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Prepared by:

John Lynyrd A. Dela Cruz, PTRP

Resistance Exercise
Resistance Exercise

 Any form of active exercise in which


dynamic or static muscle contraction
is resisted by an outside force,
applied either manually or
mechanically.

 A.k.a. Resistance Training


Resistance Exercise

 Anessential element of rehabilitation


programs for persons with impaired
function.
Resistance Exercise

 Anintegral component of
conditioning program:
 Promotion and maintenance of health
and well-being.
 Enhance performance of motor skills.
 Prevent or reduce risk of injury and
disease.
Muscle Performance

 Capacity of a muscle to do work


(force x distance).

Acomplex component of functional


movement
Muscle Performance

 Factors
that may affect muscle
performance:
 Morphological qualities of muscle
 Neurological
 Biomechanical influences
 Metabolic
 Cardiovascular
 Respiratory
 Cognitive
 Emotional
Muscle Performance

 Key elements of Muscle Performance


 Strength
 Power
 Endurance
Strength

 The ability of contractile tissue to


produce tension and a resultant force
based on the demands placed upon the
muscle.
 The greatest measurable force that can
be exerted by a muscle group to
overcome resistance during a single
maximum effort.
Strength

Functional Strength
 Ability of the neuromuscular system
to produce, reduce, or control forces,
contemplated or imposed, during
functional activities, is a smooth,
coordinated manner.
Strength

Strengthening Exercise
 A systematic procedure of a muscle
or muscle group lifting, lowering, or
controlling heavy loads (resistance)
for a relative low number of
repetitions or over a short period of
time.
Strength

 Most common adaptation to heavy


resistance training: increase in the
maximum force producing capacity of
muscle (increase in muscle strength)
due to:
 Neural adaptations; and
 Increase in muscle fiber size.
Power

 Related to strength and speed of


movement.
 Work (force x distance) produced by
a muscle per unit of time (force x
distance/time).
 Rate of performing work.
Power

 Can be expressed by a single burst of


high-intensity activity (anaerobic
power) or by repeated burst of less
intense muscle activity (aerobic
power).
Power

 Can be enhanced by:


 Increasing the work a muscle must
perform is a specified period of time.
 Reducing the amount of time required to
produce a given force. (e.g. Plyometric
training)
Endurance

 Theability to perform low-intensity,


repetitive, or sustained activities over
a prolonged period of time.
Endurance

Cardiorespiratory Endurance (Total


Body Endurance)
 Associated with repetitive dynamic
motor activities that involve the use
of the large muscles of the body.
Endurance

Muscle Endurance (Local Endurance)


 Ability of a muscle to contract
repeatedly against a load (resistance),
generate and sustain tension, and resist
fatigue over an extended period of
time.
 Used interchangeably with Aerobic
Power.
Endurance

Endurance Exercises (Endurance


Training)
 Having a muscle contract and lift or
lower a light load for many
repetitions or sustain a muscle
contraction for an extended period of
time.
Endurance

 Endurance training will have a more


positive impact on improving function
than strength training in patients
with impaired muscle performance.
Endurance

 Minimizeadverse forces on joints,


produce less irritation on tissues, and
is more comfortable for patients than
heavy resistance training.
Overload Principle

A load that exceeds the metabolic


capacity of the muscle must be
applied.
 The muscle must be challenged to
perform at a level greater than that
to which it is accustomed.
Overload Principle

 If demands remain constant after the


muscle has adapted, the level of
muscle performance can be
maintained, but not increased.
 Intensity (amount of load) or volume
(time or repetitions) can be
manipulated.
SAID Principle

 SpecificAdaptations to Imposed
Demands
 The framework of specificity is a
necessary foundation upon which
exercise programs should be built.
SAID Principle

 Helpsthe therapist determine the


exercise prescription and which
parameters of exercise should be
selected to create specific training
effects and best meet specific
functional needs and goals.
SAID Principle

Specificity of Training (Specificity of


Exercise)
 The adaptive effects of training are
highly specific to the training method
employed.
SAID Principle

 Should be considered relative to:


