Current Trends in

tudy

the Study of Midrash
1':rlil('rll~)1

Carol Bakhos

11

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BRILL
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III IIii' CjIIl'SI Iii rrhubiliuu« rlu-msclvcs ill I'q,;,1ITI to tht-msclvcs and I)(bns, rolouisrd p('opll's huvc nf"tL'n s(JII,g;IH;1 cl)lkcliw one t rur- wlf; SllTC()I),Jl,'d, iclt';dis('d, aud j1lTJjt'('u't1 hnrk into prr-rolnui.il rirn« Similarly, lil(' sheer violrnrc of' ani i-Iudaism .. , rncans that my first instinct is 10 stress .uu l j'('if)' (Ill' ;dlsoiulc c1ifkl'C'llu' oJ'Jl'wisli inlt'l'jl"t'lali"n, and then, lIipping' O\'{T I ill' j10111ItHllillll'-likt: Manichcun hin;LI'l'I,),. I() clap nt 11lt'.J('wi~11 ;lIlc1IHJO ;11IIII' Cl!rislian, Bill, as with lll(' n-lation IWlw('('1l ('tll0llial .uid illdig't'llIllIS cultures, lilt' r('l<i.lililiS 1)('1\\1('('1)hl' (wo cultures arc rrriproI ('<d, riddlillg, "lId cnmplcx, and lilt' history (1[' OIH' is lill'l';dly 1111(itillkal,]c wit lmu! 11ll' other; Takill,l',' ih« hierarchy anr] simlll)' n'VI'rsi!l,l\' it, StJ Ih'lt (he .Jewish uumps, l('adl('s, and illstructs lilt' Christian, silliply repeats
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:JLIlI<lisl1'l' a nrl ' ;1,,'i,~tial1ily,' or 1)('((illciliclillg Chrisliallity) lias gone some I[) I«IVI' 1(('1[1('(1in (,xploring 'Ll.kin.1S tllis IIOW ,IS a

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beyond thaI l)ill;lry, II islory is nrvrr as 11<'<11 thelllY would 11<1\/(' it lx, ilS and g'(HHIII)('()ry its('I!' is lx rt h j'('SjlOIIS1VC'til hislory (IS wr-Il ,IS seeking i,ts
OWII

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I

and t he history one is literally unthinkable without the other.' ln her recent hook on biblical interpretation and . Clark.ully the ways that binary oppositions simply do not hold lip (as they never do).~ NCllllllrilllioll: Astrttrtstn 11I1t! S"I/i/101' ill I~'I!I/I' Chri.DA:-.SPITi. such as 'two-nature' Christologies. Nl'tldill. argued {rH' a strong [orrn of' correspondence IWlvVCCll 'dualist' ant 11 rc)pologics (which [ had imagined to underlie all practices of' celibacy).) th . BOYi\RIN me to say that I he theme of most or Illy scholarly work has been to produce a phcnomcnolozy dilkrcllce hct\vccnJudaislll and Christianitv.\ ill 'jll!lIl11tlir CII/IIIII'. and indeed. "'Behold Isr. As t he Rabbis say: The quest ion of a Sage is half' the answer. indeed. hav« becn searching fIJI" 'the ways that the relations between the two cultures arc reciprocal.1 Pn-ss. . riddling. a parallel nexus hctwct-u midrashic literalism and rabbinic allirmatiun 0[' sexuality That such a nexus can be 1()Ull(1 within certain (Plaion ie) eli rixtian circles is. ]/JIInIl!! oj (..: This ( or " Nyssa. and 'dualist' theologies.os Angeles: University of (:alilimli. '!o(j'. By remaining within the terms of a binary opposition betwee-n asceticism and antiasreticism.'. (!lUm. The New Historicism: Slutiics ill Cultural 1'01'li('s. . I think. the Hi.llily in l.ticislll. I too. 1 (Spri!lg 1(I(fI) 1:) :{) alld {.. ! !)In). hut most recently the tune or my work has changed.lsu. Oil/uti Israel: N!'(/(!/I/g SI'.ICliu' ami asceticism VS.Jewish.H'1 Accordi!li\ I.uIII I. There is much more shading than I had imagined hctwccn any 01' (he pairs of these hi narics. ~c) (Berkele).l [ have.. or especially Christian and.. what rcconsuuction? J accept C:lark's strictures against Ill)' much tou [iH'ik and neat schcmalizillg of' a nexus between au allcgrdly Clnisf ian alicgoriGd reading' IlI'.xh ": ()II A!lllilC 'l" )llIgy ilild Scxu. the wrong question.au A!lliqut' _jU(laiSIlI. \ cd. and complex. The question [(II' this paper will be what remains midrash as a distinct pract icc 0[' readillg after om' takes Oil [. or indeed between allegory and midrash. I.\lialli[cl' (I'ri!I(TI(JIl: Prll1Celll!1 Univi-rsiry Press. Clark raises sharp and good questions about my construction of' a homology between reading prartircs and anthropologies ill Christianity and . H. vnl. Elizabeth A. ! l)l)l)) {.llly Il<tllid Bllyarill. I I hill k .wish tcmpt« passag' such l ' /\.! This depiction needs shading now in the light ofClark's arguments Ior the inadequacy ofsuch a binarist approach.. ! 1 >allicl l\oyari!l. ill each case one term the binary (privileged symrnctrically hut contrariwise ill th« dillcrcnt 'religions') is dependent Oil t he other for its existence.I) ~ 7S text ill :1<.\111 :l' I]().111((. 'dualist' rcadi ng sl rall'g'ics such as allegory. I had been asking. Lately.' lid. Ancr dCCO!lsl ruct ion. hut ill a dcconstructivc f~lshioll as well.1[U. I-'I.. not-I. I Elizal)('lh the SOl texts 01 the In.7 till.IS histl)] COlli 1 other one I by III beell and i cspcc sepal' snugl or One ogy. hardly or or Ill' ancl Clad to 1'1 or the d lies i so . not only ill tlu: obvious semiotic way 01' I. and Clark's work goes a long way towards posing the right q ucxtion.Iudaisrll.

1. III IIII' S(T{)11I1.'(:!liI"" V("nl:! EY l lurrison.Lrl>' rrmindr-rl of' lilis by Clark.)'1'0"111/(/ l'l'illlil(~. .III-( II) ("ulIl..1I t-I(TIlIl'IIl'lIlil'S.IY . I SOI1I1" .[ O'III1I1IIIlII IlI"l"il". n'ii.I("I.\)'t is hy noting C:L1rk's own finding Ihal 'typology and ~dkgOl'y . hclln pul.~..jlldaislI1 lu- :\IId /1 Rinatrv I!}' (:mill\:)r'II'I/:.' ill Sill'all (in'glll')' "I' :17 (I~)!)'~) I !:j 'Sin. SI)III(' ot' .'I"..: I('xls 11111' 111.mil)! lor .M'I. I\III"'"~.1I1i.ll1Jews.I'S . ..!!.. clnu un. or as Virgini" Burrus has recently put it .uul iI111'1"1"'("I.11('gUI"Y./111"1' 1/111/ IlIlmr/l/("lirlll.glll Ily ("il.~" IIW...l( ()1"""I' (<llIsid."It/" 1II'S. whilr- <It Ihl' same tirm: not losing sight or internal cornpk-x iry and contra liClioll and of .lwi!"1I1 I !rlilr/: ( :"IIIIII'illg". ft is nevertheless also interest uud importancc 1 think to locate the points 01" nasrcnt diflc-rr-ut iat ion.f:H."'s or SnipllllT I'~B).III that is similar (0 or shared with 0111('1' religious traditions or antiquit y.14111 ('<llllp:m' 'W'II.iri.'II>lI. " (:1". Vil"gilli:1 I'd. or perhaps.JudaislllJ itself' visible as an object of > historical inquiry.urist ir: inu-rprcuu inn.\/illlli!1': . Scl'IJI:lIS I'". '.f"IIlISI11I.!Olll) ill.llillll. 'the hallcngc Ii('s in isolat ing what appears both dis: inrt ivc and relatively .' S('IIII'in I.IIII1. R.'I' ill auutl u-r ((:I:llk.uc other I yp('s of' p.' pass"gl' 111.:lli()1I al""11 or .'<lIul .· .' 1'1"(..'i s."('slsstill :III important distiurriou hctwrru patristic an I. ('1'1 a: l l. w lgcs with whi -h those whn s(Jllglit 10 suudcr that which had been together could do their work. I'I"O'SS. ItisluJ").onstan t.'-. especially insofar as thl's(' iTlay be seeds l hal glOw inlo Ill(' ultimate: separate branches.il)' :i I I .11("1 Illill 1IIl' S("l"iplllrt' ({\II:lIII:I: alld SIH':iI(SI' SI'(' .ilSI) .II(" Un."II"1"~ I.' SIII·I. SII'ill('g.I)'.14'>1')' :111(1 /\~('I'li("i~111 ill CIII'isli:lllil).1. lr u: N)'ss:I.uvurd Lhli\'l'l".t.')'ou]Js that wr rall Chrisrians and tllose we c.I (. /\lballY: Ih. lilt' II". I'll' \'mk 111111 (.{" il IlI"causo. I 1)[" Iicvr. one has first to rccogn iz(' t hat much ifnot most of" t he pm . 1'1I1111Ii.. I:~B.llIdi"s illjlld"iril: (II" ill (. l". I llihlirn! llIli'I/Jrl'illliiJlI ill Iflli'.''' In the case of' hibl ical ex(.'1 .. 1:\.IS IlIlId.ss. ]/ldl/i"11I III Florid:1 Sni. or 111/(:1.01)1 tts fsr('{.l"]I/ OIl(' point at which 10 sl.f"111S valuable in the distinctions.gilHIS N"(ldill.01](' IIlig'lll Ill' I«ru [ll 0"I III illdl((I. lVI' IIlighl as IH'ilig 'II Sll"llgg"'s IJI'l"s<lIl/:ls(Tlic.' passa. !)I)fi).lIl.illl "lall'II1<'III: Ill<' W:II" :lg'aillsl 'il t t lu: 1".I)~ III till' li)l'lIl1'1' (".1 is In:1 simply .1:1rk . s( as to make Christi.lilill 1\1 'Slil'islll. S('l' (.llIli'IIII{I'.. 1"I'.'//li.'lig-iClIl (11":IIIS.' 1 he question will be then how to revise descriptions ofh rrucncutical difference between emerg-ing lat antique Christianity and Judaism ill such awa). (li'.llg III" '('O!lT"(·lill.I11e1I'lIl"il)'..)..gesis.' This point sllg. Ul'fltliI(l.·oll .'s 1'-1:lI"f' Ilil.l'l"l's. If) who:«: is :lbOIiI SOIlIII SUNY Christiuu 1:IIIIOIlS midrash«: 1I'.' '\/lI/li\' . Pn'".11111(1((.lIg "I' Iii" 1III"II11gli lalv '[i-wisl.IlalY:I Sieill: SI.wl" (it' 111)1III Ii\'I'1"'" I IllOdl') 1>('111"1'('11:hlisli:III' '( 1IIl' illlnprt'I.·iI PI'.r) 1:1.DE!Rr::!CONSTRUCTfNG MlDRASl1 301 to b d ubtcd. that they will capture the nuance to which Clark calls LIS without rntirc-ly losing lhat which still S(.7 V\c have been clc.('('S :IS n'"dill. shared hy tilt' fJ..licc i. '/\11". II)()I) N. IIdl:~ill/l\ 'II/II' .

(\-llf' I hat (Ilis ruocl« ol thinking about illll'l']1I'<'IUli()Jl clues not involve .uc) the llH'olngic. 'I'he notion of a homology between asceticism and allegorical reading docs not require that ascetic cant eru be that which is 'X posed by allegorical practice but rat her that allegorical practice 1)(' justified and understood as importantlv analogous to ascetic practice itself (as explicitly in at least Origcn and Gregory of' Nyss'l) and even more so IlirLl il be groundc I in an understanding of language as siruclurecllike a self' ill Iwo levels.([It' I\llliquily. Cblrk. a speaker behind (he Wl'ilLCI1 lC.dlcgoricCll interpretation within Christian wriling is thus both (']lish'mologi('ally .'d..dlegor)' as .cl. of' cour:«: (<<s 1 woukl arp. pt'eL"isdy.. I ali\l('ly and ily 1'('1llll' CIII'\' "('I WIT 'ivtisogynisl' (I<JIl!-»). alb it not perhaps. \.li.!<>OI)) Ilfl.Vl 11' l'i <'1".llltilorily so nnH·II . birth to rabbinic . c " Thunurs II.hr l<lllguag(' or rcrs and u Thus in It ings. b 'tWf' .. celibate as S() avidly 011 1 I (.1 1\'[<'11101").IS a Ill'l'llI('Il<'lltiC<L1 ('OIIS('(jl]('lHT of' till' vcry notion that the \Nord has 1)('('0111(' [Iesh and dw('11 alll()llg 1I~ . (::llif:: .II~\ll i l'rc'~<'111 (Slillll.n Christian and Jewish reading.uagc philoso- placed." [ would (tl'.lurk l'XpO.s1 inter: relation as a hermeneutic [" I(']lllt. The concept or a Logos (IS both [he sill' of" absolute neal ivit y.lSI Chris- III CI.] hlind adherc'llrr tei .111<"1 onrologirally (theologically) gmUIl lr. is PI' 'die-alec! on thr notion 0111 Author.11:"\. I~Jq. Lour» theology. pher.ornl inarion in one Iorrn or another becomes distinctive if' not . as well CIS n dual r-xistt-ucc Ior langll<lW' <ISsiRllifin and signified con 11. thilt rcquii lill" Chry« c: Ill.. 0[' Sophia. 1\l!. rn I many Reformation thinkers.onstant in ancient ChrisliilllilY.IS God's ('xl'p/'le.DANIEL BOYARrN rnidrashic r acling pra 'lie's.)1' I Llilil'l'r~ily I'I'I'~~.aillsl til(' ('arly oppone-nts of' (:ltrisiiauity (aud Gibbon).Judaism . 1 iii II rI'iHI('I's .I\lin' It'n('c· Oil sin II Snmucl C. aile or the most important of' hermeneutical consequents or Logos theology was .011.~('s precisely the importani th.lY 11l'Ip LIS 11)('al(' thill L'onsl.rl)' N'.Ill<' ill (.The ontology of' human language iLsd!" consists in its privileged pairing of' its signiii('rs wii h Ih(' transrcndr-nt. /Jt'(()/I_.I('(.. il '1l1ilgical connection with Illing's I>y it (./nt ElizaiJ< ()I' 1. 1.. .d uotiou tilt' l'(:i('cllon which gav(. I~ ." The move towartl .:lle Am ('/1I.')1:1111. J I clicvr still that this ./i(/lIil)' (1" I·.1I1i:~/JI'l' (llid tlu: Nl'jimlilflilJlI _\l'II/alillll (Cllit'ilg·(l: LJlli\ll'r~il)1 . C:\lllllr. wh ieh as WI' shall sec.Ol1IH'Clion will: "ick-us./mrlio/l '1.u lll.rl signifil'd of' till' Logos.1ic'g-ilirnarc and choice mock of' ill tcrprctaiion.IO/J/!I'.l( the end illtcrcsti.uL II [hid. ChI') who marl" h rysostoi sexual rno toward of' rnarriaj. will promote ..l proclivity lor allegory as a mock 01' interpretation.'I.I: "I/ri/i/il .i":lgU I'n'ss.-." s()Jlll'tllillg· third or lo a taxonon and Origc ofinterpn the 'Hebn Testamenl what) difk author wh the Father IS a yawn] Ihose or til or or authentically referring. Samllel VVIll'cicr Il l. In ronuast with rabbini :Ju laism which knows Orn011C of this. nr lall.IIII' alHJ111 Chrislian l'('adillg which dist iurtions bl'lWCCII is 'distinctive tout rourt.[I. Lill'm/I'i:!tl/I"".' to borrow t.IS well as 1hl' n-vcalcr absolute Truth.1 11I1/(l'/i( l'hi/Il.isdy or 011 a 11l() of'] .('(:I.ng gil ishcd 0' plarr-d DIll h icra rchic. <II k.

