Baluchistan University of Information Technology , Engineering and Management Sciences Causes of stress and its effects on Employees of private

banks of Quetta

2012

This is to certify that this research project

“Causes of stress and its effects on employee performance in private banks of Quetta”

By

Shamaila Sohail Waqar Akram

Virda Niazi Kazim Raza Rizvi

Is completed and accepted as a partial requirement of BSBA Study Program

Mr. Adeel Anjum

(Supervisor)
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Dedicated To:

“Our Parents & Teachers”

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It would be difficult to list each person who provided their assistance in completing this project “The impact of stress on performance in private banks of Quetta” but we would like to mention certain people for their contribution. Especially Mr. Ghulam Ali Mashoori (Late), Mr. Adeel Anjum, Mr. Nadeem uz Zaman for their valuable suggestions, time and advices that proved to be very helpful in the accomplishment of this Project.

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Abstract Stress refers to disturbed mental state that is sometimes positive and sometimes negative. Positive stress leads to productivity and good performance whereas; negative stress leads to employee dissatisfaction and poor performance and overall loss of the organization. Today every individual is facing stress especially bank employees. This stress is to be managed carefully for better performance of employees and achievement of organizational goals. The study provides an analysis of causes of stress and its effect on performance. The study considered 14 private banks of Quetta and the units of analysis were the operational level employees of these banks. Sample size was 100 and sampling method was convenience sampling. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire with 3 likert scale; the mean standard deviation and correlation of the data was analyzed with the help of SPSS analysis. Results showed that unclear tasks, unsupportive supervisor and overburden are significant causes of stress. The correlation table showed that the following causes of stress; poor reward system, job insecurity, disturbed social and public dealings have strong positive relation with the dummy variables of performance. Keywords: occupational stress, private bank employees, job performance.

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Table of Contents

Topics

Contents

Page No.

Approval sheet Dedication Acknowledgment Abstract Introduction: Background of study.………………………………. Statement of problem………………………………. Research Variables: Independent Variable …………….……………….... Dependent Variable ………………………………… Objectives of Research ……………………………… Significance of study………………………………..

2 3 4 5

8-9 9 10 10 10 10

Literature Review: Review of relevant literature ……………………. 11-15

Research Methodology: Research design…………………………………….. Population………………………………………….... Sample size…………………………………………..
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16 16 16

Data Collection & Sampling……………………........ Statistical Tool/Procedures………………………….. Theoretical Framework ….………………… ……….

16 16 17

Results and Discussion…………………………………................

18-24

Conclusions and recommendations: Limitation……………………………………………… 25 Conclusion …………………………………………….. 25 Recommendations ……………………………………. 26

References and Questionnaire: References ………………………………………… Blank questionnaire………………………………… 27-29 30-34

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CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study In today’s work environment stress is a common mental state that is rapidly growing among employees in any field. Stress not only effects employee’s mental abilities but also physical behavior resulting in increased or decreased performance efficiency. Sometimes stress is caused due to environmental factors effecting the performance of any individual, stress has its impacts either positive or negative; when taken in its positive aspect known as eustor helps in motivating an individual to achieve their goal but when it exceeds the limit of tolerance among employees it converts into distress which prevents an individual from the attainment of goals. On job stress is mostly taken in the negative perspective and this distress prevents employees from achieving their goals and from being productive. The reasons for stress previously found can be work load, discrimination among employees, conflicts created due to the roles played by employees of any organization. Functional and operational level managers of banks are under great stress when they aren’t given the due role to perform or when load of professional work increases and the employees cannot cope with it. These stressors not only decrease job performance but also disturb their personal and family life. Job performance is an activity to fulfill the job tasks in a successful pattern. Employee’s performance depends on coordination with supervisor, coworkers and the nature of the job. A supportive supervisor and coworkers are an essential part for improved performance, including the job nature and environment in which an employee is operating. Job tasks or job responsibilities when not attainable are a reason for stress among employees. Stress can be harmful especially when job requirements are contradictory with the employee’s skills and abilities. If employees are given work that
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doesn’t match their knowledge or abilities they are obvious to encounter a state of stress while performing the task or duties on the job, resulting in inefficiency in performance due to lack of interest. If the factors are satisfactory there will be a significant increase in efficient performance. Bank employees are in stress due to lack of feedback, conflicts of authority, and responsibilities given to them. Fast growing banking sector is encountering increasing work load and its employees feel burden because of work nature and overtime working hours. Bank employees require appreciation and feedback for their work from their supervisors, if not provided it creates a state of mental stress among employees. Studies have showed a negative co relation among job stress and performance of employees. In the banking sector employees encounters high levels of stress which bring a decrease in productivity and performance. Job duties are a source of increased stress levels and no major concern for minimizing employees stress is shown by employers, this behavior of employer is a major reason for decrease in job performance. Job stress can bring other subjective effects among employees as fear of joblessness or anxiety caused by burden of work resulting in deviated concentration and commitment towards work tasks. Excessive stress creates ambiguity among employees affecting their mental capabilities; they aren’t able to make effective decision for themselves. Employers then face challenge while managing their employee’s absenteeism and turnover issues. Stress is widely known phenomena in today’s work environment, employers now have to be considerate towards the employees of the organization else way absenteeism, turnover and low performance will bring about a negative impact on any business. This base of our study is intended to focus on the factors causing stress among employees of private banks in Quetta and also on the aspect of performance change due to stress.

