XFLR5 and Stability Analysis | Flight Dynamics (Fixed Wing Aircraft) | Aerodynamics

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.

Deperrois - November 2010
About stability analysis using XFLR5
X
F
L
R
5
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Sign Conventions
The yaw, such that the
nose goes to starboard
is >0
The pitching moment nose up
is > 0
The roll, such that the
starboard wing goes down
is > 0
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The three key points which must not be confused
together
Centre of Gravity CG
= Point where the moments act;
Depends only on the plane's
mass distribution, not its
aerodynamics
Also named XCmRef in XFLR5, since this is the
point about which the pitching moment is
calculated
Neutral Point NP
= Reference point for which the
pitching moment does not depend
on the angle of attack α
Depends only on the plane's
external geometry
Not exactly intuitive, so let's
explore the concept further
Centre of Pressure CP
= Point where the resulting aero force applies
Depends on the model's aerodynamics and on
the angle of attack
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The neutral point = Analogy with the wind vane
NP
CP
Wind
CG
CG forward of the NP

The pressure
forces drive the
vane back in the
wind direction

Very stable wind
vane
CG positioned at the NP

The wind vane
rotates indefinitely

Unstable
CG behind the NP

The wind vane
is stable… in
the wrong
direction
Wind vane having undergone a perturbation,
no longer in the wind direction
The Neutral Point is the rear limit for the CG
2nd principle : Forward of the NP, the CG thou shall position
CG slightly forward of the NP

The pressure forces
drive the vane back in
the wind direction

The wind vane is
stable, but sensitive to
wind gusts
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
A preliminary note : Equilibrium is not stability !
Both positions are at equilibrium,
only one is stable
Unstable C
Stable ©
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Mechanical stability
Force F
x
Displacement
x
Force F
x
Displacement
F
x
<0
F
x
<0 F
x
>0
F
x
>0
Unstable C
Stable ©
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Aerodynamic stability
Angle of
attack α
Cm (Pitch moment)
CG NP
Unstable C
Stable ©
Angle of
attack α
Cm (Pitch moment)
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Understanding the polars Cm = f(α) and Cl = f(Cm)
α
Cm
Note : Valid only for a whole plane or a flying wing
Cm
Cl
Cm = 0 = balance
= plane's operating point
Negative slope = Stability
The curve's slope is also the strength of the
stabilizing force
¬ High slope = Stable sailplane !
For information only :
Cm0 = Moment
coefficient at zero-lift
Cm = 0 ¬ balance
Cl > 0 ¬ the model flies !
Cm0
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
How to use XFLR5 to find the Neutral Point
α
Cm
Polar curve for X
CG
< X
NP
The CG is forward of the NP
The plane is stable
α
Cm
α
Cm
Polar curve for X
CG
= X
NP
Cm does not depend on α
The plane is unstable
Polar curve for X
CG
> X
NP
The CG is behind the NP
The plane is stable…
The wrong way
By trial and error, find the X
CG
value which
gives the middle curve
For this value, X
NP
= X
CG
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The tail volume (1) : a condition for stability ?
First the definition
LA
Elev
: The elevator's Lever Arm measured at the wing's and elevator's quarter
chord point
MAC : The main wing's Mean Aerodynamic Chord
Area
Wing
: The main wing's area
Area
Elev
: The elevator's area

Wing Wing
Elev Elev
Area MAC
Area LA
TV
×
×
=
LA
Elev
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Tail Volume (2)
Let's write the balance of moments at the wing's quarter chord
point, ignoring the elevator's self-pitching moment
M
Wing
+ LA
Elev
x Lift
Elev
= 0
M
Wing
is the wing's pitching moment around its root ¼ chord point
We develop the formula using Cl and Cm coefficients :
q x Area
Wing
x MAC
Wing
Cm
Wing
= - LA
Elev
x q x Area
Elev
x Cl
Elev

where q is the dynamic pressure.
Thus :
Elev Elev
Wing Wing
Elev Elev
Wing
Cl TV Cl
Area MAC
Area LA
Cm × − =
×
×
− =
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Tail Volume (3)
Elev Elev
Wing Wing
Elev Elev
Wing
Cl TV Cl
Area MAC
Area LA
Cm × − =
×
×
− =
The elevator's
influence increases
with the lever arm
The elevator's
influence increases
with its area
The elevator has less influence
as the main wing grows wider
and as its surface increases
We understand now that the tail volume is a measure of
the elevator's capacity to balance the wing's self
pitching moment
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Tail Volume (4)
Elev Elev
Wing Wing
Elev Elev
Wing
Cl TV Cl
Area MAC
Area LA
Cm × − =
×
×
− =
×
The formula above tells us only that the higher the TV, the greater
the elevator's influence shall be
×
It does not give us any clue about the plane's stability
×
It tells us nothing on the values and on the signs of Cm and Cl
×
This is a necessary condition, but not sufficient : we need to know
more on pitching and lifting coefficients
×
Thus, an adequate value for the tail volume is not a
condition sufficient for stability
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
A little more complicated : V-tails
The angle δ has a double influence:
1. It reduces the surface projected on the horizontal plane
2. It reduces the projection of the lift force on the vertical plane
… after a little math:
Effective_area = Area
Elev
x cos²δ
The method is borrowed from
Master Drela
(may the aerodynamic Forces
be with him)
δ
Projected area
Projected Lift
Wing Wing
2
Elev Elev
Area MAC
cos Area LA
TV
×
δ × ×
=
Lift
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The Static Margin : a useful concept
×
First the definition
×
A positive static margin is synonym of stability
×
The greater is the static margin, the more stable the sailplane will be
×
We won't say here what levels of static margin are acceptable… too
risky… plenty of publications on the matter also
×
Each user should have his own design practices
×
Knowing the NP position and the targeted SM, the CG position can be
deduced…= X
NP
- MAC x SM
×
…without guarantee that this will correspond to a positive lift nor to
optimized performances
Wing
CG NP
MAC
X X
SM

