimi and Bekebain (1992) and Oyenuga (1975).50%).

As the judges were partially trained minute difference was not identified between the samples. fibre and gluten proteins. higher increase in the samples stored at ambient temperature (Fig. However. an attempt was made to blend 10-50 per cent jack seed flour for biscuit preparation on wheat flour replacement basis. but it is natural for any food scientist to attempt and appreciate the utilization of jack seed flour in making biscuits. The jack seed flour was stored without deterioration for the period of six months with no untoward changes in sensory and apparent visible changes. the ‘l’ value recorded by colour meter revealed a significantly different picture. However. there was a gradual increase in moisture level over the period of extended life. The bland flour of jack seed and wheat upto 50 per cent did not make any significant difference between each other with respect to colour and appearance when evaluated by sensory profile. there were no studies available on seed flour with respect to storage. Bengal gram (60.90%). 2000).60 per cent which is inadequate. The preliminary product development studies indicated use of non-gluten flour in biscuit beyond 50 per cent was not acceptable though lower level of gluten protein is adequate for acceptable biscuit texture profile. jack seed flour in biscuit preparation is more practical and hence an effort was made to blend wheat flour with jack seed flour. green gram (56. there was reduction of total protein and gluten protein with in vary non-gluten flour with wheat flour conversely increase in proportion in minerals and fibre.The pulses viz. Conversely.70%) and peas (56. (1991).60%).10%) compared to sorghum flour (1. ‘l’ values varied with respect to top and bottom sides of the biscuits. While. gluten level of 75 per cent jack seed flour has gluten content of only 2. Thus for potential and economic exploitation.50%) recorded lower values of carbohydrate than the value of jack seed flour in the present study according to Gopalan et al. The diverse combinations of texture and taste have made biscuits an universal appeal and gain unique status. the sensory quality scores biscuit flax with seed flour incorporated with wheat flour decreased with increase in the substitution of flax seed flour according to Hussain et al. The extended life of jack seed flour beyond the period of six months (the sample was good from sensory point of view even after 10 months of storage) may be due to its lower fat value (1. Thus.3 SHELF-LIFE OF FLOUR The jack seed flour was packed in polyethylene pouches and stored at ambient and refrigerated temperature.. bread fortified with tomato seed meal revealed a slight increase in loaf weight after baking due to the enhanced absorption of water. further lost its functional qualities for making rotis. thickness and diameter of biscuits with increase in replacement of jack seed flour. Similarly. Another important bakery product. (1999) as that of jack seed flour incorporated biscuits. 3 and Appendix III). Further. (1989). The physico-chemical properties of biscuits prepared from blend flour revealed a decrease in weight. However.4 UTILIZATION FOODS OF SEED FLOUR IN CONVENIENCE The bakery products such as biscuits and bread have become very popular in India in all socio-economic section of population. black gram dhal (59. The control biscuits were significantly whiter than the rest and biscuits upto 30 per cent jack seed flour replacement made very little difference. Similar observations have been made with the biscuits prepared with millet flour and sesame seed flour (Alobo. The crust and crumb of the breads fortified with 5 per cent tomato seed meal were golden and at higher levels of supplementation breads were darker and the taste scores decreased as the level of tomato seed meal increased according to Yaseen et al. However. The ‘l’ values were significantly higher in top side than . 5. The Table 6 reveals a very interesting and noticeable trend with respect to total protein. 5.90%). biscuits with 40 and 50 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits were significantly darker than the rest. Similar study conducted on jowar flour at ambient temperature (Reddy Madhavi. Table 15 indicates that. more pronounced with 50 per cent blend flour. 2001) revealed that sorghum flour could be stored only for 28 days.

05 1.13 42. following indepth studies are required for optimum utilization.00 1.00 6.32 J-30% 11. the overall acceptability did not make negative impact and hence 40 per cent incorporation was considered for consumer trial. The texture was similar to control upto 20 per cent seed flour replaced biscuits.00 10. Computation of composition in different levels of incorporation of jack seed flour with refined wheat flour Variables Protein Fat Minerals Crude fibre Carbohydrates Energy K.. This change is due to higher temperature perforated in the bottom side of the biscuits.82 1. further decrease made biscuits harder.99 763.36 J-20% 11.75 80.Table 11. Though acceptable.42 41.00 5.24 J-50% 10.28 2. However.78 749.20 79.42 79.00 7.20 the bottom surface of the biscuits.00 9.40 J-10% 11.99 42. This is particularly true with flour such as jack seed flour is bland with insipid.80 1. Similar trend was seen in ‘b’ and ‘a’ values.62 41. Both sensory parameters did not make difference upto 20 per cent of seed flour incorporation.30 81.28 J-40% 11.76 0. Utilization in non-bakery industry 3.52 80.00 0.72 1. While rest of the biscuits were harder than the rest. But these observations are obvious (Table 11) because the protein and gluten content decreased with higher replacement of non-glutenous flour such as jack seed flour. Based on the above observations. taste and aroma recorded similar picture. The gluten content upto 8 per cent seemed adequate for good texture of biscuits. it can be concluded that jack seed flour can be a good substitute upto 40 per cent in salt and sweet biscuits and can comfortably enter commercial bakery sector.69 767. the texture values varied between control and upto 50 per cent replacement in biscuits with jack seed flour. Pasting behaviour of jack seed flour at different level of incorporation 2. The adolescent girls in consumer trial liked the biscuits considering the product being very good. Gluten Control 11. .26 41. The seed being perishable can be converted into flour and used potentially in bakery industry.15 746.97 80. Out reach activities for popularizing the utilization of jack seed flour at household level.Cal. 1.70 0.00 8.25 0.23 758. The flavour characteristics of biscuits viz.20 42.52 0.18 1. It was interesting to notice that upto 40 per cent incorporation of jack seed flour.48 753.