1.2 Research problems Stress has become a major buzzword in today’s turbulent working environment. Stress affects an employee’s effectiveness and on job performance and ultimately decreasing job satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that cause the mental stress and their impact over operational level employee’s performance working in Private Banks of Quetta.

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1.3 Research Variables: The study is based on the following themes; Independent Variable: Occupational Stress Dependent Variable: Performance

1.5 Research objectives 1. To determine factors causing stress among employees of Private Banks of Quetta. 2. To study the effects of stress on the performance of operational level staff in these banks.

1.6 Significance of study The study is based on cause and effects of stress on employee performance in private banks, our study will be significant as no co-relational research has been conducted in private banks of Quetta. The findings of the study would be significant for the policy makers of the banking sector. Managers of the banks can also use the results for improving employee performance and their satisfaction levels. The research will be significant for banking sector as they would be able to know the factors that are causing stress among employees and decreasing their productivity.

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CHAPTER - 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Stress Stress is an amorphous and ambiguous term to explain its meaning. The literature shows a wide range of thoughts concerning the meaning of stress. Stress can be stimulus based and response based. The stimulus based is a condition based stress; a person can find conditions like work load, heat, cold, time pressure as a stressor and the response based stress application holds that stress is caused by the internal responses of any individual as behavioral, cognitive and effective. The difference is that the response based stress is more of an individual’s own nature (Staal, 2004). Stress has its types; positive stress helps an individual to perform well and negative stress is associated with constraints (Kavitha., n.d.). According to McGrath (1976) there are certain conditions that cause stress as; First whenever an environmental situation is perceived as a demand, second when the perceived demand threatens the person’s capabilities or the resources to cope with it and thirdly due to the perceived importance that a person places on the demand. His definition provides a concept of stress that is directly linked to an individual’s performance, if a perceived demand exceeds the skills or abilities of an employee it will be a source of discomfort leading towards stress (McGrath, 1976). Whenever a demand exceeds the capacity of a person he is said to be in stress and it leads to strain, stress is a psychological level and strain is physical level. When stress over burdens and becomes distress the person starts feeling hopeless. This situation reduces a person’s efficiency in playing the role assigned to him in workplace (Kavitha, n.d.). Under the condition of stress a person’s attention appears to channel, and reduces his/her focus on the tasks that are perceived less important and focus centralize on main tasks. The determinants of main task are the individual’s perceived importance that he/she is placing on the task. This process can lead to either enhanced or reduced performance depending on the situation. Performance level decreases if some important tasks are left unattended. Workload also tunnels attention (Staal, 2004).

