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The slab in wooden boards
International patent and registered trademark
Principle fundamental Structural Aspect Architectural Aspect Economic Aspect Physical and acoustic aspect Ecological aspect
2 ECOLOGICAL ASPECT Consumption.2.1 4 4.2.2 2.1 5 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.1 2.1 6.4 3 3. Ardennes (L) Appendix 2 : Center for handicaped persons. Tessin) Appendix 3 : National exposition in Switzerland.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 1.3 2. balance and proximity Wood from sustainable forests 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 APPENDICES Appendix 1 : Renovation of a home.2 GENERAL CONCEPT Presentation Principe Fundamental STRUCTURAL ASPECTS Predesign Behavior in case of fire load Analysis in case of fire load Behavior in case of earthquake ARCHITECTURAL ASPECT A very punchy aspect ECONOMIC ASPECT A simple concept PHYSICAL AND ACOUSTIC ASPECTS Building physics Acoustic Aspect Airborne noise Impact noise 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 13 6 6. Expo 02 .2 2 2. Origlio (CH.1 1.
Secondly. coming directly from the sawmill. The longitudinal joints provide a structural continuity. in order to create a partial isotropic slab.cbs-cbt. with a common length of four or five meters. Based on a cross section of 75/225 mm. invented by Jean-Luc Sandoz . thus also bending moments above the supports can be taken.Technical description o 1. the inferior planks. This kind of timber slab can be prefabricated in a carpentry hall and joined together to the final size at the construction site. the solid wood planks. optimizing the planks height. www. which is more efficient to support concentrated live loads by stress diffusion in all directions. such as 40/200 mm to 75/225 mm. If the slab is subjected only to distributed loads the LVL panel can be replaced by an OSB (oriented strand board) panel.1 Presentation The O'portune1 timber slab is a new designed application in the scope of horizontal timber structures. are reinforced. a LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber) panel is screwed across the longitudinal plank axis. In the traction zones filling elements together with a more intensive screwed Kerto panel above reinforce the superior planks.2 1 GENERAL CONCEPT 1. The LVL panel thickness is designed in function of the concentrated loads. and a continuous monolithic structure is accomplished. Common cross sections for the planks are used. which gives an inertia for bending strength twice as high as the original.com 1 Copyright. the static height can be extended from 225 mm to 375 mm. Using compression hardwood pieces in the compression zones. Principe Fundamental The principle of O'portune timber slab is based on two ideas : First. It meets high mechanical requirements and achieves spans up to 12 m. are nailed or screwed together shifted against each other in order to increase the static height.
for the two platforms 10’000 m3 of sawn planks. Altogether.02 that Switzerland organized in 2002. 1’200 m3 of Kerto® and more than two millions of screws were employed. are four and five meters long and covered with an LVL panel type Kerto® Q 27 mm providing a free span of 6.10 m. These platforms withstanded 30t trucks and 60t mobile cranes.The following pictures show offshore timber platforms on the lakes of Neuchâtel and Bienne in Switzerland. These platforms were employed for attractive architectural projects for the Swiss national exhibition: The Expo. The planks with a cross section of 60/210 mm. in 2003 and all timber materials will be re-used in classical constructions. Figure 2 : Example of the assembling of two prefabricated O'portune blocks of the Expo 02 5-17 . Distributed load : 500 kg/m2 Punctual load (truck) : 4 x 75 kN + 300 kg/m2 distributed load Figure 1 : Photos of the offshore platforms of the EXPO 02 in Switzerland based on O'portune desks of 6m span on iron posts. The entire platform is dismantled after the event. erected in 2000.
