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Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics
Ph.D. Thesis
M. Sc. Mariusz Malinowski
Sensorless Control Strategies for
Three  Phase PWM Rectifiers
Thesis supervisor
Prof. Dr Sc. Marian P. Kaźmierkowski
Warsaw, Poland  2001
Preface
1
The work presented in the thesis was carried out during my Ph.D. studies at the
Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics at the Warsaw University of Technology
and scholarship of the Foundation for Polish Science. Some parts of the work was
realized in cooperation with foreign Universities and companies:
! University of Nevada, Reno, USA (US National Science Foundation grant – Prof.
Andrzej Trzynadlowski),
! University of Aalborg, Denmark (International Danfoss Professor Programme –
Prof. Frede Blaabjerg),
! Danfoss Drives A/S, Denmark (Dr Steffan Hansen).
First of all, I would like to thank Prof. Marian P. Kaźmierkowski for continuous
support and help. His precious advice and numerous discussions enhanced my
knowledge and scientific inspiration.
I am grateful to Prof. Tadeusz Citko from the Białystok Technical University and
Prof. Roman Barlik from the Warsaw University of Technology for their interest in this
work and holding the post of referee.
Furthermore, I thank my colleagues from the Group of Intelligent Control in Power
Electronics for their support and friendly atmosphere. Mr Marek Jasiński’s support in
preparation of the laboratory setup is especially appreciated.
Finally, I am very grateful for my wife Ann’s and son Kacper’s love, patience and
faith. I would also like to thank my whole family, particularly my parents for their care
over the years.
Introduction
2
1. INTRODUCTION
Methods for limitation and elimination of disturbances and harmonic pollution
in the power system have been widely investigated. This problem rapidly intensifies
with the increasing amount of electronic equipment (computers, radio set, printers, TV
sets etc.). This equipment, a nonlinear load, is a source of current harmonics, which
produce increase of reactive power and power losses in transmission lines. The
harmonics also cause electromagnetic interference and, sometimes, dangerous
resonances. They have negative influence on the control and automatic equipment,
protection systems, and other electrical loads, resulting in reduced reliability and
availability. Moreover, nonlinear loads and nonsinusoidal currents produce non
sinusoidal voltage drops across the network impedance’s, so that nonsinusoidal
voltages appears at several points of the mains. It brings out overheating of line,
transformers and generators due to the iron losses.
Reduction of harmonic content in line current to a few percent allows avoiding most of
the mentioned problems. Restrictions on current and voltage harmonics maintained in
many countries through IEEE 5191992 in the USA and IEC 6100032/IEC 6100034
in Europe standards, are associated with the popular idea of clean power.
Many of harmonic reduction method exist. These technique based on passive
components, mixing single and threephase diode rectifiers, and power electronics
techniques as: multipulse rectifiers, active filters and PWM rectifiers (Fig. 1.1). They
can be generally divided as:
A) harmonic reduction of already installed nonlinear load;
B) harmonic reduction through linear power electronics load installation;
Introduction
3
Harmonic reduction techniques
FILTERS [7]
PASSIVE
FILTER
MULTIPULSE
RECTIFIER
PWM
RECTIFIERS
MIXING SINGLE
AND THREE
PHASE DIODE
RECTIFIERS
[106]
ACTIVE
PWM FILTER
HYBRID
BUCK
RECTIFIER [35]
BOOST
RECTIFIER
2LEVEL 3LEVEL [112]
A
B
Fig.1.1 Most popular threephase harmonic reduction techniques of current
A) Harmonic reduction of already installed nonlinear load
B) Harmonic reduction through linear power electronics load installation
The traditional method of current harmonic reduction involves passive filters LC,
parallelconnected to the grid. Filters are usually constructed as seriesconnected legs of
capacitors and chokes. The number of legs depends on number of filtered harmonics
(5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
). The advantages of passive filters are simplicity and low cost [105].
The disadvantages are:
! each installation is designed for a particular application (size and placement of
the filters elements, risk of resonance problems),
! high fundamental current resulting in extra power losses,
! filters are heavy and bulky.
In case of diode rectifier, the simpler way to harmonic reduction of current are
additional series coils used in the input or output of rectifier (typical 15%).
The other technique, based on mixing single and threephase nonlinear loads, gives a
reduced THD because the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic current of a singlephase diode rectifier
often are in counterphase with the 5
th
and 7
th
harmonic current of a threephase diode
rectifier [106].
Introduction
4
The other already power electronics techniques is use of multipulse rectifiers. Although
easy to implement, possess several disadvantages such as: bulky and heavy transformer,
increased voltage drop, and increased harmonic currents at nonsymmetrical load or line
voltages.
An alternative to the passive filter is use of the active PWM filter (AF), which displays
better dynamics and controls the harmonic and fundamental currents. Active filters are
mainly divided into two different types: the active shunt filter (current filtering) (Fig.
1.2) and the active series filter (voltage filtering) [7].
Nonlinear
load
i
F
i
LOAD
i
L
L
AF
Fig. 1.2 Threephase shunt active filter together with nonlinear load.
The threephase twolevel shunt AF consist of six active switches and its topology is
identical to the PWM inverter. AF represents a controlled current source i
F
which added
to the load current i
Load
yields sinusoidal line current i
L
(Fig. 1.2). AF provide:
! compensation of fundamental reactive components of load current,
! load symetrization (from grid point of view),
! harmonic compensation much better than in passive filters.
In spite of the excellent performance, AFs possess certain disadvantages as complex
control, switching losses and EMC problems (switching noise is present in the line
current and even in the line voltage). Therefore, for reduction of this effects, inclusion
of a small lowpass passive filter between the line and the AF is necessary.
load
Fig.1.3 PWM rectifier
Introduction
5
The other interesting reduction technique of current harmonic is a PWM (active)
rectifier (Fig. 1.3). Two types of PWM converters, with a voltage source output (Fig.
1.4a) and a current source output (Fig. 1.4b) can be used. First of them called a boost
rectifier (increases the voltage) works with fixed DC voltage polarity, and the second,
called a buck rectifier (reduces the voltage) operates with fixed DC current flow.
a)
C
U
dc
i
load
i
a
i
b
i
c
3xL
u
La
u
Lb
u
Lc
U
i
b)
3xL
u
La
u
Lb
u
Lc
i
a
i
b
i
c
i
load
L
dc
U
dc
3xC
Fig. 1.4 Two basic topologies of PWM rectifier:
a) boost with voltage output b) buck with current output
Among the main features of PWM rectifier are:
! bidirectional power flow,
! nearly sinusoidal input current,
! regulation of input power factor to unity,
! low harmonic distortion of line current (THD below 5%),
! adjustment and stabilization of DClink voltage (or current),
! reduced capacitor (or inductor) size due to the continues current.
Furthermore, it can be properly operated under line voltage distortion and notching, and
line voltage frequency variations.
Similar to the PWM active filter, the PWM rectifier has a complex control structure, the
efficiency is lower than the diode rectifier due to extra switching losses. A properly
designed lowpass passive filter is needed in front of the PWM rectifier due to EMI
concerns.
The last technique is most promising thanks to advances in power semiconductor
devices (enhanced speed and performance, and high ratings) and digital signal
Introduction
6
processors, which allow fast operation and cost reduction. It offers possibilities for
implementation of sophisticated control algorithm.
This thesis is devoted to investigation of different control strategies for boost type of
threephase bridge PWM rectifiers. Appropriate control can provide both the rectifier
performance improvements and reduction of passive components. Several control
techniques for PWM rectifiers are known [1623, 3069]. A wellknown method based
on indirect active and reactive power control is based on current vector orientation with
respect to the line voltage vector (Voltage Oriented Control  VOC) [3069]. An other
less known method based on instantaneous direct active and reactive power control is
called Direct Power Control (DPC) [16, 2023]. Both mentioned strategies do not
produce sinusoidal current when the line voltage is distorted. Therefore, the following
thesis can be formulated:
“using the control strategy based on virtual flux instead of the line voltage vector
orientation provides lower harmonic distortion of line current and leads to line
voltage sensorless operation”.
In order to prove the above thesis, the author used an analytical and simulation based
approach, as well as experimental verification on the laboratory setup with a 5kVA
IGBT converter.
The thesis consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 is devoted to
presentation of various topologies of rectifiers for ASD’s. The mathematical model and
operation description of PWM rectifier are also presented. General features of the
sensorless operation focused on AC voltagesensorless. Voltage and virtual flux
estimation are summarized at the end of the chapter. Chapter 3 covers the existing
solution of Direct Power Control and presents a new solution based on Virtual Flux
estimation [17]. Theoretical principles of both methods are discussed. The steady state
and dynamic behavior of VFDPC are presented, illustrating the operation and
performance of the proposed system as compared with a conventional DPC method.
Both strategies are also investigated under unbalanced and distorted line voltages. It is
shown that the VFDPC exhibits several advantages, particularly it provides sinusoidal
line current when the supply voltage is nonideal. Test results show excellent
Introduction
7
performance of the proposed system. Chapter 4 is focused on the Voltage Oriented and
Virtual Flux Oriented Controls. Additionally, development and investigation of novel
modulation techniques is described and discussed, with particular presentation of
adaptive modulation. It provides a wide range of linearity, reduction of switching losses
and good dynamics. Chapter 5 contains comparative study of discussed control
methods. Finally Chapter 6 presents summary and general conclusions. The thesis is
supplemented by nine Appendices among which are: conventional and instantaneous
power theories [A.2], implementation of a space vector modulator [A.3], description of
the simulation program [A.4] and the laboratory setup [A.6].
In the author’s opinion the following parts of the thesis represent his original
achievements:
! development of a new line voltage estimator – (Section 2.5),
! elaboration of new Virtual Flux based Direct Power Control for PWM rectifiers –
(Section 3.4),
! implementation and investigation of various closedloop control strategies for PWM
rectifiers: Virtual Flux – Based Direct Power Control (VF DPC), Direct Power
Control (DPC), Voltage Oriented Control (VOC), Virtual Flux Oriented Control
(VFOC) – (Sections 3.6 and 4.5),
! development of a new Adaptive Space Vector Modulator for threephase PWM
converter, working in polar and cartesian coordinate system (Patent No. P340 113) –
(Section 4.4.7),
! development of a simulation algorithm in SABER and control algorithm in C
language for investigation of proposed solutions – (Appendix A.4),
! construction and practical verification of the experimental setup based on a mixed
RISC/DSP (PowerPC 604/TMS320F240) digital controller – (Appendix A.6).
Contents
8
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2 PWM rectifier
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Rectifiers topologies
2.3 Operation of the PWM rectifier
2.3.1 Mathematical description of the PWM rectifier
2.3.2 Steadystate properties and limitations
2.4 Sensorless operation
2.5 Voltage and virtual flux estimation
Chapter 3 Voltage and Virtual Flux Based Direct Power Control (DPC, VFDPC)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Basic block diagram of DPC
3.3 Instantaneous power estimation based on the line voltage
3.4 Instantaneous power estimation based on the virtual flux
3.5 Switching table
3.6 Simulation and experimental results
3.7 Summary
Chapter 4 Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control (VOC, VFOC)
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Block diagram of the VOC
4.3 Block diagram of the VFOC
4.4 Pulse width modulation (PWM)
4.4.1 Introduction
4.4.2 Carrier based PWM
4.4.3 Space vector modulation (SVM)
4.4.4 Carrier based PWM versus space vector PWM
4.4.5 Overmodulation
4.4.6 Performance criteria
4.4.7 Adaptive space vector modulation (ASVM)
4.4.8 Simulation and experimental results of modulation
4.4.9 Summary of modulation
4.5 Simulation and experimental results
4.6 Summary
Chapter 5 Comparative Study
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Performance comparison
5.3.Summary
Chapter 6 Conclusion
Contents
9
References
Appendices
A.1 Per unit notification
A.2 Harmonic distortion in power systems
A.3 Implementation of SVM
A.4 Saber model
A.5 Simulink model
A.6 Laboratory setup based on DS1103
A.7 Laboratory setup based on SHARC
A.8 Harmonic limitation
A.9 Equipment
List of Symbols
10
List of Symbols
Symbols (general)
x(t), x – instantaneous value
* *
, x X  reference
x X,  average value, average (continuous) part
x X
~
,
~
 oscillating part
x  complex vector
*
x  conjugate complex vector
X  magnitude (length) of function
x X ∆ ∆ ,  deviation
Symbols (special)
α  phase angle of reference vector
λ  power factor
ϕ  phase angle of current
ω  angular frequency
ψ  phase angle
ε  control phase angle
cosϕ  fundamental power factor
f – frequency
i(t), i – instantaneous current
j – imaginary unit
k
P
, k
I
– proportional control part, integral control part
p(t), p – instantaneous active power
q(t), q – instantaneous reactive power
