## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Deperrois - November 2010
**

About stability analysis using XFLR5

X

F

L

R

5

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Sign Conventions

The yaw, such that the

nose goes to starboard

is >0

The pitching moment nose up

is > 0

The roll, such that the

starboard wing goes down

is > 0

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The three key points which must not be confused

together

Centre of Gravity CG

= Point where the moments act;

Depends only on the plane's

mass distribution, not its

aerodynamics

Also named XCmRef in XFLR5, since this is the

point about which the pitching moment is

calculated

Neutral Point NP

= Reference point for which the

pitching moment does not depend

on the angle of attack α

Depends only on the plane's

external geometry

Not exactly intuitive, so let's

explore the concept further

Centre of Pressure CP

= Point where the resulting aero force applies

Depends on the model's aerodynamics and on

the angle of attack

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The neutral point = Analogy with the wind vane

NP

CP

Wind

CG

CG forward of the NP

→

The pressure

forces drive the

vane back in the

wind direction

→

Very stable wind

vane

CG positioned at the NP

→

The wind vane

rotates indefinitely

→

Unstable

CG behind the NP

→

The wind vane

is stable… in

the wrong

direction

Wind vane having undergone a perturbation,

no longer in the wind direction

The Neutral Point is the rear limit for the CG

2nd principle : Forward of the NP, the CG thou shall position

CG slightly forward of the NP

→

The pressure forces

drive the vane back in

the wind direction

→

The wind vane is

stable, but sensitive to

wind gusts

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

A preliminary note : Equilibrium is not stability !

Both positions are at equilibrium,

only one is stable

Unstable C

Stable ©

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Mechanical stability

Force F

x

Displacement

x

Force F

x

Displacement

F

x

<0

F

x

<0 F

x

>0

F

x

>0

Unstable C

Stable ©

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Aerodynamic stability

Angle of

attack α

Cm (Pitch moment)

CG NP

Unstable C

Stable ©

Angle of

attack α

Cm (Pitch moment)

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Understanding the polars Cm = f(α) and Cl = f(Cm)

α

Cm

Note : Valid only for a whole plane or a flying wing

Cm

Cl

Cm = 0 = balance

= plane's operating point

Negative slope = Stability

The curve's slope is also the strength of the

stabilizing force

¬ High slope = Stable sailplane !

For information only :

Cm0 = Moment

coefficient at zero-lift

Cm = 0 ¬ balance

Cl > 0 ¬ the model flies !

Cm0

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

How to use XFLR5 to find the Neutral Point

α

Cm

Polar curve for X

CG

< X

NP

The CG is forward of the NP

The plane is stable

α

Cm

α

Cm

Polar curve for X

CG

= X

NP

Cm does not depend on α

The plane is unstable

Polar curve for X

CG

> X

NP

The CG is behind the NP

The plane is stable…

The wrong way

By trial and error, find the X

CG

value which

gives the middle curve

For this value, X

NP

= X

CG

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The tail volume (1) : a condition for stability ?

First the definition

LA

Elev

: The elevator's Lever Arm measured at the wing's and elevator's quarter

chord point

MAC : The main wing's Mean Aerodynamic Chord

Area

Wing

: The main wing's area

Area

Elev

: The elevator's area

Wing Wing

Elev Elev

Area MAC

Area LA

TV

×

×

=

LA

Elev

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Tail Volume (2)

Let's write the balance of moments at the wing's quarter chord

point, ignoring the elevator's self-pitching moment

M

Wing

+ LA

Elev

x Lift

Elev

= 0

M

Wing

is the wing's pitching moment around its root ¼ chord point

We develop the formula using Cl and Cm coefficients :

q x Area

Wing

x MAC

Wing

Cm

Wing

= - LA

Elev

x q x Area

Elev

x Cl

Elev

where q is the dynamic pressure.

Thus :

Elev Elev

Wing Wing

Elev Elev

Wing

Cl TV Cl

Area MAC

Area LA

Cm × − =

×

×

− =

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Tail Volume (3)

Elev Elev

Wing Wing

Elev Elev

Wing

Cl TV Cl

Area MAC

Area LA

Cm × − =

×

×

− =

The elevator's

influence increases

with the lever arm

The elevator's

influence increases

with its area

The elevator has less influence

as the main wing grows wider

and as its surface increases

We understand now that the tail volume is a measure of

the elevator's capacity to balance the wing's self

pitching moment

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Tail Volume (4)

Elev Elev

Wing Wing

Elev Elev

Wing

Cl TV Cl

Area MAC

Area LA

Cm × − =

×

×

− =

×

The formula above tells us only that the higher the TV, the greater

the elevator's influence shall be

×

It does not give us any clue about the plane's stability

×

It tells us nothing on the values and on the signs of Cm and Cl

×

This is a necessary condition, but not sufficient : we need to know

more on pitching and lifting coefficients

×

Thus, an adequate value for the tail volume is not a

condition sufficient for stability

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

A little more complicated : V-tails

The angle δ has a double influence:

1. It reduces the surface projected on the horizontal plane

2. It reduces the projection of the lift force on the vertical plane

… after a little math:

Effective_area = Area

Elev

x cos²δ

The method is borrowed from

Master Drela

(may the aerodynamic Forces

be with him)

δ

Projected area

Projected Lift

Wing Wing

2

Elev Elev

Area MAC

cos Area LA

TV

×

δ × ×

=

Lift

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The Static Margin : a useful concept

×

First the definition

×

A positive static margin is synonym of stability

×

The greater is the static margin, the more stable the sailplane will be

×

We won't say here what levels of static margin are acceptable… too

risky… plenty of publications on the matter also

×

Each user should have his own design practices

×

Knowing the NP position and the targeted SM, the CG position can be

deduced…= X

NP

- MAC x SM

×

…without guarantee that this will correspond to a positive lift nor to

optimized performances

Wing

CG NP

MAC

X X

SM

−

=

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

How to use XFLR5 to position the CG

×

Idea N°1 : the most efficient

º

Forget about XFLR5

º

Position the CG at 30-35% of the Mean Aero Chord

º

Try soft hand launches in an area with high grass

º

Move progressively the CG backwards until the plane glides

normally

º

For a flying wing

• Start at 15%

• Set the ailerons up 5°-10°

• Reduce progressively aileron angle and move the CG backwards

º

Finish off with the dive test

¬ Works every time !