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2.2 Occupational stress and its impacts on performance Organizational work can sometimes become a burden on employees if they have to meet deadlines, tackle confused bosses, overtime working hours, workload, inadequate monetary rewards and personal issues. These issues are increasing level of stress and decreasing employee’s performance level (Imtiaz & Ahmed, 2009; Salami et al., 2010). Pressure of avoiding errors at job or to complete tasks in a given limited time makes employees pressurized and this work load is a factor contributing to stress. Working conditions and repetitive work also causes stress among employees decreasing Job satisfaction (Kausar et al., 2006). Stress can also be created when no clear job description is given or lack of understanding among supervisor and employees, in adequate time for completion of tasks, heavy responsibilities with no authority, no reward system, lack of opportunities and chance of small errors resulting in serious consequences (Kavitha, n.d.). Employee performance is also related to an employee’s job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is the extent to which an individual is satisfied with the job (Kumari and Pandey, 2011). A happier and satisfied employee will be more productive. Satisfaction level decreases stress among employees. Work overload causes more stress among employees in comparison to other factors. Job satisfaction and self-perceived work stress show the extent to which employees perceive their daily work stressful (Park, 2007). Managers can evaluate the stress level of employees by considering their job satisfaction and their perception about daily job tasks. Every organization encounters one or more issues like these and it deeply influences the performance of the employees and ultimately affecting the organizations productivity. Changes have occurred over the decade, globalization, technological development and restructuring are a root cause for excessive work demands, and these demand are creating conflicts among employee’s family and work life. They aren’t able to give time to their family because of workload and overtime. Social problems arise causing a wave of dissatisfaction to float among employees and they feel less motivated towards their work (Imtiaz and Ahmed, 2009; Salami et al., 2010). Certain stressors have much more severe effect on an individual, these are role ambiguity, lack of feedback given for performance, no career development programs and organizational structure and climate but if social support is present stress can be reduced (Weiss, 1983). Stress is normal to human behavior a person without stress is considered to be dead. Effective organization members need to know the level of stress that an employee can bear because if stress is not handled properly it can result in negative behavior or dissatisfaction at work. Effective management system is required the managers need to realize the resistance level of the employees so