62 g/g) than the per cent solubility (1. The seed flour was utilized in the preparation of convenience food viz. Seeds were dried and milled into flour.4%) at ambient temperature (25°C).cal) compared to analysed energy value (376 K. • The total yield of the flour exclusive of weight of the white arils (2%). 3. There was no visible change in sensory profile of the flour during the storage period both at ambient and refrigerated conditions. The cooked paste viscosity of 5 per cent jack seed flour recorded lower value (27. The nutritional quality of seed flour was assessed in terms of starch and protein digestibility. The sensory quality of jack seed flour based biscuits decreased with increase in incorporation level of seed flour. swelling power and per cent solubility of the jack seed flour were documented using standard procedures.30%) at 60 minutes of withdrawal of sample compared to 30 minutes of digestion (57. The moisture content and sensory quality of the stored seed sample was assessed using standard procedure and descriptive method. The physical parameters viz. flour dispersibility.90 ml/100 g of oil absorption capacity with 30 per cent of flour dispersibility. • • • • • • • • • • • . 2.07 of moisture. The salient points of the study are summerised below. The starch in vitro digestibility of seed flour was higher (69.. The maximum accepted proportion of jack seed flour based biscuit was considered for the consumer acceptability analysis.17 per cent.6. The functional properties viz. heat sealed and stored both at ambient temperature and refrigerated conditions for six months. Similar observations were also noticed at hot temperature (90°C). The calorific value of seed flour was less in computed value (327 k. The seed flour packed in polyethylene pouches were able to store upto six months.03 protein.. handling losses represented 13.10%) compared to 10 per cent paste (51.00 ml/100 g of water absorption and 126. SUMMARY An investigation pertaining to the nutritional quality and value addition to jack fruit seed was undertaken during 2006-07 with the objectives to document the physical and functional properties. shelf-life and utilization of seed flour in convenience food.28%). The proximate composition of the seed flour were analysed by standard AOAC methods.80%).10 of fat.cal). Jack fruit seeds were procured from the markets of Dharwad and North Canara districts during the season. The analysed value for proximate composition of seed flour were as follows 14.. The incorporation above 50 per cent in biscuits was not acceptable by sensory quality parameters as assessed by panel of judges.25 of crude fibre. 9. The seed flour was packed in food grade polyethylene cover. The functional properties of jack seed flour had 112. brown spermoderm (8. thickness and spread ratio were assessed using Vernier calipers. non-katai biscuits at different proportions to ascertain the acceptable level of incorporation by sensory parameters.01 of total mineral matter and 70. 1. proximate composition.34 per cent and when passed through 105 m mesh flour yield was documented as 67. diameter. White arils of the seeds were removed manually and further lye peeled to remove the Gawn spermoderm. The colour (top and bottom) of biscuits was assessed using Minolta color meter. There was an increase in the moisture content during the storage period both at ambient and refrigerated conditions. The swelling power of the seed flour documented higher value (3. The protein in vitro digestibility of seed flour recorded 78. water and oil absorption capacity.50 grams.16%). nutritional quality.26 of carbohydrates.

‘a’ and ‘b’ values. There was a visible trend observed that an increase in fresh weight of dough with increase in the proportion of jack seed. The 20 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits were on par with control with respect to sensory qualities.13 cm. The overall acceptability of biscuits with jack seed flour below 50 were judged as very good. The 10 per cent seed flour based biscuits documented (3. the control biscuits were significantly whiter than the rest and biscuits upto 30 per cent jack seed flour replacement made very little difference. • • • • • • • • • .04 cm) than the control (1. The 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored lowest values for all the quality parameters.90 cm) lower spread ratio and 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored higher (5. 4. The biscuits with varied proportion of jack seed flour exhibited similar trend of increase in weight with increase in jack seed flour in the product. 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits scored highest diameter (4. The lowest thickness (0. The spread ratio of the biscuits gradually increased as the seed flour incorporation level increases.19 cm) value of spread ratio. The colour of the biscuits with respect to ‘l’. The adolescent girls in consumer trial liked the biscuits considering the product being very good. The ‘l’ values were significantly higher in top side than the bottom side of the biscuits.• The dough forming properties such as absorption of curds by control dough was lower (20 ml) compared to all other seed flour incorporated biscuits whereas 50% seed flour based dough absorbed (32 ml) higher of quality cards.81 cm) was documented by 50 per cent seed flour based biscuits. The diameter of biscuits gradually increased with increase in the proportion of seed flour. The thickness of 10 per cent seed flour based biscuits was higher (1. It is observed that.03 cm) biscuits.21 cm) whereas control biscuits recorded the diameter.