=
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
How to use XFLR5 to position the CG
×
Idea N°1 : the most efficient
º
Forget about XFLR5
º
Position the CG at 30-35% of the Mean Aero Chord
º
Try soft hand launches in an area with high grass
º
Move progressively the CG backwards until the plane glides
normally
º
For a flying wing
• Start at 15%
• Set the ailerons up 5°-10°
• Reduce progressively aileron angle and move the CG backwards
º
Finish off with the dive test
¬ Works every time !
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
How to use XFLR5 to position the CG
×
Idée N°2 : Trust the program
º
Re-read carefully the disclaimer
º
Find the Neutral Point as explained earlier
º
Move the CG forward from the NP…
º
… to achieve a slope of Cm = f(α) comparable to that of a model
which flies to your satisfaction, or
º
… to achieve an acceptable static margin
º
Go back to Idea N°1 and perform a few hand launches
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Summarizing on the 4-graph view of XFLR5
α
Cl
α
Cm
Depending on the
CG position, get
the balance angle
α
e
such that Cm = 0
Check that Cl>0
for α = α
e

α
XCP
It is also possible to
check that
XCP =XCmRef
for α = α
e

α
0
Singularity
for the zero-
lift angle α
0
α
e
α
e
α
e
α
Cl/Cd
α
e
Unfortunately, no
reason for the
performance to
be optimal
Iterations are required to find the best compromise
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Consequences of the incidence angle
×
To achieve lift, the wing must have an angle of attack greater
than its zero-lift angle
×
This angle of attack is achieved by the balance of wing and
elevator lift moments about the CG
×
Three cases are possible
º
Negative lift elevator
º
Neutral elevator
º
Lifting elevator
×
Each case leads to a different balanced angle of attack
×
For French speakers, read Matthieu's great article on
http://pierre.rondel.free.fr/Centrage_equilibrage_stabilite.pdf
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Elevator Incidence and CG position
×
The elevator may have a positive or negative lift
×
Both configurations are possible
×
The CG will be forward of the wing's CP for an elevator with
negative lift
×
"Within the acceptable range of CG position, the glide ratio does
not change much" (M. Scherrer 2006)
Wing CP
CG
Elev CP
Wing CP
Elev CP
Elevator has a negative
incidence vs. the wing
Elevator has a neutral or
slightly negative incidence
NP
NP
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The case of Flying Wings
×
No elevator
×
The main wing must achieve its own stability
×
Two options
º
Self stable foils
º
Negative washout at the wing tip
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Self-Stable Foils
×
The notion is confusing : The concept covers those
foils which make a wing self-stable, without the help
of a stabilizer
×
Theory and analysis tell us that a foil's Neutral Point
is at distance from the leading edge = 25% x chord
×
But then… all foils are self-stable ??? All that is
required is to position the CG forward of the NP
×
What's the difference between a so-called self-
stable foil and all of the others ???
¬
Let's explore it with the help of XFLR5
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
A classic foil
Consider a rectangular wing with uniform chord =100 mm, with a NACA 1410 foil
reputedly not self-stable
Calculations confirm that the
NP is at 25% of the chord
Unfortunately, at zero pitching
moment, the lift is negative,
the wing does not fly.
That's the problem…
NACA 1410
It is usually said of
these airfoils that
their zero-lift
moment coefficient
is negative
Cm0 < 0
Note : this analysis can also be done in non-linear conditions with XFoil
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
A self-stable foil
Consider the same rectangular wing with chord 100mm, with an Eppler 186 foil
known to be self-stable
The NP is still at 25% of the
chord
It would be more intuitive to say "the
zero-moment lift is positive" :
Cl
0
> 0 , the wing flies!
Eppler 186
It is usually said of these
airfoils that "the zero-lift
moment is positive",
Cm
0
> 0
which doesn't tell us much
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
A more modern way to create a self-stable wing
CG
×
The consequence of the negative lift at the tip is that the total lift will be less than
with the classic wing
×
Let's check all this with XFLR5
Lift at the root
Lift at the tip
A classic
sailplane wing
A flying wing with
negative washout
at the tip
The positive
moment at the tip
balances the
negative moment at
the wing's root
F
Lift at the root
Negative lift at the tip
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Model data
Consider a simple wing
×
First without washout,
×
Then with -6° washout at tip
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Wing without washout
Consider a static margin = 10%
Unfortunately, at zero pitching moment, the lift
is negative (Cl<0) : the wing does not fly
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Wing with washout
At zero pitching moment, the lift is slightly positive :
It flies !
Let's visualize in the next slide the
shape of the lift for the balanced a.o.a
α
e
=1.7°
Consider a static margin = 10%
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Lift at the balanced a.o.a
Positive lift at the root
Negative lift at the tip
Part of the wing lifts the wrong way : a flying wing exhibits low lift
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Stability and Control analysis
So much for performance… but what about
stability and control ?
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
What it's all about
×
Our model aircraft needs to be adjusted for performance,
but needs also to be stable and controllable.
º
Stability analysis is a characteristic of "hands-off controls"
flight
º
Control analysis measures the plane's reactions to the pilot's
instructions
×
To some extent, this can be addressed by simulation
×
An option has been added in XFLR5 v6 for this purpose
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Static and Dynamic stability
Statically
unstable
Statically
stable
time
Response
time
Response
Dynamically stable
Dynamically unstable
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Sailplane stability
×
A steady "static" state for a plane would be defined as a
constant speed, angle of attack, bank angle, heading angle,
altitude, etc.
×
Difficult to imagine
×
Inevitably, a gust of wind, an input from the pilot will disturb
the plane
×
The purpose of Stability and Control Analysis is to evaluate
the dynamic stability and time response of the plane for such
a perturbation
×
In the following slides, we refer only to dynamic stability
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Natural modes
×
Physically speaking, when submitted to a perturbation, a
plane tends to respond on "preferred" flight modes
×
From the mathematic point of view, these modes are called
"Natural modes" and are described by
º
an eigenvector, which describes the modal shape
º
an eigenvalue, which describes the mode's frequency and its
damping
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Natural modes - Mechanical
×
Example of the tuning fork
Shock perturbation
¬ preferred response on A note
= 440 Hz
time
Amplitude response
The sound decays with time
The fork is dynamically stable… not really a surprise
T = 1/440 s
vibration
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Natural modes - Aerodynamic
×
Example of the phugoid mode
Trajectory response
Steady level flight
Phugoid period
Perturbation
by a vertical
gust of wind
The plane returns
progressively to its
steady level flight
= dynamically stable
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The 8 aerodynamic modes
×
A well designed plane will have 4 natural longitudinal modes
and 4 natural lateral modes
Lateral
1 spiral mode
1 roll damping mode
2 Dutch roll modes
Longitudinal
2 symmetric phugoid modes
2 symmetric short period
modes
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The phugoid
… is a macroscopic mode of exchange between the Kinetic and
Potential energies
Russian Mountains :
Exchange is made by
the contact force
Aerodynamic :
Exchange is made by
the lift force
Slow, lightly damped, stable or unstable
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The mechanism of the phugoid
Dive
¬ At iso-Cl, The lift
increases as the square power
of the speed
L = ½ ρ S V² Cl
The sailplane
accelerates
α Constant
¬ Cl constant
The sailplane rises
and slows down
The lift
decreases
Relative wind
α
α
time
Response
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The short period mode
×
Primarily vertical movement and pitch rate in the same phase,
usually high frequency, well damped
time
Response
The mode's
properties are
primarily driven by
the stiffness of the
negative slope of the
curve Cm=f(α)
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Spiral mode
×
Primarily heading, non-oscillatory, slow, generally unstable
The mode is initiated by a
rolling or heading disturbance.
This creates a positive a.o.a. on
the fin, which tends to
increase the yawing moment
time
Response
Requires pilot input to
prevent divergence !
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Roll damping
×
Primarily roll, stable
1. Due to the rotation about the x-axis, the
wing coming down sees an increased a.o.a.,
thus increasing the lift on that side. The
symmetric effect decreases the lift on the
other side.
2. This creates a restoring moment opposite
to the rotation, which tends to damp the
mode
time
Bank angle
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Dutch roll
×
The Dutch roll mode is a combination of yaw and roll, phased
at 90°, usually lightly damped
¬
Increased lift and drag on
starboard side, decreased lift
and drag on port side
¬
The lift difference creates a
bank moment to port side
¬
The drag difference creates a
yawing moment to starboard
C Plane
rotates to
port side
C Plane
rotates to
starboard
C Plane banks to port
side and reverses yaw
direction
C Plane banks
to starboard
φ
ψ
C
C
C
C
φ
ψ
Rear view
Top view
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Modal response for a reduced scale plane
×
During flight, a perturbation such as a control
input or a gust of wind will excite all modes in
different proportions :
º
Usually, the response on the short period and the roll
damping modes, which are well damped, disappear quickly
º
The response on the phugoid and Dutch roll modes are
visible to the eye
º
The response on the spiral mode is slow, and low in
magnitude compared to other flight factors.
It isn't visible to the eye, and is corrected unconsciously
by the pilot
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Modal behaviour
×
Some modes are oscillatory in nature…
º
Phugoid,
º
Short period
º
Dutch roll
×
…and some are not
º
Roll damping
º
Spiral
Defined by
1. a "mode shape" or eigenvector
2. a natural frequency
3. a damping factor
Defined by
1. a "mode shape" or eigenvector
2. a damping factor
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The eigenvector
×
In mathematical terms, the eigenvector provides information
on the amplitude and phase of the flight variables which
describe the mode,
×
In XFLR5, the eigenvector is essentially analysed visually, in
the 3D view
×
A reasonable assumption is that the longitudinal and lateral
dynamics are independent and are described each by four
variables
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The four longitudinal variables
×
The longitudinal behaviour is described by
º
The axial and vertical speed variation about the steady state
value V
inf
= (U
0
,0,0)