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that the potential employees don’t get upset and their overall performance doesn’t decrease (Imtiaz and Ahmed, 2009; Salami et al., 2010). Considerate management will try solving employee’s problems for retaining them and enhancing their performance levels. In today’s working environment every employee is facing work related stress; many employees are seen complaining about it. Employees are complaining about their coworkers, job task and their bosses and it’s absolutely normal, what is not normal is protracted and prolonged stress. Occupational stress is a major hurdle towards continuous improvement process in any organization and it is also increasing cost of health care problems (Wolfe, 2004). Previous study showed 62% of respondents agreed that authoritative organization system is a source of stress among employees. Employee empowerment is essential for employees in workplace. Lack of empowerment causes stress and contributes to employee turnover (Ongori and Agolla, 2008). Employees suffer from higher level of work-related stress if existences of work-related stress factors are more in the working environment (Ismail and Hong, 2011). Occupational stress is recognized as an emerging cause for health issue among employees. The work burden and environment of work job leads to negative reactions like anxiety, headache or stomach distress (Spector, 2002). Stressful life can have obvious effects on employee psychological systems and immune system. Stressful life greatly effects employees physical integrity, creates anxiety, frustration, heart disease, cholesterol or feeling of helplessness (Kemeny, 2003). Anxiety or frustration is harmful elements for any individual it would make them less interested in job tasks and their performance level will likely decline. Work control is also an important factor for satisfaction and increased or decreased performance level. More an employee has control over their work more satisfied they will be causing fewer health and mental issues. Work control can be control over any aspect of work; it may be task or authority given to employees or anything else (Spector, 2002). Work place stress cannot be eliminated completely but can be reduced to some extent by avoiding as much conflicts as possible, by negotiating with supervisors about work load and communicating with coworkers and resolving conflicts. This will keep employee safe from much of mental stress and biological diseases caused by stress. 2.3 Employee’s stress in relation with performance in banking sector Banking industry activities are all about relationship with customers, banking industry cannot work effectively if the employees aren’t provided with stress free environment, as human resource is the most important capital for banking sector (Kavitha, n.d.). Over stressed job due to work load, risky work, relationship problems with colleagues and the inability to manage
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family life creates social problems, dissatisfaction among employees of banks and decreases their performance (Shahid et al., n.d.). It was believed that employees are among one of the assets of any organization but now as changes are taking place they are considered as most important and essential assets. Banks are working hard to decrease level of stress. The extreme effect of stress in any bank acts as an obstruction in performance levels, stress not just leads to turnover, in banks or any other organization they may lose some of their potential employees and along with that they would have to bear high training and recruitment cost for hiring new employees. Management have to make strategies so that they could take qualitative measures to reduce the level of stress among employees and make potential employees satisfied and committed towards their work (Bhagat, 2008). Turnovers are not a good sign for any organization, managing your employees as they are the most important assets is the best strategy. Employee empowerment is essential for employees in workplace. Lack of empowerment causes stress and contributes to employee turnover. Occupational stress is caused by work burden, communication barriers in organizations, lack of resources and conflicts. These factors affect the organization and its operations. Turnover, low motivation, dissatisfaction, headache, moodiness, anger and accidents among employees increase (Ongori and Agolla, 2008). A study on the banking sector employees of Quetta showed that stress among employees of private banks is higher than the employees of public banks. The study indicated some major stressors among employees of private and public banks these are role overload, role conflict, role authority and lack of support from senior level employees (Malik, 2011). Lack of job clarity and predictability is the reason for role ambiguity; it is the most common factor in any working environment that affects the job performance. Role ambiguity is higher in the financial industry due to the job requirements which implies that employees must perform different set of tasks daily. Role conflict arises when an employee faces conflict between set of demands and to attain one role the other vital role is left ignored. This conflict affects the employees work performance as a feeling of unhappiness with their work emerges (Ismail and Hong, 2011). The results of the survey in Nigerian banking industry showed that about 84% of the respondents have experienced one or more signifying symptoms of stress and 83% were of the opinion that stress has negative impacts on health. Workload demands are a sign of longer working hours in banks. Employees may take the weekend or month end balancing or reports to home for completion or they may be forced by employers to work on Sundays. Employees may lead to a situation of exhaustion, fatigue, burnout state which
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is a physical, emotional and mental exhaustion (Oreoluwa and Oludele, 2010). The causes of stress among bankers were found to be higher targets, salary, work load, timings, public dealing and lack of management and peer support, the responsibility of controlling the developing stress in any work setting lies on both the management and employees (Badar, 2011). Study showed that in the banking sector of Pakistan sources of stress are negative feelings about work load, extensive working hours, technologies used at work and no proper training provided, unsatisfactory salary, no time for family and social life and job complications. Prolong working hours don’t provide employees the time to take rest or to manage their family life. These all reasons lead to physical and psychological stress (Kattak et al., 2011). Another study of Pakistan banking showed that here the working hours for employees mostly don’t have any time limit they may exceed the standard time of 9 am to 5 pm which is a source of concern for employees. Stress has a negative relation with job performance if stress is lower performance increases so both are inversely proportional to each other (Bashir and Ramay, 2010). The banking sector is becoming competitive day by day; the banking management adds responsibilities on employees that exceed their capabilities, which results in psychological problems. Pakistan banking industry is growing rapidly and is providing opportunities for employment, but the psychological issues as stress and strain may become a hurdle in the growth of the sector (Rahim, 2010). Employee can reduce the negative effects of stress by properly coping with it. Employee who perceives low occupational stress and high coping will have better work performance (Sun and Chiou, 2011).Stress can be harmful for the whole society, job satisfaction, perceived stress and psychological wellbeing of employees is important for proper working of banks. Research showed that the failure of any financial institutions is costly for owner, customer, employees and the economy, as banks play an important role in the growth of any economy (Samuel et al., 2009).

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CHAPTER – 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND THEOTRATICAL FRAMEWORK 3.1 Research design This research is a co relational study. The nature of this study is qualitative. Primary data was collected through questionnaire survey. Dummy variables were used to find the correlation between causes of stress and decreased performance. 3.2 Population Operational level employees of 14 private banks in Quetta were considered as target population for the study. These banks are Al faisal bank, Bank Alfalah, KASB bank, Silk bank, Burj bank, Meezan bank, MCB bank, Summit bank, Al Islamic bank, United bank, HBL, Sindh bank, Bank Al dubai, Allied bank. 3.3 Sample size The sample size is 100 employees of private banks 3.4 Data Collection & Sampling:. The sampling technique & Data Collection procedure was; 3.4.1 Sampling Technique: Sampling methodology that was used for this study is the non-probability convenience sampling method. Due to convenience of data collection and time constraints this sampling method is used. 3.4.2 Data Collection: To obtain the data from private bank employee’s questionnaire was used. The data from questionnaire was obtained on 3 likert scale i.e. YES, MAYBE, NO. All close-ended questions were used to get the feedback of respondents.