t – instantaneous time
v(t), v  instantaneous voltage
Ψ
L
– virtual line flux vector
Ψ
Lα
– virtual line flux vector components in the stationary α, β coordinates
Ψ
Lβ
– virtual line flux vector components in the stationary α, β coordinates
Ψ
Ld
– virtual line flux vector components in the synchronous d, q coordinates
Ψ
Lq
– virtual line flux vector components in the synchronous d, q coordinates
u
L
– line voltage vector
u
Lα
– line voltage vector components in the stationary α, β coordinates
u
Lβ
– line voltage vector components in the stationary α, β coordinates
u
Ld
– line voltage vector components in the synchronous d, q coordinates
u
Lq
– line voltage vector components in the synchronous d, q coordinates
i
L
– line current vector
i
Lα
– line current vector components in the stationary α, β coordinates
i
Lβ
– line current vector components in the stationary α, β coordinates
List of Symbols
11
i
Ld
– line current vector components in the synchronous d, q coordinates
i
Lq
– line current vector components in the synchronous d, q coordinates
u
S
, u
conv
– converter voltage vector
u
Sα
– converter voltage vector components in the stationary α, β coordinates
u
Sβ
– converter voltage vector components in the stationary α, β coordinates
u
Sd
– converter voltage vector components in the synchronous d, q coordinates
u
Sq
– converter voltage vector components in the synchronous d, q coordinates
u
dc
– DC link voltage
i
dc
– DC link current
S
a
, S
b
, S
c
– Switching state of the converter
C – capacitance
I – root mean square value of current
L – inductance
R – resistance
S – apparent power
T – time period
P – active power
Q – reactive power
Z  impedance
Subscripts
..a, ..b, ..c  phases of threephase system
..d, ..q  direct and quadrature component
..+, , 0  positive, negative and zero sequence component
..α, ..β, ..0  alpha, beta components and zero sequence component
..h – harmonic order of current and voltage, harmonic component
..n – harmonic order
..max  maximum
..min  minimum
..LL  line to line
..Load  load
..conv  converter
..Loss  losses
..ref  reference
..m  amplitude
..rms  root mean square value
Abbreviations
AF active PWM filter
ANN artificial neural network
ASD adjustable speed drives
ASVM adaptive space vector modulation
CBPWM carrier based pulse width modulation
List of Symbols
12
CSI current source inverter
DPC direct power control
DSP digital signal processor
DTC direct torque control
EMI electromagnetic interference
FOC fieldoriented control
IFOC indirect fieldoriented control
IGBT insulated gate bipolar transistor
PCC point of common coupling
PFC power factor correction
PI proportional integral (controller)
PLL phase locked loop
PWM pulsewidth modulation
REC rectifier
SVM space vector modulation
THD total harmonic distortion
UPF unity power factor
VF virtual flux
VFDPC virtual flux based direct power control
VFOC virtual flux oriented control
VOC voltage oriented control
VSI voltage source inverter
ZSS zero sequence signal
PWM rectifier
13
2. PWM RECTIFIER
2.1. INTRODUCTION
As it has been observed for recent decades, an increasing part of the generated electric
energy is converted through rectifiers, before it is used at the final load. In power
electronic systems, especially, diode and thyristor rectifiers are commonly applied in the
front end of DClink power converters as an interface with the AC line power (grid) 
Fig. 2.1. The rectifiers are nonlinear in nature and, consequently, generate harmonic
currents in to the AC line power. The high harmonic content of the line current and the
resulting low power factor of the load, causes a number of problems in the power
distribution system like:
• voltage distortion and electromagnetic interface (EMI) affecting other users of the
power system,
• increasing voltampere ratings of the power system equipment (generators,
transformers, transmission lines, etc.).
Therefore, governments and international organizations have introduced new standards
(in the USA: IEEE 519 and in Europe: IEC 610003)[A8] which limit the harmonic
content of the current drown from the power line by the rectifiers. As a consequence a
great number of new switchmode rectifier topologies that comply with the new
standards have been developed.
In the area of variable speed AC drives, it is believed that threephase PWM boost
AC/DC converter will replace the diode rectifier. The resulting topology consists of two
identical bridge PWM converters (Fig. 2.4). The lineside converter operates as rectifier
in forward energy flow, and as inverter in reverse energy flow. In farther discussion
assuming the forward energy flow, as the basic mode of operation the lineside
converter will be called as PWM rectifier. The AC side voltage of PWM rectifier can be
controlled in magnitude and phase so as to obtain sinusoidal line current at unity power
factor (UPF). Although such a PWM rectifier/inverter (AC/DC/AC) system is
expensive, and the control is complex, the topology is ideal for fourquadrant operation.
Additionally, the PWM rectifier provides DC bus voltage stabilization and can also act
as active line conditioner (ALC) that compensate harmonics and reactive power at the
point of common coupling of the distribution network. However, reducing the cost of
the PWM rectifier is vital for the competitiveness compared to other frontend rectifiers.
The cost of power switching devices (e.g. IGBT) and digital signal processors (DSP’s)
are generally decreasing and further reduction can be obtained by reducing the number
of sensors. Sensorless control exhibits advantages such as improved reliability and
lower installation costs.
PWM rectifier
14
2.2. RECTIFIERS TOPOLOGIES
A voltage source PWM inverter with diode frontend rectifier is one of the most
common power configuration used in modern variable speed AC drives (Fig. 2.1). An
uncontrolled diode rectifier has the advantage of being simple, robust and low cost.
However, it allows only undirectional power flow. Therefore, energy returned from the
motor must be dissipated on power resistor controlled by chopper connected across the
DC link. The diode input circuit also results in lower power factor and high level of
harmonic input currents. A further restriction is that the maximum motor output voltage
is always less than the supply voltage.
Equations (2.1) and (2.2) can be used to determine the order and magnitude of the
harmonic currents drawn by a sixpulse diode rectifier:
1 6 ± = k h k = 1, 2, 3,... (2.1)
h
I
I
h
/ 1
1
= (2.2)
Harmonic orders as multiples of the fundamental frequency: 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
etc., with
a 50 Hz fundamental, corresponds to 250, 350, 550 and 650 Hz, respectively. The
magnitude of the harmonics in per unit of the fundamental is the reciprocal of the
harmonic order: 20% for the 5
th
, 14,3% for the 7
th
, etc. Eqs. (2.1)(2.2) are calculated
from the Fourier series for ideal square wave current (critical assumption for infinite
inductance on the input of the converter). Equations (2.1) is fairly good description of
the harmonic orders generally encountered. The magnitude of actual harmonic currents
often differs from the relationship described in (2.2). The shape of the AC current
depends on the input inductance of converter (Fig. 2.2). The ripple current is equal 1/L
times the integral of the DC ripple voltage. With infinite inductance the ripple current is
zero and the flaptop wave of Fig. 2.2d results. The full description of harmonic
calculation in sixpulse converter can be found in [116].
C
i
a
i
b
i
c
u
a
u
b
u
c
L
O
A
D
Fig. 2.1 Diode rectifier
PWM rectifier
15
THD=76% THD=53%
THD=29% THD=27,6%
Fig. 2.2 Simulation results of diode rectifier at different input inductance (from 0 to infinity)
Besides of sixpulse bridge rectifier a few other rectifier topologies are known [117
118]. Some of them are presented in Fig. 2.3. The topology of Fig. 2.3(a) presents
simple solution of boost – type converter with possibility to increase DC output voltage.
This is important feature for ASD’s converter giving maximum motor output voltage.
The main drawback of this solution is stress on the components, low frequency
distortion of the input current. Next topologies (b) and (c) uses a PWM rectifier
modules with a very low current rating (2025% level of rms current comparable with
(e) topology). Hence they have a low cost potential provide only possibility of
regenerative braking mode (b) or active filtering (c). Fig. 2.3d presents 3level converter
called Vienna rectifier [112]. The main advantage is low switch voltage, but not typical
switches are required. Fig. 2.3e presents most popular topology used in ASD, UPS and
recently like a PWM rectifier. This universal topology has the advantage of using a low
cost threephase module with a bidirectional energy flow capability. Among
disadvantages are: high perunit current ratting, poor immunity to shootthrough faults,
and high switching losses. The features of all topologies are compared in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1 Features of threephase rectifiers
feature
topology
Regulation of
DC output
voltage
Low harmonic
distortion of
line current
Near sinusoidal
current
waveforms
Power
factor
correction
Bidirectional
power flow
Remarks
Diode rectifier     
Rec(a) +   + 
Rec(b)     +
Rec(c)  + + +  UPF
Rec(d) + + + +  UPF
Rec(e) + + + + + UPF
PWM rectifier
16
(a) (b)
C
i
a
i
b
i
c
3xL
u
a
u
b
u
c
L
O
A
D
C
i
a
i
b
i
c
3xL
u
a
u
b
u
c
L
O
A
D
(c) (d)
C
i
a
i
b
i
c
3xL
u
a
u
b
u
c
L
O
A
D
i
a
i
b
i
c
3xL
u
a
u
b
u
c
L
O
A
D
C
(e)
C
i
a
i
b
i
c
3xL
u
a
u
b
u
c
L
O
A
D
Fig.2.3 Basic topologies of switchmode threephase rectifiers
a) simple boosttype converter b) diode rectifier with PWM regenerative braking rectifier
c) diode rectifier with PWM active filtering rectifier d) Vienna rectifier (3 – level converter)
e) PWM reversible rectifier (2 – level converter)
The last topology is most promising therefore was chosen by most global company
(SIMENS, ABB and other). In a DC distributed Power System (Fig. 2.5) or AC/DC/AC
converter (Fig. 2.4), the AC power is first transformed into DC thanks to threephase
PWM rectifier. It provides UPF and low current harmonic content. The converters
connected to the DCbus provide further desired conversion for the loads, such as
adjustable speed drives for induction motors (IM) and permanent magnet synchronous
motor (PMSM), DC/DC converter, multidrive operation, etc.
PWM rectifier
17
The AC/DC/AC converter (Fig. 2.4) is known in ABB like an ACS611/ACS617 (15 kW
 1,12 MW) complete fourquadrant drive. The line converter is identical to the ACS600
(DTC) motor converter with the exception of the control software [20,121]. Similar
solutions possess SIEMENS in Simovert Masterdrive (2,2 kW – 2,3 MW) [127].
Furthermore, AC/DC/AC provide:
• the motor can operate at a higher speed without field weakening (by maintaining the
DCbus voltage above the supply voltage peak),
• decreased theoretically by onethird common mode voltage compared to
conventional configuration thanks to the simultaneous control of rectifier  inverter
(same switching frequency and synchronized sampling time may avoid common
mode voltage pulse because the different type of zero voltage (U
0
,U
7
) are not applied
at the same time) [114],
• the response of the voltage controller can be improved by fedforward signal from
the load what gives possibility to minimize the DC link capacitance while
maintaining the DClink voltage within limits under step load conditions [104, 111].
Other solution used in industry is shown in Fig. 2.5 like a multidrive operation [120].
ABB propose active frontend converter ACA 635 (250 kW  2,5 MW) and Siemens
Simovert Masterdrive in range of power from 7,5 kW up to 1,5 MW.
PWM
i
b
i
a
L
i
c
L
L
PWM
Rectifier
Inverter
U
a
U
b
U
c
Fig. 2.4 AC/DC/AC converter
PWM
i
b
i
a
L
i
c
L
L
PWM
PWM
Filter
PWM
Filter
Load
IM PMSM
DC Power Distribution Bus
Rectifier
I
n
v
e
r
t
e
r
I
n
v
e
r
t
e
r
D
C
/
D
C
C
o
n
v
e
r
t
e
r
U
a
U
b
U
c
Fig. 2.5 DC distributed Power System
PWM rectifier
18
2.3 OPERATION OF THE PWM RECTIFIER
Fig. 2.6b shows a singlephase representation of the rectifier circuit presented in Fig.
2.6a. L and R represents the line inductor. u
L
is the line voltage and u
S
is the bridge
converter voltage controllable from the DCside. Magnitude of u
S
depends on the
modulation index and DC voltage level.
(a) (b)
Ua
Uc
Ub
R
R
R
L
L
L
A
B
C
L
O
A
D
M
Bridge Converter
AC  side
DC  side
U
d
c
C
u
L
uS=u
conv
i
L
L
R
RiL jωLiL
Fig. 2.6 Simplified representation of threephase PWM rectifier for bidirectional power flow.
a) main circuit b) singlephase representation of the rectifier circuit
(a)
iL
u
S
RiL
uL
jωLiL
d
q
90
o
(b) (c)
iL
uS
RiL
uL d
q
jωLiL
ε
iL
uS
RiL
uL
d
q
jωLiL
ε
Fig. 2.7 Phasor diagram for the PWM rectifier a) general phasor diagram
b) rectification at unity power factor c) inversion at unity power factor
Inductors connected between input of rectifier and lines are integral part of the circuit. It
brings current source character of input circuit and provide boost feature of converter.
The line current i
L
is controlled by the voltage drop across the inductance L
interconnecting two voltage sources (line and converter). It means that the inductance
voltage u
I
equals the difference between the line voltage u
L
and the converter voltage u
S
.
When we control phase angle ε and amplitude of converter voltage u
S
, we control
PWM rectifier
19
indirectly phase and amplitude of line current. In this way average value and sign of DC
current is subject to control what is proportional to active power conducted through
converter. The reactive power can be controlled independently with shift of fundamental
harmonic current I
L
in respect to voltage U
L
.
Fig. 2.7 presents general phasor diagram and both rectification and regenerating phasor
diagrams when unity power factor is required. The figure shows that the voltage vector
u
S
is higher during regeneration (up to 3%) then rectifier mode. It means that these two
modes are not symmetrical [67].
Main circuit of bridge converter (Fig. 2.6a) consists of three legs with IGBT transistor
or, in case of high power, GTO thyristors. The bridge converter voltage can be
represented with eight possible switching states (Fig. 2.8 sixactive and twozero)
described by equation:
¹
´
¦
=
+
0
) 3 / 2 (
3 /
1
π jk
dc
k
e u
u for k = 0…5 (2.3)
A B C
+