s('('1 OWl' IIIl' non-uscctir ic (wh jell illll'l'Cstill~.'gelically (is''I>.)rrinl nur] cdii>ai.~.lilh: 1':.1d'irly lauds Old Tesl<lllH'll L heroes and heroines who murric-rl .'ll As Clark points out . Ilis 'i\lisll."11:'· 1'. IIII'll l'IIlIlla~li(' I':\sl 1111. III grl'lll p"illS III illslil).l· as within lll<' nuuricd stnl«.' Ilil S"XI'S hin Ill:IITi:I. Clark performs a taxonomy of reading.Iy ['Ilollgh ga\!(' m01l1 rill· IIIl' [(-Iwdl' <Iscl'i. Thus ill his 1.il'.uthy within J1larri.u u« dilll'l'l'IHTs ('sl ulil islH'ci .dong two axes.111<' 1\1I..'llislwd ()VlT II\(' m...(. 1::':1.IHTS. .'11' York: I':dwill tlkll r n I'n'ss. II (:LITk.hrisd 1'1'1- )' lilt- ill lilt' II.111<1 'fhe Testament' and the 'Ncw' These 'coru-lau. l'ir!1' !filii 1111/1. wlu-navidly 1'('Cllllll111'llris is ('x.practice. Cluysostorn is also R.ilosoration ologilh risargue iJlill(l hilTarchical SIl l11arkillg' of' I)()<iil's IiI'S nul so nnuh t IwI.1I1e! thus his wry vvarrn .!!.'AS'Tlic R"llIIIWi'lli"ll .' l'lLfl.11\(1 wili.~s arr..)li.mr] rcpr ell! '('tl.I~ biu '''ciilfcrt'II{.u toward marriage..(i. I~)~).'111 (:I:I1'k.I. H' is onr of the Falhers who wishes to 'unite the times. lor C:llrysoslOlIl.n I oj' II i(' <l. lias 10 do with methods ofintcrprctat ion aud one with theologies the relationship Ix'lw('cn or L he 'He brew past' and the 'Ch risl ian present.·lgc I)l' husband over wili-': "l 'luis firmly .\('cd oiu o " hicr. ill 1.il« IlIJIHIS('('(i(').sl(JIII.~.uiou Illl' suborcliuation .lp that divides thr mores 01' the Old Tcstarncru from those 0[' I hr Nt'w and 01' the Clirisliall prrscnt: Old Testament charartcrs and Il'a\'hill. "(H'd i..". Ihl'id Carllllil 1'.lri('1 II il'l'lI 1''' II)' ln-twcr:n 111.lbl)i-likl' in that his 'exaltation Illagl'Llring n'qllilrs and procrc.S()S(()lll .raised lip as exemplary If)1"'Chrislian {lurli(.W('('11 III.1 "pis"IIp:d jln'S!'III. Ihl' Pl'O(itl('li()ll (11' distinction is maintainrcl 1)111 displaced. Llldi'i'llIlI'II"'Y.ic to be rlistin.ali. or 1. i\lilT(llillll.0[' Chrixtinnx .. 011 t lu: Il:lsis ln: "runrord" CIII').' or bel ween the 'Old ('ven strur- whicl: form ianity . over-against rabbinic reading.~)'IIisl Ill' I\dVOI'IIIC' SI .' that is to 'deny that there is a yawning g.111'1' episcopal (unlike sornr 0(' his earlier rnonastir] writi Ilgs. diss. wit I·' 1':li·I.' in . t u i] 11ll' (\istillcl i.DEI REI C:ONSTRllCTIN . I::. [ohu ChryslIsl'H!! lIlIIl Ilis Views Oil \Vllllll'll. onr 01' whirl. ~I IDI{ASI-I nand J allc.<I(IX 1\... Ill'IIdill.11)'.1 bct wcvn hush(lild Oil (l more posii iv« Iln(l' this pm<iIICli()1l ()r c1illlTl'lllT (' c-url . i. 1.r.dso 1111 lilt' d'illi'I'I'IICI' or l innx wirh iu (:llry".u.'lll. Ch ryxostorn rq!. 01' or marriage th.l!.. (I~IBI)). CI:II'I. in consort with Cluysostom's I)rilll-. and Origcn .I. Nl'llrfifl.'IIiJohll Chrysosrom is the author whom Clark linds most rabbinic in his ideal )gy. Jerome'.'' lias 1)('('11 dispi.uul I-('Illinilll' !\tiV:llHTIIII'111:\ l'ar.n.'il'III (:III'isli:llliIY. locating John Chrysostorn. ilw dilllTI'll'''' iWIII"'!'II Iii.s theThe itS 1111' k'g-it- as we ('hilld I' . /\s Clark lrrilliuntly opines.1111' rutrirnt Ull/I/ilillil)' ( 1.r lid 111<1 i Iled pn'i 111. II l hicl.ich is cc be actin' third or fourth ccnLury. 1!)IHi)17:)'21)H.'11 IwtW('('ll III(' »ll h« liS as 19-icai Dr xt.rillg dose of' Ihe Old Testament to the New aile! ils ~wxll<ll 1l1()ITS I() thosr. (:l!rysIlSI'!lII'S iusis1"111'1' .11IiIU(1tgn>llilcicci ill it marital hinarcity of' wonu-n.closely with their (somewhat) dillcrrur marital and ascelic axiolog·ics. Sl'" .

the Jew and the Christian: 'Chrysostorri's erasure of difference between the ancient Hebrews and contemporary Christians Iinds us counterpart in his close alig-nment of asceticism with marriage: even the married among. l'laionism Ikll Ed. .111(1 .I))..IY a\)I)ul Mark & TIII'III('il:Y ill La« '2Il1)'l)ill :IIH)lhcr pi.1·'/\'I(i. lhicl.(('1.~ IH){lily llol Il{" llll' I !lid)' . J'L'lltllllllilig wh.11-1.III:d.li"II)('1 Dively L: h AlitiPIII Chrisliflllil)' (I.· Exposili"l\ ul' ()ri~"I\ oil Call1i<'['-'.i:lisll\. ( 1'1 i\sl<'I.·:iI. p. I~JBu)iIi? ". Y"h'lIl:1I1 .~.. liL'al 11I'llTia." ('rotlc lovr lor Cud dl'pc'lllis. All i1.In' Orig"C'll's uu-rhod I)H'V('S and visihl.. the Alexandrian Origen? For Orig"cll.11 t h. or soul/spirit.!': his linguistic strategies arc 11('(11'1). '1 (:'!o(l~) II.11 1\. 111('I.lsslll:ialioll .ltif)lI CIIVil C'i. t hrn..isli-Cllrisli:111 i>i"jlllialillll.lIl .\II/].II'1l1 ckpuruu«: lrom 1111' IH.I~t'.uu] (hi~"11 (. Asrcl. Ir.Iililll{ /.\ 'I (Jldy-( ll'l"hn. Cllri..uiuu.!S t lu: I'XI'gl'tc' ilway troru IIII' (:alllil'lIl[l's liural .llIiSI1I.. 71.. AltlH)LLgh Origcn's work on the Sony.ili.: spiritual . (:1. RI'IIWII l(ill1<. II xhuuld I. 1':pl<mil'l [':lillll'I.)u.ry different Christian exegete.. ' dir('ctly hat art: or I'XI'.c olmonklikc sirnpliciry'!' Not slirl risingl)" Chrysostorn is one ol the Fathers whom Clark marks as most midrashir in his h errn 'l"lCillical practices as well..liill1 i\IWil'lll 1~IJ7)i I.)udai'llI.<It lhe ('osI oj's('II~("(I~II"'lti()lI 111:lI'kDI'a jll'rl(:(( sl)ul i~ prccis(. l. .DAl'll£L BOYARli married reduces difference between the celibate and the married 8S it had reduced r\iITcrcnce between the Olel and th New.. S'T (II' . Ifill lIil.l( I ill' illl(·llsily and 1<'01' [ro111 litcl literal.IS lile body is opposed LO lile soul. ('arllit! 111I'...~~il'lll Rl'I'II'lfi 7:~...ridal sOlll.J of' literal to aile.k".)l'\\'i~li-C :l1l"isli. III 1111 !\sl(:1 s vivid [()I'I11 L11 a I ion: I\rhinrill. unlike approach understood quite 11lC(1llillgs or the I he kisses or his I 17 1'1'1'SS. has been shown to have close thematic . li'('(/'.awsnn. to unfolc and the sayings 0 Since in Origen' illtclJigible.u is l'ill'lhl)'.tTl"sllllugi. SOllg q/ II lhicl. rl'aches !llil lor tht' invixihl.' 1'1 Il:tsi'l. Clurk rig-hll)' I"cjl"'ls :lily . 177- ·.1('III'III" prill"lil'l'S with :".ly .!Jllosl "ic..s S('IISLIS intcrioris. [or whom tile llr-sh (and Ikshly language) art' understood as necessary hrlpcrs to the spirit (and till' allegorical meaning).H.lfFillilics with till' interpretations 01" the rnidrash.." Soi/illi l lIil'lll. ilsl'l{" 1\1111 W. .~ qf. 'i'rillilari.' (:1111111"1' nnt! !lrl(~ilJ/l :\' liD. ul c'\I('r). for h and t he discover trapped in the c< 'overcoming earn (0 its original stat in Origcn a closr theory .:IIHI ('1('1"11<11..1.\'Illihia: Anti. .his pnin: lou Vil'gillia IIIIIT\IS.1 rclation of correspondence La ideas which an.v Ii 1'1"1 '.<"tI IIII\\'I'I'I'I~ 111:11 IIp .l(t'II\ oj'. 'il By Sil)'ill!!: this "I is papn will [unr: 1. 'I'.ncutical f'( not surprise at .. sl'C]"('l slIhjl'cl. war Is stan I ill . ill Uri.lralkls tlu- plln'('SS i)r III)'S- We can perh.iI(c' lilillg.111Jisput.lIIilllll'( xxii (1\)71) '2'17 '17.1I1ingto il.' l Inrmu! """I1'. on lhis 111<' slIhlilll.nuljolu: I "'IllY Nt-wman . ilS opposc''[ I" l. 'Till· [-(UlIilt-linll l nu-rprt-tat iuus DC Ih<" S:\g('S iLl1C1 II.l'sis. Sling III' SI'llgS: 1\ 'l'hird-C"llIury.III.-"I< Url nuh. ' \ I~J~)")1' : III I~.L'.l(e wllil'i1 is Jlw Song'.\iJII. opposite to tl1('111. Ior Ol'ig n Ih(' rarual and the spiritual meanings do not parallel each othe-r but arc a "ll 1<1 Ily opposed In t-ach other. Thc moreover. ! di:\ (II/d II.".. carnal Origcn the v' itself already a trs is uncierstood by has begun to disc tangled.his h carers can be encouraged to abandon their more sumptuous lifestyles lor a daily practi .I\(I. :IIIt! 1111' . I':vcll . :. In ('x('('ss DC Philo.llld III hastcil In lliC)SI' t [lower '10 fi)l"s." What shall we say about that se'rnillgly v(.IIII. I·.-LUegm hcrrn .d).'. IHldily chsirc even.I'.irnmatcrial ami impcrrcptiblc.' '111/(1Sword> I II' '. 'I [.