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

How to use XFLR5 to position the CG

×

Idée N°2 : Trust the program

º

Re-read carefully the disclaimer

º

Find the Neutral Point as explained earlier

º

Move the CG forward from the NP…

º

… to achieve a slope of Cm = f(α) comparable to that of a model

which flies to your satisfaction, or

º

… to achieve an acceptable static margin

º

Go back to Idea N°1 and perform a few hand launches

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Summarizing on the 4-graph view of XFLR5

α

Cl

α

Cm

Depending on the

CG position, get

the balance angle

α

e

such that Cm = 0

Check that Cl>0

for α = α

e

α

XCP

It is also possible to

check that

XCP =XCmRef

for α = α

e

α

0

Singularity

for the zero-

lift angle α

0

α

e

α

e

α

e

α

Cl/Cd

α

e

Unfortunately, no

reason for the

performance to

be optimal

Iterations are required to find the best compromise

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Consequences of the incidence angle

×

To achieve lift, the wing must have an angle of attack greater

than its zero-lift angle

×

This angle of attack is achieved by the balance of wing and

elevator lift moments about the CG

×

Three cases are possible

º

Negative lift elevator

º

Neutral elevator

º

Lifting elevator

×

Each case leads to a different balanced angle of attack

×

For French speakers, read Matthieu's great article on

http://pierre.rondel.free.fr/Centrage_equilibrage_stabilite.pdf

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Elevator Incidence and CG position

×

The elevator may have a positive or negative lift

×

Both configurations are possible

×

The CG will be forward of the wing's CP for an elevator with

negative lift

×

"Within the acceptable range of CG position, the glide ratio does

not change much" (M. Scherrer 2006)

Wing CP

CG

Elev CP

Wing CP

Elev CP

Elevator has a negative

incidence vs. the wing

Elevator has a neutral or

slightly negative incidence

NP

NP

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The case of Flying Wings

×

No elevator

×

The main wing must achieve its own stability

×

Two options

º

Self stable foils

º

Negative washout at the wing tip

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Self-Stable Foils

×

The notion is confusing : The concept covers those

foils which make a wing self-stable, without the help

of a stabilizer

×

Theory and analysis tell us that a foil's Neutral Point

is at distance from the leading edge = 25% x chord

×

But then… all foils are self-stable ??? All that is

required is to position the CG forward of the NP

×

What's the difference between a so-called self-

stable foil and all of the others ???

¬

Let's explore it with the help of XFLR5

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

A classic foil

Consider a rectangular wing with uniform chord =100 mm, with a NACA 1410 foil

reputedly not self-stable

Calculations confirm that the

NP is at 25% of the chord

Unfortunately, at zero pitching

moment, the lift is negative,

the wing does not fly.

That's the problem…

NACA 1410

It is usually said of

these airfoils that

their zero-lift

moment coefficient

is negative

Cm0 < 0

Note : this analysis can also be done in non-linear conditions with XFoil

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

A self-stable foil

Consider the same rectangular wing with chord 100mm, with an Eppler 186 foil

known to be self-stable

The NP is still at 25% of the

chord

It would be more intuitive to say "the

zero-moment lift is positive" :

Cl

0

> 0 , the wing flies!

Eppler 186

It is usually said of these

airfoils that "the zero-lift

moment is positive",

Cm

0

> 0

which doesn't tell us much

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

A more modern way to create a self-stable wing

CG

×

The consequence of the negative lift at the tip is that the total lift will be less than

with the classic wing

×

Let's check all this with XFLR5

Lift at the root

Lift at the tip

A classic

sailplane wing

A flying wing with

negative washout

at the tip

The positive

moment at the tip

balances the

negative moment at

the wing's root

F

Lift at the root

Negative lift at the tip

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Model data

Consider a simple wing

×

First without washout,

×

Then with -6° washout at tip

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Wing without washout

Consider a static margin = 10%

Unfortunately, at zero pitching moment, the lift

is negative (Cl<0) : the wing does not fly

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Wing with washout

At zero pitching moment, the lift is slightly positive :

It flies !

Let's visualize in the next slide the

shape of the lift for the balanced a.o.a

α

e

=1.7°

Consider a static margin = 10%

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Lift at the balanced a.o.a

Positive lift at the root

Negative lift at the tip

Part of the wing lifts the wrong way : a flying wing exhibits low lift

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Stability and Control analysis

So much for performance… but what about

stability and control ?

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

What it's all about

×

Our model aircraft needs to be adjusted for performance,

but needs also to be stable and controllable.

º

Stability analysis is a characteristic of "hands-off controls"

flight

º

Control analysis measures the plane's reactions to the pilot's

instructions

×

To some extent, this can be addressed by simulation

×

An option has been added in XFLR5 v6 for this purpose

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Static and Dynamic stability

Statically

unstable

Statically

stable

time

Response

time

Response

Dynamically stable

Dynamically unstable

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Sailplane stability

×

A steady "static" state for a plane would be defined as a

constant speed, angle of attack, bank angle, heading angle,

altitude, etc.

×

Difficult to imagine

×

Inevitably, a gust of wind, an input from the pilot will disturb

the plane

×

The purpose of Stability and Control Analysis is to evaluate

the dynamic stability and time response of the plane for such

a perturbation

×

In the following slides, we refer only to dynamic stability

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Natural modes

×

Physically speaking, when submitted to a perturbation, a

plane tends to respond on "preferred" flight modes

×

From the mathematic point of view, these modes are called

"Natural modes" and are described by

º

an eigenvector, which describes the modal shape

º

an eigenvalue, which describes the mode's frequency and its

damping

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Natural modes - Mechanical

×

Example of the tuning fork

Shock perturbation

¬ preferred response on A note

= 440 Hz

time

Amplitude response

The sound decays with time

The fork is dynamically stable… not really a surprise

T = 1/440 s

vibration

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Natural modes - Aerodynamic

×

Example of the phugoid mode

Trajectory response

Steady level flight

Phugoid period

Perturbation

by a vertical

gust of wind

The plane returns

progressively to its

steady level flight

= dynamically stable

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The 8 aerodynamic modes

×

A well designed plane will have 4 natural longitudinal modes

and 4 natural lateral modes

Lateral

1 spiral mode

1 roll damping mode

2 Dutch roll modes

Longitudinal

2 symmetric phugoid modes

2 symmetric short period

modes

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The phugoid

… is a macroscopic mode of exchange between the Kinetic and

Potential energies

Russian Mountains :

Exchange is made by

the contact force

Aerodynamic :

Exchange is made by

the lift force

Slow, lightly damped, stable or unstable

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The mechanism of the phugoid

Dive

¬ At iso-Cl, The lift

increases as the square power

of the speed

L = ½ ρ S V² Cl

The sailplane

accelerates

α Constant

¬ Cl constant

The sailplane rises

and slows down

The lift

decreases

Relative wind

α

α

time

Response

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The short period mode

×

Primarily vertical movement and pitch rate in the same phase,

usually high frequency, well damped

time

Response

The mode's

properties are

primarily driven by

the stiffness of the

negative slope of the

curve Cm=f(α)

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Spiral mode

×

Primarily heading, non-oscillatory, slow, generally unstable

The mode is initiated by a

rolling or heading disturbance.