U
dc
U
1
k=0
S
a
=
1
S
b
=
0
S
c
=
0
A B C
+

U
dc
U
2
k=1
S
a
=
1
S
b
=
1
S
c
=
0
A B C
+

U
dc
U
3
k=2
S
a
=
0
S
b
=
1
S
c
=
0
A B C
+

U
dc
U
4
k=3
S
a
=
0
S
b
=
1
S
c
=
1
A B C
+

U
dc
U
5
k=4
S
a
=
0
S
b
=
0
S
c
=
1
A B C
+

U
dc
U
6
k=5
S
a
=
1
S
b
=
0
S
c
=
1
A B C
+

U
dc
U
7
S
a
=
1
S
b
=
1
S
c
=
1
A B C
+

U
dc
U
0
S
a
=
0
S
b
=
0
S
c
=
0
Fig. 2.8 Switching states of PWM bridge converter
PWM rectifier
20
2.3.1 Mathematical description of the PWM rectifier
The basic relationship between vectors of the PWM rectifier is presented in Fig. 2.9.
a
b
c
d
q
α
β
ω
γ
L
=ωt
u
s
u
L
i
L
i
d
i
q
ε
ϕ
u
I
=jωLi
L
Fig. 2.9 Relationship between vectors in PWM rectifier
Description of line voltages and currents
Three phase line voltage and the fundamental line current is:
t E u
m a
ω cos = (2.4a)
)
3
2
cos(
π
ω + = t E u
m b
(2.4b)
)
3
2
cos(
π
ω − = t E u
m c
(2.4c)
) cos( ϕ ω + = t I i
m a
(2.5a)
)
3
2
cos( ϕ
π
ω + + = t I i
m b
(2.5b)
)
3
2
cos( ϕ
π
ω + − = t I i
m c
(2.5c)
where E
m
(I
m
) and ω are amplitude of the phase voltage (current) and angular frequency,
respectively, with assumption
PWM rectifier
21
0 ≡ + +
c b a
i i i (2.6)
we can transform equations (2.4) to αβ system thanks to equations (A.2.22a) and the
input voltage in αβ stationary frame are expressed by:
) cos(
2
3
t E u
m L
ω
α
= (2.7)
) sin(
2
3
t E u
m L
ω
β
= (2.8)
and the input voltage in the synchronous dq coordinates (Fig. 2.9) are expressed by:
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
=
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
0
0
2
3 2 2
β α L L
m
Lq
Ld u u
E
u
u
(2.9)
Description of input voltage in PWM rectifier
Line to line input voltages of PWM rectifier can be described with the help of Fig. 2.8
as:
dc b a Sab
u S S u ⋅ − = ) ( (2.10a)
dc c b Sbc
u S S u ⋅ − = ) ( (2.10b)
dc a c Sca
u S S u ⋅ − = ) (
(2.10c)
and phase voltages are equal:
dc a Sa
u f u ⋅ = (2.11a)
dc b Sb
u f u ⋅ = (2.11b)
dc c Sc
u f u ⋅ = (2.11c)
where:
3
) ( 2
c b a
a
S S S
f
+ −
=
(2.12a)
3
) ( 2
c a b
b
S S S
f
+ −
=
(2.12b)
3
) ( 2
b a c
c
S S S
f
+ −
=
(2.12c)
The f
a
, f
b
, f
c
are assume 0, ±1/3 and ±2/3.
Description of PWM rectifier
Model of threephase PWM rectifier
The voltage equations for balanced threephase system without the neutral connection
can be written as (Fig. 2.7b):
S I L
u u u + = (2.13)
PWM rectifier
22
S
L
L L
u L
dt
i d
i R u + + = (2.14)
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
Sc
Sb
Sa
c
b
a
c
b
a
c
b
a
u
u
u
i
i
i
dt
d
L
i
i
i
R
u
u
u
(2.15)
and additionally for currents
dc c c b b a a
dc
i i S i S i S
dt
du
C − + + = (2.16)
The combination of equations (2.11, 2.12, 2.15, 2.16) can be represented as threephase
block diagram (Fig. 2.10) [34].
sL R +
1
sL R +
1
sL R +
1
3
1
sC
1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+