 Mode (type)
 Velocity
 Limb position
 Movement pattern during exercise.
SAID Principle

Transfer of Training (Overflow, Cross-


Training)
 Carryover of training effects from one
variation of task to another.
SAID Principle

 Occur on a very limited basis with


respect to velocity of training and
mode of exercise.
 Can occur from an exercised limb to
a non-exercised contralateral limb in
a resistance training program.
SAID Principle

A program to improve muscle


strength has been shown to at least
moderately improve muscle
endurance.
 Overflow effects are substantially
less than the training effects
resulting to specificity of training.
Reversibility Principle

 Adaptive changes in the body


systems as result of resistance
training are transient unless training
induced improvements are regularly
used for functional activities or has
exercise maintenance program.
Reversibility Principle

Detraining
 Reflected by a reduction in muscle
performance.
 Begins within a week or two after the
cessation of resistance exercises.
Factorsthat
Factors thatInfluence
Influence
TensionGeneration
Tension Generationofof
SkeletalMuscle
Skeletal Muscle
Morphological

 Cross section and size of the muscle


 Fiber arrangement and fiber length
Biomechanical

 Fiber-type distribution of muscle


 Length-tension relationship of muscle
at the time of contraction
 Type of muscle contraction
 Speed of muscle contraction (force-
velocity relationship)
Neurologic

 Recruitment of motor units


 Frequency of firing of motor units
Metabolic and Biochemical

 Energy stores and blood supply


 Fatigue
 Recovery from exercise
Other factors

 Age
 Psychological
Cross Section and Size of
the Muscle
 The larger the diameter = greater
the tension producing capacity.
Fiber Arrangement and
Fiber Length
 Short,pinnate or multipinnate =
greater tension
 Long, parallel (high rate of
shortening) = lesser tension
Fiber-type Distribution

 Type I (tonic, slow-twitch) = slow rate


of maximum force development
 Type IIA & IIB (phasic, fast-twitch) =
rapid, high force production
Length-Tension
Relationship
 Musclelength near or at the
physiologic resting position =
greatest tension
Type of Muscle Contraction

 Eccentric > Isometric > Concentric


Speed of Muscle Contraction (Force-
Velocity Relationship)

 Concentric: the faster = the lesser


tension; the slower = the greater
tension
 Eccentric: the faster = the greater
tension; the slower = the lesser the
tension
Recruitment of Motor Units

 Greater number of motor units


recruited = greater tension
 Greater synchronization of firing =
greater tension
Frequency of Firing of
Motor Units
 The higher the frequency = higher
the tension produced
Energy Stores and Blood
Supply
 ATP-PCsystem > Anaerobic /
Glycolytic / Lactic Acid system >
Aerobic system
Fatigue

Muscle (local) Fatigue


 Diminished response of a muscle to
repeated stimulus.
 Reflected by a progressive
decrement in the amplitude of the
motor unit potentials.
Fatigue

 Decline in force-producing capacity of


the neuromuscular system.
 Considered normal and reversible.
Fatigue

 Could be due to:


 Decrease in energy stores, insufficient
oxygen, or lactic acid build-up
 CNS inhibition
 Decrease conduction in the NMJ
(particularly type II fibers)
Fatigue

Cardiorespiratory (general) Fatigue


 Diminished response of an individual
due to prolonged physical activity.
 Related to efficient oxygen usage of
the body.
Fatigue

 Could be due to:


 Decrease blood glucose level
(hypoglycemia)
 Decrease glycogen stores in muscle and
liver
 Depletion of potassium (especially in
elderly)
Fatigue

Threshold for Fatigue


 Level of exercise that cannot be
sustained indefinitely.
 Could be noted as:
 Length of time a contraction is
maintained
 Number of repetitions of the exercise
that can initially be performed
Fatigue

Factors that Influence Fatigue


 Health status
 Diet
 Lifestyle (sedentary or active)
 Presence of disease
Recovery from Exercise

 Recovery from acute exercise usually


takes 3 to 4 minutes.
Recovery from Exercise

 Changes that occur are:


 Energy stores are replenished
 Lactic acid is removed approximately 1
hour after exercise
 Oxygen stores are replenished
 Glycogen is replaced over several days
Age