With this residual cross section and 15m span the bearing capacity of the slab is still of about 500 kg/m2 (350 kg/m2 of dead load and 150kg/m2 of live load) after 100min of combustion . The down-side boards are the first to carbonize until they reach the kern (zone where the up-side and down-side boards are doubled).7 mm/mn when using DUO boards).8 mm/mn combustion of the wooden parts (0. When the slab is designed the number.1 Predesign The O'portune slab is dimensioned for different types of loads. The different phases of combustion and the resting cross sections after 30min or 60min are shown and explained in the D-Dalle description (woodconcrete composite system) 2. The zone where the boards are crossed and the disposal of the connectors are designed to stay operant for the time of the fire attack. The fundamental analyses calculate the deformations (instant and final) and bending stress. kind and repartition of connectors (screws or nails) will be determined after the sheer stress analysis in the composed section. When assuring that the void on the top of the slab is properly enclosed. the fire resistance is at least 100min. The zone where the boards are crossed is of big importance for optimization reasons in regard of the disposal of the connectors. these structures can achieve R90 or R120. For housing application also the resonant frequency. The residual cross section like shown in figure 3 and 5 is analyzed for loads in case of fire (accidental situation). With 60mm wide boards it reaches straight R60.3 Analysis in case of fire load In case of accidental fire attack the analysis is achieved by considering 0. Behavior in case of fire load The system of the O'portune slabs with its central kern of 80 to 100mm is very fire resistant.2 2 STRUCTURAL ASPECTS 2. which might be determinant.com 2.cbs-cbt. which might obtain a fire resistance of R60 or more. With a kernal zone of 90mm.Technical description o www.
A new cross section is obtained which will be analyzed for the fire load .Notice that the wooden part of the slab protects in case of fire from the bottom side the upside part and the concrete. The O'portune slab so acts as are fire barrier. Figure 3 : Initial cross section of the O'portune standard slab Figure 4 : Cross section after 30min combustion on the down-side part 7-17 Figure 5 : Cross section after 60min combustion on the down-side part. Not only the concrete stays working. the slab also allows evacuations on the upside. because of low temperatures.
com Figure 6 : Example for a ceiling obtained with an O'portune slab with the offset boards .4 Behavior in case of earthquake The ideal behavior of the O'portune slab during an accidental earthquake exposure is guaranteed by a sliding bearing realized through : long screws which allow the construction a ductile behavior oval holes in the iron parts in the primary supporting structure ARCHITECTURAL ASPECT 3. When the typical ceiling is systemized like for example in figure 6 the parameters defining its architecture are : The thickness of the boards The offset of the boards The finishing (natural or painted) of the boards Cuts near the bearings to realize negative cornices Indentation realized after motifs Hard wood insertions Integration of lights The type of boards (simple or finger jointed dimension lumber boards.cbs-cbt.Technical description o 3 2. DUO boards or alternating species for a natural zebra effect) www.1 A very punchy aspect The architectural feature of an O'portune slab in an interior is extremely expressive by the visible offset boards which create the ceiling.
1 Building physics Concerning the physical behavior of this slab.e. a dry and fast placing (up to 500m2/day) and therefore a perfectly managed transfer. 80€/m2 to 120€/m2) A pre fabrication of transportable slab partitions. 0. while in summer it isolates against higher outside temperatures. which allows to optimize the bearing reactions and further the design of the walls and foundations.1 A simple concept The economy of the O'portune slab for great spans (8m –12m) is guaranteed by its basic concept which integrates the multi functionality of slab and ceiling and its lightness of 80 kg/m2 to 120 kg/m2.2 Acoustic Aspect Moreover. wooden slabs used in simple housing are very sensible concerning acoustic phenomena. which have to be distinguished into airborne noise and impact noise. 5 PHYSICAL AND ACOUSTIC ASPECTS 5. the mass of wood (ca. In winter. 5. the wooden part works as an isolation against deep temperatures. When an even more economic solution is required.2m3/m2) is very interesting for the thermal inertia of its volume. As a flat roof this behavior is very favorable for the interior. Based on the use of dimension lumber boards and a system of very simple connectors the economy is guaranteed by : The cost of the wood (finished. the O'portune slab can be lightened by becoming partial with (O'portune-) beams made of five to seven boards filling 20 to 40% of the slab. 9-17 . built-in) from 500€/m3 to 700€/m3 according to requirements (i.4 ECONOMIC ASPECT 4. the rest is being coffered (see description Solivium slab).