(~. Oil ~I 'IV\' 1.:1111"1l. :'>(i{o. il II<' sliiti 111111 111l' whuh: II.: linc'. -l S('C . 'when she h<IS hegull to disrr-rn f()I" herself what was obscure.. ~I II}' SlI)'ill. "I III' ."11<'11"1 lliwl)1 1.IIIrk. or Ill(' body and his theory allegory .!(.'? For Origcn thc very pron'ss ong.(:II'·.\.t. I(J~Jtl) :l· II! 1(.(11.: 1''1\'111:111'1'1'"" 1 II).\/id"I. ID7:J). 'IIII' SlIId lI!!d '~/Ji.J.<'. In mel th.·11t Inivcrsi: I Illy ilsl'll" j'TIS illl)' Ilai:.'!" and Ill(' discovny of.cl hi III into ililClkcliull.\('.I' I.._I .m a rela['1'('('1'1 itself already a transcendence DC allegorical interpretation cOllsLi. 1':111-':1:111".1.Irlill!-(}()lI.1111'11111' 1)111)11~I1<"rs. IbIIIS. .:·<lI!' SllIili!'s ill Phil<)s"'pl).~c in his hrixti.~orinllly is l hr lu-rmcncutical equivalent Ihe ascetic and celibate life. 'I uuuduc!iou.l: ()iI:~m oud Ihc '/u'li SWIllr!.lIlq~ori('al was prl'cisei)' I he n-lation Dr the body 10 I l!l' or or or or soul/spirit.l~1' Ill" 17 1\1111\ V.olllgi.<lII'SI)lI.11"<1. perieucc the soul.~ 'V SUl(~. & Tlll'ldo.!/SIJIIg_I: (:'"lIlIlm/rll.~I'.j. I his wry or (I \1('1'1' kiss crot i. carnal sensus is to escape the prisunhousc 01" the Hcsh. SIII"I1 tiislilll'IIIIIIS Will ln.tll)!'il 01' this by cOlllparing Song Song's.11'11.11Iikr I rmau ('.1'I' thl' point Oil ca~·. Accordingly the Divine Kiss i- vc close linguis- .'.1I1"1\\'1l1J111. f'ner. I alii 1101"OIIII:llillg Ih(' 111'11.DEI REI CONSTRUCTrNG ~UDRASH eel as il C\V and ancient lis close and lrorn literal meclllin_e. VT: !\SI1!.w:~fli. ia: 1\11(. . "Ill' IlIiglll rousul: 1':11.lIlly.lJ'(is. 7) (j I. 10 interpret parables and riddles and the sayings of the wise along the Iincs or her wn expert lhinking.~iJ/l. ill [lie arc sl ill . carnal desires [which] ultimately enables (he soul to return 10 its urigilla[ slat. to unfold what was involved. (h(~m .1 (lll'l"kl'lly lfllil'!"I'sil)' IIi" (:.IS ascc'lic prartirr-. "IIII' SIJI/.i/ 11/ SOlfi/11I1' lI'ilhili ()iI:~"II:' F\"I:~I'Ji\: lIiM' ill II/I"il"lll Ullil/i'lIIill'(I. l\sli.a\at scI).r IlIlW. :101j'2) ill .IIII.the true ami ]1111'(' spiritual mcanillg' behind or [rapped in the earn»! words cunsriturcs till' Divine kiss. 1111)111<'111..I (1111:11"\'N.: ihis ill illis WII)'.I.\iJ!/.uccl 1)C'(.lIill'rllili i'ITss. unclnstnncl quitr: clifkr(. Y: (:."1'. It ('11.<lwslln. VVl'.f!..1111)(11<'1" pl'I'.I' I/wlllllllli/i"I.' ill ()II:~I'/I.!._'styb :hryso. Divine. interpreting rlllq.lppro. of t hc S(lIlg.~.'XI ill whirh III i his pal"'\' \\. 'I .IS i I Igs Ill' til(' kiss kisses 1>1' IIl)'Sexegele S S{'IISIIS I IfH' tlrc the or Ilis Ii rxt VrTS{.~. 7".II1glc:cI.: is it. 1!/S(jIJ. This ought not xurpri:«: <II (111 ill one lor wh Jill th« cioscsi (ll1(dog)' I<Jr the n-lation of" Iii cral I 0 .\SP<lI")" l ulitirs 1I11t! J'. Ill.(".I sllllil InlVl' IlIlJl'( III SII)' :11111111 1\.('nll"(l I':. 1':dw.iIsil (. (:.:I'1i 111"1' 11111 Illi' aspl'l'IS III \ Ilj('l. 1i"lIics ill (}ri. II<lsl<lll: Hrill .d .t.illl[IIII'I.H"11. SlllI)!.~ 11/ S".'JII.g-izt's the soul's ascent.' :IIHI Sirifila (I!I ngj'll I'!"I'M. ::11 ASh·l.' I'. tvlcl..S 1. '\11('il'lll (:lll"islj'IIIWI·jtl'r~ '2li (trails. I his tli'll art' ."id"II.foi. To P(lSS IJeyoncl the literal.t..ICls thsu '()wreornin.! ('2')1)'1) .l).l' {I III I liccouir OIlCl' 11101'(' a IIWIIS'~n VV('accordingly sec ill Origrll . "SIHTIS (Ii' 1('1 !JII 1'1IIIU11is1l1111. to unravel what was l:'. 1111' midrash . I\~I..III pr-rhaps III sec 1)('ti. Ihl' kiss n \\Iii II his IlIUIIIII' subliru. 1.lut('s in ofthe flesh. the IOllgn I. hll" II".his ilc.IJ.: Ipposecl I's vivid is understood hy him to refer to the e.all' I\llllqUII)' (1\I!krsIIlJl. R.1'.)' ill I.!.'11l Since ill Origcn's Platonism the world or spirit is the world the intelligible f()I' him 'intellection and Jovillg arc one aile! the same.1/(1/1111 1'/(110.11 1':<111'.t.1 iu tl« . 1'1 I\SI('I. OVI.. I all) )"('llTrill.'lllliIlSI!"i'. whom It en. In Origl'll.1 close homology lx-t wcrn his Ihcolug").

("JIH' W:! or I Ill' ill Inpl"l"l.1I1e1 such 111.lill yt's. such .~ ~'JSOl/g.t1lIv(" in llie I Song III' SOllgS.tPP"11 SII..! 111I).il1g-llH' ux wil 01" Ihe anthro " 1]('l'lll('llClllic. .lxlti .11)(1 hOfly: I.tlld ('vcr).1101')'. hut II\" Illadi' ilum lJ. <IIlei such and sucl: IllallY aels which nrc 111<111(1.tlld CII:ISlil.t1 I.' (.md SllCit mail)! 11I<llltTS which art" fi)rbiclck'll. like in the rase l l arrisou. 'II rlidu': rt.d 1111' words.).llIi. th is s)'s ani hrnpologica I h is ascetic Bible gics ing f languag(' from the carnal i111 11 i 0 11 from f' ( the morphic..'sil"l' ill t\..11!"wllrlri{l: I) 11 ilhow with.'{. ""I'IIIl"III'IIrir. 1::\51 Ily 111\'.'lIhblll! " CIH-i\\'iv: I)vir.tlly II. with angc1l1'olllcllak.tl Cappadorian discipk. and ~1Ic11.. I'rl'ss.!.llilll I ol I Ill' r\f[~ulll. '2011:1).11111(1 111<' Lxoclus ill IliISIIII·:t1ly ("t111...'x(x slur)' soul. 'TIll" 1':).tI)! alldil'IH'" III (II(' . thl' gl'('.lidr.1111 ('IIII)I(. '\i!/l.t111I' or til Mary Ill' united v point cxplir ilLlagt. .-n he woulrl rllr(lwr S. l)il)li(". alld slich . cacl: 'All ('vcry iVloreover.)ili". overtones <111(1ch.t1 PI'.\l"t't'pl Ihl' Divillily [rom [ext to ascetic r God.' SII unshuu 1)111ky.)I" it .\.'ul' CI'I'glllls . I ~'I 1). as i( is writu-u. the incarna or I hr l. This ar . 1!11l1I)::. In lhc midrash experiences God's kiss: Rahhi ir is that very Yohanan.:ISI11T or I The liu-ral [1111' ic:1I rooclll:'lcllwcll hdisl Ltg-'liIISI ("(lllll'lIl ~kll'ish' i()II.gJ1 will .t as pllYs1'~v:lll- rcnuuciation or bodies is itself' c plation.lll III' lilt' dilli-rt-urcs l)cllVCt'11 llll'S(' lwo f<)l"lll<tliollS.i'1I1110' . jlrovides at IIlis II J(' l lurtisnn Falher's rC<lclillg (If" It :111('Xt"I't'tiingJ / ck-ur lorruuI)('IW('('II IIIC Manna.1~("I'li(' ("()111111111Iil.ISCl'lil'isln i~ ("u-al"tintlal('(1 with allrgllry. the actual mouth. II.IY 10 him: ()" YOII . ()r NySS<l.. Hn' the most I' (."l'ill. an' CiS bluut as could be n R. arc Itig'hly valued . inu-rprr-tcrl rnuu's seed. Yohanan (" plicitly counrxts this kiss wit h (11(' visual 'XI cricncc or slTing God..'1I' I). t'CqUiITI111'Il!S.' (hc kisso I Ill' Spcrch or his l lu- 1110111h:Said Iiorn Holy.d with tit{' midrashic urtumcnt this si.')pcc('h'~' II hax Stich and such ll1all). Israr lu«.H' Manua when cuntrasl(.lrgn nf' this lcsrript ion (II' Divin« Rcvelatiou 1('\1('11 Ihe prdiglll'. 'Gr< ~. I. \-\ to transfer malerial I he till' wun l.lli()ll or i'vInlly Hloom].glll..y.u.t1I1" 11..\' I[ltld pl'illl. 11<1\1(" 11\"1"1111"dl' lJl 1 lIH'SS(.iv(' liS .IllSlillg' as spililll.t1ii)'. Even illg as practiced pl(.111 ("'I('g.lhl)i in ." ill ill( "(JI'"II: ()rliI./ 1111/1'/1)' tii (Sprillg.S 11(" .we ill order til There is then a 0]" OJI his mouth. :t 1"'1')' lnu. Blessed One. as shown I»).I"('gm).l!.'II. "!lei court vvcry mcmlx-r of brad and say lO him: ])0 )'()II ilc('(:jll t lrix . abo a powr-rlu I ('1'01 ic i 1lI'lge.~oG he transcended Hc will kiss Dt-li'i lEL BO\"/\ R I N dor-trinc that the body is a sign or a lall or the soul Irorn God and must to be reunited which IIll' with Him. III I.my's iIIIL'I"prrtation III.'! III til\' «()IIIl1l\'lIlaril's (II' (. 1\1Ic1 tln: lxnulitc would .lilt! slich many punishrnr-uts. "YI.()I"Origcll.Ls(Tlical 10 ilsl'lf' an ascetic Illajol' horu-x 01" ('Ollll'll(ioll III OIII:II)'/'. aucl their literal Ihey are inti 1Iriel ' rSLanel body.JU BIL-ss('d OIIC'!) "lid Ill" would kiss him .cr.' knnw"ITklll. ill[. I!I!I") rl:l~ . hI" woulr] <tIISIVl'I" hint: Yes and ag. !. arc IJlkll ill:tpplil·. t lu: dixcoursrOI'.S<I).1I1S III"" or 'The erotic connotations.uvnlvuncl tl u: ill :11111 ~\')(II.111)' sudl casy and diflirul: actions.llId such is lhl' reward lor i'ullilling it.rscly c r(11" I. II <IS 1111'1'''[.!1. "'J /\llllilllglt.' SIII"<'.ht. lo him: Yrsl And t h.lginc I. as il was C'xpcl"iC'll('Cci by ('aell . CO!T( 01'1111' Huly.(·.db "'ill. \11'1'11« Harrison [-]\'1' dixcussiou of' Cr('.'lil'l's.1< "ddl. "II. Exeg-(~ conv .!"I.1.jllf.u iou ()f' 'or looking LIlt" IH'XIIS ilnllll'lIC'lllics . whc-r. lmnu-dinuly.

l2.I<:III.lriy witl: ['('specl I lillg (II' )rI1111- ht: 1'1'1.1 r.II"I\.rrisl. 1111\VI'VIT.111 il1lpn'. '1. In his hands. phys1'~V(lII- of" Ihl' soul..lI'h. is lilkd Iroru "I)(JV<'wil\1 divinr lili-.xq!.tic practice (and not onlv " mode-l f()r OI1l').. or . Liw lit T"IP('lll"('~" The trop- or 11)('11 a pnlc'Cl lil between the hC'l'IllCI1C'Uli or 'S and . lik . which i~taken as a ICli' !II!' :'S :Ill( I . ahl" ill il!('.1l:1Iioll.IS .uu hropolo- .' lullness fir til<' clivinit or 'I I )'('..\I1/J/J"J.11111<1. wh . i 111 ('1"iuncut '111'1'('11 .lh N.l!. as a model li)1' 111<' l'wTl'sponclill[l.LI very their literal sense. (. Linguistic structure and psycilOlng-y arc thus isol':vcll mnrr."(.~I Moreover. redirect ion of' huma n drives and activit i('s.'(oJllidt'rt'il ( Jxliur].) Alld _iss him rdrr hi There' is g-jrs this system. t rur li)()d soul.ISlilig ill\'1 ilv- .l{i!lily: '\1\11.' urust n'lTll1 :" h)['IIH' I'ri-ss.libcratc transition lrom I .f)d.ivillg him vvii lun hnsdL Cl'g-ory 111<1kt's lilis poiiu ..-xpli('iily ill t hr 1I"['. 111<' 1:[("1Ih.(' t l«: illllll. I would suguest lint this kind of' ..(. c-xar tly parallrls (lit' turning or human intention Irom the desire and pleasure or thr. [UI. n .S ['['("I'I'I<lrir.111)' NI/MII/It "I l larrisuu.11Ih. i\.L.'('111111).IIY. tile aSl.[e Mury. If) III. .11"PIJ<'II<:d "orjJurcally h ill the UlS[' 1. Chrisl is II".IV(.IS SI01")1 ami about hoclH'S is ilxrlf ..'W 111)/11"11 f'hilu.ii-r"II(. '1\11 cI vV(' I"y lei accept such Jidd('II.[il)l1 nnrl j11'1'hapsalso Ihe 1'.DE/r:LE/ CONSTRUCTING MlDRASl1 rl must .111('- the literal to the flguralive'.III n:klliilliships S<l as In 1)(" uuiud wiil: (.1()11 o! il W<lS or del he visual :I(JC iau II . which is Ollie I moving Irorn rhc carnal to til(' spiril ual. '(.111 P('I'~()II . understood .dl('gorical reading as I ractircd by this lilH' nljnvish and the-n ~hris(iall Plaionists is ils!'l!" (Ill asc(..I>dor.l1 theory got's hark at least In Philo and his aSITlir Bihlc-J'l'ml('["s Lal«: Mar otis. "rHII}' 1111111.I.LeI such materials as Scripture only if way. scctics can the>' are interpreted ill another understand them allegorically ["C.' Virgin. This articulaliol1 hctwccn all alkgoricti hermeneutic all I an <ls('ctic. N.ti 10 l anrhropol: gy is brollghl out parliClllarly figure ('1('.lir.body (0 (he desire and ing orlal1~lI<lg(' from pleasure morphic. ('llIpl).rlical method thus comes 10 mirror ascetic behavior itself and conversely cll1hnclil's a rr-rlirertion olthoualuwhich can S(...}t'lI'Ji.()IY.1 tllrnillg from rorport-al pleasure In spiritual ('(}!}(CI11plation. l hr 11'(11111).' lhe very n-nunr-ialiou olthc pleasure ofthr text.[lisl' Oil Vir.ion.11111<1 is uncultivuud is also ilillTllITlql .£~or)' finds it appropriate Lu all. Ilc<Lriyicirnl icul 10 that Origcn. "'I'..r{'. liHlt! it 1I()s\W("()llW :111 illlag'{' 111(' 11\111[.)1' Ih(" 1.\ '!I"NJ)IYork: (hliml University . this cI . I 111<111)' Jlfillillg [urt her within his broadly Platonic world-view.oci. likr Ihe sturuarh r('('('ivill.I.1[(1 i I".l. is ('.J"'[[1 I':.1I1'1"(/J/(frin: l'hila'. So (Jrc. 'l()I):-i)' disl"ussi"ll.llleci In uuu away I"rOIH hll1l1. "t /II'//(/mllll(".. who ("IIII("I'IV('S lin SOil withuu: rl 1I1:tIl'S seed. By impliru. allegory allows him to transfer the concepts and images nourishrn 'Ill and intimacy lrorn the mal erial to the intelligible' wurlrl.xt til inu-rprctation 1)l'COI1lCS excellent tool for expressing how an thr ascetic re-directs natural human desire lrorn bodily pleasures toward (.F. Indeed this anthropological h('rl11cnc'ulic.i! til<' 11[.