 Muscle develops for both sexes


equally during early stages of life.
 Muscles continue to develop until
adulthood with the men gaining more
muscle mass and strength than
women.
Age

 Women reach their peak muscle


strength faster than men.
 Muscle development declines as we
pass late adulthood.
 (Others are for your reading
pleasure…).
Psychological

 Attention – be able to focus on a


given task.
 Motivation – patient must be willing.
 Feedback – giving cues, results
oriented, could have an impact on
motivation.
PhysiologicAdaptations
Physiologic Adaptations
toExercise
to Exercise
Neural Adaptations

*The initial, rapid gain in the tension-


generating capacity of a skeletal
muscle is largely attributed to neural
responses, not adaptive changes in
muscle itself.
Neural Adaptations

 Increase number of motor units


recruited for firing.
 Increase rate of firing (decrease
twitch contraction time)
 Increase synchronization of firing
Skeletal Muscle
Adaptations
Hypertrophy
 Increase in individual muscle fiber
size caused by increase myofibrillar
volume.
 Occurs usually after 4 to 8 weeks of
regular resistance training.
Skeletal Muscle
Adaptations
 Possibly 2 to 3 weeks with very high-
intensity resistance training.
 Due to:
 Increase in protein synthesis and decrease
in protein degradation
 Stimulate uptake of amino acids
 Minimal or no change with endurance
training.
Skeletal Muscle
Adaptations
Hyperplasia
 Increase in number of muscle fibers.
 Due to longitudinal splitting of
muscle fibers.
 Does not occur or only to a slight
degree
Skeletal Muscle
Adaptations
Muscle Fiber Type Adaptation
 Type IIB becomes type IIA
 Making the muscle more fatigue
resistant
Vascular and Metabolic
Adaptations

 Decrease capillary bed density due to


increase number of myofilaments per
fiber.
 Decrease in mitochondrial density
Vascular and Metabolic
Adaptations

 Increase
ATP and CP storage
 Increase
myoglobin storage
 Increase
triglyceride storage
(endurance training)
Adaptations to Connective
Tissues
 Increase in tensile strength of
tendons, ligaments and connective
tissue in muscle (may develop more
rapidly with eccentric resistance).
 Increase in bone mineral density with
no change or possible increase in
bone mass.
Changes in Body
Composition
 Increasein lean body mass (fat-free
mass) with strength training (no
change with endurance training)
 Decrease fat mass.
Determinants/ /Elements
Determinants Elements
ofResistance
of ResistanceExercise
Exercise
Alignment and
Stabilization
 Purpose is to effectively strengthen a
specific muscle group and avoid
substitute motions.
Alignment and
Stabilization
Alignment
 Direction of the muscle fibers and the
line of pull of the muscle to be
strengthened.
 Align with respect to gravity.
Alignment and
Stabilization
Stabilization
 Holding down a body segment or
holding the body steady.
 Could be in form of:
 A stable surface
 Body weight
 Couldbe external stabilization or
internal stabilization.
Intensity

 Amount of resistance (weight or load)


imposed on the contracting muscle.
 A.k.a. exercise load or training
load.
Intensity

Choosing Between Submaximal Versus


Maximal Exercise Loads
 Consider the following:
 Goals and expected functional outcomes
 Cause of deficit of muscle performance
 Extent of impairment
 Stage of healing of injured tissues
 Patient’s age
 General health and fitness
Intensity

Initial Level of Resistance and


Documentation of Training Effects
Repetition Maximum (RM)
 The greatest amount of weight a
specific muscle can move through
the available range a specific number
of times.
Intensity

1 RM
 The greatest amount of load a
subject can lift through the full ROM
just one time.
 Involves a lot of trial and error in
obtaining.
 10 RM is approximately 75% of 1 RM
Intensity

Strength-training Zone
 Exercise load to be used is calculated
as a percentage of RM
Intensity

 It varies with individuals:


 For healthy but untrained individuals:
70% to 80% of the RM
 Lower percentage for beginners,
children, and elderly.
 30% to 50% for endurance training.
Intensity