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Appendix I. Score card for evaluation of value added products Name of the Product: Name of the Judge: Date: 1 COLOUR AND APPERANCE Excellent Extremely good Very good Moderately Good Good Fair Very fair Poor Very Poor TEXTURE / CONSISTENCY Excellent Extremely good Very good Moderately Good Good Fair Very fair Poor Very Poor TASTE Excellent Extremely good Very good Moderately Good Good Fair Very fair Poor Very Poor AROMA Excellent Extremely good Very good Moderately Good Good Fair Very fair Poor Very Poor OVER ALL ACCEPTABILITY Excellent Extremely good Very good Moderately Good Good Fair Very fair Poor Very Poor Signature 2 3 4 5 Remarks : .

04 Storage period (months) 2 8.03** 8.33 7.00 90.66cd 1. Yield of jack seed flour Parameters Weight of fresh jack seeds No.33b 1.33ab 4. 7.00 7.00 5.66a 4.00 Overall acceptability 7.00 21.78 5 9.33a 2.00 7.00 6.33 7.50 % of reduction 2.66 5.64 6 11.16 13.13 3 8. heat sealed.66ab 3. of jackseeds in 100 g Weight after removal of white arils Weight after removal of brown spermoderm Weight of jack seed flour Crude flour Passed through 105 µ mesh Appendix III.16 1 8.16 7.00a 6. • Average of three replications.05).03 Grams 100.66a 5. Sensory scores of jack seed flour based biscuits (initial trials) Sensory parameters Texture Taste Aroma 7.Appendix II.81** 8.34 13.00 8. Moisture content (%) of stored jack seed flour Moisture (%) Storage temperature 0 Stored in Aluminium box at ambient condition (24-26°C) Refrigerated condition (8-10°C) • Filled in polyethylene pouches.66cd 7.66d 9 point Hedonic scale.00bc 1.00 67. In duplicates. Identical alphabets denote non-significant differences between means (P < 0.00 7. .00 98.41 4 8.55** 7. ** The values are significantly different at 1% point of distribution of F.31** 7.46 Appendix IV.33a 6.66bc 2.00 78.66 8.00a 6.39** 7.63** 7.66b Particulars Control Incorporation levels (%) 25 50 75 100 • • • Colour and appearance 7.

78abc 3.85cd 6.85 6. Sensory profile of jack seed flour based biscuits Sensory parameters Particulars Colour and appearance 7.14a 6.14a 5.28ab Control Incorporation levels (%) 10 20 30 40 50 • • • 6.42ab 5.14b 3.42ab 5.85b 7.85c 6.00bc 4.57 7.00bc 4. . In duplicates.00 6.57 6.71a 6.05).14ab 4.71cd 3.23ab 4.14c 3. Identical alphabets denote non-significant differences between means (P < 0.71a 6.28c 9 point Hedonic scale.Appendix V.71ab 5.14 Texture Taste Aroma Overall acceptability 6.71a 7.28ab 5.71a 6.00a 6.57 5.

shelf-life and utilization of jack seed flour in convenience food.17 and 69. 2. NAIK Major Advisor ABSTRACT An investigation was undertaken with the objectives to document the physical and functional properties. The colour of the biscuits with respect to ‘l’. The total yield of the flour was documented as 67.07 of moisture.03 protein.90 ml/100 g of oil absorption capacity. The seeds were lye peeled. 9. The nutritional quality of seed flour was assessed in terms of starch and protein digestibility.cal. 3. The protein and starch in vitro digestibility of seed flour recorded 78.30 per cent.00 ml/100 g of water absorption and 126. ‘a’ and ‘b’ values indicated that.50 grams. The 20 per cent seed flour incorporated biscuits were on par with control with respect to sensory qualities. The seed flour was stored both at ambient and refrigerated conditions and the moisture content of the stored sample was assessed. proximate composition. nutritional quality.25 of crude fibre.26 of carbohydrates with the calorific value 376 K. An increase in the moisture content was evident during the ambient and refrigerated conditions. dried and milled into flour.10 of fat. The functional properties and proximate compositions of the seed flour were analyzed by standard AOAC methods. The adolescent girls in consumer trial rated the biscuits as very good. K.NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND VALUE ADDITION TO JACK FRUIT SEED FLOUR SAMATA AIRANI 2007 RAMA.01 total mineral matter and 70. The overall acceptability of biscuits with jack seed flour below 50 was judged as very good. The functional properties indicated that the jack seed flour had 112. The proximate compositions (g%) of seed flour recorded 14. the control biscuits were significantly whiter than the rest and biscuits upto 30 per cent seed flour replacement made negligible difference. . The sensory quality of flour based biscuits decreased with increased incorporation level of seed flour. 1.

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