u = dx/dt - U
0
• w = dz/dt
º
The pitch rate q = dθ /dt
º
The pitch angle θ
×
Some scaling is required to compare the relative size of
velocity increments "u" and "w" to a pitch rate "q" and to an
angle "θ "
×
The usual convention is to calculate
º u' = u/U
0
, w' = w/U
0
, q' = q/(2U
0
/mac),
º
and to divide all components such that θ = 1
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The four lateral variables
×
The longitudinal behaviour is described by four variables
º
The lateral speed variation v = dy/dt about the steady state
value V
inf
= (U
0
,0,0)
º
The roll rate p = dφ /dt
º
The yaw rate r = dψ/dt
º
The heading angle ψ
×
For lateral modes, the normalization convention is
º v' = u/U
0
, p' = p/(2U
0
/span), r' = r/(2U
0
/span),
º
and to divide all components such that ψ = 1
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Frequencies and damping factor
×
The damping factor ζ is a non-dimensional coefficient
×
A critically damped mode, ζ = 1, is non-oscillating, and returns slowly to steady state
×
Under-damped (ζ < 1) and over-damped (ζ > 1) modes return to steady state slower
than a critically damped mode
×
The "natural frequency" is the frequency of the response on that specific mode
×
The "undamped natural frequency" is a virtual value, if the mode was not damped
×
For very low damping, i.e. ζ << 1, the natural frequency is close to the undamped
natural frequency
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
ζ=0.15
ζ=0.5
ζ=1
ζ=2
Underdamped
Critically
damped
Overdamped
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The root locus graph
×
This graphic view provides a visual interpretation of the frequency and damping of a mode
with eigenvalue λ = σ
1
+ iω
N
× The time response of a mode component such as u, w, or q, is
× ω
N
is the natural circular frequency and ω
N
/2π is the mode's natural frequency
× is the undamped natural circular frequency
× σ
1
is the damping constant and is related to the damping ratio by σ
1
= -ω
1
ζ
× The eigenvalue is plotted in the (σ
1
, ω
N
/2π) axes, i.e. the root locus graph
( )t i t
N 1
ke e . k ) t ( f
ω + σ λ
= =
λ
σ
ω/2π
Imaginary part /2π
Real part
2
N
2
1 1
ω + σ = ω
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The root locus interpretation
× λ
Α
corresponds to a damped oscillatory mode
× λ
Β
corresponds to an un-damped, non-oscillatory mode
Negative damping constant = dynamic stability
The more negative, the higher the damping
Positive damping constant
= dynamic instability
λ
Α
σ
Α
ω
Α
/2π
The further away
from the ω=0 axis,
the higher the mode's
frequency
Eigenvalues on the ω=0
axis are non-oscillatory
λ
Β
=
σ
Β
Imaginary part /2π
Real part
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The typical root locus graphs
Imaginary part /2π
Real part
Longitudinal
Two symmetric
short period
modes
Two symmetric
phugoid modes
Imaginary part /2π
Real part
Lateral
Two
symmetric
Dutch roll
modes
One roll
damping mode
One spiral
mode
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Stability analysis in XFLR5
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
One analysis, three output
Open loop dynamic
response
Forced input
dynamic response
Natural modes
• "Hands off" control
• Provides the plane's
response to a
perturbation such as a
gust of wind
• Provides the plane's
response to the
actuation of a control
such as the rudder or
the elevator
• Describe the
plane's response
on its natural
frequencies
Stability
Analysis
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Pre-requisites for the analysis
×
The stability and control behavior analysis requires that the
inertia properties have been defined
×
The evaluation of the inertia requires a full 3D CAD program
×
Failing that, the inertia can be evaluated approximately in
XFLR5 by providing
º
The mass of each wing and of the fuselage structure
º
The mass and location of such objects as nose lead, battery,
receiver, servo-actuators, etc.
×
XFLR5 will evaluate roughly the inertia based on these
masses and on the geometry
×
Once the data has been filled in, it is important to check
that the total mass and CoG position are correct
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Description of the steps of the analysis
Definition of geometry,
mass and inertia
Definition of the
analysis/polar
Analysis
Post-Processing
3D-eigenmodes Root locus graph Time response
Im/2π
Re
time
Response
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The time response view : two type of input
time
Response
time
CControl actuation
Ramp time
∆ Control
amplitude
C Perturbation
time
∆ Flight variable
(u,w,q) or (v,p,r)
0
0
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
The 3D mode animation
×
The best way to identify and understand a mode shape ?
×
Note :
º
The apparent amplitude of the mode in the animation has no
physical significance.
º
A specific mode is never excited alone in flight – the response is
always a combination of modes.
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Example of Longitudinal Dynamics analysis
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Second approximation for the Short Period Mode
×
Taking into account the dependency to the vertical velocity
leads to a more complicated expression
0
*
u 2
MAC
t =
3
y
y
MAC . S .
I 8
I
ˆ
ρ
=
MAC . S .
m 2
ρ
= µ
α ∂