 u
dc
i
dc
u
a
u
b
u
c
S
a
S
b
S
c
i
a
i
b
i
c
f
a
f
b
f
c
u
Sa
u
Sb
u
Sc
Fig. 2.10 Block diagram of voltage source PWM rectifier in natural threephase coordinates
Model of PWM rectifier in stationary coordinates (α αα α  β ββ β)
The voltage equation in the stationary α β coordinates are obtained by applying
(A.2.22a) to (2.15) and (2.16) and are written as:
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
β
α
β
α
β
α
β
α
S
S
L
L
L
L
L
L
u
u
i
i
dt
d
L
i
i
R
u
u
(2.17)
and
dc L L
dc
i S i S i
dt
du
C − + = ) (
β β α α
(2.18)
where: ) 2 (
6
1
c b a
S S S S − − =
α
; ) (
2
1
c b
S S S − =
β
PWM rectifier
23
A block diagram of αβ model is presented in Fig. 2.11.
sL R +
1
sL R +
1
sC
1
+
+
+
+


u
dc
i
dc
u
Lα
u
Lβ
S
α
S
β
i
Lα
i
Lβ

u
Sα
u
Sβ
Fig. 2.11 Block diagram of voltage source PWM rectifier in stationary αβ coordinates
Model of PWM rectifier in synchronous rotating coordinates (dq)
The equations in the synchronous dq coordinates are obtained with the help of
transformation 4.1a:
Sd Lq
Ld
Ld Ld
u Li
dt
di
L Ri u + − + = ω (2.19a)
Sq Ld
Lq
Lq Lq
u Li
dt
di
L Ri u + + + = ω (2.19b)
dc q Lq d Ld
dc
i S i S i
dt
du
C − + = ) ( (2.20)
where: t S t S S
d
ω ω
β α
sin cos + = ; t S t S S
q
ω ω
α β
sin cos − =
A block diagram of dq model is presented in Fig. 2.12.
sL R+
1
sL R+
1
sC
1
+
+
+
+ 
 u
dc
i
dc
u
Ld
u
Lq
S
d
S
q
i
Ld
i
Lq

L ω
L ω −
+
+
u
Sd
u
Sq
Fig. 2.12 Block diagram of voltage source PWM rectifier in synchronous dq coordinates
PWM rectifier
24
R can be practically neglected because voltage drop on resistance is much lower than
voltage drop on inductance, what gives simplified equations (2.14), (2.15), (2.17),
(2.19).
S
L
L
u L
dt
i d
u + = (2.21)
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
Sc
Sb
Sa
c
b
a
c
b
a
u
u
u
i
i
i
dt
d
L
u
u
u
(2.22)
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
β
α
β
α
β
α
S
S
L
L
L
L
u
u
i
i
dt
d
L
u
u
(2.23)
Sd Lq
Ld
Ld
u Li
dt
di
L u + − = ω (2.24a)
Sq Ld
Lq
Lq
u Li
dt
di
L u + + = ω (2.24b)
The active and reactive power supplied from the source is given by [see A.2]
{ }
c c b b a a
i u i u i u i u i u i u p + + = + = ⋅ =
β β α α
*
Re (2.25)
{ } ( )
c ab b ca a bc
i u i u i u i u i u i u q + + = − = ⋅ =
3
1
Im
*
β α α β
(2.26)
It gives in the synchronous dq coordinates:
m m Ld Ld Lq Lq
I E i u i u p
2
3
) ( = + = (2.27)
) (
Lq Ld Ld Lq
i u i u q − = (2.28)
(if we make assumption of unity power factor, we will obtain following properties
i
Lq
= 0, u
Lq
= 0,
m Ld
E u
2
3
= ,
m Ld
I i
2
3
= , q = 0 (see Fig. 2.13)).
d
q
p()
p(+)
q()
q(+)
u
L
u
S
jω ωω ωLi
L
i
L
α αα α
β ββ β
Fig. 2.13 Power flow in bidirectional AC/DC converter as dependency of i
L
direction.
PWM rectifier
25
2.3.2 Steadystate properties and limitations
For proper operation of PWM rectifier a minimum DClink voltage is required.
Generally it can be determined by the peak of linetoline supply voltage:
) ( ) ( min
45 , 2 2 3
rms LN rms LN dc
V V V ∗ = ∗ ∗ 〉 (2.29)
It is true definition but not concern all situations. Other publication [36,37] defines
minimum voltage but do not take into account line current (power) and line inductors.
The determination of this voltage is more complicated and is presented in [59].
Equations (2.24) can be transformed to vector form in synchronous dq coordinates
defining derivative of current as:
Sdq Ldq
Ldq
u i L j u
dt
i d
L
Ldq
− − = ω . (2.30)
Equation (2.30) defines direction and rate of current vector movement. Six active
vectors (U
16
) of input voltage in PWM rectifier rotate clockwise in synchronous dq
coordinates. For vectors U
0
, U
1
, U
2
, U
3
, U
4
, U
5
, U
6
, U
7
the current derivatives are
denoted respectively as U
p0
, U
p1
, U
p2
, U
p3
, U
p4
, U
p5
, U
p6
, U
p7
(Fig. 2.14).
d
u
L
i
L
jωLi
L
ω
U
1
(
u
s
)
U
3
U
4
U
5
U
6
U
p
1
U
p
2
ξ
2
/
3
*
U
d
c U
2
(
u
s
)
q
Up
6
U
p5
U
p
4
U
p
3
U
p
0
U
p7
Fig. 2.14 Instantaneous position of vectors
PWM rectifier
26
d
q
u
L
i
Lref
i
L
U
p1
U
p2
U
p6
U
p5
U
p4
U
p3
U
p0
U
p7
ξ
Fig. 2.15 Limitation for operation of PWM rectifier
The full current control is possible when the current is kept in specified error area (Fig.
2.15). Fig. 2.14 and Fig. 2.15 presents that any vectors can force current vector inside
error area when angle created by vectors U
p1
and U
p2
is ξ < π. It results from
trigonometrical condition that vectors U
p1,
U
p2,
U
1
and U
2
form an equilateral triangle
for ξ = π where
Ldq Ldq
i L j u ω − is an altitude. Therefore, from simple trigonometrical
relationship, it is possible to define boundary condition as:
sdq Ldq Ldq
u i L j u
2
3
= − ω (2.31)
and after transformation, assumpting that u
Sdq
= 2/3U
dc
, u
Ldq
= E
m
, i
Ldq
= i
Ld
(for UPF)
we get condition for minimal DClink voltage:
[ ]
2 2
) ( 3
Ld m dc
Li E u ω + 〉 and π ξ > . (2.32)
Above equation shows relation between supply voltage (usually constant), output dc
voltage, current (load) and inductance. It also means that sum of vector
Ldq Ldq
i L j u ω − should not exceed linear region of modulation i.e. circle inscribed in the
hexagon (see Section 4.4).
The inductor has to be designed carefully because low inductance will give a high
current ripple and will make the design more depending on the line impedance. The
high value of inductance will give a low current ripple, but simultaneously reduce the
operation range of the rectifier. The voltage drop across the inductance has influence for
the line current. This voltage drop is controlled by the input voltage of the PWM
rectifier but maximal value is limited by the DClink voltage. Consequently, a high
current (high power) through the inductance requires either a high DClink voltage or a
low inductance (low impedance). Therefore, after transformation of equation (2.32) the
maximal inductance can be determinate as:
Ld
m
dc
i
E
u
L
ω
2
2
3
−
〈 . (2.33)
PWM rectifier
27
2.4 SENSORLESS OPERATION
Normally, the PWM rectifier needs three kinds of sensors:
! DCvoltage sensor (1 sensor)
! ACline current sensors (2 or 3 sensors)
! ACline voltage sensors (2 or 3 sensors)
The sensorless methods provide technical and economical advantages to the system
as: simplification, isolation between the power circuit and control system, reliability and
cost effectiveness. The possibility to reduce the number of the expensive sensors have
been studied especially in the field of motor drive application [1], but the rectifier
application differ from the inverter operation in the following reasons:
! Zero vector will shorted the line power,
! The line operates at constant frequency 50Hz and synchronization is necessary.
The most used solution for reducing of sensors include:
! AC voltage and current sensorless,
! AC current sensorless,
! AC voltage sensorless.
AC voltage and current sensorless
Reductions of current sensors especially for AC drives are well known [1]. The two
phase currents may be estimated based on information of DC link current and reference
voltage vector in every PWM period. No fully protection is main practical problem in
the system. Particularly for PWM rectifier the zero vectors (U
0
, U
7
) presents no current
in DClink and three line phases are short circuit simultaneously. New improved
method presented in [30, 115] is to sample DClink current few times in one switching
period. Basic principle of current reconstruction is shown in Fig. 2.16 together with a
voltage vector’s patterns determining the direction of current flow. One active voltage
vector takes it to reconstruct one phase current and another voltage vector is used to
reconstruct a second phase current using values measured from DC current sensor. A
relationship between the applied active vectors and the phase currents measured from
DC link sensor is shown in TABLE 2.2, which is based on eight voltage vectors
composed of six active vectors and two zero vectors.
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
U
0
U
0
U
1
U
1
U
2
U
2
U
7
U
7
T
s
T
s
A
B
C
i
dc
i
a
i
a
i
c
i
c
Fig. 2.16 PWM signals and DC link
current in sector I
Table 2.2 Relationship between voltage vectors of
converter, DClink current and line currents.
Voltage Vector DC link current i
dc
U
1
(100) +i
a
U
2
(110) i
c
U
3
(010) +i
b
U
4
(011) i
a
U
5
(001) +i
c
U
6
(101) i
b
U
0
(000) 0
U
7
(111) 0
PWM rectifier
28
The main problem of AC current estimation based on minimum pulsetime for DClink
current sampling. It appears when either of two active vectors is not present, or is
applied only for a short time. In such a case, it is impossible to reconstruct phase
current. This occur in the case of reference voltage vectors passing one of the six
possible active vectors or a low modulation index (Fig. 2.17). The minimum short time
to obtain a correct estimation depends on the rapidness of the system, delays, cable
length and deadtime [30]. The way to solve the problem is to adjust the PWMpulses or
to allow that no currents information is present in some time period. Therefore
improved compensation consists of calculating the error, which are introduced by the
PWM pulse adjustment and then compensate this error in the next switching period.
Re
Im
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
Fig. 2.17. Voltage vector area requiring the adjustment of PWM signals, when a reference
voltage passes one of possible six active vectors and in case of low modulation index and
overmodulation
The AC voltage and current sensorless methods in spite of cost reduction posses several
disadvantages: higher contents of current ripple, problems with discontinuous
modulation and overmodulation mode [see Section 4.4], sampling is presented few
times per switching state what is not technically convenient, unbalance and start up
condition are not reported.
AC current sensorless
This very simple solution based on inductor voltage (u
I
) measurement in two lines.
Supply voltage can be estimated with assumption that voltage on inductance is equal to
line voltage when the zerovector occurs in converter (Fig. 2.18)
u
L
uS=0
i
L
L
uI
Fig. 2.18. PWM rectifier circuit when the zero voltage vector is applied.
PWM rectifier
29
On the basis of the inductor voltage described in equation (2.34)
dt
di
L u
LR
IR
= (2.34)
the line current can be calculated as:
∫
= dt u
L
i
IR LR
1
(2.35)
Thanks to equation (2.35) the observed current will not be affected by derivation noise,
but it directly reduces the dynamic of the control. This gains problems with overcurrent
protection
AC voltage sensorless
Previous solutions present some over voltage and over current protection troubles.
Therefore the DCvoltage and the ACline current sensors are an important part of the
overvoltage and overcurrent protection, while it is possible to replace the ACline
voltage sensors with a line voltage estimator or virtual flux estimator what is described
in next point.
2.5 VOLTAGE AND VIRTUAL FLUX ESTIMATION
Line voltage estimator [44]
An important requirement for a voltage estimator is to estimate the voltage correct also
under unbalanced conditions and preexisting harmonic voltage distortion. Not only the
fundamental component should be estimated correct, but also the harmonic components
and the voltage unbalance. It gives a higher total power factor [21]. It is possible to
calculate the voltage across the inductance by the current differentiating. The line
voltage can then be estimated by adding reference of the rectifier input voltage to the
calculated voltage drop across the inductor [52]. However, this approach has the
disadvantage that the current is differentiated and noise in the current signal is gained
through the differentiation. To prevent this a voltage estimator based on the power
estimator of [21] can be applied. In [21] the current is sampled and the power is
estimated several times in every switching state.
In conventional space vector modulation (SVM) for threephase voltage source
converters, the AC currents are sampled during the zerovector states because no
switching noise is present and a filter in the current feedback for the current control
loops can be avoided. Using equation (2.36) and (2.37) the estimated active and reactive
power in this special case (zero states) can be expressed as:
0 = 
.