This creates a positive a.o.a. on

the fin, which tends to

increase the yawing moment

time

Response

Requires pilot input to

prevent divergence !

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Roll damping

×

Primarily roll, stable

1. Due to the rotation about the x-axis, the

wing coming down sees an increased a.o.a.,

thus increasing the lift on that side. The

symmetric effect decreases the lift on the

other side.

2. This creates a restoring moment opposite

to the rotation, which tends to damp the

mode

time

Bank angle

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Dutch roll

×

The Dutch roll mode is a combination of yaw and roll, phased

at 90°, usually lightly damped

¬

Increased lift and drag on

starboard side, decreased lift

and drag on port side

¬

The lift difference creates a

bank moment to port side

¬

The drag difference creates a

yawing moment to starboard

C Plane

rotates to

port side

C Plane

rotates to

starboard

C Plane banks to port

side and reverses yaw

direction

C Plane banks

to starboard

φ

ψ

C

C

C

C

φ

ψ

Rear view

Top view

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Modal response for a reduced scale plane

×

During flight, a perturbation such as a control

input or a gust of wind will excite all modes in

different proportions :

º

Usually, the response on the short period and the roll

damping modes, which are well damped, disappear quickly

º

The response on the phugoid and Dutch roll modes are

visible to the eye

º

The response on the spiral mode is slow, and low in

magnitude compared to other flight factors.

It isn't visible to the eye, and is corrected unconsciously

by the pilot

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Modal behaviour

×

Some modes are oscillatory in nature…

º

Phugoid,

º

Short period

º

Dutch roll

×

…and some are not

º

Roll damping

º

Spiral

Defined by

1. a "mode shape" or eigenvector

2. a natural frequency

3. a damping factor

Defined by

1. a "mode shape" or eigenvector

2. a damping factor

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The eigenvector

×

In mathematical terms, the eigenvector provides information

on the amplitude and phase of the flight variables which

describe the mode,

×

In XFLR5, the eigenvector is essentially analysed visually, in

the 3D view

×

A reasonable assumption is that the longitudinal and lateral

dynamics are independent and are described each by four

variables

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The four longitudinal variables

×

The longitudinal behaviour is described by

º

The axial and vertical speed variation about the steady state

value V

inf

= (U

0

,0,0)

•

u = dx/dt - U

0

• w = dz/dt

º

The pitch rate q = dθ /dt

º

The pitch angle θ

×

Some scaling is required to compare the relative size of

velocity increments "u" and "w" to a pitch rate "q" and to an

angle "θ "

×

The usual convention is to calculate

º u' = u/U

0

, w' = w/U

0

, q' = q/(2U

0

/mac),

º

and to divide all components such that θ = 1

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The four lateral variables

×

The longitudinal behaviour is described by four variables

º

The lateral speed variation v = dy/dt about the steady state

value V

inf

= (U

0

,0,0)

º

The roll rate p = dφ /dt

º

The yaw rate r = dψ/dt

º

The heading angle ψ

×

For lateral modes, the normalization convention is

º v' = u/U

0

, p' = p/(2U

0

/span), r' = r/(2U

0

/span),

º

and to divide all components such that ψ = 1

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Frequencies and damping factor

×

The damping factor ζ is a non-dimensional coefficient

×

A critically damped mode, ζ = 1, is non-oscillating, and returns slowly to steady state

×

Under-damped (ζ < 1) and over-damped (ζ > 1) modes return to steady state slower

than a critically damped mode

×

The "natural frequency" is the frequency of the response on that specific mode

×

The "undamped natural frequency" is a virtual value, if the mode was not damped

×

For very low damping, i.e. ζ << 1, the natural frequency is close to the undamped

natural frequency

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

ζ=0.15

ζ=0.5

ζ=1

ζ=2

Underdamped

Critically

damped

Overdamped

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The root locus graph

×

This graphic view provides a visual interpretation of the frequency and damping of a mode

with eigenvalue λ = σ

1

+ iω

N

× The time response of a mode component such as u, w, or q, is

× ω

N

is the natural circular frequency and ω

N

/2π is the mode's natural frequency

× is the undamped natural circular frequency

× σ

1

is the damping constant and is related to the damping ratio by σ

1

= -ω

1

ζ

× The eigenvalue is plotted in the (σ

1

, ω

N

/2π) axes, i.e. the root locus graph

( )t i t

N 1

ke e . k ) t ( f

ω + σ λ

= =

λ

σ

ω/2π

Imaginary part /2π

Real part

2

N

2

1 1

ω + σ = ω

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The root locus interpretation

× λ

Α

corresponds to a damped oscillatory mode

× λ

Β

corresponds to an un-damped, non-oscillatory mode

Negative damping constant = dynamic stability

The more negative, the higher the damping

Positive damping constant

= dynamic instability

λ

Α

σ

Α

ω

Α

/2π

The further away

from the ω=0 axis,

the higher the mode's

frequency

Eigenvalues on the ω=0

axis are non-oscillatory

λ

Β

=

σ

Β

Imaginary part /2π

Real part

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The typical root locus graphs

Imaginary part /2π

Real part

Longitudinal

Two symmetric

short period

modes

Two symmetric

phugoid modes

Imaginary part /2π

Real part

Lateral

Two

symmetric

Dutch roll

modes

One roll

damping mode

One spiral

mode

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Stability analysis in XFLR5

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

One analysis, three output

Open loop dynamic

response

Forced input

dynamic response

Natural modes

• "Hands off" control

• Provides the plane's

response to a

perturbation such as a

gust of wind

• Provides the plane's

response to the

actuation of a control

such as the rudder or

the elevator

• Describe the

plane's response

on its natural

frequencies

Stability

Analysis

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Pre-requisites for the analysis

×

The stability and control behavior analysis requires that the

inertia properties have been defined

×

The evaluation of the inertia requires a full 3D CAD program

×

Failing that, the inertia can be evaluated approximately in

XFLR5 by providing

º

The mass of each wing and of the fuselage structure

º

The mass and location of such objects as nose lead, battery,

receiver, servo-actuators, etc.

×

XFLR5 will evaluate roughly the inertia based on these

masses and on the geometry

×

Once the data has been filled in, it is important to check

that the total mass and CoG position are correct

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Description of the steps of the analysis

Definition of geometry,

mass and inertia

Definition of the

analysis/polar

Analysis

Post-Processing

3D-eigenmodes Root locus graph Time response

Im/2π

Re

time

Response

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The time response view : two type of input

time

Response

time

CControl actuation

Ramp time

∆ Control

amplitude

C Perturbation

time

∆ Flight variable

(u,w,q) or (v,p,r)

0

0

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The 3D mode animation

×

The best way to identify and understand a mode shape ?