=
α
m
m
C
C
α ∂

=
α
z
z
C
C
C

and C

are the slopes of the curves
Cm = f(α) and Cz = f(α). The slopes can be
measured on the polar graphs in XFLR5
µ
=
α
*
z
t 2
C
B
y
2 *
m
I
ˆ
t
C
C
α
− =
C 4 B
2
1
F
2
2
+ −
π
=
Despite their complicated appearance, these formula can
be implemented in a spreadsheet, with all the input values
provided by XFLR5
u
0
= horizontal speed
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Lanchester's approximation for the Phugoid
×
The phugoid's frequency is deduced from the
balance of kinetic and potential energies, and is
calculated with a very simple formula
0
ph
u
g
2
1
F
π
=
g is the gravitational constant, i.e. g = 9.81 m/s
u
0
is the plane's speed
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Numerical example – from a personal model sailplane
×
Plane and flight Data
×
Results
u0 = 16.20 m/s
α = 1.05 °
q = 160.74 Pa
Cx = 0.0114
Cz = 0.1540
dCm/dα = -1.9099
dCz/dα =
-5.3925
Graphic Analysis ¬
F1 F2 XFLR5 v6 Fph XFLR5 v6
Frequency (Hz) = 4.45 4.12 3.86 0.136 0.122
Period (s) = 0.225 0.243 0.259 7.3 8.2
Short Period Phugoid
MAC = 0.1520 m²
Mass = 0.5250 kg
Iyy = 0.0346 kg.m²
S = 0.2070 m²
ρ = 1.225 kg/m3
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Time response
×
There is factor 40x between the numerical frequencies of both
modes, which means the plane should be more than stable
×
A time response analysis confirms that the two modes do not
interact
-0.7
-0.6
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0 2 4 6 8 10
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
Pitch rate
Pitch Angle
Phugoid
mode
Short Period Mode
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
About the Dive Test
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
About the dive test
(scandalously plagiarized from a yet unpublished article
by Matthieu, and hideously simplified at the same time)
How is this test
related to what's been
explained so far?
Forward CG
Slightly forward CG
Neutral CG
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Forward CG
×
If the CG is positioned forward, the plane will enter the
phugoid mode
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Stick to the phugoid
×
As the plane moves along the phugoid, the apparent wind
changes direction
×
From the plane's point of view, it's a perturbation
×
The plane can react and reorient itself along the trajectory
direction, providing
º
That the slope of the curve Cm = f(α) is stiff enough
º
That it doesn't have too much pitching inertia
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
Summarizing :
α
α
• The CG is positioned forward
• = stability
• = the wind vane which follows
the wind gusts
×
The two modes are un-coupled
×
The relative wind changes direction along the phugoid…
×
… but the plane maintains a constant incidence along the
phugoid, just as the chariot remains tangent to the slope
×
The sailplane enters the phugoid mode
1. The CG is positioned forward
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
2. The CG is positioned aft
•Remember that backward CG = instability = the wind vane which
amplifies wind gusts
×
The two modes are coupled
×
The incidence oscillation α(t) amplifies the phugoid,
×
The lift coefficient is not constant during the phugoid
×
The former loop doesn't work any more
×
The phugoid mode disappears
×
No guessing how the sailplane will behave at the dive test
(It's fairly easy to experiment, though)
α(t)
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010
That's all for now
Good design and nice flights
Needless to say, this presentation owes a lot to Matthieu Scherrer ; thanks Matt !