Additional Methods of
Determining Baseline Exercise
Load
 Cable tensiometry
 Isokinetic or Handheld Dynamometry
 Percentage of body weight
Volume

 The summation of the total number


of repetitions and sets of a particular
exercise during a single exercise
session.
Volume

Repetitions
 The number of times a specific
movement is repeated.
 Number of muscle contractions
performed to move a limb through a
series of continuous and complete
excursions against a specific exercise
load.
 It is often within a range rather than
exact number.
Volume

To Improve Muscle Strength


 Maximal load performed with less
number of repetitions.
 6 to 12 repetitions are
recommended.
Volume

To Improve Muscular Endurance


 Many repetitions against a
submaximal load.
 By maintaining the muscle
contraction for long periods of time.
 Should be initiated in early
rehabilitation phases
Frequency

 The number of exercise sessions per


day or per week.
 For low volumes and intensities, daily
basis several times per day.
Frequency

 As the volume and intensity


increases, every other day or five
times a week.
 Reduced for children and for a
maintenance program.
 Highly trained athletes usually 6 days
a week.
Duration

 The total number of weeks or months


which a resistance exercise program
is carried out.
 For significant changes to occur, at
least 6 to 12 weeks of training is
required.
Rest Interval (Recovery
Period)
 Between sets
 30 to 60 seconds iscommon
 Decreasing periods of rest increases
the dosage of resistance exercise.
Mode

 The form of exercise or the manner it


is carried out.
Mode

Forms of Resistance
 Manual and Mechanical
 Constant or Variable load
 Accommodating resistance
 Body weight
Mode

Type of Muscle Contraction


 Isometric or Dynamic
 Concentric or Eccentric
 Isokinetic
Mode

Position During Exercise


 Weight bearing or Non-weight
bearing
 Open-chain or closed-chain
Mode

Energy Systems
 Anaerobic (high-intensity) or Aerobic
(low-intensity)
Mode

Range of Movement
 Short-arc or Full-arc
 Full-arc is necessary to develop
strength through the ROM.
 Short-arc usually avoids painful ROM,
protect joint and tissues after injury
or surgery.
Mode

Application to Function
 Exercise is perform to mimic a
functional activity
Mode

Speed of Exercise
 Force-velocity relationship
(concentric and eccentric)
 Speed-specific training
Mode

Periodization
 An approach to resistance training
that builds systemic variation in
exercise intensity and volume at
regular intervals over a specified
period of time.
Mode

 Preventovertraining and
psychological staleness prior to
competition and maximize
performance during competition.
Mode

Functional Integration of Resistance


Exercise
 A Balance of Stability and Active
Mobility
 A Balance of Strength, Power, and
Endurance
 Progression of Movement Patterns
End of Part 1
(you may have your
break…)
Types of Resistance
Types of Resistance
Exercise
Exercise
Manual and Mechanical
Resistance

Manual Resistance
 Resistance is provided by the
therapist or other health professional,
or the patient is taught to apply self-
resistance.
 The amount of resistance can’t be
measured quantitatively.
Manual and Mechanical
Resistance

Mechanical Resistance
 Resistance is through equipment or
mechanical apparatus.
 The amount of resistance can be
measured quantitatively
Isometric Exercise (Static
Exercise)
 Musclecontracts and produces force
without an appreciable change in
muscle length and joint motion.
Isometric Exercise (Static
Exercise)
Types of Isometric Exercise
Muscle Setting Exercises
 Low intensity isometrics performed
against little to no resistance.
 It will not improve strength except in
very weak muscles.
Isometric Exercise (Static
Exercise)
Stabilization Exercises
 Used to develop a submaximal but
sustained level of co-contraction to
reduce instability and enhance
postural stability.
 Rhythmic stabilization, alternating
isometrics, dynamic stabilization
Isometric Exercise (Static
Exercise)
Multiple-angle Isometrics
 Resistance is applied at multiple joint
positions within the available ROM.
 Used if dynamic exercise is painful
and not advisable.
Isometric Exercise (Static
Exercise)
Intensity of Muscle Contraction
 Depends upon joint position and
length of muscle at the time of
contraction.
Isometric Exercise (Static
Exercise)
Duration of Muscle Activation
 Should be held 6 to 10 seconds
Isometric Exercise (Static
Exercise)
Repetitive Contractions
 6 to 10 seconds hold with frequent
repetitions decreases muscle
cramping and increases effectiveness
of the regimen.
Isometric Exercise (Static
Exercise)
Joint Angle and Mode Specificity
 Gains in muscle strength only occur
at or closely adjacent to the training
angle.
 Resistance at 4 to 6 points in the
ROM is usually recommended.
Dynamic Exercise: Concentric
and Eccentric