×

Note :

º

The apparent amplitude of the mode in the animation has no

physical significance.

º

A specific mode is never excited alone in flight – the response is

always a combination of modes.

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Example of Longitudinal Dynamics analysis

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Second approximation for the Short Period Mode

×

Taking into account the dependency to the vertical velocity

leads to a more complicated expression

0

*

u 2

MAC

t =

3

y

y

MAC . S .

I 8

I

ˆ

ρ

=

MAC . S .

m 2

ρ

= µ

α ∂

∂

=

α

m

m

C

C

α ∂

∂

=

α

z

z

C

C

C

mα

and C

zα

are the slopes of the curves

Cm = f(α) and Cz = f(α). The slopes can be

measured on the polar graphs in XFLR5

µ

=

α

*

z

t 2

C

B

y

2 *

m

I

ˆ

t

C

C

α

− =

C 4 B

2

1

F

2

2

+ −

π

=

Despite their complicated appearance, these formula can

be implemented in a spreadsheet, with all the input values

provided by XFLR5

u

0

= horizontal speed

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Lanchester's approximation for the Phugoid

×

The phugoid's frequency is deduced from the

balance of kinetic and potential energies, and is

calculated with a very simple formula

0

ph

u

g

2

1

F

π

=

g is the gravitational constant, i.e. g = 9.81 m/s

u

0

is the plane's speed

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Numerical example – from a personal model sailplane

×

Plane and flight Data

×

Results

u0 = 16.20 m/s

α = 1.05 °

q = 160.74 Pa

Cx = 0.0114

Cz = 0.1540

dCm/dα = -1.9099

dCz/dα =

-5.3925

Graphic Analysis ¬

F1 F2 XFLR5 v6 Fph XFLR5 v6

Frequency (Hz) = 4.45 4.12 3.86 0.136 0.122

Period (s) = 0.225 0.243 0.259 7.3 8.2

Short Period Phugoid

MAC = 0.1520 m²

Mass = 0.5250 kg

Iyy = 0.0346 kg.m²

S = 0.2070 m²

ρ = 1.225 kg/m3

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Time response

×

There is factor 40x between the numerical frequencies of both

modes, which means the plane should be more than stable

×

A time response analysis confirms that the two modes do not

interact

-0.7

-0.6

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

0 2 4 6 8 10

-0.08

-0.06

-0.04

-0.02

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

Pitch rate

Pitch Angle

Phugoid

mode

Short Period Mode

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

About the Dive Test

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

About the dive test

(scandalously plagiarized from a yet unpublished article

by Matthieu, and hideously simplified at the same time)

How is this test

related to what's been

explained so far?

Forward CG

Slightly forward CG

Neutral CG

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Forward CG

×

If the CG is positioned forward, the plane will enter the

phugoid mode

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Stick to the phugoid

×

As the plane moves along the phugoid, the apparent wind

changes direction

×

From the plane's point of view, it's a perturbation

×

The plane can react and reorient itself along the trajectory

direction, providing

º

That the slope of the curve Cm = f(α) is stiff enough

º

That it doesn't have too much pitching inertia

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Summarizing :

α

α

• The CG is positioned forward

• = stability

• = the wind vane which follows

the wind gusts

×

The two modes are un-coupled

×

The relative wind changes direction along the phugoid…

×

… but the plane maintains a constant incidence along the

phugoid, just as the chariot remains tangent to the slope

×

The sailplane enters the phugoid mode

1. The CG is positioned forward

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

2. The CG is positioned aft

•Remember that backward CG = instability = the wind vane which

amplifies wind gusts

×

The two modes are coupled

×

The incidence oscillation α(t) amplifies the phugoid,

×

The lift coefficient is not constant during the phugoid

×

The former loop doesn't work any more

×

The phugoid mode disappears

×

No guessing how the sailplane will behave at the dive test

(It's fairly easy to experiment, though)

α(t)

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

That's all for now

Good design and nice flights

Needless to say, this presentation owes a lot to Matthieu Scherrer ; thanks Matt !

Sign Conventions

The yaw, such that the nose goes to starboard is >0

**The pitching moment nose up is > 0
**

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

The roll, such that the starboard wing goes down is > 0

**The three key points which must not be confused together
**

Centre of Pressure CP = Point where the resulting aero force applies Depends on the model's aerodynamics and on the angle of attack

Centre of Gravity CG = Point where the moments act; Depends only on the plane's mass distribution, not its aerodynamics

Also named XCmRef in XFLR5, since this is the point about which the pitching moment is calculated

Neutral Point NP = Reference point for which the pitching moment does not depend on the angle of attack α Depends only on the plane's external geometry Not exactly intuitive, so let's explore the concept further

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

but sensitive to wind gusts CG positioned at the NP → The wind vane rotates indefinitely → Unstable CG behind the NP → The wind vane is stable… in the wrong direction The Neutral Point is the rear limit for the CG 2nd principle : Forward of the NP. Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.The neutral point = Analogy with the wind vane Wind vane having undergone a perturbation.November 2010 . no longer in the wind direction Wind CG NP CP CG forward of the NP → The pressure forces drive the vane back in the wind direction → Very stable wind vane CG slightly forward of the NP → The pressure forces drive the vane back in the wind direction → The wind vane is stable. the CG thou shall position Revision 2.

Deperrois . only one is stable Revision 2.A preliminary note : Equilibrium is not stability ! Unstable Stable Both positions are at equilibrium.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .

Deperrois .Mechanical stability Unstable Stable Fx<0 Fx>0 Fx>0 Fx<0 x Force Fx Force Fx Displacement Displacement Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .

1 – Copyright A.Aerodynamic stability Stable Unstable CG NP Cm (Pitch moment) Cm (Pitch moment) Angle of attack α Angle of attack α Revision 2.November 2010 . Deperrois .

Deperrois .November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.Understanding the polars Cm = f(α) and Cl = f(Cm) Note : Valid only for a whole plane or a flying wing Cm Cl Cm = 0 balance Cl > 0 the model flies ! α Cm0 Cm Cm = 0 = balance = plane's operating point For information only : Cm0 = Moment coefficient at zero-lift Negative slope = Stability The curve's slope is also the strength of the stabilizing force High slope = Stable sailplane ! Revision 2.