Sign Conventions

The yaw, such that the nose goes to starboard is >0

The pitching moment nose up is > 0
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The roll, such that the starboard wing goes down is > 0

The three key points which must not be confused together
Centre of Pressure CP = Point where the resulting aero force applies Depends on the model's aerodynamics and on the angle of attack

Centre of Gravity CG = Point where the moments act; Depends only on the plane's mass distribution, not its aerodynamics
Also named XCmRef in XFLR5, since this is the point about which the pitching moment is calculated

Neutral Point NP = Reference point for which the pitching moment does not depend on the angle of attack α Depends only on the plane's external geometry Not exactly intuitive, so let's explore the concept further

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

but sensitive to wind gusts CG positioned at the NP → The wind vane rotates indefinitely → Unstable CG behind the NP → The wind vane is stable… in the wrong direction  The Neutral Point is the rear limit for the CG 2nd principle : Forward of the NP. Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.The neutral point = Analogy with the wind vane Wind vane having undergone a perturbation.November 2010 . no longer in the wind direction Wind CG NP CP CG forward of the NP → The pressure forces drive the vane back in the wind direction → Very stable wind vane CG slightly forward of the NP → The pressure forces drive the vane back in the wind direction → The wind vane is stable. the CG thou shall position Revision 2.

Deperrois . only one is stable Revision 2.A preliminary note : Equilibrium is not stability ! Unstable  Stable  Both positions are at equilibrium.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .

Deperrois .Mechanical stability Unstable  Stable  Fx<0 Fx>0 Fx>0 Fx<0 x Force Fx Force Fx Displacement Displacement Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .

1 – Copyright A.Aerodynamic stability Stable  Unstable  CG NP Cm (Pitch moment) Cm (Pitch moment) Angle of attack α Angle of attack α Revision 2.November 2010 . Deperrois .

Deperrois .November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.Understanding the polars Cm = f(α) and Cl = f(Cm) Note : Valid only for a whole plane or a flying wing Cm Cl Cm = 0  balance Cl > 0  the model flies ! α Cm0 Cm Cm = 0 = balance = plane's operating point For information only : Cm0 = Moment coefficient at zero-lift Negative slope = Stability The curve's slope is also the strength of the stabilizing force  High slope = Stable sailplane ! Revision 2.

How to use XFLR5 to find the Neutral Point Cm Cm Cm α α α Polar curve for XCG < XNP The CG is forward of the NP The plane is stable Polar curve for XCG = XNP Cm does not depend on α The plane is unstable Polar curve for XCG > XNP The CG is behind the NP The plane is stable… The wrong way By trial and error. XNP = XCG Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. find the XCG value which gives the middle curve For this value.November 2010 . Deperrois .

November 2010 . Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.The tail volume (1) : a condition for stability ? First the definition TV = MACWing × AreaWing LAElev × AreaElev LAElev : MAC : AreaWing : AreaElev : The elevator's Lever Arm measured at the wing's and elevator's quarter chord point The main wing's Mean Aerodynamic Chord The main wing's area The elevator's area LAElev Revision 2.

Thus : CmWing = − MACWing × AreaWing LAElev × AreaElev ClElev = −TV × ClElev Revision 2. Deperrois . ignoring the elevator's self-pitching moment MWing + LAElev x LiftElev = 0 MWing is the wing's pitching moment around its root ¼ chord point We develop the formula using Cl and Cm coefficients : q x AreaWing x MACWing CmWing = .Tail Volume (2) Let's write the balance of moments at the wing's quarter chord point.LAElev x q x AreaElev x ClElev where q is the dynamic pressure.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .

Deperrois .November 2010 We understand now that the tail volume is a measure of the elevator's capacity to balance the wing's self pitching moment .Tail Volume (3) The elevator's influence increases with the lever arm The elevator's influence increases with its area CmWing = − MACWing × AreaWing LAElev × AreaElev ClElev = −TV × ClElev The elevator has less influence as the main wing grows wider and as its surface increases Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.

November 2010 . the greater the elevator's influence shall be  It does not give us any clue about the plane's stability  It tells us nothing on the values and on the signs of Cm and Cl  This is a necessary condition.1 – Copyright A. an adequate value for the tail volume is not a condition sufficient for stability Revision 2. but not sufficient : we need to know more on pitching and lifting coefficients  Thus.Tail Volume (4) CmWing = − LAElev × AreaElev ClElev = −TV × ClElev MACWing × AreaWing  The formula above tells us only that the higher the TV. Deperrois .

Deperrois .1 – Copyright A. It reduces the projection of the lift force on the vertical plane Effective_area = AreaElev x cos²δ TV = LAElev × AreaElev × cos 2 δ MACWing × AreaWing Revision 2.November 2010 . It reduces the surface projected on the horizontal plane 2.A little more complicated : V-tails Projected Lift Lift The method is borrowed from Master Drela (may the aerodynamic Forces be with him) δ Projected area The angle δ has a double influence: … after a little math: 1.

1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .MAC x SM …without guarantee that this will correspond to a positive lift nor to optimized performances Revision 2.The Static Margin : a useful concept  First the definition XNP − XCG SM = MACWing       A positive static margin is synonym of stability The greater is the static margin. Deperrois . the CG position can be deduced…= XNP . the more stable the sailplane will be We won't say here what levels of static margin are acceptable… too risky… plenty of publications on the matter also Each user should have his own design practices Knowing the NP position and the targeted SM.

Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .How to use XFLR5 to position the CG  Idea N°1 : the most efficient  Forget about XFLR5  Position the CG at 30-35% of the Mean Aero Chord  Try soft hand launches in an area with high grass  Move progressively the CG backwards until the plane glides normally  For a flying wing • Start at 15% • Set the ailerons up 5°-10° • Reduce progressively aileron angle and move the CG backwards  Finish off with the dive test  Works every time ! Revision 2.

Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .How to use XFLR5 to position the CG  Idée N°2 : Trust the program  Re-read carefully the disclaimer  Find the Neutral Point as explained earlier  Move the CG forward from the NP…  … to achieve a slope of Cm = f(α) comparable to that of a model which flies to your satisfaction. or  … to achieve an acceptable static margin  Go back to Idea N°1 and perform a few hand launches Revision 2.