\

+ + =
c
c
b
b
a
a
i
dt
di
i
dt
di
i
dt
di
L p (2.36)

.

\

− =
a
c
c
a
i
dt
di
i
dt
di L
q
3
3
. (2.37)
PWM rectifier
30
It should be noted that in this special case it is only possible to estimate the reactive
power in the inductor. Since powers are DCvalues it is possible to prevent the noise of
the differentiated current by use of a simple (digital) low pass filter. This ensures a
robust and noise insensitive performance of the voltage estimator.
Based on instantaneous power theory, the estimated voltages across the inductance is:
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
+
=
(
¸
(
¸
q i i
i i
i i u
u
L L
L L
I
I
L L
0
1
2 2
α β
β α
β
α
β α
(2.38)
where:
u
Iα
, u
Iβ
are the estimated values of the threephase voltages across the inductance L, in
the fixed αβ coordinates.
The estimated line voltage u
L(est)
can now be found by adding the voltage reference of
the PWM rectifier to the estimated inductor voltage [44].
I S est L
u u u + =
) (
(2.39)
Virtual flux estimator
The voltage imposed by the line power in combination with the AC side inductors are
assumed to be quantities related to a virtual AC motor as shown in Fig. 2.19.
Ua
Uc
Ub
R
R
R
L
L
L
A
B
C
L
O
A
D
M
PWM Rectifier
AC  side
DC  side
U
d
c
C
Virtual AC Motor
Fig. 2.19. Threephase PWM rectifier system with ACside presented as virtual AC motor
Thus, R and L represent the stator resistance and the stator leakage inductance of the
virtual motor and phasetophase line voltages: U
ab
, U
bc
, U
ca
would be induced by a
virtual air gap flux. In other words the integration of the voltages leads to a virtual line
flux vector Ψ
L
, in stationary αβ coordinates (Fig. 2.20).
PWM rectifier
31
α
β
d
q
(fixed)
rotated
Ψ
L
u
L
i
L
i
q
i
d
γ
L
=ωt
u
S
u
I
Fig. 2.20. Reference coordinates and vectors
Ψ
L
– virtual line flux vector, u
S
– converter voltage vector, u
L
 line voltage vector,
u
I
– inductance voltage vector, i
L
– line current vector
Similarly to Eq. (2.39) a virtual flux equation can be presented as [65, 102] (Fig. 2.21):
I S est L
ψ ψ ψ + =
) (
(2.40)
A
B
C
M
PWM Rectifier
AC  side
DC  side
U
d
c
POWER FLOW
I
dc
A
B
C
M
PWM Rectifier
AC  side
DC  side
U
d
c
POWER FLOW
I
dc
u
S
ψ
S
u
L
u
I
ψ
L
ψ
I
i
L
d
q
ϕ
1
= 0
ο
u
S
ψ
S
u
L
u
I
ψ
L
ψ
I
i
L
d
q
ϕ
1
= 180
ο
Fig. 2.21 Relation between voltage and flux for different power flow direction in PWM rectifier.
PWM rectifier
32
Based on the measured DClink voltage U
dc
and the converter switch states S
a
, S
b
, S
c
the
rectifier input voltages are estimated as follows
)) (
2
1
(
3
2
c b a dc S
S S S U u + − =
α
(2.41a)
) (
2
1
c b dc S
S S U u − =
β
(2.41b)
Then, the virtual flux Ψ
L
components are calculated from the (2.41) in stationary (αβ)
coordinates system
∫
+ = Ψ dt
dt
di
L u
L
S est L
) (
) (
α
α α
(2.42a)
∫
+ = Ψ dt
dt
di
L u
L
S est L
) (
) (
β
β β
(2.42b)
The virtual flux components calculation is shown in Fig. 2.22.
Ψ
Lα
u
sβ
u
sα
1
T
N
1
T
N
∫
_
∫
_
T
1
T
1
Ψ
Lβ
i
Lα
i
Lβ
L
Fig. 2.22. Block scheme of virtual flux estimator with first order filter.
Direct Power Control (DPC)
33
3. VOLTAGE AND VIRTUAL FLUX BASED DIRECT POWER CONTROL
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Control of PWM rectifier can be considered as a dual problem to vector control of an
induction motor (Fig. 3.1) [4,110]. Various control strategies have been proposed in
recent works on this type PWM converter. Although these control strategies can
achieve the same main goals, such as the high power factor and nearsinusoidal current
waveforms, their principles differ. Particularly, the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC),
which guarantees high dynamics and static performance via an internal current control
loops, has become very popular and has constantly been developed and improved [46,
48], [51], [5354]. Consequently, the final configuration and performance of the VOC
system largely depends on the quality of the applied current control strategy [6].
Another control strategy called Direct Power Control (DPC) is based on the
instantaneous active and reactive power control loops [21], [22]. In DPC there are no
internal current control loops and no PWM modulator block, because the converter
switching states are selected by a switching table based on the instantaneous errors
between the commanded and estimated values of active and reactive power. Therefore,
the key point of the DPC implementation is a correct and fast estimation of the active
and reactive line power.
PWM
i
b
i
a
L
i
c
L
L
PWM
Rectifier Inverter
IM
U
a
U
b
U
c
D P C D T C
V O C F O C
I n d u c t i o n
M o t o r C o n t r o l
P W M R e c t i f i e r
C o n t r o l
Fig.3.1 Relationship between control of PWM line rectifier and PWM inverter – fed IM
The control techniques for PWM rectifier can be generally classified as voltage based
and virtual flux based, as shown in Fig. 3.2. The virtual flux based method corresponds
to direct analogy of IM control.
Control strategies for PWM Rectifier
Voltage Based
Control
Virtual Flux Based
Control
VOC VFDPC VFOC DPC
Fig. 3.2 Classification of control methods for PWM rectifier
Direct Power Control (DPC)
34
3.2 BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DIRECT POWER CONTROL (DPC)
The main idea of DPC proposed in [22] and next developed by [21] is similar to the
wellknown Direct Torque Control (DTC) for induction motors. Instead of torque and
stator flux the instantaneous active (p) and reactive (q) powers are controlled (Fig.
3.3).
Current measurement
Instantaneous power &
linevoltage
or virtual flux estimator
i
a,b
Load
U
a
Switching
Table
S
a
S
b
S
c
PI
U
dcref
U
dc

p
ref
q
ref
p
q
S
a
S
b
S
c
PWM
sector
γ
UL
or γ
ΨL
i
a
i
b
i
c
U
b
U
c
selection
U
dc