How to use XFLR5 to find the Neutral Point Cm Cm Cm α α α Polar curve for XCG < XNP The CG is forward of the NP The plane is stable Polar curve for XCG = XNP Cm does not depend on α The plane is unstable Polar curve for XCG > XNP The CG is behind the NP The plane is stable… The wrong way By trial and error. XNP = XCG Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. find the XCG value which gives the middle curve For this value.November 2010 . Deperrois .

November 2010 . Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.The tail volume (1) : a condition for stability ? First the definition TV = MACWing × AreaWing LAElev × AreaElev LAElev : MAC : AreaWing : AreaElev : The elevator's Lever Arm measured at the wing's and elevator's quarter chord point The main wing's Mean Aerodynamic Chord The main wing's area The elevator's area LAElev Revision 2.

Thus : CmWing = − MACWing × AreaWing LAElev × AreaElev ClElev = −TV × ClElev Revision 2. Deperrois . ignoring the elevator's self-pitching moment MWing + LAElev x LiftElev = 0 MWing is the wing's pitching moment around its root ¼ chord point We develop the formula using Cl and Cm coefficients : q x AreaWing x MACWing CmWing = .Tail Volume (2) Let's write the balance of moments at the wing's quarter chord point.LAElev x q x AreaElev x ClElev where q is the dynamic pressure.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .

Deperrois .November 2010 We understand now that the tail volume is a measure of the elevator's capacity to balance the wing's self pitching moment .Tail Volume (3) The elevator's influence increases with the lever arm The elevator's influence increases with its area CmWing = − MACWing × AreaWing LAElev × AreaElev ClElev = −TV × ClElev The elevator has less influence as the main wing grows wider and as its surface increases Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.

November 2010 . the greater the elevator's influence shall be It does not give us any clue about the plane's stability It tells us nothing on the values and on the signs of Cm and Cl This is a necessary condition.1 – Copyright A. an adequate value for the tail volume is not a condition sufficient for stability Revision 2. but not sufficient : we need to know more on pitching and lifting coefficients Thus.Tail Volume (4) CmWing = − LAElev × AreaElev ClElev = −TV × ClElev MACWing × AreaWing The formula above tells us only that the higher the TV. Deperrois .

Deperrois .1 – Copyright A. It reduces the projection of the lift force on the vertical plane Effective_area = AreaElev x cos²δ TV = LAElev × AreaElev × cos 2 δ MACWing × AreaWing Revision 2.November 2010 . It reduces the surface projected on the horizontal plane 2.A little more complicated : V-tails Projected Lift Lift The method is borrowed from Master Drela (may the aerodynamic Forces be with him) δ Projected area The angle δ has a double influence: … after a little math: 1.

1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .MAC x SM …without guarantee that this will correspond to a positive lift nor to optimized performances Revision 2.The Static Margin : a useful concept First the definition XNP − XCG SM = MACWing A positive static margin is synonym of stability The greater is the static margin. Deperrois . the CG position can be deduced…= XNP . the more stable the sailplane will be We won't say here what levels of static margin are acceptable… too risky… plenty of publications on the matter also Each user should have his own design practices Knowing the NP position and the targeted SM.

Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .How to use XFLR5 to position the CG Idea N°1 : the most efficient Forget about XFLR5 Position the CG at 30-35% of the Mean Aero Chord Try soft hand launches in an area with high grass Move progressively the CG backwards until the plane glides normally For a flying wing • Start at 15% • Set the ailerons up 5°-10° • Reduce progressively aileron angle and move the CG backwards Finish off with the dive test Works every time ! Revision 2.

Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .How to use XFLR5 to position the CG Idée N°2 : Trust the program Re-read carefully the disclaimer Find the Neutral Point as explained earlier Move the CG forward from the NP… … to achieve a slope of Cm = f(α) comparable to that of a model which flies to your satisfaction. or … to achieve an acceptable static margin Go back to Idea N°1 and perform a few hand launches Revision 2.

**Summarizing on the 4-graph view of XFLR5
**

Cm Depending on the CG position, get the balance angle αe such that Cm = 0 α αe Singularity for the zerolift angle α0 Cl/Cd

XCP

αe

It is also possible to check that XCP =XCmRef for α = αe α

Cl

α0 αe

Check that Cl>0 for α = αe α

Unfortunately, no reason for the performance to be optimal αe α

**Iterations are required to find the best compromise
**

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

**Consequences of the incidence angle
**

To achieve lift, the wing must have an angle of attack greater than its zero-lift angle This angle of attack is achieved by the balance of wing and elevator lift moments about the CG Three cases are possible Negative lift elevator Neutral elevator Lifting elevator

Each case leads to a different balanced angle of attack For French speakers, read Matthieu's great article on http://pierre.rondel.free.fr/Centrage_equilibrage_stabilite.pdf

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

**Elevator Incidence and CG position
**

The elevator may have a positive or negative lift

Elevator has a negative incidence vs. the wing

Elev CP

Elevator has a neutral or slightly negative incidence

CG

Wing CP

NP

Wing CP

NP

Elev CP

Both configurations are possible The CG will be forward of the wing's CP for an elevator with negative lift "Within the acceptable range of CG position, the glide ratio does not change much" (M. Scherrer 2006)

Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois - November 2010

Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .The case of Flying Wings No elevator The main wing must achieve its own stability Two options Self stable foils Negative washout at the wing tip Revision 2.

Self-Stable Foils The notion is confusing : The concept covers those foils which make a wing self-stable.November 2010 .1 – Copyright A. Deperrois . without the help of a stabilizer Theory and analysis tell us that a foil's Neutral Point is at distance from the leading edge = 25% x chord But then… all foils are self-stable ??? All that is required is to position the CG forward of the NP What's the difference between a so-called selfstable foil and all of the others ??? Let's explore it with the help of XFLR5 Revision 2.

the lift is negative. Calculations confirm that the the wing does not fly.1 – Copyright A. NP is at 25% of the chord That's the problem… It is usually said of these airfoils that their zero-lift moment coefficient is negative Cm0 < 0 Note : this analysis can also be done in non-linear conditions with XFoil Revision 2.November 2010 . with a NACA 1410 foil reputedly not self-stable Unfortunately. at zero pitching moment. Deperrois .A classic foil NACA 1410 Consider a rectangular wing with uniform chord =100 mm.

A self-stable foil Eppler 186 Consider the same rectangular wing with chord 100mm.1 – Copyright A. chord Cm0 > 0 which doesn't tell us much It would be more intuitive to say "the zero-moment lift is positive" : Revision 2.November 2010 Cl0 > 0 . Deperrois . with an Eppler 186 foil known to be self-stable It is usually said of these airfoils that "the zero-lift The NP is still at 25% of the moment is positive". the wing flies! .