and distinguished fiUITI ali oilier r oel in that it was perfectly absorbed by the bo 1>"so 11t"11 there was no bo lily waste.~" shone forth in Christ through her virginity lakes place also in every soul through a virginal existence..lli(llli!J' «u. allegorical meaning on the other becomes a perfect v hicle Ior the transcendence oiphysical. /((!(ltii./' MOIIII/' In/ill (III. bodilylife which is required LO translorrnjudaisrn from I. llibk I. Clark makes li1r slarllillg ohsrrvatiou tluu pre- riscly In the th( go ryan cl typol lion.cv nt:s to an unchanging ontology. Manna. (C. Head). won lrous in odor and color. BILl it was Il}()cl-Ilnl <In alIrgorind sign something spiritual. Jaeger makes IIu · (Juilll lhal l Jrnysrr: cll'l'<'loped II. but III ~'I Clark. I~)til) . anrl ('xc~csis on the p. the Manna is the literal record or a corporeal load.h(' cull of a tribe to a world-cultural system.ly. There is.~ Clark. (ill' W'IILT. :.! (. 011 I he aLII T hand. that is the move of allegorcsis from the historical specificity or. the analogy lrawn h 'I ween lile human body and its corporeal needs.'i .DAt'\'LEL BOYARLN presence.JIlllg hum. I'. the corp much (he way out that.'s or .cls and ide A better w.I·r. miraculously given to this people Israel at a particular 1110ITH'IlI in history.' ~II Chll'k's hUl. 'I. as there is lor 111(' dual islj('wS an I I'~llhl'l's . imernlia. . corporealpractices an' SLlj)I·CIIH'. h istoricul rxixl ('lIn' of' Israel i II I he world rrrna i ns the oliLolo~"il'ally sigllificalll moment.. <le-cordill.· wry ('IIIH'Ppl or I h-llcnixm ill "rcicl' lu cxpluiu III)\\' Chrisliallil)' h('L'al1ll' so rapidly iI 'wnrlrl 'L'ligi(lIl.:J lity. ['<)I' Ih(' Rabbis."r/I' C'hri. its g'el1ealogy and COllCtTIC history. the analysis. corporeal ('01')crclcncss the Marina constitutes lor t lu. much they rna unclerutilized i ascetic mcanin or a scrms warran tl 'fuzzy' boi tiauity and eve Most surpri or or miclrash-like' I portent of the < active and of t ingly most 'un I h IS is consistc . ] have cli~.102 '1." For the Rabbis ofthe midrash. and fleshly language v TSLIS spiritual.xact measure. /'Ilidrill. of co . and its particlIl" r physical..ridg'·: Iklkllap Press of Harvard UlliVl'rsil I l'rcss.<lllc(' is invcstc I dirl'clly ill visible. although the Lord no longer effects a bodily We observe here another moment whicb wil! be increasingly Important ill. till' l rihr-. taruriblc corporeal bodies ill tlic world. ICn'~(}ly' n \lVl'rll''I" \villll'llll. pleasures and desires \ crsus the soul on the one han I.dili. namely a total absence I or 1l1011<LSlicrcadi biarnc. :!h 1 Iarrisuu. it was wonderIul food. 'i'l·sll. in which Sigllifi(.m Ilotly. As such il remains a si.k is thus. Accordingly. miraculous in its .rsh-Iik« C[1I.rabbinic [orruution " claim that LlH' physical.". v But it is rlr-ar 100 that Nyssa's (or Origl'Il\) practice aud tlu-ory do 1101 rome Ileal' to cll:lJ'a('lni'. terms of what midrash but r I i('s.um:nl. And sc (I is suiknur.d](. literally the rcc rd of real .lyalued. To be sure.!. <I perriTI hOl1lolog-y between the sign-theory or hCI'Jl1('II('111 ics a 11 I anl hropolog-y 01' I he rnon istir Rabbis. .orporcal historical events lilal happened to a specific peopl becomes transformed into the sign f' an eternally possible rlll f111ment 1'01' everyman's soul.t" Moreover.Ja"f!.lllli._illg Christian hCl'I11CI1C'ulic III 1010 not I)y a IUlig shot. '111 Daniel BOy<l illg Late Ancient 'II This I' visio: 11111 ICII' me Sf rill' <:I:!rk herself' has [>arlit'lliariy ill pal Ill)' ruiud. how til cd' pal ristic intcrp ilisl ilication asr .« w(llltll'l'f'ull'xpluraliou "I'lllt' uridr..21).gn or corporeality lnsistcncc on ll)[' literal. protean in taste.11'14.IS w('11.

II11.111is "llllSlnll'll'rI liil' Ihrollgh . trcmsialing. or . ill Ill)' miut l. IJIJlt!.dlq~[Jril"id mea us.\ namely .or llH' Fatilers <lllci call th.Aud SCI" l'sp'"I"iidl)' ('11:11'11"1" 'IHlr. TIlt" issu.'llil'l(klphia: Ili\'("l"sil)' 01"1'<'llIIS).lv'\llla l'rl'ss. Nl'flriillg.IIH'nn' that distinction and. ~'I Cl. 'II) 1):lllivl Ilo)':ll"ill. 1V11l'11 f. [('I" LIII' I'r:ll" I icc.. 111un' Illa( illllll1.'.. too. IkJl'lIl".~illllpll'S "I' 'rnidrnsh-likc"II l'x"g'I'sis UII IIII' P.' iujacquvs ]"'l1lailll' :1I1dCI".-.Iml prrxrr-ru ion. tlu-rclore..'ligiolls (1.. with- or or or out that. has parli('lriarly in palrisli. (:I:ll'k's 1'"1"11 hOIVI'\'I'I'.bill.lilll/i!l'.!!" 70.v since he is a most rabid proponrnt olthc absolute distinction between the r('lihill(' and Ih(' sexually active and of' till' pCnl1. is J rome's 'rnidrash-likr-' practice intcrprclution.dkcls and ideas about sexuality .d)S('IHTllIIl nearly so)..'2.'lil'<'.e.11"1). lJiviuarions: IZ("I"("ildillg 1. . Nmdill. 111l'casc. ril illg also .·is'll.. III 1I111tt-I"M<I!lliillgwhy Ih:11 is Ill)! g"l'II('1":lII).I"~ '1'11").:dlcg'ury (and even here I do nol claim au absolute and (ol. On the onehand. Neadil/g.1)' ii. Clark. "cis" I.. Th(' isxut: is r-uhcr.rs' production or ascetic meaning.11('-'11('.'S 'It!!. I f)'~.[i..IIIIwill..k.u«..). 11)11:)) .1.111 I<" lsi ot lu-r 1)'PCs ill:l "rp:llrislil' iJ"Jlnp""I'lli('II' is Jill'miz('rl .r tlu: progl'.11' writing.'1 /..111 R. one that will take in as well Illy own new pcrsp Live of"a 'Iuzzy" boundary" (hoth socially an I descriptively) between Christia niry and even rabhinirjudaism.01Hiblt. N.'\'("11illTllrdillg III Clurk '<II .d . Gil Ii ."<. this i~ consistent with ..1I .1vii' i\ 1'"I:"li'l"t'. II lhix n'visiull will 11111 prui . 111. Rl'lldillg..ll 111(' rorporr-ality of the human prrson was. allegory and typology are less than central: Iontrary to my own expectatioll..I"I..Ils I" 'I('IIII'S (I'''ri~: 11.\lI["i(. A Iwilnw.' 1 ""ading I'r:. (:I:trk 111'1'". II is slrikinl'.dans 1.11" giv(.'I)' ol Iilillkillg' ll1J' diITc']"{'J1c"(' Illig'ilt b(' to think not i. . '1'/ (:I:I. how Ih" allq4"orizillg 111:11 . "I' (:hlrk's (. Bihl(' cI.u midrush but rather to think oj" what is absent in rabbinic hnIlWI'H'Ulic.· tIIl/l/rll' IlIlill (l/lli'l/ll" 1'/ /(1 lIi"'~.11. 0[' course..\I"I Ul'tllt· (:11111'1'11 F:llil<TS -""'ll I It) Ill' r'-UIII illllTpn'lillill!!s Id'tl".uu l jusrilicd ill ways rluu p:lrallt'lllJ(' 1II<'0ry :1I1d jIIS(ifi r ..from Biblical texts. however much they may dominate other types 0[" patristic interpretation.DEI REI CONSTRUCTING ~JIDRASIl ciscly in the thematic in tcrprctative justification of ascetic practice. :2UU'I)./1/('.ll is al)SI'lli ill 11.ms warrant d..n·adillgs 01"Jill' (:lrrisliilll S''J"iPIIII"!'S (NT).'IIIIL(. were under-utilized iru rprctivc tools in the church f~llh . kt.J:l("q I 11'.li)r him into any hut the most nC.lIiw . till' corporeality 0[' the text was S Tilling-ly sig-Ilificanl fJI" him in much Ll1l' way liI.: is II(' IS.lc('ri with lilt' obvious 11f" 111111.Jeromc's insiste-nce 011 LIte relevance corporealily.[i"J"i or·asn·li.kl"f)l1H'.g.1:1 hI' "(lIlilioli {!/]IIr!fII'o-C'!tri.' she wrrt ~S) 'that typolog-y and allegory.' so uu rch \\'1lC'IIH'r :ls("('li.·11lIS lilt.l have discovered. ilwi 111. seemingly most 'unrabbinir' in Iiis theology or the body.n terms or wil. (:llIrk. 111)1 III. most troubling' (0 my earlier binaries. '1.':" A revision of my earlier approach sc .'s l'i('1 ri..'\\' I ('SI:111I"III." Most surprising.111(1 IHII ill"J"id"IIi:II.

.<"llis( "'11Sihilil)'.11 Limlro "lid I)l'il(l/I' (1'I'I1HTllllI: .t ol '1:\ Ibid.("('Ii(" 1(I<'.. is 110111unh u .li:.-ilVl" lnhinrl II\(.r! ill {)n:l!.. :.J"I"OIII(' .lizaill'(it i\. diversity 01' sex or ill or Orig . (\11(' WOIIdrrs wlu-rlur .'1". lig·111. ~ll"I"nn.dw:.L':I·II"JI'I"!JIIH' also '(":lIlt'I'I. In. (New l..II'.! :11111 "'p""i. gil l'\.II' how II(' would 11.1'\llIld 1':11IIIl" Ii·ui. :11> I).·d " vi . and rUlldal11f of the humar rnctho I (011 other fronts. IIIIIS slIgg('slilll{ 111.. HIII/dill.'11 lurthr-r 111lI1i (II<I( li uruulariuu .:11.\.ll 10 his is:.lv. li'll 11.n·d :1111:1\1 .'1'1<mel I h is sl ructurc an .il)ilil. then wi es may be raised up as "men" (i.0 Origenist allcgoresis. More ill l~'(/I!)i (j1l.."s ill I Iii.' an'.25)./{ri. :111<1 [.J''I'(Jllil' uwn Prl'~s. as they were.1.'.s/iul//!J'.1I l"II:lrt'T.lI1S ill 111l' (Jri.11'.diz. wit h similar exegetical cmcrgcnr ics or The questim. f {m/lml'll/iml Prorrdin« '\-1 David Wi ] lchn-w '1{. our.1''1"01111'\ t :OIIIlIII'l1lary iHI 1':plwsi. 1(j7.. II. nion SO" j lhirl.lcsl in his Ephesians Commentary.uulu "}l()I"gy (:L '1 ""IJ/I~~m" J\ I"/!t.1"1. ist authropoh wnulcl Wllal h:l\'(" Ill" Ill:."'VI'\'.iill Origl"lI. will'I 11('1" Illis is 111(':lsp('('1 01" ()rigclli~nl 111:11 Iw would Ii.DA IEL BOVJ\KIN prornarriage.ililll' (.1.1I1/lIml 1!)!1'1) I'J:1.S 1'''IIIIH''III:lry :di'TII'..<.is. ill\' lil'si i iuu-.1 (. bill (lI'vlTllwll'. WII:li.: uun agaillsl Ori.J<TOIlll' '·X'·gl".uk. ilild Christiai 1)('1 WI~t'1I pra.'ISI' hix l~pi1I'si.'11.'II.)'.11III' IIIIISI divorn' lIiI11S('''' li·llill. Ephesialls (:OIlIlIH'III:lry 'provirlr» iI gl)!ld illustratiou 1..1 (Jnl)1 lilt. LlH'IT will be "no male and female" (GaL 3-2H). i.. :111:1. .' I'.is COl illg.'qm's.('('\III"I's Oil Ill(' nll tlu: Sllill'[1II1':. while the an' ar(' consisu:n as well. ill :1(1)' 1':111'.uh ih. pros x.S Il( . p"I'I. "l nc ()J/:~flli. (IVIalL 22.n.sillli over of Israel' or il The [iFrere .' Pl'I<'r Hrown. 'I i "jesL'II." "<':Id('\'. that the Rabbis when faced.:<I all lIIISIJ(lk(..lll'ir wive's (c deel as bodies). as souls).."" '11111/1odl'<llldSIIl'if!I': Ili'["I)' !"I!ay liill"\" "lid 1)[" his 1.l:.11'(' by and L particularly . and "like the angels" and H cbrewrabbinic text Philo .1'11)..1.Jewish/ellri. ill Ill:lkil!g L1.~"lIisl (:0111 rovrrsy: TIll" {\ [11)kal:ISI :I~is alld {\. Cbrk.iJII. II'.dly r':liz:dH'I" /\.' in which he 'advise' that if husbands (coded as souls] nourish I. 'If) lillil :I phl"(' li'. I '"11 IH'I.SIS :lIld his IWI'Vi' rl':rlizl'd. S.'."Wllillg (/11.(/IiI/I'·11 (I~JH7) ':)'1 171.. \.. II\lTdy Sllgg('Slilll{ it "t"I"e :1S.' /ct\'gllll('n ()rigl'lI.inwll aud].uu] slIgg('sl PCI'SiI!·i'.Jl'IUIIH' il is 11tH III Ill' IlI\"I\{'d oll/II :lg:lillsl 10 ()I'ig-.r inlililill"}' with d"volI( \\'..11 It" Illiglll illlll'('" alkl :III I Ia \'I' IHld til re\...(. """'.0(' coursv. . "Il«: I'[a('" 01" . C:1I[UILliJl<l LJlliV<'l"sil)' I~)BB) :)II().. I'"st. u/"a pi"lT Origt'll's {{IIII ni RI·li~i"I\. II!" [JLTUllH"sl l'ill'"li('\" uppro. thus one' again matching his ideology to his hermeneutical methodology l11y point I)elllg.'" Clark.' 10 wit. riisl"ipl('s. was wriurn la'lim' .." lurtlu-r poinlS 'HII.r1S: I'(i.s.' I.' rrvisrr] til.. pcrs<)11 d~l"pl)' idi(. :IS II.\//'11..ulid N".1/1·i.)' ii.· n·lllainl..an'lI \'.\111('11as ('01Ivagill's.1.l pn"."d hal'!" n·.IIl1l1ll1i. w or · it lllya] III O"ig"11 :1. course. . :111(1Illt'lllilrs.' uud Sll\llil'lI (lk-rfiu: W:rlll'r ti. :111l'xI'grl(' :1I1d [""IIJ:d .u tlu.Jo=IV[ark [2.. 111".c.11111111'11.e. iusistrd thai ".)"1'\1/((/ NI'li//{/I'illlil)lI ()11 suih part .'1('(110 ()riJo.lrurlioll would I':mill (. of cours ') did not allcgoriz continued [0 or spiritualize tile text but in ways 1110r usc midrashic methods lO turn its meaning» congenial to their own developing religious scnsibiliti 'So The most lilataut example of" such Origcnism ill .1'I·illl:<'lllll lilliv"I". Nolhillg of IIIIS sort would ever be found in midrash . and the possi the Icrrn her.: III roughout Christianity trovcrsy the mainicna II < 1'1:1»)1: '1111' (. l·Ullllllilll·d 1(1 Illis [l()sili.l'I/i· /~:rl:w'ji" I'ilirisl isl"ili' '1('. Cl.\"\'III'("IS :111 :1\'((11)/ ()"ig.III">i..which ap1 bodily Iorrns' or my hypothesi ual ion wic or Cit risuan jc« certain ~ .' BnJ\vll. <lSth:'11 [Il(" works W <lI'''I1<'SI pn:iuili.lillll f'ress.B'i.. II oracle as the will cease.1' g"l1 IlilrlJ(.. and pronatalisrn olrnu h of the 'Olel 'Lcstarn mt resorted 1.(llis 1'..il'r:llioli.I/. !In'.'!)~Hi).1" .' (.('·1I with 1.r bscncc will be repealed in several exam) lcs below...leI' me is his 'allegorical resolution of the issue lof" th ' Pastoral Episl.)' rix lurilu-r l'Ollsi.~ily Ih:11 Illis . 0['( lTiII. /J"I(I' 111111 SlJIil'!J'." as u couclusiou.din th .