L
L
L
= 0
d
q
d
p
Fig. 3.3 Block scheme of DPC.
The commands of reactive power q
ref
(set to zero for unity power factor) and active
power p
ref
(delivered from the outer PIDC voltage controller) are compared with the
estimated q and p values (described in section 3.3 and 3.4), in reactive and active
power hysteresis controllers, respectively.
The digitized output signal of the reactive power controller is defined as:
d
q
= 1 for q < q
ref
 H
q
(3.1a)
d
q
= 0 for q > q
ref
+ H
q
, (3.1b)
and similarly of the active power controller as
d
p
= 1 for p < p
ref
 H
p
(3.2a)
d
p
= 0 for p > p
ref
+ H
p
, (3.2b)
where: H
q
& H
p
are the hysteresis bands.
The digitized variables d
p
, d
q
and the voltage vector position γ
UL
= arc tg (u
Lα
/u
Lβ
) or
flux vector position γ
ΨL
= arc tg (ψ
Lα
/ψ
Lβ
) form a digital word, which by accessing the
address of the lookup table selects the appropriate voltage vector according to the
switching table (described in section 3.5).
The region of the voltage or flux vector position is divided into twelve sectors, as
shown in Fig. 3.5 and the sectors can be numerically expressed as:
6
) 1 (
6
) 2 (
π
γ
π
− < ≤ − n n
n
where n = 1, 2...12 (3.3)
Direct Power Control (DPC)
35
β
α
β
α
γ
2
γ
1
γ
3
γ
4
γ
5
γ
6
γ
7
γ
8
γ
9
γ
10
γ
11
γ
12
γ
4
γ
5
γ
6
γ
7
γ
8
γ
9
γ
10
γ
11
γ
12
γ
1
γ
2
γ
3
Fig. 3.5 Sector selection for DPC and VFDPC
Note, that the sampling frequency has to be about few times higher than the average
switching frequency. This very simple solution allows precisely control of
instantaneous active and reactive power and errors are only limited by the hysteresis
band. No transformation into rotating coordinates is needed and the equations are easy
implemented. This method deals with instantaneous variables, therefore, estimated
values contain not only a fundamental but also harmonic components. This feature also
improves the total power factor and efficiency [21].
Further improvements regarding VFDPC operation can be achieved by using sector
detection with PLL (PhaseLocked Loop) generator instead of zero crossing voltage
detector (Fig. 3.6). This guarantees a very stable and free of disturbances sector
detection, even under operation with distorted and unbalanced line voltages (Fig.3.19).
Current measurement
Virtual flux estimator
(VFE)
i
a,b
Load
U
a
Switching
Table
S
A
S
B
S
C
PI
U
dcref
U
dc

