Endocrinology

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Oxytocin and ADH are stored in axon terminals in the posterior pituitary. 8th ed. Hypothalamichypophyseal tract Axon terminals Press for animation Figure 16. Paraventricular nucleus Supraoptic nucleus 2.Relationship Between Hypothalamus And Posterior Pituitary 1. When the neuron is excited. Hypothalamic neurons synthesize oxytocin and ADH.05 (marieb. Two clusters of neurosecretory neuronal cell bodies in the hypothalamus produce either vasopressin or oxytocin depending on neuron.) . The hormone travels down the axon to be stored in the neuronal terminals within the posterior lobe. Oxytocin and ADH are released into the blood when hypothalamic neurons fire. 3. Oxytocin and ADH are transported along the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract to the posterior pituitary. the stored hormone is released from the terminals into the systemic blood circulation for distribution throughout body.

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8 The thyroid gland. . Inc.Colloid-filled follicles Follicle cells Thyroid Gland Parafollicular cell Thyroid Gland Parafollicular Cells Figure 16. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

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normal or elevated [insulin] initially.insulin resistance .Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus • Type I DM (IDDM) .not as prone to ketoacidosis as type I .ketonemia .increased hepatic glucose production .dependent on insulin to sustain life and prevent ketoacidosis • Type II DM (Non-IDDM) . relative insulin deficiency .most patients obese .insulinopenia (diminishing level of insulin production) .may require insulin to control hyperglycemia .autoimmune destruction of -cells .

Progression of Type I Diabetes Immunologic Trigger Genetic Predisposition 100 Beta cell mass (% of max) Overt Diabetes 50 No Diabetes 0 Diabetes Time (years) .

Metabolic Changes During Progression of Type II Diabetes 400 Mean Plasma Glucose– OGTT (mg/dL) 300 200 100 Control Obese Obese. Diabetes +  Insulin . Diabetes +  Insulin Obese. Glucose Intolerance Obese.

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