Summarizing on the 4-graph view of XFLR5
Cm Depending on the CG position, get the balance angle αe such that Cm = 0 α αe Singularity for the zerolift angle α0 Cl/Cd

XCP

αe

It is also possible to check that XCP =XCmRef for α = αe α

Cl

α0 αe

Check that Cl>0 for α = αe α

Unfortunately, no reason for the performance to be optimal αe α

Iterations are required to find the best compromise
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Consequences of the incidence angle
 To achieve lift, the wing must have an angle of attack greater than its zero-lift angle  This angle of attack is achieved by the balance of wing and elevator lift moments about the CG  Three cases are possible  Negative lift elevator  Neutral elevator  Lifting elevator

 Each case leads to a different balanced angle of attack  For French speakers, read Matthieu's great article on http://pierre.rondel.free.fr/Centrage_equilibrage_stabilite.pdf
Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Elevator Incidence and CG position
 The elevator may have a positive or negative lift
Elevator has a negative incidence vs. the wing
Elev CP

Elevator has a neutral or slightly negative incidence

CG
Wing CP

NP
Wing CP

NP

Elev CP

 Both configurations are possible  The CG will be forward of the wing's CP for an elevator with negative lift  "Within the acceptable range of CG position, the glide ratio does not change much" (M. Scherrer 2006)

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .The case of Flying Wings  No elevator  The main wing must achieve its own stability  Two options  Self stable foils  Negative washout at the wing tip Revision 2.

Self-Stable Foils  The notion is confusing : The concept covers those foils which make a wing self-stable.November 2010 .1 – Copyright A. Deperrois . without the help of a stabilizer  Theory and analysis tell us that a foil's Neutral Point is at distance from the leading edge = 25% x chord  But then… all foils are self-stable ??? All that is required is to position the CG forward of the NP  What's the difference between a so-called selfstable foil and all of the others ???  Let's explore it with the help of XFLR5 Revision 2.

the lift is negative. Calculations confirm that the the wing does not fly.1 – Copyright A. NP is at 25% of the chord That's the problem… It is usually said of these airfoils that their zero-lift moment coefficient is negative Cm0 < 0 Note : this analysis can also be done in non-linear conditions with XFoil Revision 2.November 2010 . with a NACA 1410 foil reputedly not self-stable Unfortunately. at zero pitching moment. Deperrois .A classic foil NACA 1410 Consider a rectangular wing with uniform chord =100 mm.

A self-stable foil Eppler 186 Consider the same rectangular wing with chord 100mm.1 – Copyright A. chord Cm0 > 0 which doesn't tell us much It would be more intuitive to say "the zero-moment lift is positive" : Revision 2.November 2010 Cl0 > 0 . Deperrois . with an Eppler 186 foil known to be self-stable It is usually said of these airfoils that "the zero-lift The NP is still at 25% of the moment is positive". the wing flies! .

A more modern way to create a self-stable wing A classic sailplane wing Lift at the root Lift at the tip A flying wing with negative washout at the tip CG F Lift at the root Negative lift at the tip   The positive moment at the tip balances the negative moment at the wing's root The consequence of the negative lift at the tip is that the total lift will be less than with the classic wing Let's check all this with XFLR5 Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .November 2010 .

 Then with -6° washout at tip Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .November 2010 .Model data Consider a simple wing  First without washout.

the lift is negative (Cl<0) : the wing does not fly Consider a static margin = 10% Revision 2. Deperrois . at zero pitching moment.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .Wing without washout Unfortunately.

the lift is slightly positive : It flies ! Consider a static margin = 10% Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 Let's visualize in the next slide the shape of the lift for the balanced a.o. Deperrois .Wing with washout At zero pitching moment.a αe=1.7° .

a Positive lift at the root Negative lift at the tip Part of the wing lifts the wrong way : a flying wing exhibits low lift Revision 2.Lift at the balanced a.November 2010 .o.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .

November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.Stability and Control analysis So much for performance… but what about stability and control ? Revision 2. Deperrois .

November 2010 . Deperrois .  Stability analysis is a characteristic of "hands-off controls" flight  Control analysis measures the plane's reactions to the pilot's instructions  To some extent.1 – Copyright A. this can be addressed by simulation  An option has been added in XFLR5 v6 for this purpose Revision 2.What it's all about  Our model aircraft needs to be adjusted for performance. but needs also to be stable and controllable.

November 2010 .1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .Static and Dynamic stability Statically stable Statically unstable Dynamically stable Response Response Dynamically unstable time time Revision 2.

heading angle.Sailplane stability  A steady "static" state for a plane would be defined as a constant speed. we refer only to dynamic stability Revision 2. an input from the pilot will disturb the plane  The purpose of Stability and Control Analysis is to evaluate the dynamic stability and time response of the plane for such a perturbation  In the following slides. angle of attack. altitude. bank angle. a gust of wind.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .  Difficult to imagine  Inevitably. etc. Deperrois .

which describes the mode's frequency and its damping Revision 2.Natural modes  Physically speaking. a plane tends to respond on "preferred" flight modes  From the mathematic point of view. Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 . which describes the modal shape  an eigenvalue. when submitted to a perturbation. these modes are called "Natural modes" and are described by  an eigenvector.

Mechanical  Example of the tuning fork Shock perturbation  preferred response on A note = 440 Hz Amplitude response vibration time T = 1/440 s The sound decays with time The fork is dynamically stable… not really a surprise Revision 2.Natural modes . Deperrois .November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.

Aerodynamic  Example of the phugoid mode The plane returns progressively to its steady level flight = dynamically stable Trajectory response Steady level flight Perturbation by a vertical gust of wind Phugoid period Revision 2. Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.Natural modes .November 2010 .

The 8 aerodynamic modes  A well designed plane will have 4 natural longitudinal modes and 4 natural lateral modes Longitudinal 2 symmetric phugoid modes 2 symmetric short period modes Lateral 1 spiral mode 1 roll damping mode 2 Dutch roll modes Revision 2.November 2010 . Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.