Ways in which resistance can be


applied:
 Constant resistance (e.g. body weight,
free weights, pulley system)
 Variable resistance with a use of
specialized equipment
 Isokinetic resistance through an
isokinetic dynamometer
Dynamic Exercise: Concentric
and Eccentric
Dynamic Exercise: Concentric
and Eccentric
Dynamic Exercise: Concentric
and Eccentric
Dynamic Exercise: Constant Versus
Variable Resistance

Dynamic Constant External Resistance


(DCER)
 A limb moves through a ROM against a
constant external load.
 The contracting muscle is only
challenged at one point in the ROM.
 The maximum torque resistance
matches the maximum torque output of
the muscle.
Dynamic Exercise: Constant Versus
Variable Resistance
Dynamic Exercise: Constant Versus
Variable Resistance
Dynamic Exercise: Constant Versus
Variable Resistance

Variable Resistance Exercise


 Specially designed resistance
equipment imposes varying levels of
resistance to load the muscle at
multiple joint in the ROM.
 Examples are pneumatic exercise
equipment, elastic resistance, and
manual resistance.
Dynamic Exercise: Constant Versus
Variable Resistance
Dynamic Exercise: Constant Versus
Variable Resistance
Dynamic Exercise: Constant Versus
Variable Resistance
Dynamic Exercise: Constant Versus
Variable Resistance
Isokinetic Exercise

 The speed of movement is


manipulated, not the load.
 A.k.a. accommodating resistance
exercise.
Isokinetic Exercise

Characteristics of Isotonic Exercise


 Velocity should be constant through the
ROM.
 Range of training velocities
 Isometric: 0 degrees / sec
 Slow: 30-60 degrees / sec
 Medium: 60-180 degrees / sec
 Fast: 180-360 degrees / sec
Isokinetic Exercise

 Evidence of mode-specific with


isokinetic is less clear.
 Faster velocities: greater joint
compressive force; Slow velocity
training: Less joint compression
 The patient can still perform additional
repetitions even though the force
output temporarily diminishes.
Isokinetic Exercise

 The patient can perform less effort


when it comes to the painful range.
 Muscle co-activation is observed in
relatively high-speed movement.
Isokinetic Exercise
Isokinetic Exercise
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
 Kinematic versus Kinetic chain.
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
Progression of Closed-Chain Exercises
Percentage of Body Weight
 Partial weight-bearing → full weight-
bearing → FWB + additional weight
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
Base of Support
 Wide → narrow
 Bilateral → unilateral
 Fixed on support surface → sliding on
support surface
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
Support Surface
 Stable → unstable/moving
 Right → soft
 Height: ground level → increasing
height
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
Balance
 With external support → without
external support
 Eyes open → eyes closed
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
Exclusion of Limb Movement
 Small → large ranges
 Short-arc → full-arc
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
Plane or Direction of Movement
 Uniplanar → multiplanar
 Anterior → posterior → diagonal
 Sagittal → frontal or transverse
Open-Chain and Closed-
Chain Exercise
Speed of Movement or Directional
Changes
 Slow → fast
ResistanceExercise:
Resistance Exercise:
Principles,Precautions,
Principles, Precautions,
andContraindications
and Contraindications
General Principles

 Examination and Evaluation


 Preparation for Resistance Exercise
 Application of Resistance Exercise

(All are for your reading pleasure…


Anyway, it’s just common sense… )
Precautions

 Valsalva Maneuver
 Substitute Motions
 Overtraining and Overwork
 Exercise Induced Muscle Soreness
 Pathologic Fracture
Valsalva Maneuver