3.5 Statistical Tool/Procedures: For analyzing the sample data certain statistical tools were applied; SPSS for evaluating the Mean and Standard Deviations for determining the sample statistics and MS Word for developing the tables.

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3.6 Theoretical framework Occupation stress is a common factor in any job, but bank employees are mostly found to be facing it. As the diagram below shows occupational stress is associated with the Job content, Employment conditions, and Social relations at work place and Working conditions. These four categories are the basis for stressors that stem from them as overburden, unclear job description, reward system, job in security, supervisor and colleague support, empowerment, tradeoff between work and social life, public dealings, late sitting and deadlines. All these stressors affect employee’s performance and decrease their efficiency as mentioned in the diagram below:

STRESS

JOB CONTENTS

EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS

WORKING RELATIONS

WORKING CONDITIONS

 

Overburden Unclear job

 

Reward system Jon insecurity

   

Supervisory support Lack of empowerment Non-cooperative colleagues Social life

Late sitting deadlines

Effects on performance    Absenteeism Lack of interest inefficiency

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CHAPTER– 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 4.1: Respondents data GENDER Female Male Total QUANTITY 17 83 100 PERCENTAGE 17% 83% 100%

Table 4.2:

Work Experience of Respondents Amount 51 20 15 9 2 3 100 Percentage 51% 20% 15% 9% 2% 3% 100%

Experience 0-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 25-30+ Total

Table 4.3: The scale used in the questionnaire was coded as Elements on scale Yes Maybe No Code Assigned 1 2 3

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Table 4.4: Stress Experienced by Employees in Banks

Q# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Yes 44 52 27 67 47 24 71 77 50 73 72 51 67 67 80 70 78 23 60 67 70 39 38 71

May Be 17 22 26 17 18 6 23 12 28 12 11 21 18 16 11 20 11 28 14 24 12 12 18 13

No 39 26 47 16 35 70 6 11 22 15 17 28 15 17 9 10 11 49 26 9 18 49 44 16

Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Mean 2.12 1.77 2.18 1.46 1.91 2.45 1.75 1.36 1.68 1.41 1.56 1.81 1.54 1.47 1.32 1.41 1.33 2.25 1.75 1.43 1.50 2.07 2.04 1.48

Std. Deviation .902 .851 .845 .744 .911 .869 .845 .718 .803 .712 .833 .861 .771 .758 .649 .683 .667 .796 .880 .655 .798 .946 .898 .785

The table 4.3 shows the responses of sample units. 100 employees perception against 24 questions that were regarding whether the employees are experiencing stress is being recorded. The mean and standard deviation for each question is also shown.

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Table 4.4.1: Mean of the Responses Mean Yes May be No Total 57.7% 17% 25.2% 100%

The table shows the mean of yes, no, maybe for 24 questions answered by 100 sample. The table 1.1 clearly shows that majority of the employees 57.7% in these banks are stressed. 17% are uncertain about whether they are stressed or not. And 25.2% responded that they aren’t stressed.

Table 4.5:

Perception of Employees concerning factors of Stress

Q# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Factors Unclear tasks Overburden Late sitting Deadlines Reward system Insecurity Supervisor Colleagues Less participation Less control Public dealings Social life

Yes 84 79 64 71 63 70 83 46 60 71 43 61

May Be 9 16 26 23 16 14 14 8 13 8 20 16

No 7 5 10 6 21 16 3 46 27 21 37 23

Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Mean 1.25 1.30 1.46 1.40 1.60 1.46 1.23 2.01 1.70 1.57 2.01 1.70