Deperrois .November 2010 . lightly damped.1 – Copyright A.The phugoid … is a macroscopic mode of exchange between the Kinetic and Potential energies Russian Mountains : Exchange is made by the contact force Aerodynamic : Exchange is made by the lift force Slow. stable or unstable Revision 2.

The lift increases as the square power of the speed L = ½ ρ S V² Cl The lift decreases Response time Revision 2. Deperrois .The mechanism of the phugoid Relative wind α α Dive The sailplane accelerates The sailplane rises and slows down α Constant  Cl constant  At iso-Cl.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .

usually high frequency.1 – Copyright A. well damped Response The mode's properties are primarily driven by the stiffness of the negative slope of the curve Cm=f(α) time Revision 2. Deperrois .The short period mode  Primarily vertical movement and pitch rate in the same phase.November 2010 .

non-oscillatory. This creates a positive a. Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .Spiral mode  Primarily heading. on the fin. slow.o. generally unstable The mode is initiated by a rolling or heading disturbance.a. which tends to increase the yawing moment Response Requires pilot input to prevent divergence ! time Revision 2.

which tends to damp the mode Bank angle 2. The symmetric effect decreases the lift on the other side. thus increasing the lift on that side.November 2010 . time Revision 2. Due to the rotation about the x-axis.a.1 – Copyright A. This creates a restoring moment opposite to the rotation. Deperrois .o.Roll damping  Primarily roll. the wing coming down sees an increased a.. stable 1.

November 2010 .1 – Copyright A. decreased lift and drag on port side  The lift difference creates a bank moment to port side  The drag difference creates a yawing moment to starboard φ  ψ    Revision 2. usually lightly damped  Plane rotates to port side  Plane banks to port side and reverses yaw direction  Plane rotates to starboard  Plane banks to starboard Top view ψ φ Rear view  Increased lift and drag on starboard side. Deperrois . phased at 90°.Dutch roll  The Dutch roll mode is a combination of yaw and roll.

Deperrois . disappear quickly  The response on the phugoid and Dutch roll modes are visible to the eye  The response on the spiral mode is slow.1 – Copyright A.Modal response for a reduced scale plane  During flight. which are well damped. and is corrected unconsciously by the pilot Revision 2. the response on the short period and the roll damping modes. and low in magnitude compared to other flight factors. It isn't visible to the eye.November 2010 . a perturbation such as a control input or a gust of wind will excite all modes in different proportions :  Usually.

 Short period  Dutch roll Defined by 1. a damping factor  …and some are not  Roll damping  Spiral Defined by 1.1 – Copyright A. a "mode shape" or eigenvector 2. a damping factor Revision 2. a "mode shape" or eigenvector 2.Modal behaviour  Some modes are oscillatory in nature…  Phugoid.November 2010 . Deperrois . a natural frequency 3.

Deperrois .The eigenvector  In mathematical terms.  In XFLR5. the eigenvector provides information on the amplitude and phase of the flight variables which describe the mode. the eigenvector is essentially analysed visually.November 2010 . in the 3D view  A reasonable assumption is that the longitudinal and lateral dynamics are independent and are described each by four variables Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.

0.1 – Copyright A. w' = w/U0. Deperrois .0) • u = dx/dt .The four longitudinal variables  The longitudinal behaviour is described by  The axial and vertical speed variation about the steady state value Vinf = (U0.U0 • w = dz/dt  The pitch rate q = dθ /dt  The pitch angle θ  Some scaling is required to compare the relative size of velocity increments "u" and "w" to a pitch rate "q" and to an angle "θ "  The usual convention is to calculate  u' = u/U0.November 2010 . q' = q/(2U0/mac).  and to divide all components such that θ = 1 Revision 2.

the normalization convention is  v' = u/U0. r' = r/(2U0/span).The four lateral variables  The longitudinal behaviour is described by four variables  The lateral speed variation v = dy/dt about the steady state value Vinf = (U0.0)  The roll rate p = dφ /dt  The yaw rate r = dψ /dt  The heading angle ψ  For lateral modes.November 2010 . p' = p/(2U0/span).  and to divide all components such that ψ = 1 Revision 2.0.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .

8 0.Frequencies and damping factor  The damping factor ζ is a non-dimensional coefficient  A critically damped mode.7 0.2 -0.5 ζ=1 ζ=2 Revision 2.4 0.8 Underdamped 0 0. is non-oscillating. ζ << 1.1 – Copyright A.6 0. the natural frequency is close to the undamped natural frequency 1.1 0.2 0.November 2010 .2 0.8 0.6 -0. if the mode was not damped  For very low damping.3 0.e.5 0.4 0.2 1.15 ζ=0.4 -0. Deperrois .0 0. ζ = 1. and returns slowly to steady state  Under-damped (ζ < 1) and over-damped (ζ > 1) modes return to steady state slower than a critically damped mode  The "natural frequency" is the frequency of the response on that specific mode  The "undamped natural frequency" is a virtual value.6 0.0 -0.9 1 Critically damped Overdamped ζ=0. i.

The root locus graph  This graphic view provides a visual interpretation of the frequency and damping of a mode with eigenvalue λ = σ1 + iω N  The time response of a mode component such as u.e λt = ke ( σ1 +iωN ) t σ12 + ωN2 is the undamped natural circular frequency  σ1 is the damping constant and is related to the damping ratio by σ1 = -ω 1ζ  The eigenvalue is plotted in the (σ1. ω N/2 π) axes. i. Deperrois . w.November 2010 . is  ω1 =  ω N is the natural circular frequency and ω N/2 π is the mode's natural frequency f(t) = k.1 – Copyright A.e. the root locus graph Imaginary part /2π λ ω /2 π Real part σ Revision 2. or q.

1 – Copyright A. the higher the mode's frequency Imaginary part /2π λΑ ω Α/2 π Eigenvalues on the ω =0 axis are non-oscillatory Real part σΑ λΒ = σΒ Negative damping constant = dynamic stability The more negative. the higher the damping Positive damping constant = dynamic instability  λ Α corresponds to a damped oscillatory mode  λ Β corresponds to an un-damped.The root locus interpretation The further away from the ω =0 axis.November 2010 . non-oscillatory mode Revision 2. Deperrois .