Prevention
 Caution the patient about breathing
holding.
 Breathe rhythmically, ask the patient
to count.
 Exhale with each effort.
 Avoid high-intensity for high-risk
patients.
Substitute Motions

 Proper stabilization
Overtraining and Overwork

Overtraining
 A decline in physical performance in
healthy individuals participating in
high-intensity, high-volume strength
and endurance training.
Overtraining and Overwork

 Brought about by inadequate rest


intervals between exercise sessions,
too rapid exercise progression, and
inadequate diet and fluid intake.
Overtraining and Overwork

Overwork (overwork weakness)


 The progressive deterioration of
strength in muscles already
weakened by non-progressive
neuromuscular disease.
 E.g. Polio and post Polio syndrome,
Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Overtraining and Overwork

 Resistanceexercises for these


patients must be progressed slowly.
Exercise Induced Muscle
Soreness
Acute Muscle Soreness
 Develops during or directly after
strenuous exercise performed to the
point of exhaustion.
 Due to diminished blood flow and
temporary buildup of metabolites in
the exercised muscle.
Exercise Induced Muscle
Soreness
 Characterized by burning or aching
sensation within the muscle.
 Pain felt is transient and subsides
quickly after exercise when blood
flow and oxygen are restored in the
muscle.
Exercise Induced Muscle
Soreness
Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
(DOMS)
 It begins to develop approximately
12 to 24 hours after the exercise.
 It intensifies and peaks 24 to 48
hours after exercise.
Exercise Induced Muscle
Soreness
 Signs and symptoms can last up to
10 to 14 days and gradually
dissipates.
 The underlying cause is unclear.
Exercise Induced Muscle
Soreness
 Theories associated were:
 Metabolic waste accumulation theory
 Muscle spasm theory
 Contraction induced microtrauma to
muscle fibers and/or connective tissues
Exercise Induced Muscle
Soreness
 May be prevented by:
 Progressing the intensity and volume of
exercise gradually.
 Having a low-intensity warm-up and cool-
down.
 By gently stretching before and after
exercise.
 Definitive
treatment has yet to be
determined.
Pathologic Fracture

A fracture of bone already weakened


by a disease that occurs as a result
of a very minor stress.
 A precaution for patients with
osteoporosis and osteopenia.
Pathologic Fracture

 Ways of prevention are:


 Avoid high-intensity and high-volume
weight training.
 Progress gradually.
 Avoid high-impact activities.
 Avoid high-velocity movements of the
spine.
Pathologic Fracture

 Avoid trunk flexion (full range) with


rotation.
 Avoid LE weight bearing with torsional
movements.
 Have a stable surface to hold-on for
patients with impaired balance.
 Have a close contact when guarding your
patient.
Contraindications

 Pain
 Inflammation
 Severe Cardiopulmonary Disease
Manual Resistance
Manual Resistance
Exercise
Exercise
Manual Resistance
Exercise
 Resistance is applied by a therapist
or by the patient to himself.
 Either dynamically or isometrically.
Manual Resistance
Exercise
 Applied throughout the available
ROM.
 Applied in anatomic planes, diagonal,
or functional simulation.
Manual Resistance
Exercise
Guidelines in Application
 Body mechanics of the therapist
 Application of manual resistance and
stabilization
 Verbal commands
 Number of repetitions and sets and
duration of rest intervals
Mechanical Resistance
Mechanical Resistance
Exercise
Exercise
Mechanical Resistance
Exercise
 Resistance is applied using some
type of equipment.
 A.k.a. Weight Training and Load-
resisting Exercise
Mechanical Resistance
Exercise
Specific Exercise Regimens
 Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE)
 Circuit Weight Training
 Plyometric Training – Stretch-
Shortening Drills
 Isokinetic Regimens
Progressive Resistance
Exercise (PRE)

A system of dynamic resistance


exercise in which constant load is
applied to the contracting muscle by
mechanical means and incrementally
progressed.
 RM is the basis of exercise
progression.
Progressive Resistance
Exercise (PRE)