Std.Deviation .592 .595 .688 .636 .829 .758 .510 .959 .893 .868 .916 .893

The above table shows the responses of employees regarding the stress factors in the job. The mean and standard deviation for each question is also recorded. The table shows that 84% employees thought that unclear job task and 83% said lack of supervisor support creates stress, 79% were of the view that overburden creates stress.
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Table 4.6: Effects on Performance Q# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Factors Inefficiency due to unclear task Inefficiency due to late sitting Inefficiency due to no training Absenteeism due to insecurity Job interest decreases due to poor reward system Quality of work is affected by coworkers Decreased performance due to unsupportive supervisor Interest in job decreases due to less empowerment Yes 61 70 52 61 89 90 77 89 May Be 14 13 24 25 7 5 19 4 No 25 17 24 14 4 5 4 7 Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Mean Std.deviation 1.66 1.46 1.77 1.51 1.14 1.20 1.28 1.16 .867 .771 .839 .718 .427 .550 .533 .507

The above table shows the respondent responses of the effects of stress factors on performance. The table is also showing the mean and standard deviation of each question.

Table 4.7: Reliability Test

Cronbach's Alpha .786

N of Items 44

Cronbach Alpha measures the reliability of the scale used for data collection. The result shows that the three likert scale used in questionnaire is 78.6% reliable.

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Table 4.8: Correlation table of dummy variables

Inefficiency Inefficiency Absenteeism due to due to late due to job unclear sitting insecurity tasks

Decreased Coworkers interest due effect to poor performance reward

Decreased performance due to unsupportive supervisors 0.160

Unclear tasks

Over burden

Late sitting

Unrealistic deadlines

Pears on Corre latio n Sig. (2taile d) N Pears on Corre latio n Sig. (2taile d) N Pears on Corre latio n Sig. (2taile d) N Pears on Corre latio n Sig.

0.187

-0.011

0.006

0.180

0.093

0.063

0.913

0.953

0.074

0.358

0.112

100 -0.016

100 -0.172

100 -0.054

100 0.032

100 0.123

100 -0.076

0.877

0.087

0.591

0.753

0.221

0.450

100 0.028

100 0.130

100 0.093

100 -0.015

100 -0.032

100 0.086

0.784

0.196

0.358

0.881

0.752

0.395

100 -0.007

100 -0.132

100 0.190

100 -0.171

100 0.058

100 -0.095

0.942

0.191

0.058 22

0.088

0.568

0.345

Reward system

Job Insecurity

Supervisor y support

Less participati on

Less control

(2taile d) N Pears on Corre latio n Sig. (2taile d) N Pears on Corre latio n Sig. (2taile d) N Pears on Corre latio n Sig. (2taile d) N Pears on Corre latio n Sig. (2taile d) N Pears on Corre

100 .568(**)

100 .560(**)

100 -0.010

100 0.017

100 0.066

100 .462(**)

0.000

0.000

0.920

0.866

0.511

0.000

100 .317(**)

100 .291(**)

100 .233(*)

100 0.017

100 -0.077

100 0.153

0.001

0.003

0.020

0.863

0.443

0.129

100 -0.004

100 -0.195

100 .367(**)

100 -0.010

100 -0.130

100 -.239(*)

0.968

0.052

0.000

0.920

0.199

0.016

100 -.276(**)

100 -0.164

100 0.020

100 -0.074

100 -0.062

100 -.352(**)

0.005

0.102

0.840

0.463

0.542

0.000

100 -0.143

100 -0.079

100 0.048

100 -0.109

100 -.199(*)

100 -.305(**)

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Public dealing

Social life

latio n Sig. (2taile d) N Pears on Corre latio n Sig. (2taile d) N Pears on Corre latio n Sig. (2taile d) N

0.157

0.436

0.639

0.282

0.047

0.002

100 0.157

100 .437(**)

100 -0.146

100 -0.159

100 -0.044

100 0.118

0.119

0.000

0.147

0.115

0.663

0.241

100 .571(**)

100 .510(**)

100 0.052

100 -0.021

100 0.123

100 .517(**)

0.000

0.000

0.607

0.834

0.222

0.000

100

100

100

100

100

100

The above table shows that unclear tasks are a reason of inefficiency in performance and it has a strong positive relation of 0.568(**) with poor reward system, 0.317(**) with job insecurity and 0.571(**) with social life. Late sitting decreases employees efficiency and it also has strong positive relation with stress factors as 0.560(**) with poor reward system, 0.437(**) with public dealing and 0.510 with disturbed social life. Unsupportive supervisors decreases employees performance and it has strong positive relation of 0.462(**) with poor reward system and 0.517(**) with disturbed social life. Other relations in the table are either not strong or negative relations so they are not applicable for the study.