Deperrois .The typical root locus graphs Longitudinal Imaginary part /2π Lateral Imaginary part /2π One roll damping mode Two symmetric Dutch roll modes Real part Real part Two symmetric short period modes Two symmetric phugoid modes One spiral mode Revision 2.November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.

Stability analysis in XFLR5 Revision 2.November 2010 . Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.

three output Stability Analysis Open loop dynamic response Forced input dynamic response Natural modes • "Hands off" control • Provides the plane's response to a perturbation such as a gust of wind • Provides the plane's response to the actuation of a control such as the rudder or the elevator • Describe the plane's response on its natural frequencies Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.One analysis. Deperrois .November 2010 .

receiver. the inertia can be evaluated approximately in XFLR5 by providing  The mass of each wing and of the fuselage structure  The mass and location of such objects as nose lead. servo-actuators. battery.Pre-requisites for the analysis  The stability and control behavior analysis requires that the inertia properties have been defined  The evaluation of the inertia requires a full 3D CAD program  Failing that.November 2010 . it is important to check that the total mass and CoG position are correct Revision 2.  XFLR5 will evaluate roughly the inertia based on these masses and on the geometry  Once the data has been filled in.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois . etc.

November 2010 .Description of the steps of the analysis Definition of geometry.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois . mass and inertia Definition of the analysis/polar Analysis Post-Processing 3D-eigenmodes Root locus graph Im/2π Time response Response Re time Revision 2.

1 – Copyright A.r)  Control actuation ∆ Control amplitude 0 time 0 Ramp time time Response time Revision 2.q) or (v.p.The time response view : two type of input  Perturbation ∆ Flight variable (u.w.November 2010 . Deperrois .

November 2010 . Revision 2.  A specific mode is never excited alone in flight – the response is always a combination of modes.1 – Copyright A.The 3D mode animation  The best way to identify and understand a mode shape ?  Note :  The apparent amplitude of the mode in the animation has no physical significance. Deperrois .

Example of Longitudinal Dynamics analysis Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 . Deperrois .

with all the input values provided by XFLR5 Revision 2. The slopes can be measured on the polar graphs in XFLR5 ˆ t *2Iy 1 F = − B2 + 4C 2 2π Despite their complicated appearance.MAC u0 = horizontal speed ∂C Cmα = m ∂α B= Czα 2t µ * ∂C Czα = z ∂α C=− Cmα Cmα and Czα are the slopes of the curves Cm = f(α) and Cz = f(α).MAC 3 µ= 2m ρ.S.S.November 2010 . these formula can be implemented in a spreadsheet.1 – Copyright A.Second approximation for the Short Period Mode  Taking into account the dependency to the vertical velocity leads to a more complicated expression MAC t = 2u0 * ˆ Iy = 8Iy ρ. Deperrois .

81 m/s u0 is the plane's speed Revision 2. Deperrois .November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.Lanchester's approximation for the Phugoid  The phugoid's frequency is deduced from the balance of kinetic and potential energies. g = 9. and is calculated with a very simple formula g F = ph π 2 u 0 1 g is the gravitational constant.e. i.

225 Short Period F2 4.1540 -1.136 7.45 0.20 m/s 1.Numerical example – from a personal model sailplane  Plane and flight Data MAC = Mass = Iyy = S= ρ= 0.0114 0.November 2010 .86 0.9099 -5.1520 0.259 Phugoid Fph 0. Deperrois .3925  Results F1 Frequency (Hz) = Period (s) = 4.m² m² kg/m3 u0 = α= q= 16.243 XFLR5 v6 3.1 – Copyright A.3 XFLR5 v6 0.5250 0.12 0.122 8.05 ° 160.2 Graphic Analysis  Revision 2.2070 1.0346 0.225 m² kg kg.74 Pa Cx = Cz = dCm/dα = dCz/dα = 0.

06 -0.0 -0.04 -0.2 0.02 0.08 Short Period Mode 0.4 -0.5 -0.6 -0. Deperrois . which means the plane should be more than stable  A time response analysis confirms that the two modes do not interact 0.06 0.7 Pitch rate Pitch Angle Phugoid mode 0 2 4 6 8 10 0.1 – Copyright A.02 -0.1 0.04 Revision 2.Time response  There is factor 40x between the numerical frequencies of both modes.00 -0.2 -0.3 -0.November 2010 .1 -0.

About the Dive Test Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 . Deperrois .

Deperrois . and hideously simplified at the same time) Forward CG Slightly forward CG Neutral CG How is this test related to what's been explained so far? Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .About the dive test (scandalously plagiarized from a yet unpublished article by Matthieu.

Forward CG  If the CG is positioned forward.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 . Deperrois . the plane will enter the phugoid mode Revision 2.

providing  That the slope of the curve Cm = f(α) is stiff enough  That it doesn't have too much pitching inertia Revision 2. the apparent wind changes direction  From the plane's point of view.November 2010 .Stick to the phugoid  As the plane moves along the phugoid. Deperrois . it's a perturbation  The plane can react and reorient itself along the trajectory direction.1 – Copyright A.

1 – Copyright A. The CG is positioned forward α α • • • The CG is positioned forward = stability = the wind vane which follows the wind gusts  The two modes are un-coupled  The relative wind changes direction along the phugoid…  … but the plane maintains a constant incidence along the phugoid. just as the chariot remains tangent to the slope  The sailplane enters the phugoid mode Revision 2.Summarizing : 1. Deperrois .November 2010 .

2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois . though) α(t) Revision 2.November 2010 . The lift coefficient is not constant during the phugoid The former loop doesn't work any more The phugoid mode disappears No guessing how the sailplane will behave at the dive test (It's fairly easy to experiment. The CG is positioned aft •Remember that backward CG = instability = the wind vane which amplifies wind gusts       The two modes are coupled The incidence oscillation α(t) amplifies the phugoid.

November 2010 .That's all for now Good design and nice flights  Needless to say. this presentation owes a lot to Matthieu Scherrer . Deperrois .1 – Copyright A. thanks Matt ! Revision 2.

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