Chapter 20: Thermal Properties

Issues to address... • How does a material respond to heat? • How do we define and measure... • heat capacity • coefficient of thermal expansion • thermal conductivity • thermal shock resistance • How do ceramics, metals, and polymers rank?
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Heat Capacity
• General: The ability of a material to absorb heat • Quantitative: Energy required to increase T
heat capacity: J mol-K

dQ C= dT

energy:

J mol

temperature change: K

• Two ways to measure heat capacity: Cp: Heat capacity at constant pressure Cv: Heat capacity at constant volume

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Heat Capacity vs T
• Heat capacity increases with temperature reaches a limiting value of 3R
Heat capacity, Cv 3R Cv= constant
gas constant = 8.31 J/mol-K Callister, Fig. 20.2

Comparison: Heat Capacity Values
• Polymers cp (J/kg-K) at room temperature 1925 Polypropylene cp: (J/kg-K) 1850 Polyethylene 1170 Polystyrene Cp: (J/mol-K) 1050 Teflon • Ceramics Magnesia (MgO) 940 Alumina (Al2O3) 775 840 Glass • Metals Aluminum Steel Tungsten Gold 900 486 128 138
data from Callister, Table 20.1

• Atomic view: Energy is stored as atomic vibrations. As T goes up, so does avg. energy of atomic vibr.
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T (K) θD Debye temperature (usually less than Troom)

Significantly larger for polymers: why?

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Thermal Expansion
• Materials change size when heating Lfinal - Linit Linit = α(Tfinal - Tinit)
Linit Lfinal

Comparison: Thermal Expansion Values
• Polymers Polypropylene Polyethylene Polystyrene Teflon • Metals Aluminum Steel Tungsten Gold • Ceramics Magnesia (MgO) Alumina (Al2O3) Soda-lime glass Silica (cryst. SiO2) α (10-6/K) at room temperature 145-180 data from 106-198 Callister, 90-150 Table 20.1 126-216 23.6 12 4.5 14.2 13.5 7.6 9 0.4
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coefficient of thermal expansion (1/K) Bond energy

Tinit Tfinal

• Atomic View: Mean bond length increases with T
Bond length (r) T5 T1 bond energy vs bond length curve is “asymmetric”
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Generally decreases with increasing bond energy Why?

Thermal Conductivity
• General: The ability of a material to transfer heat • Quantitative:
heat flux: J m2 s Temperature gradient (K/m) J mKs T2 heat flux x2

Comparison: Thermal Conductivities
k (W/m-K) • Metals Aluminum 247 Steel 52 Tungsten 178 Gold 315 • Ceramics Magnesia (MgO) 38 Alumina (Al2O3) 39 1.7 Soda-lime glass Silica (cryst. SiO2) 1.4 • Polymers 0.12 Polypropylene 0.46-0.50 Polyethylene 0.13 Polystyrene 0.25 Teflon Energy Transfer By vibration of atoms and motion of electrons

dT q = -k dx

thermal conductivity

data from Callister, Table 20.1

T1 x1

By vibration of atoms

• Atomic View: Atomic vibrations in hotter regions carry energy (vibrations) to cooler regions)
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By vibration/ rotation of chain molecules
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Example: Thermal Stress
• Occurs due to:
- uneven heating/cooling - mismatch in thermal expansion Example Problem 20.1 A brass rod is stress-free at room temperature (20C). It is heated up but prevented from lengthening. At what T does the stress reach a compression of 172MPa? Troom Lroom T Lroom ∆L = ε thermal = α(T-Troom) Answer: 106C 20 x 10-6/C 100GPa 20C

Thermal Shock Resistance
• Occurs due to:
- uneven heating/cooling
rapid quench
tries to contract during cooling doesn’t want to contract

T2 T1

σ

tension develops in cooled surface

σ = -Eα(T1-T2) [ = σf for fracture! ] (T1-T2)for fracture = σf Eα

(T1-T2) ∝ quench rate/k

set equal σf k Result: (quench rate)for fracture ∝ Eα Thermal shock resistance

compressive σ keeps ∆L = 0

σ = E (-εthermal) = -Eα(T-Troom) -172MPa
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• A large thermal shock resistance means a large quench rate is needed to fracture!
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Thermal Protection System
Space Shuttle Orbiter Re-entry T Distribution
Fig. 23.16, Callister

Fig. 23.0, Callister

silica tiles (400- 1260°C)

silica reinf nylon felt, tiles C-C silicon rubber (400(1650°C) coating 1260°C) (400°C) ~90% porous! silica fibers w/aluminum borosilicate fibers (strength)

100µm

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