A more modern way to create a self-stable wing A classic sailplane wing Lift at the root Lift at the tip A flying wing with negative washout at the tip CG F Lift at the root Negative lift at the tip The positive moment at the tip balances the negative moment at the wing's root The consequence of the negative lift at the tip is that the total lift will be less than with the classic wing Let's check all this with XFLR5 Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .November 2010 .

Then with -6° washout at tip Revision 2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .November 2010 .Model data Consider a simple wing First without washout.

the lift is negative (Cl<0) : the wing does not fly Consider a static margin = 10% Revision 2. Deperrois . at zero pitching moment.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .Wing without washout Unfortunately.

the lift is slightly positive : It flies ! Consider a static margin = 10% Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 Let's visualize in the next slide the shape of the lift for the balanced a.o. Deperrois .Wing with washout At zero pitching moment.a αe=1.7° .

a Positive lift at the root Negative lift at the tip Part of the wing lifts the wrong way : a flying wing exhibits low lift Revision 2.Lift at the balanced a.November 2010 .o.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .

November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.Stability and Control analysis So much for performance… but what about stability and control ? Revision 2. Deperrois .

November 2010 . Deperrois . Stability analysis is a characteristic of "hands-off controls" flight Control analysis measures the plane's reactions to the pilot's instructions To some extent.1 – Copyright A. this can be addressed by simulation An option has been added in XFLR5 v6 for this purpose Revision 2.What it's all about Our model aircraft needs to be adjusted for performance. but needs also to be stable and controllable.

November 2010 .1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .Static and Dynamic stability Statically stable Statically unstable Dynamically stable Response Response Dynamically unstable time time Revision 2.

heading angle.Sailplane stability A steady "static" state for a plane would be defined as a constant speed. we refer only to dynamic stability Revision 2. an input from the pilot will disturb the plane The purpose of Stability and Control Analysis is to evaluate the dynamic stability and time response of the plane for such a perturbation In the following slides. angle of attack. altitude. bank angle. a gust of wind.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 . Difficult to imagine Inevitably. etc. Deperrois .

which describes the mode's frequency and its damping Revision 2.Natural modes Physically speaking. a plane tends to respond on "preferred" flight modes From the mathematic point of view. Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 . which describes the modal shape an eigenvalue. when submitted to a perturbation. these modes are called "Natural modes" and are described by an eigenvector.

Mechanical Example of the tuning fork Shock perturbation preferred response on A note = 440 Hz Amplitude response vibration time T = 1/440 s The sound decays with time The fork is dynamically stable… not really a surprise Revision 2.Natural modes . Deperrois .November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.

Aerodynamic Example of the phugoid mode The plane returns progressively to its steady level flight = dynamically stable Trajectory response Steady level flight Perturbation by a vertical gust of wind Phugoid period Revision 2. Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.Natural modes .November 2010 .

The 8 aerodynamic modes A well designed plane will have 4 natural longitudinal modes and 4 natural lateral modes Longitudinal 2 symmetric phugoid modes 2 symmetric short period modes Lateral 1 spiral mode 1 roll damping mode 2 Dutch roll modes Revision 2.November 2010 . Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.

Deperrois .November 2010 . lightly damped.1 – Copyright A.The phugoid … is a macroscopic mode of exchange between the Kinetic and Potential energies Russian Mountains : Exchange is made by the contact force Aerodynamic : Exchange is made by the lift force Slow. stable or unstable Revision 2.

The lift increases as the square power of the speed L = ½ ρ S V² Cl The lift decreases Response time Revision 2. Deperrois .The mechanism of the phugoid Relative wind α α Dive The sailplane accelerates The sailplane rises and slows down α Constant Cl constant At iso-Cl.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .

usually high frequency.1 – Copyright A. well damped Response The mode's properties are primarily driven by the stiffness of the negative slope of the curve Cm=f(α) time Revision 2. Deperrois .The short period mode Primarily vertical movement and pitch rate in the same phase.November 2010 .

non-oscillatory. This creates a positive a. Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .Spiral mode Primarily heading. on the fin. slow.o. generally unstable The mode is initiated by a rolling or heading disturbance.a. which tends to increase the yawing moment Response Requires pilot input to prevent divergence ! time Revision 2.

which tends to damp the mode Bank angle 2. The symmetric effect decreases the lift on the other side. thus increasing the lift on that side.November 2010 . time Revision 2. Due to the rotation about the x-axis.a.1 – Copyright A. This creates a restoring moment opposite to the rotation. Deperrois .o.Roll damping Primarily roll. the wing coming down sees an increased a.. stable 1.

November 2010 .1 – Copyright A. decreased lift and drag on port side The lift difference creates a bank moment to port side The drag difference creates a yawing moment to starboard φ ψ Revision 2. usually lightly damped Plane rotates to port side Plane banks to port side and reverses yaw direction Plane rotates to starboard Plane banks to starboard Top view ψ φ Rear view Increased lift and drag on starboard side. Deperrois . phased at 90°.Dutch roll The Dutch roll mode is a combination of yaw and roll.

Deperrois . disappear quickly The response on the phugoid and Dutch roll modes are visible to the eye The response on the spiral mode is slow.1 – Copyright A.Modal response for a reduced scale plane During flight. which are well damped. and is corrected unconsciously by the pilot Revision 2. the response on the short period and the roll damping modes. and low in magnitude compared to other flight factors. It isn't visible to the eye.November 2010 . a perturbation such as a control input or a gust of wind will excite all modes in different proportions : Usually.

Short period Dutch roll Defined by 1. a damping factor …and some are not Roll damping Spiral Defined by 1.1 – Copyright A. a "mode shape" or eigenvector 2. a damping factor Revision 2. a "mode shape" or eigenvector 2.Modal behaviour Some modes are oscillatory in nature… Phugoid.November 2010 . Deperrois . a natural frequency 3.

Deperrois .The eigenvector In mathematical terms. In XFLR5. the eigenvector provides information on the amplitude and phase of the flight variables which describe the mode. the eigenvector is essentially analysed visually.November 2010 . in the 3D view A reasonable assumption is that the longitudinal and lateral dynamics are independent and are described each by four variables Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.

0.1 – Copyright A. w' = w/U0. Deperrois .0) • u = dx/dt .The four longitudinal variables The longitudinal behaviour is described by The axial and vertical speed variation about the steady state value Vinf = (U0.U0 • w = dz/dt The pitch rate q = dθ /dt The pitch angle θ Some scaling is required to compare the relative size of velocity increments "u" and "w" to a pitch rate "q" and to an angle "θ " The usual convention is to calculate u' = u/U0.November 2010 . q' = q/(2U0/mac). and to divide all components such that θ = 1 Revision 2.

the normalization convention is v' = u/U0. r' = r/(2U0/span).The four lateral variables The longitudinal behaviour is described by four variables The lateral speed variation v = dy/dt about the steady state value Vinf = (U0.0) The roll rate p = dφ /dt The yaw rate r = dψ /dt The heading angle ψ For lateral modes.November 2010 . p' = p/(2U0/span). and to divide all components such that ψ = 1 Revision 2.0.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois .