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CHAPTER – 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Limitations of the study Our study was limited to only operational level employees of the selected 14 banks. Only14 private banks were selected due to time constraint and the study was limited to one geographical area. Further research should be conducted that could cover the private banks in other areas so that a clearer view can be established about the topic. 5.2 Conclusion The study analyzed the occupational stress and its effects on employee performance in private banking sector. The objectives of study were to identify factors causing stress and their effects of performance. The study revealed that overburden, unsupportive supervisors and colleagues, late

sitting, disturbed social life due to work and lack of participation are causes of stress among employees, the most evident one’s in the study are unclear job tasks 84%, unsupportive supervisor 83% and overburden 79%. They all contribute to decreased performance as it is evident from the correlation table. When stress level increases in employees their performance and productivity decreases.

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5.3 Recommendations 1. In developing organizations it is considered to be the duty of management to manage the stress of their employees. And they should take active steps to manage their stress so that potential of employees is not wasted and does not give a threat to organizational goals. 2. Employees should be given counseling so that they are able to manage their stress and give their high performance and increasing productivity of organization. 3. Up to a certain level stress is needed for high performance of employees. But when this stress goes beyond the level then management support is needed because it works as a cushion against stress in employees. 4. Stress management training programs should be arranged with the involvement of top management so that they can easily achieve their goals without getting stressed. 5. Management should modify the policies to provide individuals with more authority over their jobs. 6. Strategies should be over viewed regarding working hours, supervisory support and clear job descriptions to reduce the stress of employees

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CHAPTER – 6 REFRENCES AND QUESTIONNAIR 6.1 Refrences Badar, M. R., 2011. Factors causing stress and impact on job performance. A case study of banks of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. European journal of business and management, 3(12). Bashir, U. and Ramay, M. I., 2010. Impact of stress on employee job performance a study on banking sector of Pakistan. International journal of marketing studies, 2(1). Bhagat, M. and Dhar, R. L., 2008. Job stress, coping process ans intentions to leave. Delhi business review, 9(1). Dar, L. et al., 2011. Impact of stress on employee job performance in business sector of Pakistan. Global journal of management and research. Folkman, S. and Moskowitz, J. T., 2000. Stress, positive emotion and coping. Sage publications, 9(4), pp. 115-118. Imtiaz, S. and Ahmed, S., 2009. Impact of stress on employee productivity, performance and turnover. International review of business research papers, 5(4), pp. 468-477. Ismail, M. I. and Hong, T. T., 2011. Identifying work related stress among employees in the Malaysian financial sector. World journal of management, pp. 229-243. Kausar. S et al., 2006. Occupational stress and job performance. Journal of Pakistan psychiatric society, 3(2). Kavitha, G., Occupational stress and coping strategies. Discovery publishing house. Kemeny, M. E., 2003. Psychobiology of stress. Sage publications, 12(4), pp. 124-129. Khattak, .J. K. et al., 2011. Occupational stress and burnout in Pakistan's banking sector. African jurnal of business management, 5(3), pp. 810-817.

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Kumari, G. and Pandey, M. K., 2011. Studies on stress management. A case study of avatar. International journal of innovation management and technology, 2(5). Malik, N., 2011. A study of occupational stress experiences by private and public banks employees in Quetta city. African journal of business management, 5(8), pp. 3063-3070. McGrath, J.E., 1976. Stress and behavior in organizations. In: Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. pp. 1351-1395. Ongori, H. and Agolla, J. E., 2008. Occupational stress in organizations and its effects on organizational performance. Journal of management research, 8(3). Oreoluwa, A. R. and Oludele, A. A., 2010. Occupational stress and the Nigerian banking sector. Journal of economics and engineering. Park, J., 2007. Work stress and job performance. Perspective on labour and income. Rahim, S. H., 2010. Emotional intelligence and stress. An analytical study of Pakistan banks. International journal of trade, economics and finance, 1(2). Salami, A. et al., 2010. Impact of job stress on manager's performance. European journal of scientific research, 45(2), pp. 249-260. Samuel, M. O et al., 2009. The relationship between banks distress, job satisfaction, percieved stress and psychological well being of employees and depositors in Nigeria's banking sector. African journal of business management, 3(11), pp. 624-632. Shahid, M. N. et al., Work stress and employee performance in banking sector from district Faisalabad. Asian journal of business and management sciences, 1(7), pp. 38-47. Spector, P. E,. 2002. Employee control and occupational stress. Sage publications, 11(4), pp. 133-136. Staal, M. A., 2004. Stress, cognition and human performance. NASA. Sun, K. S et al., 2011. Aviation groung crews: Occupational stresses and work performance. African journal of business management, 5(7), pp. 28652873.