p
ref
q
ref
p
q
S
A
S
B
S
C
PWM
sector γ
i
a
i
b
i
c
U
b
U
c
selection
U
dc


L
L
L
Instantaneous
active & reactive
power estimator
(PE)
i
Lα
i
Lβ
Ψ
Lα
Ψ
Lβ
PLL
d
q
d
p
Fig. 3.6. Block scheme of VFDPC with PLL generator
Direct Power Control (DPC)
36
3.3 INSTANTANEOUS POWER ESTIMATION BASED ON THE LINE VOLTAGE
The main idea of voltage based power estimation for DPC was proposed in [2122].
The instantaneous active and reactive powers are defined by the product of the three
phase voltages and currents (2.252.26). The instantaneous values of active (p) and
reactive power (q) in AC voltage sensorless system are estimated by Eqs. (3.8) and
(3.9). The active power p is the scalar product of the current and the voltage, whereas
the reactive power q is calculated as a vector product of them. The first part of both
equations represents power in the inductance and the second part is the power of the
rectifier.
) ( ) (
c
i
c
S
b
i
b
S
a
i
a
S
dc
U
c
i
dt
c
di
b
i
dt
b
di
a
i
dt
a
di
L p + + + + + = (3.8)
)]} ( ) ( ) ( [ ) ( 3 {
3
1
b
i
a
i
c
S
a
i
c
i
b
S
c
i
b
i
a
S
dc
U
a
i
dt
c
di
c
i
dt
a
di
L q − + − + − − − =
(3.9)
As can be seen in (3.8) and (3.9), the form of equations have to be changed according
to the switching state of the converter, and both equations require the knowledge of the
line inductance L. Supply voltage usually is constant, therefore the instantaneous active
and reactive powers are proportional to the i
Ld
and i
Lq
.
The ACline voltage sector is necessary to read the switching table, therefore
knowledge of the line voltage is essential. However, once the estimated values of
active and reactive power are calculated and the ACline currents are known, the line
voltage can easily be calculated from instantaneous power theory as:
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
+
=
(
¸
(
¸
q
p
i i
i i
i i u
u
L L
L L
L
L
L L α β
β α
β
α
β α
2 2
1
(3.10)
The instantaneous power and AC voltage estimators are shown in Fig. 3.7.
i n s t a n t a n e o u s a c t i v e a n d
r e a c t i v e p o w e r e s t i m a t o r
E q u a t i o n s ( 3 . 8 ) a n d ( 3 . 9 )
v o l t a g e
e s t i m a t o r
E q u a t i o n
( 3 . 1 0 )
2
3
a b c
α β
q p u
L α
u
L β
i
a
i
b
i
L α
i
L β
u
d c
S
a
S
b
S
c
Fig. 3.7 Instantaneous power estimator based on line voltage.
Direct Power Control (DPC)
37
In spite of the simplicity, this power estimation method has several disadvantages such
as:
• high values of the line inductance and sampling frequency are needed (important
point for the estimator, because a smooth shape of current is needed).
• power estimation depends on the switching state. Therefore, calculation of the
power and voltage should be avoided at the moment of switching, because of high
estimation errors.
3.4 INSTANTANEOUS POWER ESTIMATION BASED ON THE VIRTUAL FLUX
The Virtual Flux (VF) based approach has been proposed by Author to improve the
VOC [42, 56]. Here it will be applied for instantaneous power estimation, where
voltage imposed by the line power in combination with the AC side inductors are
assumed to be quantities related to a virtual AC motor as shown in section 2.5.
With the definitions
dt u
L L
∫
= Ψ (3.11)
where
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
=
bc
ab
L
L
L
u
u
u
u
u
2 / 3 0
2 / 1 1
3 / 2
β
α
(3.12)
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
Ψ
Ψ
= Ψ
∫
∫
dt u
dt u
L
L
L
L
L
β
α
β
α
(3.13)
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
=
b
a
L
L
L
i
i
i
i
i
3 2 / 3
0 2 / 3
3 / 2
β
α
(3.14)
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
=
(
¸
(
¸
= =
CM
BM
AM
s
s
conv S
u
u
u
u
u
u u
2 / 3 2 / 3 0
2 / 1 2 / 1 1
3 / 2
β
α
(3.15)
the voltage equation can be written as
) (
S L L L
i L
dt
d
i R u Ψ + + = . (3.16a)
In practice, R can be neglected, giving
S
L
S
L
L
u
dt
i d
L
dt
d
dt
i d
L u + = Ψ + = (3.16b)
Using complex notation, the instantaneous power can be calculated as follows:
) Re(
∗
⋅ =
L L
i u p (3.17a)
) Im(
∗
⋅ =
L L
i u q (3.17b)
Direct Power Control (DPC)
38
where * denotes the conjugate line current vector. The line voltage can be expressed by
the virtual flux as
t j
L
t j L t j
L L L
e j e
dt
d
e
dt
d
dt
d
u
ω ω ω
ωΨ +
Ψ
= Ψ = Ψ = ) (
L
t j L
j e
dt
d
Ψ +
Ψ
= ω
ω
(3.18)
where Ψ
L
denotes the space vector and Ψ
L
its amplitude. For the virtual flux oriented
dq coordinates (Fig. 2.20), Ψ
L
=Ψ
Ld
, and the instantaneous active power can be
calculated from (3.17a) and (3.18) as
Lq Ld Ld
Ld
i i
dt
d
p Ψ +
Ψ
= ω (3.19)
For sinusoidal and balanced line voltages, equation (3.19) is reduced to
0 =
Ψ
dt
d
Ld
(3.20)
Lq Ld
i p Ψ = ω (3.21)
which means that only the current components orthogonal to the flux Ψ
L
vector,
produce the instantaneous active power. Similarly, the instantaneous reactive power
can be calculated as:
Ld Ld Lq
Ld
i i
dt
d
q Ψ +
Ψ
− = ω (3.22)
and with (3.20) it is reduced to:
Ld Ld
i q Ψ =ω (3.23)
However, to avoid coordinate transformation into dq coordinates, the power estimator
for the DPC system should use statororiented quantities, in αβ coordinates
(Fig.2.20).
Using (3.17) and (3.18)
( )
β α
β α
ω
L L
L L
L
j j
dt
d
j
dt
d
u Ψ + Ψ +
Ψ
+
Ψ
=
(3.24)
( ) ( )
β α β α
β α
ω
L L L L
L L
L L
ji i j j
dt
d
j
dt
d
i u −
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
Ψ + Ψ +
Ψ
+
Ψ
= *
(3.25)
That gives
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
Ψ − Ψ +
Ψ
+
Ψ
=
α β β α β
β
α
α
ω
L L L L L
L
L
L
i i i
dt
d
i
dt
d
p
(3.26a)
and
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
Ψ + Ψ +
Ψ
+
Ψ
− =
β β α α α
β
β
α
ω
L L L L L
L
L
L
i i i
dt
d
i
dt
d
q
. (3.26b)
Direct Power Control (DPC)
39
For sinusoidal and balanced line voltage the derivatives of the flux amplitudes are
zero. The instantaneous active and reactive powers can be computed as [1719]
) (
α β β α
ω
L L L L
i i p Ψ − Ψ ⋅ = (3.27a)
) (
β β α α
ω
L L L L
i i q Ψ + Ψ ⋅ = . (3.27b)
The measured line currents i
a
, i
b
and the estimated virtual flux components Ψ
Lα
,Ψ
Lβ
are delivered to the instantaneous power estimator block (PE) as depicted in Fig. 3.8.
f l u x e s t i m a t o r
E q u a t i o n s ( 2 . 4 2 a , b )
in s t a n t a n e o u s
a c t iv e a n d r e a c t iv e
p o w e r e s t i m a t o r
E q u a t io n s ( 3 . 2 7 a , b )
P E
2
3
a b c
α β
q p ψ
Lα
ψ
Lβ
i
a
i
b
i
L α
i
L β
u
d c
S
A
S
B
S
c
Fig. 3.8 Instantaneous power estimator based on virtual flux
3.5 SWITCHING TABLE
It can be seen in Fig. 3.9, that the instantaneous active and reactive power depends on
position of converter voltage vector. It has indirect influence on inductance voltage as
well as phase and amplitude of line current. Therefore, different pattern of switching
table can be applied to direct control (DTC, DPC). It influence control condition as:
instantaneous power and current ripple, switching frequency and dynamic
performance. Some works, propose different switching tables for DTC but we cannot
find too much reference for DPC. For drives exist more switching table techniques
because of wide range of output frequency and dynamic demands [2429]. For PWM
rectifier we have constant line frequency and only instantaneous power varies. Fig. 3.9
presents four different situations, which illustrate the variations of instantaneous
power. Point M presents reference values of active and reactive power.
Direct Power Control (DPC)
40
(a) (b)
V1
V2 V3
V4
V5 V6
α αα α
β ββ β
u
L
u
S
jω ωω ωLi
L
i
L
*
i
L
∆i
L
p
ref
q
ref
M
V1
V2 V3
V4
V5 V6
α αα α
β ββ β
u
L
u
S
jω ωω ωLi
L
i
L
*
i
L
∆i
L
M
p
ref
q
ref
(c) (d)
V1
V2 V3
V4
V5 V6
α αα α
β ββ β
u
L
u
S
jω ωω ωLi
L
i
L
*
i
L
∆i
L
M
p
ref
q
ref
V1
V2 V3
V4
V5 V6
α αα α
β ββ β
u
L
u
S
jω ωω ωLi
L
i
L
*
i
L
∆i
L
M
p
ref
q
ref
Fig. 3.9 Instantaneous power variation:
a) p
ref
<p, q
ref
>q (0,1); b) p
ref
>p, q
ref
>q (1,1); c) p
ref
>p, q
ref
<q (1,0); d) p
ref
<p, q
ref
<q (0,0);
The selection of vector is made so that the error between q and q
ref
should be within the
limits (Eqs. (3.1),(3.2)). It depends not only on the error of the amplitude but also the
direction of q as shown in Fig. 3.10.
α
β
sector 1
sector 4
(U
3
,U
5
)
q
r
e
f
sector 2
(U
2
,U
4
)
sector 3
(U
2
,U
4
)
sector 8
sector 5
(U
3
,U
5
)
sector 6
(U
4
,U
6
)
sector 7
(U
4
,U
6
)
sector 2 sector 3
sector 4 sector 5
q
ref
Hq
Hq
t
Fig.3.10 Selection of voltage vectors for q
Direct Power Control (DPC)
41
Some behaviour of DPC are not satisfactory. For instance when the instantaneous
reactive power vector is close to one of sector boundary, two of four possible active
vectors are wrong. These wrong vectors can only change the instantaneous active
power without correction of the reactive power error. This is easy visible on a current.
A few methods to improve the DPC behaviour in the sector bonders is well known.
One of them is to add more sectors or hysteresis levels. Therefore, switching table are
generally constructed with difference in:
! number of sectors,
! dynamic performance,
! two and three level hysteresis controllers.
Number of sectors
Usually the vectors plane is divided for 6 (3. 28) or 12 (3. 29) sectors (Fig. 3.11). It has
influence for switching table construction (Table 3.1).
α
β
sector 1
sector 4
sector 2 sector 3
sector 5 sector 6
(a)
α
β
sector 1
sector 4
sector 2
sector 3
sector 8
sector 5
sector 6
sector 7
sector 9
sector 10
sector 12
sector 11
(b)
Fig. 3.11 Voltage plane with a) 6 sectors b) 12 sectors
( ) ( )
6
1 2
6
3 2
π
γ
π
− < ≤ − n n
n
n = 1, 2, ..., 6 (3.28)
( ) ( )
6
1
6
2
π
γ
π
− < ≤ − n n
n
n = 1, 2, ..., 12 (3.29)
Table 3.1.b Switching table for 6 sectors
dp dq Sector A
0 UB 1
1 U0
0 UB 0
1 UA
UA=U1(100),U2(110),U3(010),U4(011),U5(001),U6(101)
UB=U6(101),U1(100),U2(110),U3(010),U4(011),U5(001)
U0=U0(000),U7(111)
Table 3.1.a Switching table for 12 sectors
dp dq Sector A Sector B
0 UB U7 1
1 U0 U7
0 UB 0
1 UA
UA=U1(100),U2(110),U3(010),U4(011),U5(001),U6(101)
UB=U6(101),U1(100),U2(110),U3(010),U4(011),U5(001)
U0=U0(000),U7(111)
When region of the voltage vector position is divided into twelve sectors, the area
between adjoining vectors contain two sectors. Sector A is located closer to U
A
and
sector B closer to U
B
.
Direct Power Control (DPC)
42
Hysteresis controllers
The wide of the instantaneous active and reactive hysteresis band have a relevant effect
on the converter performance. In particular, the harmonic current distortion, the
average converter switching frequency, the power pulsation and the losses are strongly
affected by the hysteresis wide. The controllers proposed by [21] in classical DPC are
two level comparators for instantaneous active and reactive power (Fig 3.12a). Three
level comparators can provide further improvements. Possible combinations of
hysteresis controllers for active and reactive power are presented in Fig. 3.12.
1
0
− Η − Η − Η − Ηp
1
 1
0
Η ΗΗ Ηp
−Η −Η −Η −Ηp
a) b) c )
Η ΗΗ Ηp
1
0
− Η − Η − Η − Ηq Η ΗΗ Ηq
1
0
−Η −Η −Η −Ηq Η ΗΗ Ηq
1
1
0
Η ΗΗ Ηp
− Η − Η − Η − Ηp
1
1
0
Η ΗΗ Ηq
− Η − Η − Η − Ηq
d
p
d
p
d
p
d
q
d
q
d
q
Fig. 3.12 Hysteresis controllers: a) two level; b) mixed two and three level; c) three levels.
The two level hysteresis controllers for instantaneous reactive power can be described
as
if ∆q > H
q
then d
q
= 1
if H
q
≤ ∆q ≤ H
q
and d∆q/dt > 0 then d
q
= 0
if H
q
≤ ∆q ≤ H
q
and d∆q/dt < 0 then d
q
= 1
if ∆q < H
q
then d
q
= 0.
The three level hysteresis controllers for the instantaneous active power can be
described as a sum of two level hysteresis
if ∆p > H
p
then d
p
= 1
if 0 ≤ ∆p ≤ H
p
and d∆p/dt > 0 then d
p
= 0
if 0 ≤ ∆p ≤ H
p
and d∆p/dt < 0 then d
p
= 1
if H
q
≤ ∆p ≤ 0 and d∆p/dt > 0 then d
p
= 1
if H
q
≤ ∆p ≤ 0 and d∆p/dt < 0 then d
p
= 0
if ∆p < H
p
then d
p
= 1.
Dynamic performance
Combinations of each converter voltage space vector used for instantaneous active and
reactive power variation are summarized in Table 3.3. Situation is presented for vector
located in the kth sector (k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) of the α, β plane as shown in Fig. 3.13
[24]. In the table, a single arrow means a small variation, whereas two arrows mean a
large variation. As it appears from the table, an increment of reactive power (↑) is
obtained by applying the space vector U
K,
U
K+1
and U
K+2
. Conversely, a decrement of
reactive power (↓) is obtained by applying vector U