IS "1. Hrill.tll Jews.ti()glf{'.. "lis" j'i'.'''( ill Hillci). 'allL'.1I1Iitlu:disl 01' ('urp(J}"('al :.I !I'. and there is 110 or or or =Mark .u lit" j). }tIll/I" /lil. ~O(l:I)' (I . finally.1I1 . liS (New isl iUlllmlpnlog'y olPhilu anc] Orig-c'll lin.-s lip with . 'I//('''/I~~I' III "hi/o oj" !1I/..LI..1t J II l lavid Wil"II)Il.tsis It:I[ wilh :Pl"t'~SI<>ll ( :11rislinllil y anrl [udaism. whik: 111l' .nt . Cllrisli<tll to 1)(' . to the relationship bctw en theology 'gellnes .~I'1 . a IIII in (itis sC'nse carna].al commentary is 10 trace the rei urn the human soul to its native homeland I)' 111 .hrisiian beli ..ans 01' the allegorical method int TprC'laLioll. lhirl.l :1(. For a logocentric Philo (and I he term here is David Wi nston 's.. namely the on.uu l (. I.uid]./ fcl'Il"II' lillillil Cl)III'~" I'n'ss. IISlr.U1U" (COllI: Igo).II-y.lll'isli./1JI ill ) 1<-:1\"'11. ill maintaiuinn my hypothesis t hat the very structure or .!/I.wl/drill (Ciruiuu:« i: h.ur: (.<.~(..r.J\\'t'rs l\)ajlll.'IIII'I" .~ ol <'l'ading <lIllhl'()jlol()g'il's. <IS lID rahbiuic appeals fashion. 111[' 1\lak'l1lg "l"" 11."oi g not iUII or Lite Logos per sl' allows a n certain sci or poxsihiliti ':..:.DEIREI' t TRUCTlNG J\lWl{A'11 ~II arn . illg' which .1I]('lIlar). surh tluu the dual- II) tll. Invliiali. I!)B:.1':01 nud . to 'the hidden moanto Lhc lew who slilely SOl" rharart crist irs. IIp). his p' . n[' Ihis IbS('I1('(' (('xl ever is.Jl'w [lItTl' 'I)('()pll' or iis n-plarr mcut II). (I.J. . sure-ly hy ll ir connnitrm-nt or if 1101 I»).1/(11.' i in r Wives souls). 1111' lull blown dilkn'I}('(' or midraxhicuncrprttariou .olut ion [.' T!t110/U!{)' and Hermeneuucs :kology . rat her Ihan IJOdil)' (lIlliS' (Al».tJ'. 1 would pcrsrv re.I!. 0[' course. Itilllsl'li' 1'1:If't'lll' =~lla~l.siII'!''' I ion. nOL Dcrrida's).llisls . S('['lll not 10rouxlrurl hCIWCI'Il.['iri('ll: I':. Oil all opposition hOlllology 1)111 hrr to rlivitlr ral Ital1(1 <lilt! Wid . :·III. Kan-u risl i~('he with l lu-ir (sl)111I'1V11:Il) 'r:II)I)illi(" iJl'I'I1Il'llt'ulil'1l1 1}}'(f('li('('s as 1'1'('11.. I. irnrncrliatr-ly 10 mind.JI'Vvish/(:hrisliall .s .llioll 1/ C'(!II/W lIil'('j'~ily uat ion or widely held I hcologiral nol ions 0[' hoth Christ ian and nonChristi.I'OVITSY 0\1('1' (lslTlicislll. 110 less linn Ior Paul or Justin or OrigeJl the elect arc those who 'rccog-Ilizl' that the letter is Lo the orarlr <IS Ilw shadow is La til(' SlIhsl. 1\ I()1'('OVI'I'." 'I'hcissucwas also sll(lll wilecl. IW.t sl'II"I. 1".(.11. ''I'\\IlJ 1'.'led I ..I/i(. Both Collossians and Hebrews rurm-. spiritual ill lu-rtucncutir:s Illl' (Jill' Till' ddkrl'I}(.hat the The question comes down. 1 dot-s scviu d' ( )ri- IH'IIVC'C'IIpl'a('li("('.()llsisi('lll rl"aliz"tI.llal(' rdig-ioLis i(il-nlilics lor ('011- tl uu litis 111(' Wiill- II'It.' "]lIIOS (1(' ."11 for Philo.llIil'1 H(lyaritl. and the possibilities of' reading practices.Jt'\v..lIllll1'OI)()Jog)' (d' till"' anli-Ori. I.cx: hut IS marc ost hb.dlt-g-mical I'l'Llciillg.~. ((II' language and thus [(II inu-rprr-tatiou that an' by and large' shut 011' via the Rabbis' rejection orlog'l1S Lheology particularly ax tha: rejeclion gln-\l ('VlT {(Cllle and ever more d{'('ixiV<' 1111()llg'IHlIll Ihl' period urncg'llliatioll ()i's('p.f "s " routiu- rabhinir text IIl<1t slw<lks al all ill this Philo is commiurd.. rhcreforc.1I1.Ir!. 'The (' rural thrust and [undamr-ntal aim I ibli . ils llPP()sill' 10 or lsral'i' f lu: iuuiuununcr of' a litrral IlixllJri(.l'.

'J )isclming' IIII! IIII! Disrlnscr]: (:n'g-nry 0(' Nyssa ax I k.ahov: 'But in regard tu gcographiccl] dialects. i\](Jssilalllllll'r. If' we do not think ho vcvcr. III' I.~hl I' ill 1.'llIIsll'I!<'liunist.' . . SllIl)'.:11 (. I would reiterate the point rnarlc by William J .//I·i.[!.!'('C that 1_ roprrt irs 10 bun Ih" and t hat is possilik.:. allegorizing or Christian interpreters namely my allcgori al 'poster-boys.t!s and 'Iluir J . among anthropologies.: :171.11 when all variable fi:aIUI'L's arc xupcrimpuscd l!plln a Sill. 'Ncvcrt hrless.' ill '\1 '!II . ir anything is distin rive about even the late and lull blown devcloprncm of midrashic hcrmcncu tical theory and prart icc. to be the product or the latest stage in the development of rabbinic herrnen eutical theory and pracrice. clust rs characteristics (not exclusive-ly but predominantly distinctive) can.gle map. theologies..Patrici a to 'Origcn's un iological coneel ("<1111101.' !:1 Indeed. However.." (II' \M". we will need finer.. be used to .!" 10 les 01.!ll).:dl(/V. /Jon/I" Luu».II!I'.ISI/ uud drr (. on the other hand. 1). over-against contcmporary patristic thinking and practice. subtler tools for iescril ing what.' and yel..\~)iiIIlUlikl' (I~m()) I[I:~ I'-!O..: (. W.If) show boundaries [.ors a. then. but they don't provide a sharp binary opposition between judaism and Christianity The modrl of dialect g'og-riJpl!y can be useful hcre..11other wor Is. varying leg-re('s 0[."(ll'. in terms absolute lnnarics. Vcr- Inoue: '1') u Clark.I'{l.\-Vords. it has also been demonstrated very vividly that multiplicity and indeterminacy or interpretation arc charactcristic of some or the most Platonist." In addition.U! imag'ille' a slate' ill wllieiJ a ]11'('- deliction towarr different religioi question. 1\lJysllI:.l{('(O\V1l Uniwl'sil).rl:~1!1 VOII .ZUill) '211 :. ncvcrthcless. RNidillg Patricia Cox J in Origcn's Cornrnr I~:'-JI!J"\ ill imaginalioN . and Ndi~ilJlI (Uuriillglllll. There arc correlations.I ill {lIItlgilltllioll It) 'l'J.' inrerprctation cion t provide an isoglouic line between bounded entities 0(' Christianity andjudaism as much as among dialects of both of these religions ill 10 rrna Iion.J. 1\.(111'. til /!JUlb'. vcn ill dialect geugraphy.J:IIlICS J Ibill')' :11)(1I {o. !t 1'( Rnll/ill. most invest igal.312 DANIEL 80 AR[N its most radical departures from a logocenuic h -rrnencutics have been shown. One ( ical reading (in Logos Lheology spirit.~.\/li'-/I. . il has IOllg ber-n argued that such gradiell1 models arc char.' ill ' 'ludicn . ily has proved 1 similarity bet-we A step tOW<l1 by shading the I hcology develc 'The Christian to mean th at tl or or texts." However. ('(I<.vi!y (. l!i~ ~U!. is a can always alrr referred: And 1 preted to them 2I.lraracterizc tile crl1crg-ing 'languages' in Cormal ion and in contact.:ill. 11!J'J 1~)7:i):H4 :H7. .lli !I Boyarin.il SCCITt..cI.of'coLln of' 'magic langu the textual pro( lrorn the Logos I.JI!I'!~ 1!f"1 hl"I. (In'ss. /\SlIgHli" 11. 011\' C.!.. 1':llri"i" Cox M ille-r. Ii) Willi:llil I.. Borde Clark.M'1Ii (Wash illglrlll . 130)'" ri J//Jrrll'l tiurs. 'PU('I i.t'(cr. and hermeneutics.I1I111{lIiIT I.' Origen or Alexandria and Gregory or Nyssa.':" 1. binir reading p not Owe so rnu asccticizing as 1 righl in her stri.1 'Words: Rclkcl iOlls <Ill ()rig-"n's ]-il'nlll'''''I!lit's.V[.' [{(Jillliull ill Cllarl('~ill Ellg/i.(:. if my hypothesis holds water. 10 el 'Constructing the binary or Jewish/Christian.udllgs.Lctnislic 01 till' clilliision of linguistic lcaturcs across a lcrrilory anti til" cliallenge has been to establish that boundaries between dialects arc anything but arbitrary. "I'hr Bounrlari. sever he thus divine spe rourt there bound.ll{'ology can be Bn)'arill.~ Mc.

IS 1()I·lll of" [exlualily l hux is also product or a tlwolngy or lallglngl'. (iB. r('j(TI surh II]('olog-il's (I throry a [11"('- of" 'Illag-it· the uxtual 1"1"1)111 {II<' lh(.·I/)'.lIl~llag" ill ·1hr l\wlrv I.in this description can perhaps I)c made hy shading the picture with the nuances of the account: of' historical Illl'olog.hristologi ·(11interpretation 10 lhr or or tcx IS.:H'/.' ill >1\. ·mlll) 1~3. -ositioo . Ill' interpreted to them ill all the scriptures (he things concerning himself [Luke ~+271. when il is a "Vore! and illl·'"ii"II<lll'.y b('II'VlTll SOIllC Chrisl ian writrrs and the Rabbis.ology uustrurI'auiciu nil's.(111' /Jllirl"i{J': I\silg-all'. IOlfI 1. ·1 I' y to mean that lhey lie! not give a .'(J. However-s-and this is a big however . C')111I111·III'II")'')11 [ill' 1'1":1'111"1'01· 11](' "(""XI.llldillg or 11ll' worrl "word" n(J1 only as a ChrisI ()logicHI (.' 1·1] ndccd.u It! II is C hrist ian 'rlisciplcs.OllC'cpl I )lll also as a prrsprrti COil 1<1ngllagr.17.rir(." As Clark herself' writes "1'1)(' ('I.! C:(I~XIVIi lie 1".!. )pm('1l1 :11l t CIT! - Jluglc's. (i7. allY il'grt"l"s I <I SII1- hOIIII<I. the correlation or rabbinic rcadi ng prart ices with other aspects or rabbinic religiosity does not owe so much (a a putat ivc rabbinic ani iasr cticisrn vs. . '" in ()l"ig'·II'~ /'.'rs1. Nl'fllli.1 single oruothcnlogical n. or rours«. Midrash .·sI I I PHIrici. 1·1Clark. therefore. Patricia Cox Miller has also captured this point when she refers (0 'OrigC'II's 1IIIrI. Nf(ldil(~..1 LI1(' J('WS IT:'l( I " carria II" oucn appears . this is PI"·cisely the point. ·J(·x I (II" I'k-nsun:": Eros a lie! I .(i!. for allegorical reading (in the broadest sense or Lht' term) will be bundled with a Logos lheology and a dualistic conception the world as mal tel' and spirit. HH" Christian reading tou t vcrthrn and If: 'Bul II such »uurcs roundvr-rt 11('- court (hcn' is . ax well.: ~rT//ol(l!..:I<:n'111 10 which til(" whole u-xt rau always .:iol1 Vcrmou.ll""IsII<III accusauon 113. ::II:lrI.lrill.a( I('<lst) .DEIRElcONSTRUCTING 'C ~IILJRj\SI-[ been :: latest :1 prac.og·os I h('()lugy ol Philu .' Rabbinic ('{III be 1lllcier-slood (Oil OIl(' IT<lding. One could predict that a prcdcliction. what. II A step toward subLlety .d vcry r char1 inter- ria and 1ary or .I" in Illil/gilllllioll s (/IIfIIMif.hI in 1..IS III(' j1n)dll<:! oC· larlguag(" Vt"r- II CI:ll"k. In this lark is absolutely righl ill her suicturrs.111101 be Sl'Vt'l"l'<1 I n(il·S I lius clivi 1"1(' Irum hcrrncncutk-al spl'('("11 that has lx-ronu10 thcory. Bul tilt' Rabbis wcrt' a nrl wit]: thrrn.:.<I<iy-lili. hut one quite dim'l'enL I. e ing mall rs in trrrns of asceticism as a totality has proved misleading h 1"(' and does obscure lines or· contact and sim ilarit.y deve-loped elsewhere ill my work. ·11 Ilo)'.s formulation seC'lliS to me precise here be referred: And heginning will! Moses and all (ire pnl[lIH'ls.' (llurliligioll. Christian 'IS cticizing as T once mighl have thought. 8tJ/dt'J" lnu». '·11 'I'll('ology ("(1.. Song ()I"Snllg~.lly call iglottic much we do -hara '- clcliction towards rnidrash or towards a lIcgory will be differ eruiating c1iJ-T rent religious groups without these being exclusive to the groups in quest ion.