8 0.Frequencies and damping factor The damping factor ζ is a non-dimensional coefficient A critically damped mode.7 0.2 -0.5 ζ=1 ζ=2 Revision 2.4 0.8 Underdamped 0 0. is non-oscillating. ζ << 1.1 – Copyright A.6 0. the natural frequency is close to the undamped natural frequency 1.1 0.2 0.November 2010 .2 0.8 0.6 -0. if the mode was not damped For very low damping.3 0.e.5 0.4 0.2 1.15 ζ=0.4 -0. Deperrois .0 0. ζ = 1. and returns slowly to steady state Under-damped (ζ < 1) and over-damped (ζ > 1) modes return to steady state slower than a critically damped mode The "natural frequency" is the frequency of the response on that specific mode The "undamped natural frequency" is a virtual value.6 0.0 -0.9 1 Critically damped Overdamped ζ=0. i.

The root locus graph This graphic view provides a visual interpretation of the frequency and damping of a mode with eigenvalue λ = σ1 + iω N The time response of a mode component such as u.e λt = ke ( σ1 +iωN ) t σ12 + ωN2 is the undamped natural circular frequency σ1 is the damping constant and is related to the damping ratio by σ1 = -ω 1ζ The eigenvalue is plotted in the (σ1. ω N/2 π) axes. i. Deperrois . w.November 2010 . is ω1 = ω N is the natural circular frequency and ω N/2 π is the mode's natural frequency f(t) = k.1 – Copyright A.e. the root locus graph Imaginary part /2π λ ω /2 π Real part σ Revision 2. or q.

1 – Copyright A. the higher the mode's frequency Imaginary part /2π λΑ ω Α/2 π Eigenvalues on the ω =0 axis are non-oscillatory Real part σΑ λΒ = σΒ Negative damping constant = dynamic stability The more negative. the higher the damping Positive damping constant = dynamic instability λ Α corresponds to a damped oscillatory mode λ Β corresponds to an un-damped.The root locus interpretation The further away from the ω =0 axis.November 2010 . non-oscillatory mode Revision 2. Deperrois .

Deperrois .The typical root locus graphs Longitudinal Imaginary part /2π Lateral Imaginary part /2π One roll damping mode Two symmetric Dutch roll modes Real part Real part Two symmetric short period modes Two symmetric phugoid modes One spiral mode Revision 2.November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.

Stability analysis in XFLR5 Revision 2.November 2010 . Deperrois .1 – Copyright A.

three output Stability Analysis Open loop dynamic response Forced input dynamic response Natural modes • "Hands off" control • Provides the plane's response to a perturbation such as a gust of wind • Provides the plane's response to the actuation of a control such as the rudder or the elevator • Describe the plane's response on its natural frequencies Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.One analysis. Deperrois .November 2010 .

receiver. the inertia can be evaluated approximately in XFLR5 by providing The mass of each wing and of the fuselage structure The mass and location of such objects as nose lead. servo-actuators. battery.Pre-requisites for the analysis The stability and control behavior analysis requires that the inertia properties have been defined The evaluation of the inertia requires a full 3D CAD program Failing that.November 2010 . it is important to check that the total mass and CoG position are correct Revision 2. XFLR5 will evaluate roughly the inertia based on these masses and on the geometry Once the data has been filled in.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois . etc.

November 2010 .Description of the steps of the analysis Definition of geometry.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois . mass and inertia Definition of the analysis/polar Analysis Post-Processing 3D-eigenmodes Root locus graph Im/2π Time response Response Re time Revision 2.

1 – Copyright A.r) Control actuation ∆ Control amplitude 0 time 0 Ramp time time Response time Revision 2.q) or (v.p.The time response view : two type of input Perturbation ∆ Flight variable (u.w.November 2010 . Deperrois .

November 2010 . Revision 2. A specific mode is never excited alone in flight – the response is always a combination of modes.1 – Copyright A.The 3D mode animation The best way to identify and understand a mode shape ? Note : The apparent amplitude of the mode in the animation has no physical significance. Deperrois .

Example of Longitudinal Dynamics analysis Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 . Deperrois .

with all the input values provided by XFLR5 Revision 2. The slopes can be measured on the polar graphs in XFLR5 ˆ t *2Iy 1 F = − B2 + 4C 2 2π Despite their complicated appearance.MAC u0 = horizontal speed ∂C Cmα = m ∂α B= Czα 2t µ * ∂C Czα = z ∂α C=− Cmα Cmα and Czα are the slopes of the curves Cm = f(α) and Cz = f(α).MAC 3 µ= 2m ρ.S.S.November 2010 . these formula can be implemented in a spreadsheet.1 – Copyright A.Second approximation for the Short Period Mode Taking into account the dependency to the vertical velocity leads to a more complicated expression MAC t = 2u0 * ˆ Iy = 8Iy ρ. Deperrois .

81 m/s u0 is the plane's speed Revision 2. Deperrois .November 2010 .1 – Copyright A.Lanchester's approximation for the Phugoid The phugoid's frequency is deduced from the balance of kinetic and potential energies. g = 9. and is calculated with a very simple formula g F = ph π 2 u 0 1 g is the gravitational constant.e. i.

225 Short Period F2 4.1540 -1.136 7.45 0.20 m/s 1.Numerical example – from a personal model sailplane Plane and flight Data MAC = Mass = Iyy = S= ρ= 0.0114 0.November 2010 .86 0.9099 -5.1520 0.259 Phugoid Fph 0. Deperrois .3925 Results F1 Frequency (Hz) = Period (s) = 4.m² m² kg/m3 u0 = α= q= 16.243 XFLR5 v6 3.1 – Copyright A.3 XFLR5 v6 0.5250 0.12 0.122 8.05 ° 160.2 Graphic Analysis Revision 2.2070 1.0346 0.225 m² kg kg.74 Pa Cx = Cz = dCm/dα = dCz/dα = 0.

06 -0.0 -0.04 -0.2 0.02 0.08 Short Period Mode 0.4 -0.5 -0.6 -0. Deperrois . which means the plane should be more than stable A time response analysis confirms that the two modes do not interact 0.06 0.7 Pitch rate Pitch Angle Phugoid mode 0 2 4 6 8 10 0.1 – Copyright A.02 -0.1 0.04 Revision 2.Time response There is factor 40x between the numerical frequencies of both modes.00 -0.2 -0.3 -0.November 2010 .1 -0.

