Marketing Channels & Distribution

The Importance of Marketing Channels
• Intermediaries make distribution and selling processes more efficient.
• Intermediaries offers supply chain partners more than they could achieve on their own.
– – – – Market Exposure Technical Knowledge/Information Sharing Operational Specialization Scale of operation

Channel Efficiency: How Intermediaries Reduce the Number of Channel Transactions .

Other Key Channel Functions • • • • Matching Needs with Products Physical distribution & Logistics Financing Risk taking .

Consumer and Business Marketing Channels .

g.. . • Example: Manufacturer competes with retailer in selling product to target market. • Example: Two retailers compete to carry a supplier’s “exclusive” product. – Channel members cooperate to attain overall channel goals. • Channel Conflict – Horizontal Conflict: conflict among firms at the same level of the channel (e.g. retailer to retailer). wholesaler to retailer). – Vertical Conflict: conflict between different levels of the same channel (e. • Some conflict can be healthy competition..Channel Cooperation & Conflict • Channels are most effective when: – Each member performs the tasks it does best.

.Channel Conflict: Goodyear Goodyear’s conflicts with its independent dealers have decimated the firm’s replacement tire sales.

G. Taco Bell. Emeril’s. Look at the items at right. Friday’s. and Starbuck’s names are now being sold in grocery stores.Channel Conflict Example Branded goods using the Wolfgang Puck. T. I. Which stands the greatest risk of causing channel conflict? Why? .

and retailers act as a unified system. wholesalers. • Can happen through – Outright ownership of channel member – Contracts – “Channel power” .Vertical Marketing System • When producers.

S. Company-owned) Little room for “entrepreneurial creativity” . Retail (40%+ of all sales) • Franchise Structures • Compensation Arrangements • Advantages – – – – Brand Name Recognition Standardized Processes and Procedures Avoids startup hassles – safer bet Quick access to capital and huge expansion potential • Disadvantages – – – – Over-saturation and territorial issues Marketing fund disputes Quality (vs.Franchise Organizations • Powerful force in U.

e. • Joint Ventures • Alliances and Partnerships • Co-Marketing. (i.Channel Innovations • Horizontal Marketing System – Two or more companies at one channel level join together to achieve a marketing goal. hybrid system) • Example: You can buy Starbucks coffee from Starbucks’ stores or from the Supermarket • Problems with MDSs? . Co-Distribution and Co-Branding • Multichannel Distribution System – Reaching customer segments through multiple marketing channels.

or when radically new types of channel intermediaries displace traditional ones. The Internet has made the disintermediation of many traditional retailers possible.Disintermediation Occurs when producers sidestep intermediaries and sell directly to final buyers. .

drastically reducing the time it takes flowers to reach consumers via conventional retail channels. .Disintermediation Example Calyx & Corolla sells fresh flowers and plants direct to consumers over the phone and via the Web.

(Non-) Disintermediation Example Black & Decker chose to avoid disintermediation by not using the Internet to sell their products. Instead B&D directs consumers to stores that carry its products. .

– Manufacturer’s agency/representative • Independent firms whose sales people handle several companies’ products simultaneously Primarily a question of size and life cycle stage.Outsourcing Distribution • Company sales force vs. . Manufacturer’s Rep – Company sales force • Employed directly by the firm in outside or inside sales capacity.

Distribution Strategy Alternatives • How many intermediaries? – Intensive distribution • Stock product in as many outlets as possible. – Selective distribution • Somewhere in between Intensive and Exclusive Distribution. – Exclusive distribution • Granting a limited number of outlets the exclusive right to sell product. Does the company always get to choose? .

Selective Distribution Maytag uses selective distribution like many furniture and appliance manufacturers. . The “Where to Buy” page on their Web site assists buyers in finding stores that carry the Maytag brand.

• “separate countries” within a country • Poorer but improving transportation infrastructures .International Channel Decisions • Every country has its own unique distribution system that has evolved over time. multi-layered distribution systems • hard for Western firms to penetrate. – India and China: • inefficient distribution systems despite their enormous size. • Examples – Japan: • complex.

Public Policy and Distribution • Exclusive distribution & dealing (“upstream” or “downstream”) • Exclusive territorial agreements (franchising) • Tying agreements (illegal) If Xerox required every business who bought or leased their copiers to also buy their brand of paper. . it would be a tying agreement.

and related information from points of origin to points of consumption.Marketing Logistics • Definition: The physical flow of goods. services. • Includes: – Inbound distribution – Outbound distribution – Reverse distribution .

.Inventory Management • Must strike a balance between – too much and too little inventory – buffers and shortages – carrying costs and ordering/setup costs • Just-in-time inventory systems • RFID or Smart Tag technology RFID technology promises to automate the entire distribution chain. resulting in significant cost savings.

RFID – The Wave of the Future? Key benefits • fewer stock-outs • reduced logistics labor costs • more accurate inventory information • more efficient flow of goods • happier customers Retailers may soon mandate supplier use of RFID. .

Transportation • • • • • • • Trucks Railroads Ships Pipelines Air Internet Intermodal transportation .

Airship = air and water.Intermodal Transportation Intermodal transportation combines two or more modes of transportation. Fishyback = water and trucks. Piggyback = trucks and rail. . Trainship = water and rail.

.Third-Party Logistics Most small and medium size companies outsource transportation to UPS or other logistics providers.

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