2. Laboratory tests in completely reflecting halls have been effected at the Polytechnic University of Lausanne. the profile simple wood like shown in figure 7 : Figure 7 : Profile of the O'portune slab without acoustic absorber tested for airborne noise Model 2.com 5.Technical description o www. the wooden profile with a band of rock wool (20mm) plus a hidden board as shown in figure 9 Figure 9 : Profile of the O'portune slab improved with a band of isolating rock wool on the bottom side and a coverage on the isolation. Switzerland. with different profiles for the wooden part.cbs-cbt. tested for airborne noise . simple or improved with an acoustic isolation. the wooden profile with a band of rock wool (20mm) placed on the bottom side as shown in figure 8 : Figure 8 : Profile of the O'portune slab improved with a band of isolating rock wool on the bottom side. tested for airborne noise Model 3. the profile of the slab is already a sound absorbing ceiling. These are the three tested profiles : Model 1.1 Airborne noise From one point of view.
The obtained results are shown in figure 10 and 12 where the value of absorption αs (α Sabine) is given in function of the spectrum of frequencies. Figure 10 : Acoustic performance of model 1 (no acoustic isolation) Figure 11 : Acoustic performance of model 1 (with acoustic isolation) 11-17 Figure 12 : Acoustic performance of model 1 (with acoustic isolation and an additional board) .
the profile can be widened from closed type (figure 7) to open type (figure 10). Figure 13 : Cross section of an open O'portune . This coefficient is raised to a value of more than 0.Technical description o www. If the acoustic performance must settle even higher claims.com Table 1 gives the values obtained for each type of frequency.6 for the same frequency range for model 2.3 in the frequency range from 550-1000Hz. Table 1 : Absorption value for model 1 to 3 in function of frequency It is remarkable that model 1 shows already superior behavior with an αs from more than 0. This profile has a acoustic comportment equal to model 2 and 3.cbs-cbt.
soft-hard system.…)). Figure 14 : Section of a O'portune slab with a hard.2. a stiff layer like a screed of 60 to 80mm (allowing to even integrate a floor heating system) and a final floor placed straight on the screed or on a felt. Figure 14 shows a type of profile which integrates on the upside plane board an acoustic absorber (20 to 40mm. a multi layer spring system (mass-spring-mass) must be realized. With this kind of composition the demands of new acoustic norms can be settled. wood product (Pavatex.5.2 Impact noise For improving the acoustic comportment of the O'portune slab concerning impact noise. which allows absorption and elimination of impact sound 13-17 .
when considering that the chippings can be used for heating. always interesting from an energetic point of view. balance and proximity The O'portune slab has an extreme favorable balance regarding the two environmental criteria energy and CO2.1 6 ECOLOGICAL ASPECT "Producing a 100m2 slab.Technical description o 6. PEFC or Q+(for Switzerland).cbs-cbt. wood as being a storage of CO2 and the feedstock dimension lumber board having the lowest level of refinement. rather in wood than in reinforced concrete. . even nearly null. www. In comparison to a reinforced concrete slab (concrete and steel). Moreover its lightness allows to diminish vertical structures (walls) and foundations.2 Wood from sustainable forests Wood used to construct O'portune slabs is not only local wood. the energetic costs are very low.com 6. but also with certified derivation and guaranteed traceability to assure that the wood is exploited from sustainable managed forests. that is about 30to less of CO2 in the atmosphere. Therefore the ecological labels are FSC. with 10m free span." Consumption.
Interior aspect before and during placing 15-17 General aspect after the placing of the slab with a free span of 12m and a length of 12m . ARDENNES (L) : Commune de Paliseul : Ch.Appendices APPENDIX 1 : Owner Architect Engineer RENOVATION OF A HOME. Lievens : CBS Exterior aspect Slab with spruce boards from the Ardennes 42 x 218 mm with camber and bearings on iron profiles.
cbs-cbt. Origlio (TI) Placing of the slab on the timber frame Interior aspect of the placed slab .com APPENDIX 2 : Owner Architect Engineer Implementation CENTER FOR HANDICAPED PERSONS. ORIGLIO (CH.Technical description . TESSIN) : Fattoria Otaf : Sven Pancera – CH-Lugano : CBT.Appendices o www. St-Sulpice : Xilema.
EXPO 02 : Expo 02 17-17 .APPENDIX 3 : Owner NATIONAL EXPOSITION IN SWITZERLAND.
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