De Lorme Regimen
 Use 3 sets of 10 RM with progressive
loading.
 Builds a warm-up period.
Progressive Resistance
Exercise (PRE)

 Calculation:

Determination of 10 RM
1st set: 10 reps at 50% of the 10 RM
2nd set: 10 reps at 75% of the 10 RM
3rd set: 10 reps at 100% of the 10 RM
Progressive Resistance
Exercise (PRE)

Oxford Regimen
 Use 3 sets of 10 RM with regressive
loading.
 Calculation:
Determination of 10 RM
1st set: 10 reps at 100% of 10 RM
2nd set: 10 reps at 75% of 10 RM
3rd set: 10 reps at 50% of 10 RM
Progressive Resistance
Exercise (PRE)

Daily Adjusted Progressive Resistance


Exercise (DAPRE)
 Based on a 6 RM working weight.
 The adjusted working weight, which is
based on the maximum number of
repetitions possible using the working
weight in set three, determines the load
for the next exercise session.
Progressive Resistance
Exercise (PRE)

DAPRE Technique
Progressive Resistance
Exercise (PRE)
Calculation of the Adjusted Working
Weight
Circuit Weight Training

A pre-established sequence (circuit) of


continuous exercise is performed.
 Targets a variety of major muscle
groups.
 Each exercise is performed at a specific
number of repetitions and sets with a
minimum amount of rest between sets
and stations.
Circuit Weight Training

 Exercise Order:
 Alternate between upper extremity, lower
extremity, and trunk musculature
 Large muscle groups → small muscle groups
 Multijoint exercises → muscle group isolation
 Circuit
Training – addresses all aspects
of physical fitness rather than
strength/endurance only.
Plyometric Training – Stretch-
Shortening Drills

 High-intensity, high-velocity
exercises.
 Employs reflexive reactions and
functional movement.
 Emphasis on development of
muscular power and coordination.
 Reactive Neuromuscular Training
Plyometric Training – Stretch-
Shortening Drills

 Rapid eccentric – stretch phase


 Rapid concentric – shortening phase
 Period between stretch and
shortening – amortization phase
 Intensity: high-intensity enough not
to slow down the activity.
Plyometric Training – Stretch-
Shortening Drills

 Volume: increase repetitions as long


as proper form (technique) is
maintained.
 Frequency: increase number of
exercises per session or increase
number of sessions per week.
 Recovery Period: 48 to 72 hours is
recommended.
Isokinetic Regimens

Velocity Spectrum Rehabilitation (VSR)

 Exercises
are performed across a
wide range of velocities
Useof
Use ofEquipment
Equipmentwith
with
ResistanceExercise
Resistance Exercise
Equipment

 Free Weights
Equipment

 Simple Weight-Pulley System


Equipment

 Variable Resistance Machines


 Weight-Cable System
 Hydraulic and Pneumatic
Equipment
Equipment
Equipment
Equipment

 Elastic Resistance
Equipment

 Equipment for Closed-Chain Training


 Multipurpose Exercise Units
 Balance Boards
 Slide Boards
 Stepping Machines
 Elliptical Trainers and Cross-Country Ski
Machines
 Mini-Trampolines
Equipment

 Reciprocal Exercise Equipment


 Exercise Cycle
 Portable Resistive Exercise Units
 Upper Extremity Ergometer
Equipment

 Equipment for Dynamic Stabilization


Training
 Isokinetic Testing and Training
Equipment
 Equipment for Isometric Training
Equipment
Prescription
Prescription
Prescription

 Mode + Muscle Group or Body Part +


Equipment (with intensity) +
Duration (isometrics) + Repetitions +
Sets + Direction + Frequency
Prescription

MREs on (B) UE x 8-12 reps x 3 sets


towards AP, OD

Muscle settings on (R) Quads x 10 SH x


10 reps, QID
Prescription

PREs using De Lorme Regimen on (B)


Biceps and Triceps using 40 lb DB at
10 RM

Resistance Exercises on (B) LE using


LAW x 15 reps x 5 sets towards AP,
BID
The End!
The End!
Thank You for Listening!