About the Dive Test Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 . Deperrois .

Deperrois . and hideously simplified at the same time) Forward CG Slightly forward CG Neutral CG How is this test related to what's been explained so far? Revision 2.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 .About the dive test (scandalously plagiarized from a yet unpublished article by Matthieu.

Forward CG If the CG is positioned forward.1 – Copyright A.November 2010 . Deperrois . the plane will enter the phugoid mode Revision 2.

providing That the slope of the curve Cm = f(α) is stiff enough That it doesn't have too much pitching inertia Revision 2. the apparent wind changes direction From the plane's point of view.November 2010 .Stick to the phugoid As the plane moves along the phugoid. Deperrois . it's a perturbation The plane can react and reorient itself along the trajectory direction.1 – Copyright A.

1 – Copyright A. The CG is positioned forward α α • • • The CG is positioned forward = stability = the wind vane which follows the wind gusts The two modes are un-coupled The relative wind changes direction along the phugoid… … but the plane maintains a constant incidence along the phugoid. just as the chariot remains tangent to the slope The sailplane enters the phugoid mode Revision 2.Summarizing : 1. Deperrois .November 2010 .

2.1 – Copyright A. Deperrois . though) α(t) Revision 2.November 2010 . The lift coefficient is not constant during the phugoid The former loop doesn't work any more The phugoid mode disappears No guessing how the sailplane will behave at the dive test (It's fairly easy to experiment. The CG is positioned aft •Remember that backward CG = instability = the wind vane which amplifies wind gusts The two modes are coupled The incidence oscillation α(t) amplifies the phugoid.

November 2010 .That's all for now Good design and nice flights Needless to say. this presentation owes a lot to Matthieu Scherrer . Deperrois .1 – Copyright A. thanks Matt ! Revision 2.

- TUTORIAL Xflr5 Tutorial
- 9E729d01
- From 2D to 3D wings
- 3dwingtutorialcomplete
- XFLR5 Mode Measurements
- Lecture 01 - Vibration
- Controller Design of a New Active Front Steering System
- Tutorial XFLR5
- Mesh Quality Ansys
- Guia XFLR5
- B.L.stevens %26 F.L.lewis Aircraft Control and Simulation 1992
- Aerodynamic Analysis using XFLR-5
- 09-Vortex Lattice Methods(Software)
- XFLR5 - Guide
- 390337005.pdf
- 9 Vibration and Damping of Steel Constructions
- Dynamics lab
- Rhoads MS04
- Physicscatalyst.com 's SHM Notes
- Free Und 2
- forced_vibration_of_a_sdof_system
- Vibration Manual
- 2250 Forced Oscillations
- 10.1.1.117
- Structural Damping
- vsl-ssi-2000
- HKPhO_08bfghfgjgjghfgjh
- Aislador Sl
- PolyId ENSAM 2011 Methods for Vibration Design and Validation Methodes de Conception Et de Validation en Vibration BALMES
- ME6505-Dynamics of Machines

Skip carousel

- Aerodynamics
- R/C Soaring Digest - Nov 2011
- NASA Information Summaries Aileron Roll
- R/C Soaring Digest - Aug 2004
- Project Apollo Flight-Test Report Boilerplate 23A
- Saturn SA-3 Flight Evaluation Volume I
- NASA Information Summaries Steady Slideslip
- Skylab 4 Voice Dump Transcription 12 of 13
- Results of the Tenth Saturn I Launch Vehicle Test Flight SA-10
- Results of the Third Saturn I Launch Vehicle Test Flight
- Development of Paparazzi Autopilot System for UAV
- R/C Soaring Digest - Jun 2003
- NASA Information Summaries Control Pulse
- Project Apollo Flight-Test Report Boilerplate 22
- Post Launch Memorandum Report for Apollo Pad Abort 1
- Results of the Third Saturn I Launch Vehicle Test Flight. SA-3
- Results of the Seventh Saturn I Launch Vehicle Test Flight SA-7
- Saturn I SA-8 Rocket History
- Post Launch Report for Mercury-Redstone No. 2(MR-2)
- First United States Manned Three-pass Orbital Mission Mercury-Atlas 6, Spacecraft 13 Part 2 - Flight Data

Skip carousel

- A Review on Design Optimization of Air Dam for Lift Reduction of a Car Using in Wind Tunnel and CFD Analysis
- Research-Airplane-Committee Report on Conference on the Progress of the X-15 Project a Compilation of the Papers Presented, Held at Langley Aeronautical Lab., Langley Field, VA on 25-26 October 1956
- X-15 Research Results With a Selected Bibliography
- Columbia Accident Investigation Board Volume Five Book Three
- Davis Manta Glider
- NASA Facts the Blended-Wing-Body
- Short Field Take-Off and Landing Performance as an Enabling Technology for a Greener, More Efficient Airspace System (PDF)
- X-15, Research at the Edge of Space
- NASA Aeronautics Research and Technology
- Reentry F Experiment
- Army Aviation Digest - Sep 1955
- Hyperloop CrowdStorm
- Review of Our National Heritage of Launch Vehicles Using Aerodynamic Surfaces and Current Use of These by Other Nations
- tmp53C2.tmp
- As NZS 3580.9.3-2003 Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Ambient Air Determination of Suspended Particulate
- Investigation On Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation for Wind Effects On Tall Tapered Buildings
- Comparative Assessment of Aerodynamic Forces Generated Due to Wind Deflector of Passenger Car by CFD and Experimental Method
- Exploring in Aeronautics
- NASA Facts Aeronautics Test Program
- Mach 3+ NASA USAF YF-12 Flight Research 1969-1979
- General Dynamics Corporation, and American Airlines, Inc. v. Richard T. Whitcomb, 443 F.2d 630, 4th Cir. (1971)
- As 2428.5-2004 Methods of Testing Smoke Heat Release Vents Determination of Discharge Coefficient and Effecti
- Shuttle Performance Lessons Learned, Part 1
- NASA Facts Fundamental Aeronautics Program
- Research Airplane Committee Report on Conference on the Progress of the X-15 Project October 25-26, 1956
- Innovation in Flight Research of the NASA Langley Research Center on Revolutionary Advanced Concepts for Aeronautics
- Computational Study of Turbulent Flow around a Generic Car Body (Ahmed BODY)
- Apollo Experience Report Mission Planning for Apollo Entry
- NASA Facts F-15 B Aerodynamic Flight Facility
- Anti-Aircraft Journal - Dec 1948

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

XFLR5 and Stability Analysis will be available on

Loading