thr 1:lIII'r.1110.\I ' SI'IISC. III rabbinir rr:hgion there is noinvisihkGod man ifestcd in an J ncarnat ion.!" would 1IJ<':lllillg. ill .1J'k l'III'1'ITtl)' l'IIIIlIIlIl11il). 7'. and as if r texts." IIII' su-cnllcrl d"('I)('r. 1<l11!l.n. ruun.IIIH' Tllis Si'p:lralilli': lilillkmgol'. I()!):~) 1'1. 71. 111)\\'(.ly th 'IT call 1)(' lID all('gory. pl.IIIY l'i1S.' i!:lsil SlllellT.' Haman! iutrrprctatious S: :lIld Sod in Zuharic II\IIJill1)': State Univ or or .spi r itua] i\lllSl ililplicill).11 t l \('\'1' would (:h.s Logos theology b 'am. <1S well.1 bllci)1 1)("IIII' samr slIhsl:lIICI' as :1 "1.\'(.VI'Slc'rlillfi.DANIEL BOVARIN a syst malic 'mel thorough r J . (NOlL' Sig-llilicilllll)1 N I10ll' tluu in the p( IiII d boi h Logos 1:11< "lhc liouudaric« Godhead. N(Jl. C:lirisli:lll dl'll)' Ih.irr-rruure. Goel Himself is visible (and the 1'('lor'. 'Iri"/!11 flllIlllI((III/(llillll.\ or difference anc One way to Lng differences I rive discourses \ like' or Christiai I'.'!" As w have seen.imll<"t.' 1/(1{/IIIIII'IJII'Ii/II/.'!' lor as Cia: (i."-'1IS" appl':lI's (II 1. 1111. i\ lauhias h.rpr .".illlrg-inli theor: Christi: practi inu-rprrrativc Press. christolizcd.IS il \v:IS j'XI't'I'iSI'd !-!::tilll'd 1111' ppc'r " (t'rI.l. C:lillj'gevillt" M inu.11 Ibnl . I) Language also is not divided into a carnal aud a sp.s tlu: IIH'lhnds 1111' OllrS[' orsl'paralilJ.J.''' of Sl'ril'lllrI'. and thus.!?..111:11 this rI"c's 1101 II<'C"ss:. however.) Iw.lIld <':tlllllll.u Ilwn' Illll l"I'IIL~l'iVI'S is SIII·II 01 1:lil 10 poilll idl"llil). Pauline) ree allegorical in Sal Moses to percej. IJl' cclllall'tI willi t lu: !lll'.rk "lligII<T" hr- Ibhbis it. itx "lrt'"SIII'I'.11 cOllslilllll'd ils 11'111' 111(':Ulillg. l\ccorciin.!l lISI'.~l'il' dtll's ~1'II~r AlllillClll'llI'S 1ll'lil'vl. 0[· drawing distinctions between a judaism' that is somehow pure in its 1'1011Hellenistic cultural Corms..lrill. of any 110lio11 that there is any locus for meaning outsi le of the riptural inscription i tsclf 1'. S'TipllllT dt"'Pf'IH'd. in orhcr ancient dJi. i\s J\ Itt'r.IW' ni'(:.wish \'l'aders II!' the ('arl)1 (:"llIllllI11 l':nl rk-rivcd Iron: i lni:: Srripum-s. \. Logos theology itself is not a elisl inguishillg characteristic of' ." is. 'l hc Fllilli o/Ihr 1~'f1I~J' (:11101'11 1. II> 'III p'lg·'1I1 world.itilig ils<"I!'.. Hov cxplicity denoted as Hi'IldillP" 7~)(nlthoug] wrll-kuown). (>11[..ll C or I'approrl IJroml('lwc! cSI ('['ially H'IlIl'11 I willi 1111' wit h I[Sl'II'l!cC.tI W:lS 11. Which do: its St'i"lllill" Ill{' rrn-rhuds. mol'S or l -xrual int .llti 100v:lrd. man)1 or simply mapped co :L. 1%.iritual brillg. even Origenist Father the most radical and presented \. . Clark's work sLrongly further underlines lheimpos5ibiIil). 'Tit" Body :t.)1' it luurtinu 1I1'1'Olllnlllll. therefore re-main significanl dilli-rcn cs to explore 1)('tween the rabl inic 'Iii >ralisl' readinglll an I the patristic 'spiritualiz- ing. . l'I'II1<1I'I<S. III /\s (:1.tion of any form of Logos th ology. (:1:11'1<."llsll'ill II:IS .1111:111 ""dy./I'W 117.l(lll' mort' IIpl'lI r:lhhillic .JI'ily Illl':t11 Ih:11 (. . while Christianity is that which is 'open to the ih inking of" antiquity. 111. Silll[JI)1 what :t giwll while IiiI' rabbinic with Chris I~I J adopt Ibe pi rvcu Oil Ihis ronscrv rcading [rom Paul pict'i~('ly.uuu-utx :lS~ITI rh. "Xl'cllelll ciisl'llssinll . Nulillg.)d ill 1\:tIJIJini(' l.S IIII. torn: 'Through ~ as sc!f:·interpreti duct ion of meal texts. fJordl'( t ine».e. .'uagT.!. 147rilJll1 111l'S)'llilgO. I'lti Ilwoln. Alou (. lrom Ihe modes interpretation to which itleads. and rhr world. There do.)1' t his ixxu«. 17 II is impurt aur III crnph. I imagine that the Rabbis became . itx r I'l'ndl-rs :IS III(' . Ihdilill. 'I'll(' issu« is 1101.un l 1I'IIi'I 11'1'would elil all alll'.tlu: "lill'I'.":).1I1Iirl'lily :llld in of' Chrysostorn. defence of asccti Christian writer more like rabbir or JVJoreover. thi-n. I"l) (:"SII<'I1 (.Ilillg lllill.. 111<111 1·:I 1I:d "'IIS('.I!I'!! C.'.hrisl ianity as opposed to ~JLlciaisll1' an I thus neither ar' the Logocciltri .: TIll' I.iiu . BoY.tation.isiz«. S(I '1'111'1. 1111'rhasm :llIcil'lll is parliclIl:lrly il li'OIII 11ll' I'xl'gl'sis III' 11(1). 'Till' higl"'I~ \\I"ill' t uudcrxuuul« it I. \Il'x:tlltiri:l Ikll thr term 1:111' »ncicru in which wlll'l'l':\s :11'1Ill' illll'l'IJI'I'I:tI iun .'vidl'lll ill :1. corporeal). Anrln-w luurd.IT and more distanced [rom that mode 01· conceiving Gocl.Olilril)llll·d :tl. (I~)!H) 171 ~ and figllralivc.1'.iii 1111: '[ircrul' SI'IIS(' Midrash is surd).11111 I 1':1 ns.l~()rivill $"IISI' 11111 I'illll('I' IIII' qur-si iou ul' wlu-rl u-r or 1101 Ill(' Il'xl is ell't'lllI'd 10 luivr ':tllolll('r' "ill IlICallill. Rmrlill.~.III(' vl)lllrasl olwlur: WI' woukl ('.' C:lill'k.od has .oLls(l·jJl.

or at . SUt'l1 III llnilll . :l (July I!JlJ. tuuucd 'carual.'d :lS:I cil:lr.uiv« ~hmvil!g. (.II-klll'II'II).ti.<. Ilo\\rc'V(TJ 't'xt"l'!\siH.'x.lIH.. . \·vidl C:hrislial1iL).'llr:llivi'. "H~II:)5-'2u:l)' lilinlllliy . as if' no conceptual cracks xistcd between 1 he texts.(':\ th.'( «au tluu strin lias B<>tI)' as )~)'I) 171 L 1I .11. intt-rprrtcr had played 110 role ill the pro~ duction moan i ng. and presented well. Tlt« /Ilidmjhi.·IS 'I 1'()lls"qUI'I({T I)f" pr()xilllil)" I """'isl'ly. CI:lI'I. 7. .11111 111.~if'lll HI'lIii'll) H7.'..ing (or as Clark h erself writes.Vl'11()II this ronscrv.' Falhns.lllilig li'ol!"1 1'.lri.II' 111<1(11' ITadill. Nl'llIlill.llly )'c..l('wisll uiorh-.111 i~ . :111(1 (.llizillg n'.l( dl'vl'l()ps . 7.11'1. : 1'1 I adnpl ih« prrfi'rn'd 1('l"In of" dc' 1.11)ililel spirilll:llizillg illl('l"(lI"'llIli(tlIS nrScripllllT (ElIiul. after all.ulaic bcucr what clo.u IIII' 1('1'111 I/mlrill is <I Plutoui« 1\"1'111 . ill various vr-rsions 11'0111 'Arinn' 1<>' lic"nl" (Dalli('1 Ahr.~. WI' lilld bUlh Logos Ihc()ln.DElRElcONSTRUCTING MLDRA '11 31. so r return to llark's be CIl1CTg'iutcrprcia'midrashdiscussion )IT I) '- -itualiz- Willi 1.)Tllis iISS(Tli()lI.l( liwori. no.J('wish ITadiliR hy III.([lill.' rubbinir cicnial of it d(J huvc conscquruo-s 1. This is true even though when .('S.\'()ric:ti :11101 lin' a l'IIISI·1\..~.' 1. 11((' lJ('ad :-il':I Snulls .» wlulr Ill<" rabbinic '1IIIi-spirilu.'rI hy (:1:11'1<.I1HI Ji.) log-y.t.. "ll«: 1l001litiaril's ul' l.II' rC:ldill.' rc. as iI' LIlt. Ih.lIil"s. 'Ikalltilid r-." allc. Clark.oli:lric 1-(l'!"lllr-nr-l.S he-tween rabbinir and dominant Christian rive clisCOUI'"SfS would 1)C'to look morr closely al the most like' of" :hrisliall exegetical practice.illt"!' l'hiln.I1IY: SI. 1\l one point she writes.'rpn'I:lIi"" pr:lclice 11"1.' is cxplicuy d('llo.liN/ :111<1 Sod ill I.odll('acl: l larrard ·/"mllJ.~' ('aIIIIOI Ill" 01' Silllply lllilPP"d (IS Ihl' :lIITil'lll .~illlllio!l 11\11.. .)1'uctual illl.(1)'m hr-r .'lllioll to the 'literal' scnsi-.111' .II(' l luivcrsity 1.hIJ<lIll'. or ('(1111"('. /{Nft/il% 7() (allllClllgll III(' pr:l('lin' klnlly II'Tds d(l("(III(('III:lliull.Jiviuc { )nll)I()gy: '1'11(' l ur'luxu ru alltl I':xl'iusi<>ll 01' r\lk!~I\1"Il11ill Iii.· (jrlJ1"lIi~llIl'rI. II is 11111 imlpp()sil(' I() IlOH' Ih:ll ill tlu: pl)st-classical IwriCld or r. held IJy virtually <III (:hrisliall.IJ :.. it isso widcsprrru] "lid 1I'<.lI'ish' I('xls ('xhillil 'spirilll. viz llll' l'vliddlr /\)I.11 III(' 'lil('r. by Clark's new work 10 line (UIlC our descriptions 1'1 odes 01' of difference and similarity nvisihlc I thereI spir(I One wa)' 10 arti .11ldliiSIlI.11(' I!ily wirh )Criplllrt· 1"-lwlll'ri. /mll. [111"("(' slill:1 siJ.(llili'·:lIli gllp 1>("111'1'('11 C:lwisli.uuir-ru or .). One need look no lurthcr than Paul's veil or' Moses 10 perceive this.'s..·1' anr] ('lassie:11 l"ilhhilli.lIKil'lll ~J(.[In 1.11' lew Vurk Press.my rat .ilini(' . in Christolozy the orthodox Christian (i .~i\.uid nnly ill 1:11('lIIliquil)I."lillg.. .(iJ/·II.llId lil. S("C'11l to ing difkrCllC(.11 nut du Clnrk is ri:"11 lin« lip with [JIll' Sl'IISl"Sll(.lil('ral . ~cripl LIre COLIlrl be alli rnicd as self-interpreting.l or Chrysostom.11111. or or '(I' Ullmil .Clark is right Ih.IS NI'lidill.11I11I(' disCllss.'i. Moreover even the most ral binic-likc int rpretativ pra ti es or antiOrigenist Farhcrs arc not yet rnidrash.l(Y.it comes to the defence or ascci icism as biblical the interpretative strategies DC diflercn L Christian writers are V(TY clilkrcnL from each other and some arc 1110rc like rabbini interpretation Iha11 they ar like Origcnist all 'gory. specifically regarding Chrysostorn: "Throujrh such intcrtcxtual exegesis. I aulinc] reading tradition Dr the Old Testament is alwaysl alr cady allegorical in some sense. or riptural r drawls 11011)IJel1 to I1'is not iduisru' ztation. ." in i'vlicll<ll"1 (.'laici<-nWillinut 1':)'1": rl'. Ie WollsUJI. and <IS if no pulirical consequences attrnrlcd the choice interte-xts. nl. Whicl: dominant texts conuolled rhc inu-rprctarion ofothers was. do not x rnplily thr most radical traits ofmi lrash andit remains a challcng pr scnted.ll·tnisli.. hat the onccrv- .I'11 "ppI'lirS Willi t lu: riplllJ"('S: "I lid I":dl Iq.i[ul"gil'.1DJ :):. .uus.