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Weiss. M,. 1983. Effects of work stress and social support on information system managers. 7(1), pp. 29-43. Wolfe. I. S,. 2004. The truth about employee stress. Business 2 Business.

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6.2 Blank Questionnaire Dear respondent! This questionnaire is designed to collect data about “Impact of Stress on Employees Performance in Private Banks of Quetta”. For this purpose, researcher has selected the employees of private banks to collect the data and accomplish this task. Your response will make this research more reliable and accurate and it will help the researcher to make this project accomplished on time. Please be neutral to select the scales and submit your responses. Personal information  Name (optional)  Current position  Age  Education Bachelor 3. Masters 4. Other  Total work experience 0 to 5 years 11 to 15 years 21 to 25 years 6 to 10 years 16 to 20 years 26 to 30+ years 1. Intermediate 2.

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These questions are to diagnose your stress level. Answer all questions but just tick one box that applies to you, either yes or no. Answer yes even if a part of question resembles you.

YES MAY NO BE

1.

I do not get enough hours in the day for the work that I am supposed to do.

2.

I often grind my teeth.

3.

I refuse to consider problems in the hope that they will go away themselves.

4.

I prefer doing jobs myself so that they are correctly done.

5.

I am wrong at estimating time for accomplishment of a task.

6.

I often bring my office work at home.

7.

I feel that my work/life has too many deadlines that are not easy to meet.

8.

I would like to have higher self-confidence/self-esteem than it is now.

9.

Doing nothing and relaxing makes me feel guilty.

10. In my time of relaxation I often find myself thinking about problems.

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11. Even after waking up after a proper sleep I feel tired. 12. I tend to finish other people’s sentences when they are speaking slowly.

13. I am determined to eat, walk, drive and talk quickly.

14. I feel I have a loss of appetite/often skip meals.

15. I feel frustrated when I have to drive in a traffic that moves too slowly.

16. I hide my feeling of annoyance when someone/something annoys me.

17. I want to win in any game or sport I am playing.

18. I feel difficulty in concentration and decision making.

19. I find myself criticizing others even when they deserve praise.

20. Even when I am pre-occupied with my own thoughts I still seem to be listening.

21. Pains in head, neck, lower back and shoulders have increased.

22. My tasks are not performed as good now as they used to be.

23. I feel I have greater dependency of cigarette and caffeine.

24. I do not have time for hobbies and interest outside work.

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Please use 1 to 3 scales for your response as under: 1. Yes 2. May be 3. No

Employee’s stress and causes 1 2 3

1.

I feel stressed when my job tasks are not clear.

2.

I feel stressed when I am overburdened.

3.

Late sitting causes fatigue.

4.

Pressure of meeting unrealistic deadlines leads to stress.

5.

Inappropriate reward system in my organization is a reason of stress.

6.

Insecure working environment creates stress.

7.

Unsupportive supervisors in work related issues create stress.

8.

My colleagues are non-cooperative; therefore I do not get along with them at all.

9.

Lack of/less participation in decision makes me stressed.

10. Lack of/less control over my job causes stress.

11. I feel stress due to frequent public dealing.

12. My social life gets disturbed due to extensive working hours.
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Effects on performance

1

2

3

1.

You are inefficient to perform when your job tasks are not clear. Late sitting decreases employee’s efficiency.

2.

3.

Inadequate training is a reason for increased inefficiency.

4.

Absenteeism increases due to job insecurity.

5.

Poor reward system leads to lack of interest in job.

6.

Non-cooperative co-workers affect quality of work.

7.

Task accomplishment decreases due to unsupportive supervisors.

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