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International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

Consonants (pulmonic)
Bilabial Plosive Nasal Trill Tap or flap Fricative Lateral fricative Approximant Lateral approximant Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar

ntnn l fntk lfbt

Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal

t d c k q n r f v s z x j l p b m

Consonants (non-pulmonic) Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives

bilabial Dental (Post) alveolar Palatalalveolar Alveolar lateral

Bilabial Dental / alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular

p t k s

examples: Bilabial Dental / alveolar Velar Alveolar fricative

Other symbols

w kp ts

Voiceless / voiced labial-velar approximants Voiced labial-palatal approximant Voiceless / voiced epiglottal fricatives Epiglottal plosive Voiceless / voiced alveolo-palatal fricatives simultaneous

x and

Affricatives and double articulations can be represented by two symbols and joined by a tie bar if necessary


Tones and word accents Level tones Contour tones or

e e e .

Primary stress Secondary stress Long

Half-long Extra-short
Minor (foot) break Major (intonation) break Syllable break


Extra high High Mid Low Extra low

Rising Falling High rising Low rising

e e


Upstep Downstep

e Global rise Global fall

Linking (no break)

r tones High falling Low falling Rising falling Falling rising Global rise Global fall


nd sd t d t d t d t d t d t d

Voiceless Voiced Aspirated Dental Apical Laminal Labialized Palatalized

t d t d ba ba t d d d

Velarized Pharyngealized Breathy voiced Creaky voiced Linguolabial Velarized / pharyngealized Nasal release Lateral release

d n e e e e e

No audible release Syllabic Nasalized Rhoticity Non-Syllabic Raised Lowered Advanced tongue root

e u e e e

Retracted tongue root More rounded Less rounded Advanced Retracted Centralized Mid-centralized