visible oe l1IT 11 :c in the hist irical lire or ih P . when .11'your V(liIT. in support a particular ideological line. at an actual historical mornr-nt o!' erotic communion.oci allowed Himself to he ~wcn I».' SeC' Daniel IJU)larill.:13] I. as il says. U~ at all.oplc.ription un loubtedly accurate as an account 01' the reading practice of the g-reat Antiochenc bishop.~:J4.~.l!..ific. that was a tually (or fictionally. 'Ii Daniel Blly:\rill.! 'if "firhllJIl In i. 'TIll' II Muse» sclLl. citllCJ" til(' Crossing of the Reel Sea or the Revelation at [VII. TI ical lies not in til. The rnidrash and of a a nel only the actu is not so in m)' arc considered th love..'I 1)lll1sky. caner te.ing. '. YlJlIr visage. f.: :)0 (. Illis is what is wriucu. marks.I Then' an' ways lu b. the site of a difierence-s-not a poinl convergence-sbetween his 'iruertextual' reading and the practices of classicaimidrash. Clark. Ilil." It is a love-song. Clark's own description or Chrysostom (anclJerome for that matter) ciLing 'in tcrtcxts' 10 'constrain' other readings demonstrates how ih is practice is quite distill t from "1 M idrashic style of intcrt xlual cxcg sis.iI. manifestation in L an abstract ontolc or or '.l!. The appeal ix exactly to an authorial intention and not to tl'lt' fracturing and dissemination meaning that is encompassed by the term 'intertcxtuality' 01' the reading practices ruidrash which cia not translate and intcrprcf the text 1'0[.1.):1] ]-(. "I'his is Ill)' (. the L. fiercely con l sL d. Rahhi Elit'zl'1' decoded [patar] the SeH. a and visionary. .~o This des .' The patristic 'intertextual' r 'a ling that Clark de scribes is couched (precisely as Clark cI S 'fib s it) in terms at" a se-arch for the original and true meaning of the text. If)~)())IIl~) II]. My 20: q)-Let T~ mandmcnu.g' [Exodus 1. thr-ory underlyill§ 'Illy claimed.i. My clove ill thr ('len orllll' To IIe sure.\'llllllil)' lind the N. on SIHI.llllili.lw midrash (Blooming-lull: lndinna UniwrsilY '>~ Press. human beings.If)1l7) 4-7~) ~Ul. arnal' meaning into one or mol" 'spiritual' xcns 'S they rather cstahlish a concr tc historical moment ill whirh 10 contcxtualizc it.s. a love-dialogue to be spc .u-l wi-rr pnililillg' with their fingers unrl sayill. We can sec something this diflcrcn (' by observing tile mr-aning 'd('coclillg' or 'solving [ptr] ill uctual mi lrash 011 the S(JIlg: or Akiva do. lhis is til(' sill~_\.t. I he Song of Songs is the record 01' <I n aclua I. lilis is til(' SOllg 1\11(1 your v'ISHgl' is IW. according to some ViCWS)"1 uttered by a Lover and a Beloved at a moment of gn:aL intimacy. while in the erotic encounter: a xuhlirnarion il is lite desublim throughits metap uality lt is not irr01' carnal 10ve.~ lovely.t(ldill.el IIW 11('. Israel. the)' 10 not translate its . Israel.Song of Songs. Sinai. . 'SI:lI1d I()rlll and set' t lu: salvnt iou of 'I Ill' Lord' II~xodiIS 14.od uurl I will bcauuly l l iui' I Fxodus 15:'21. me your visas Rabbi Sinai. I (Exodus 24))' rnandmenn . or SlJll. For rabbinic Judaism.' -. 'Two uuroductions [llcbrcw] °llll/.tlurt tlu-y W'!T hidden ill Iht' liidillg pla "C ofthr Sea Show 111\."1 l bill with the text body with spirit. however.' more like the perhaps IlO accident t founded who 'recruit. When the Rabbis rea I ih . (t)r lsr. that 01' Philo ane m<l)' turn out to I is tlw concrete hi cksni lwei by the . which you ha' or or or or or thc vcrs« ill the hour (h'll Israel stood <It rock in Ihl" hiding pl'H'" olrh« sleejl ISllllg . Ni'(/rlil/. Inltrll'.i. (Song 2:14).)1' your vok'r i.DAt'\i!EL BOYARIN in Iaci. Sal/g qf.

Israel.llg· inner struc-tureDr I'('alily mol>. human corporeal sexsigllS tilt. ('slahI the theory underlying ally claimed.-ir 1"JJI'111I)I"r. S011gS: '. this is the voice after the '0111mandnu-nts. Thai ic.OW.iwhich is ( rksrribrd by the Scm). :l1nollg .' of" the Sleep (Song '2: [4')' fi:)J' they were h iddcn in tile hiding places Sinai.'. 1. ]\11y dove ill the clcll or Lite ro k in the hiding pia '.:J~ Sll." 'I'lli' SUllg is not ("OllIHTI!'d with . says.\i)llgl. Rahbis.uion or physical love.'01'th(. . turn or ~('IH'li('all)' all ill )sl ral"i ()111()logy. or Songs.tll('I:(ol")' the metaphors Ihe language or hcrmr-nc-ul ir. 'And all tlic People saw the voices' (Exodus zo: 14)-l.. This is the reverse one I)fpically rinds it stated that or language what is USu- the method or II arc considered is a IIct iOI1)\It'd r rrotir hIT till' "all at entities. similar . lrl trr with letter.llIull'S. or iuvisihk- or SCI' lillg' or Hood ru 1(' sll'l'P .tllrgor- the do not actual. while lor Ih(' Rabbis. II is prrluipx Illl an·idl'lll 111:11 shif'! 1:1I.'n' I III IJI' ilion' lik« IIII' Iblilii.ilJlg I!/. In the .latc its .ll lies not in t hcrnatics the is or the in I crprr-l»t ion bUI in [he midrash and allegory. it is till' drsublirrnuiou of Divine' I . .(" IIII' SllIlg' Sl'.cgcsis.')llo\\' . !) III.U: t)1 11ir Jl' ronnccrrrl. with I' gard to th« Song or' Songs is identical. hut this is not so ill IT1)' opinion. .1 HaMil/I. >1 or ..' 1/'. TIIl'n' iii'" lVilyS ill whirh Jilin (:lirisli:111 :11q("(lri\'aI nad.llic<lily struct urr- th:1I1 1!t:11 of' Philo and 0111III Ill' his J()IIUWt'l's. and thr moment of erotic communion was mystical and visionary The difl(:rcnc between the midrashic and the .ilvation uJ"carnal II is not irrr-k-v. it is 1111' . 'God has hC<lrcl the voice of your sp aking.. filr il SilYS '1\11 Ilwl you say we will do and we will h('<I1" (Exodus 2'1.}) For your voice is pleasant. )Oilllill. an understanding 01' tluu love lhrllllg!t its mcrnphorical association with literal.s in llii. III III! I' mil" I\S(.ill'll lllt.II('C of tile' rrvclatiou at SilJo·l.~ o(SI!I(!!.\l the Rahbis all hud 111('expcricucc love.!. r would suggest.111cntirr-ly different WIIl'II liIlguislic IIIClil.iclrash. and only the actual allegorical corrcspondcnrr-s have changed. borly with spirit.cl 111(' hear' your voice.nits(i(' (Jrt"'r~ an' IOlllllkcl IVII[] 'n'tTllill'd th.":1 or or iriginal ilogical to Ihe To be by SUfC. body with bocly.-rx .I/Jl'rl. Sinai. the Lover W"IS a Divine Lover IJIII Ihe beloveds were actual human heings. 7:. Show 111(" your visage as it says.mt to note 1!1. while in the rnidrash they arc actually spoken low rOdry of' all erotic encounter. no: uality.DE/RE/CONSTR CTING WDlu\Sf-l Irate as bishop. r-vrn tlH' I"('.<.111 invisible meaning hili with l!ir: text of" till' 'I ora h. This is . as it. history. thai whirh you have said is goodly' [Deuteronomy 5:~5J. lovely. while I()I" 111('itlkgnrisls il is lite Oilier mauilcsuuiou ill lal1g'lIag'l' 01'<111 ullcllang'i. SUII.I DUIIsky. .ldillgs sillgil!~!.all lrom whom had lived ill . 1101'I ("()lln('1 (. matter) JW thix .OIl(T('\(' Ilislol'i("id ['Xp( l'i(. ell e- .' Duehed Rabbi Akiva d 'coded rh verse in th h ur dial they stood before Mt. ". 1'<:)1' many allcgorisis.s Illis pl:II"f'.!. Platonic ideas 0(' ruystiral low. this is Ihl' voice li'om before the COI11rna urlmr rus. thr allcgnrintl rcading hcrorncs a suhlirn.UllJlIS.

'The Eye in LI Critirul Inquiry r6 ( .-a~l. 011 III(' orhr-r 1I001lCI.'Indeed (ill' notion ormean i. Astcl. gi en OWl'. rather thanintcruxts which I would quiu.<Ill' Ancient Relig 'LI)()II" .:dilecl by H. VVilhout (l logos. 'The BOUl sion N1 etatron 3 (1!J94): '29I':_3~1.111(. Border Lines: TI I . a text. narrarivr 011 lop or narrative.uun.lI'l)i7. Carnal Israel: Reo ics in cull ural poetic liJrlli. lnun University PI-e.I translation or a gloss or <I I an'll hrase the biblical text bUI an expansion 01' that text.il. it seems. My srcular S()('il'I)" l\IIall)1 W(.~ [II(' Lugo:. D.DAl'lLEL BOYARl1\' a clos r look at the rnidrashic controversy just cited. The Song o] IJI'l'ss. Pollution ~ '.~ with particular i1 tcrpretatious pari irular sign ificds.I'I' 1:II'IIili.t'llgaging this . two diff rcnt historical locations arc adduced by two Rabbis as the original site the sing-ing the Song Rabbi docs indeed therefore. IJIl'l'L' do 01' Iht' . Bihlc des Tou BU<lucJlt'slle. New York: .h('I'_' is 110 ontologi ''11 place within which a subor linatc rex: can be inscrilx-d no realm 0[' meaning which call be assigl11'ci to the hiblical text. .-Jailing Ze cwmau. 1990.ll «vr-u a[(n WI' 11£1\1(' ollslrll('I('(1 dr (alld J mean Iilis ill its precise. ill ].IIlS.Judaisill and Cllrisl.An rique .diff\'I'\>ntly) to pail' particular biblical VL'L'S(.IlI)\ Midmsh.Bibl(. llurrus. .(" I specificily <Ill it S('(TIIS Ih. St'riplurc'ill ruidrasli is portrayrrl as 'lIlylhillg 1)111 'sel!~il1llTIl]'('lillg'.J.. choose different 'intertexts' with which lo read the verses thc Song. IlIkrlexlualil)' and Press.'111'11 ('roll' aris: [)l'I'al i(' ('irril's. about this rniglll 1>(' lo ilflagillt' LIlt' Jo'alillTs IIl. nothing more. 110yarill. Rabbi Eliczcr laking it log'lhcr with verses having to do with Il.I'I' 111'. 'La Bible d l1iM'. s( as an object of' histor as well. ChrysosLOIll an I Jerome r sp tivcly invoke verses 10 constrain the I1lcillling Let us have In thisinstance important early or Songs. I.usscd by Clark in wh irh the Fat hers. 1985. ()IIC Iurthcr way think- i3iarlll'. 'Sin. I ronstructcd out . a Iligil [l('I'I'I'lilagl' uuuricd. CullLlre a .ianity. When you have read the midrashir text YOll have not been lulel what till' lex I means at all and' lccodcd' tlwr{' only means to place it into a p.lc spliuing' ofthe Red Sea. The Rabhis oj' the rni lrnsh. "Iwo Iutro l. 1993. r-arly C:hrisl ianiry." indeed or or or other verses (essentially a philological methodology) thus lea an iutcrpretation. tile midrashis rather weaving texts HILO r text or the samr: sort as thr.'.ng as surh is almost evacuated Ihrougb III idrushic lill'rary pravtin'. 'IS il were.' liatllJl'I'" work-iu-progre- Vi. lkll is jlrelly 11111t'11 what remains to do. 199(1.' J hin University Press.IS if' III(' illlnpn'i<.mipl!lalillg sigllificcls.Juc :)5. "['101'0 powers iJ1 I. x('(u]al' luvr. while Rabbi Aqiva reads the Song in tile context verses descriptive the Thcophany at Sinai. /\. produrr: a II('W u-xt intcrtcxtual rc-pla('ing 0(' other t xts. has IW(. In sharp contrast to the instances of parris: ic reading dis .l/oll (BI'OIIX. Ii(f1}!. 'lkhnlcl Israel P ill Lau. :)6 (1987): 'l/{ or or ing LISe. or a text that is itself on another ontological yet aneth ling to level 1\I)I'all1~. or lrorn the biblical lexls invoked. lcclLll1('al Sl'llsc) binary oppoxit inns hetwccu mi lrush aud allL-g'o!'y or .1t! played IHl rule ill lilt' production 01' 111C'r11Iing. OJl(. E The Body. V I. that is.!!pl.uIicuJar onte u. Each or or or remain at Ie re'laliveiy constant.II'\I'ill.' Hnlwll. itself. 1\llliollgll !II(' tnsk n-mninx 10 work Illis out in 11111('11 gr('aln clelail.1 Prt'ss. 1111. D.u.liu-r. 1111lsi W(. to l hr ChrisLi.T 1i.11 crucilird. Ihatis not . I.W. using coiexts (my prclcrrcd tr rrn. .

1IIIiTIIS.ss. "lln. Ikrkdt')' . 1C)~n. Pill'is: Bcauclu-sm-.' Cri: inll lnquiry .ry])I'((t'- -rrk-tail.>ll'Iy C:lil'islianily. .l2. '25. . 7 hf'%g)': :1" l~~I(!J' ill 1<". Billll' cks '[i)lIts II' 'l t-mps.{{OI)'.J':. BnllV. Isfl'll('lcd :)()sil i()IIS lhl'I'l' 10 . .':lpring-. .~-550.W )11(:<' 55. Triniuuianism.'w York: I-imlllllill UlIiV<'l'sily I'rr-ss.11 foi'sl. TI/(' . 'J . or I wOlild articular II(. Carnnl lsrarl: HI'Urlilli!. iI. WIIIlII'II.I!lcl S(wi"I)!: rvl('II. P ''['hl' Blldy .lh. OJ' a When iCII- the text pari Gil pl.wJ 1\(l'llI'ciill. Vi. I f)!)O. I D00. Now York: I'ill'clhan: LJlliwl'sil).~illlg II/SOllgS ill Ille Maldl!' i.' Pag-cs ~II 513 ill Rf/igio/l./or]alill's ftil. I\SI('I. ClIgn!4ing litis [mk. 1':dili'cI by.1 Pr('ss.('('fLin's OIl II1\' hislory or rcligions. Culture .Eye ill [ill' Torah: Orular i)('sire ill Midrashir Hrrmcncutit-. lati« I1l1li((III' ('I ta LliNe. Ilililillg I.l('c mcarung )1' thinkIglli(ielis.l'/i. 'larhiz S() (1987): 4-79 SOl..l'riu. I~JB5' Bnyarill.lrill.u lva~l. Ill' ail aucmpt at.2): 25 Biarnc.d IltWli('s. .JlIil'l BIi)'. 1990): 5:.. N.16(.!!. JIIirlm.uicl Llls Angell's: University nlCulilornia Press.cllohia: Auu-juduisru . '. 'TIVO l nf rodurrious In the IVlit!r.Ol)" /lfidm.II.1I1e1 Rl'ligioll :Vl (2002): 1(i3 T77' . ii'S '2110'I.): 291 :FI. nl/rd!'!' lun»: 'I lif Partitio» O/}IIr/III'O (. des Tipanccs ~'hr)'sosmea 11II1g indeed remain at least fuzzily defined features.1 Bihlc dans la vic Monasiiquc.d I':dilt'cl by l I. Pictri.lgr.w)' ill Nr'-v. Philarlclphi«: Univ('I'sify 01' Pl'lllls>dvilni.'/lrisli({lIi~)I. Iihara. Yak .!ji. or.g olSongs. lr-id. W.' [. 'both distinctive and relatively constant.J.DE/REI CONSTRUCTfNG WDRASH 319 Isl riu-d.xlIal n-uuut-iation ill ('.[1\(1.lld s(. vol. II) Ill(" Flesh': Oil <lnlilrl)]'llliligy and scxuuliry ill Lill\' Antique JlIrlaisr!'!. 'mll3.' 1. V. l!/fli/id!'t1.\' 11///1(' Ilad hrtu '.' In Hchrnv.'ly) j'Olllllll'lillg it. :L(lo(./1} li:.i rvl).I. Bm!lx." or or Abrams. 198B. 'Sin.!. it midraxh !'In luul 01 ion of' . New York: Colum- Ilia LJllivl'l'sity ['n'.'.Jo1l11 [-1('111')1 vwrnau. lIil' making I. Naj'J1a1\ ancl]. Y: Comcll University : on top oss I. . I'rc~s.>. 'Behold [~('.' III LI' t\I/OII!/r. .l!r.'ole. siun I). IJIII'/!. illd('. . N. so as [0 make Christianity lorJudaism] itselfvisible as an o~jC('L of' historical inquiry' in the realm biblicalinterpretation as well.Jourllal Criticism 5: 2 (Sprillt!.' al Review adillg In cal lew'] cxtsinio :3 (I~YN. [lllfrll':illwli!'I' ant! tIll' Hurdill/!.s/lill. l Jivinations: RCJ'('aciing J . iluo: (slIl'. Nrwmau.\' ill HI/llilidif Il'xl llll' stians. IVl)l'k-ill-Pl'I>gl'('ss (). IfJ:). Hlunrnington: Indiana University l'rcss.ifill (Bronx.Jsh (Ill SOIl.!(Juli.all' (\ll<'i('111 i{cligilll'IS. IJI/. Press. 'Two pow('rs ill 11I'01Vl'll. TIl(' New Hixtorir-ixm: Studill nillt«'. Ihf'()/II.) lViII. "lhc Boundari 'S 0[' Divine Olltology: Harvard The Inclusion Thcologi and Exclu8]: ol iVIcI. .ra hr-rcsy.-n: EJ Ilrill. 1\. CII/tUII'. I). I by two he Song II 'inter:1' laking ~cd Sea.l'. l'I)IlIC(ine and (:. . l'ollutiun :111 I Purity: C:hristialtily.'d.il!l'On in lh(' Codhcild.

Wnsitinglrlll. The Sou! lIud . Tr<llislal('d by I~Y l. Kirnclm. SOI(g IIlSi)II<~J Rri/J/uill. CI)ShL'l1 Cnustciu.1.Hnrly H. 2002.llnl)ri<igc.OI and rVrnllen\ Fnith: £SS(l)'J ill /((/1' ancient Chrislianil]!. Y A B. Edwa reb. ~20()1. W. The lion Origcn ( /iipl'rIsl!0'milrllla xx Ford. N.'t' Ill' Got! in l\.l!sl. Chrisuaniry' Pag'e~175 ~lOBin Asretir Pir.. 1092.E. --.E.1'Songs: A thirdrcuuuy .tiJI.1 N.'li'Xl.<LWS<lIl.iu Vvritcrs '2G. Yohanan and ()]'i~('ll Oil Ihl' SUIl)!.!. . 1991. --. Taylor. Lcidcn. Caspary G.'. Slllly. KJ Hen Palrisl ische texte UI'lJilch.: Cl'()]'gelowll· nivrrsityl'rrss. . Clark. 1)'( :..< b'IIH'. RY I 11l]'()(lrl\'1 iOI1. Md.H.~ 11Jl.IU' IliVl'I'sily New VIJI'" Pnss.!!.UXOII.I/. Dunsky. I'.~t:lliJI (.1)0 Suords. Jew£sh tae' Reconsidered. Literal F'i!).. J< hnson.' Pages :HU :'17:) i II . Allvil'lli Chrisri.l!. 1993. 1999..j.p. t\shgalc Studies in Philosophy & Thcnlopy in Lair Anliquity.of-lIill. Cambric Sllldc!'.ini(' l.I· ill 11l1ll. E.(.I)II. SU Y series iujudaica: Hcrrncuculies Mvxurism.. D.'I1jJ!lIre ill ECII'01 Christiauitv. lVIJ Origell (/gaillsl 1'/aID.)'(!('k Paidrin. D.W. Politics and Exegesis: On/!.lon Universily Pn'ss. 'The Place Jcr me's Cornrucntary on l':pllc'sialls in the Orig"11 isl Controversy: The apokaiastasis and Ascetic Ideals.mr l Rl·ligiull.' In ~ (1990): 103-120 or Ncusncr.' Pages 1:.1 (I~J!)'I): 171 I!J. Cambridge. IUBo): :)(:.!Vi/III H«!ys 4' filil//wdn/!. Berkeley: University California Press. LW!'os a Uniun College l WuIE'.\s('t'licislll ill (. 198fJ.)'. 'Delll (1998): 1-17· Sherwood. C. Harrison.A. 1.J. S. ties. introduction.C. i\. 'Poctic Wore Pages 2rr-219 ir or and ReLl. ( 'liJlj 'sen. Rurlinglnn. Dively Lauro . 'i\II("g<JI')1 ami . . Va riaiiun ill 11:1(~!i.m. cUlt! Their Mcai lillg~.lq!.. Ig86.. . 1-1.(llIiO' find (. Boston: Brill Academic Puhlishcrs. I'rincctou: Princeton Universily Press.Jnvish-Chrisliall Disputation.iMIi} 0/ or Wheeler. Ti-illi0! c LOUlh. .1I and ti.I·:d nJ I). 1989. Sou tl Press. "T'lcasurc or tl u. Hnutx. Tel-Aviv: ])vir.'oI'Y Nys. 'li'Xl or l'lr-asurc": Erns cilld lallgllag(' ill Origcll's COll1llH'llIary un t hr SUllg ur SOllgS. F.John Clirysoslolll alld His Virvvs Oil WUlllel .1%.'olllr()lier~)'. 2004.gion.'(. C.rq. Princeton: Prillr'L. Dew Stanford.DANlEL llOYAR1N A nrien I H arlrl: II Guide.W.I~W.C.iln'llul'l'. Till' Ori. VT: /\shg'IIL'. Akh-rshot. 'Bca mcnrutics. "I'hc Boundaries or Wurd:. cd. )979. Microfilm. Calif: Wiustnn.~liJll \lCI'Ill()III: I\Silg'. E..' Pag.lgu: Ulliv(']'sily ol'Cllivagu J'n'ss. Ma: Harvard University Press. 1!j'. Edited by S. Translated by B.ss. Clon'l. Tlt« Sr!I(1!. W('sll1'Iillst[')'. Uu rl i 11.((/l NI'view Ilr :.\iJilgs: (. 'Asl'clic Renunciation and Feminine Advancement: 1\ Paradox 01' Late Ancien. Albany: oSl DI' l Iarvurd University I-'rL'~s. I (J~J(j . I<:ngllncl. R('lIwll. ID{)I. 'Misogynist or 1\ IV(Jcale? SI. AIIJany: SI.1957. /\'((I'!J' (.e 71. i ill N.I'IIl'o]ogind Rl'vinv 7:FJ 'I (JIIly-Octlll]]']'. I. D. Sleill. B. M. RuLicdgc. fvlA: Ikllmilp i'1'I'SS I 13 l::l0' Hirshmall.!.' Vigiliac Christiauac +1 - .l: }m!ish ruu! Christian /liN/c({/ /1I/l'IjJJ'/!/alioll ill l u!e AIi/il/liiOI. (.il/ilil/m/rlry I/Ild II/Jm.l1l'1's: Puritan (flll'. .ol)'and the Prjimlla/ioll Cri.lh.7 .E.' PiLl} lJiss.IIC. t Inruard Tillillfr~f!.e/JI"I'SI'II/ation. S.'I." The ('III/11m! Construction q/ {III EllI'O' Christian /Jebale.in IJ].ioli. "lIu.C. Judaism (1987):154 171. VI':.uwsun.E.. LII II IV. I~Jl)'i. ~J. 'R.1): or ur (. Miller.sln·ril III Scnptur« wililill Onit1il! J' Exep. .'i.' 11. ].I.'''.'1111111"('. -. RI!adilig H(!IIIIIICialiulI: iscetuiun «ud SI. 111 Origl'll. New York: Edwin Mellen Press.11"\1<11'(1 '. Translat' I}rcss..~ill({li/J1I ((II(/ IMI~!'.1 ill '1 hi' NIP/I)' I!/ T/WII.~!I/ ill Lat« . Im:1..I': /JiM.: cwm.1:1 Pi.' Semela 57 (I ()9:. ill 111II:ielll UII7J'li((lIil. Burl [Vlosshamnlel~ A ': slructionist. Ba i Icy a II( I iI R.JII/iqlli!!': l~\"II!J'. Chil·.

D. New York: Oxford University Press.. ()UlJ.iIlO/i(lII. Calif': SI. '1.:!" de GrllY[CI~ '9nG.\ IlIlf/II'{vsli({Jt T/III()Ii~f1.\ JJjhfi1lt. '1'<1 )'I()I~ E. 'Ifujl'sell.' 1\1. Studer B. Sherwood. SoC.' III Siudicn zu Gregor von Nyssa und del' christlichc Spataru./if' 1)llilo. Sianlord. Burlillglon.1'~I(lI re.. 1991.0tlll1.lllgll.J. 2001.).I'S 15. Judaism ill th« Jlialrix l!l Clmstianit»: Second /)I'illling.I<"U1<1c +1 (.IC 'ikalililitimaicicil without eyes: P('slt<ll and Soc! ill /. l 0/ FiI:ft-(. .\{J~JI!liilrlll(( xxi i (1971): 2'1-7 '1)5.: Till' LiLuIxiral Press. Vermont: Ashgatc. . Weslcrhnrr Collegeville. .l Biblical lex/ and 11.7 (Il)C)'2): tae' Recousideted. 'Dr-mor: lover: Epislemology 'Ill the llcsh. . I':diled by IV1. Edited by A. TriliiD' olld lurantation: FIll' Failh Q/ IIII' I~(IIL)' Own'll. Wolr:SOll. /)1'(oJl. Berlin: Wall!.\/i I/I-omfil l'll1'/mo/mr l:l . Oxford.I'Il\ I(r(~wsis. Pages 21 1-219 Mossharnrner.. . RUllcdg'f'.' .'" /il'W~ Oil (. Cinciuruui: I-kbrcw U Ilirlll College Ilrcss.\//(1i1 rinccton: (J~E)o): 103 [QU. I} r(~~O.:2 : Hib/I' tn (19~)B):1 17.tions on Origcn's Hermeneutics.lI1la: Scholars Press. South Florida studies in the hisLlJry<{Judaism.util)l"ci University PITSS. P<ltrisli~cI[(' icxtc und studicn. A 'Disclosing but not disclosed: Gregory of Nyssa as Deconxtructirmist.lIl DisJltll'llioll. Abysmal Words: Rene .!!.DEIR£! CONSTRUGTINGWDRASJI 3QJ Harvard niv Tsily radox J. ~ Wilistflll. Clild 111(' Jcwish-Chrisli.J. 2011:).):103 ill Till' II/irlm. 1 '1'llIlioll ill l"1l1l'III'U- rk Pn'ss..'lIri. 1'/)1'('. 'The l lomilctical lrucrprctations of the Sages ami L1H' EX)Josilioll or Origcu Oil Canticlrs. Urbach. Minn. 'Poetic Words.ike or '/1\ i'ililli: :)rigt'llist .'pIlIIIl)1 II lexandria: Philo': 'T/lI'm/IPII- 'hcology /\shgal. Y. Ncusncr. /\lh'1IlY: Suuc nivcrsuy Ill' Nl'lV York IJITSS.' Body & SncieL).r: TIll' Suruiua! 0/ Jonah ill Jil!{J\iI'm Culm«.rlll'( 11II0.I':.np Pn'ss !\ Ih irrl- \'\'7:-1=:1 'I :HII :17:1 .ilt'y alld lid I !(Jllli uuiusu-r. E. AI!. '9H. \"'lwl'ier.oharie her11I('III'lIlies. I.l/rurli(J/J as Illla(J.' Scrijl/II hil'ro. KJ /-IPI'IIII'III'lIlim/ Procedure and Thl'ologimf Method ill Oni!. C<llllbriclgl': C:ambridgl' U 11 ivcrsit y Press. l)(J:3. toith new Jm(ace and introducthm.'ishhauc.11'11111 .l:.J' ill !Jhi/fl (!/llll'. in The Poetry o] Thollglll ill Late lnliquiD): Essays in lmaginatio» and Rrligi()lI. Translated hy M.E.\I)/iI[y: (:/lllumlll/n/llin' ill 1111' Ptrsenl.lg'I' I ill 'IIII' r1illgloll.7f'7('i. 1.. 1993.wlldrifl. QOOI).

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