K2,
U
K1,
or U
K+3
. Active power
increase when U
K+2,
U
K+3,
U
K+1,
U
K2
or U
0,
U
7
are applied and active power decrease
when U
K,
U
K1
are applied.
Direct Power Control (DPC)
43
U
K+1
U
K+2
U
K+3
U
K2
U
K1
U
K
U
0,7
sector k
i
L
U
pK+1
U
pK+2
U
pK+3
U
pK
U
pK2
U
pK1
U
p0,7
α
β
Fig. 3.13 Variation of converter voltage space vector
Table 3.3 Instantaneous active and reactive variations due to the applied voltage vectors
U
K2
U
K1
U
K
U
K+1
U
K+2
U
K+3
U
0
U
7
q ↓↓ ↓ ↑↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑↓
p ↑ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑↑ ↑↑ ↑
General features of switching table and hysteresis controllers
! The switching frequency depends on the hysteresis wide of active and reactive
power comparators.
! By using threelevel comparators, the zero vectors are naturally and systematically
selected. Thus, the number of switching is considerably smaller than in the system
with twolevel hysteresis comparators.
! Zero vectors decrease switching frequency but it provides shortcircuit for the line
to line voltage.
! Zero vectors U
0
(000) and U
7
(111)
should be appropriate chosen.
! For DPC only the neighbour vectors should be selected what decrease dynamics
but provide low current and power ripples (low THD).
! Switching table with PLL (PhaseLocked Loop) sector detection guarantees a very
stable and free of disturbances operation, even under distorted and unbalanced line
voltages.
! 12 sectors provide more accurate voltage vector selection.
Direct Power Control (DPC)
44
3.6 SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
To study the operation of the VFDPC system under different line conditions and to
carry out a comparative investigation, the PWM rectifier with the whole control scheme
has been simulated using the SABER software [A.4]. The main electrical parameters of
the power circuit and control data are given in the Table A.4.1.
The simulation study has been performed with two main objectives:
! explaining and presenting the steady state operation of the proposed by Author VF
DPC with a purely sinusoidal and distorted unbalanced supply line voltage, as well as
performance comparison with the conventional scheme where the instantaneous power
is estimated based on calculated voltage (not virtual flux) signals [21];
! presenting the dynamic performance of power control.
The simulated waveforms for the proposed by Author VFDPC and for the DPC
reported in [21] are shown in Fig. 3.14. These results were obtained for purely
sinusoidal supply line voltage. Similarly Fig. 3.15 shows on oscilogram for distorted
(5% of 5th harmonic) and unbalanced (4,5%) line voltages (see A.1). Fig. 3.15 and Fig.
3.16 show that VFDPC provides sinusoidal and balanced line currents even at distorted
and unbalanced supply voltage. This is thanks to fact that voltage was replaced by
virtual flux.
The dynamic behaviour under a step change of the load is presented in Fig. 3.21. Note,
that in spite of the lower sampling frequency (50 kHz), the VF based power estimator
gives much less noisy instantaneous active and reactive power signals (Fig. 3.21b) in
comparison to the conventional DPC system with 80 kHz sampling frequency (Fig.
3.21a). This is thanks to the natural lowpass filter behaviour of the integrators used in
(2.42) (because kth harmonics are reduced by a factor 1/k and the ripple caused by high
frequency power transistor switching is effectively damped). Consequently, the
derivation of the line current, which is necessary in conventional DPC for sensorless
voltage estimation, is in the VFDPC eliminated. However, the dynamic behaviour of
both control systems, are identical (see Fig. 3.21). The excellent dynamic properties of
the VFDPC system at distorted and unbalanced supply voltage are shown in Fig. 3.22.
Experimental results were realized on laboratory setup presented in A.6. The main
electrical parameters of the power circuit and control data are given in the Table A.6.2.
The experimental results are measured for significantly distorted line voltage what is
presented in Fig. 3.17. Steady state operation for DPC and VFDPC are shown in Fig.
3.18  3.20. The shape of the current for conventional DPC is strongly distorted because
two undesirable conditions are applied:
# sampling time was 20µs (should be about 10µs [21]),
# the line voltage was not purely sinusoidal.
VFDPC in comparison with the conventional solution at the same condition provides
sinusoidal current (Fig. 3.193.20) with low total harmonic distortion. The dynamic
behaviour under a step change of the load for VFDPC are shown in Fig. 3.233.24.
Direct Power Control (DPC)
45
STEADY STATE BEHAVIOUR
! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATION)
(a) (b)
Fig. 3.14 Simulated basic signal waveforms and line current harmonic spectrum under purely
sinusoidal line voltage: a) conventional DPC presented in [21], b) proposed VFDPC,.
From the top: line voltage, estimated line voltage (left) and estimated virtual flux (right), line
currents, instantaneous active and reactive power, harmonic spectrum of the line current.
DPC THD = 5.6%, VFDPC THD = 5.2%.
! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATION)
Fig. 3.15. Simulated waveforms and line current harmonic spectrum under predistorted (5%
of 5
th
harmonic) and unbalanced (4.5%) line voltage for conventional DPC and VFDPC.
From the top: line voltage, estimated line voltage(left) and virtual flux (right), line currents,
harmonic spectrum of the line current.
Direct Power Control (DPC)
46
Fig. 3.16. Simulated basic signal waveforms in the VFDPC under predistorted (5% of 5
th
harmonic) and unbalanced (4.5%) line voltage.
From the top: line voltages, line currents. THD = 5.6%
! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (EXPERIMENT)
U
L
U
dif
Fig.3.17. Line voltage with harmonic spectrum
(u
L
– line voltage, u
dif
distortion from purely sinusoidal supply line voltage).
Direct Power Control (DPC)
47
U
L
I
L
Ψ
L
Fig.3.18. Experimental waveforms with distorted line voltage for conventional DPC.
From the top: line voltage, line currents (5A/div) and estimated virtual flux.
U
L
I
L
Ψ
L
Fig.3.19. Experimental waveforms with distorted line voltage for VF DPC.
From the top: line voltage, line currents (5A/div) and estimated virtual flux
Direct Power Control (DPC)
48
U
L
I
L
p
q
0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0
Fig.3.20. Experimental waveforms with distorted line voltage for VFDPC. From the top: line
voltage, line currents (5A/div), instantaneous active (2 kW/div) and reactive power (2 kVAr/div),
harmonic spectrum of line current (THD = 5,6%) [17].
Direct Power Control (DPC)
49
DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR
! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATION)
(a) (b)
Fig. 3.21. Transient of the step change of the load:
(a) conventional DPC presented in [21], (b) proposed VFDPC,.
From the top: line voltage, line currents, instantaneous active and reactive power.
! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATIONS)
(a) (b)
Fig. 3.22. Transient to the step change of the load in the VFDPC:
(a) load increasing (b) load decreasing.
From the top: line voltages, line currents, instantaneous active and reactive power.
Direct Power Control (DPC)
50
! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (EXPERIMENT)
U
L
I
L
p
q
Fig. 3.23. Transient of the step change of the load in the improved VFDPC: load increasing.
From the top: line voltages, line currents (5A/div),
instantaneous active (2 kW/div) and reactive power (2 kVAr/div).
Fig. 3.24 Transient of the step change of the load in the improved VFDPC: startup of
converter. From the top: line voltages, line currents (5A/div),
instantaneous active (2 kW/div) and reactive power (2 kVAr/div).
Direct Power Control (DPC)
51
3.8 SUMMARY
The presented DPC system constitutes a viable alternative to the VOC system
[see Chapter 4] of PWM line rectifiers. However, conventional solution shown
by [21] possess several disadvantages:
! the estimated values are changed every time according to the switching state
of the converter, therefore, it is important to have high sampling frequency.
(good performance is obtained at 80kHz sampling frequency, it means that
result precisely depends on sampling time),
! the switching frequency is not constant, therefore, a high value of
inductance is needed (about 10%). (this is an important point for the line
voltage estimation because a smooth shape of current is needed),
! the wide range of the variable switching frequency can be problem, when
designing the necessary LC input filter,
! calculation of power and voltage should be avoided at the moment of
switching because it gives high errors of the estimated values.
Based on duality with a PWM inverterfed induction motor, a new method of
instantaneous active and reactive power calculation has been proposed. This
method uses the estimated Virtual Flux (VF) vector instead of the line voltage
vector. Consequently, voltage sensorless line power estimation is much less
noisy thanks to the natural lowpass behaviour of the integrator used in the
calculation algorithm. Also, differentiation of the line current is avoided in this
scheme. So, the presented VFDPC of PWM rectifier has the following features
and advantages:
! no line voltage sensors are required,
! simple and noise robust power estimation algorithm, easy to implement in
a DSP,
! lower sampling frequency (as conventional DPC [21]),
! sinusoidal line currents (low THD),
! no separate PWM voltage modulation block,
! no current regulation loops,
! coordinate transformation and PI controllers are not required,
! high dynamic, decoupled active and reactive power control,
! power and voltage estimation gives possibility to obtain instantaneous
variables with all harmonic components, what have influence for
improvement of total power factor and efficiency [21].
The typical disadvantages are:
! variable switching frequency,
! fast microprocessor and A/D converters, are required.
As shown in the Chapter 3, thanks to duality phenomena, an experience with the
high performance decoupled PWM inverterfed induction motor control can be used
to improve properties of the PWM rectifier control.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
52
4. VOLTAGE AND VIRTUAL FLUX ORIENTED CONTROL (VOC, VFOC)
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Similarly as in FOC of an induction motor [4], the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC) and
Virtual Flux Oriented Control (VFOC) for line side PWM rectifier is based on
coordinate transformation between stationary αβ and synchronous rotating dq
reference system. Both strategies guarantees fast transient response and high static
performance via an internal current control loops. Consequently, the final configuration
and performance of system largely depends on the quality of applied current control
strategy [6]. The easiest solution is hysteresis current control that provides a fast
dynamic response, good accuracy, no DC offset and high robustness. However the
major problem of hysteresis control is that its average switching frequency varies with
the load current, which makes the switching pattern uneven and random, thus, resulting
in additional stress on switching devices and difficulties of LC input filter design.
Therefore, several strategies are reported in literature to improve performance of current
control [2], [3840], [6869]. Among presented regulators the widely used scheme for
high performance current control is the dq synchronous controller, where the currents
being regulated are DC quantities what eliminates steady state error.
4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE VOLTAGE ORIENTED CONTROL (VOC)
The conventional control system uses closedloop current control in rotating
reference frame, the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC) scheme is shown in Fig. 4.1.
PWM
L
O
A
D

i
b
PI
U
dc
S
c
S
a
S
b
i
a
L
i
c
L
L
Current measurement
&
line voltage estimation
d q
PWM Adaptive
Modulator
u
u
u u
α − β
u
Lβ
u
Lα
α − β
d  q
α − β
k  γ
U
b
i
b
i
a
Sβ Sα
Sq
Sd
PI PI
∆i
d
∆i
q


i
q_ref
=0 i
d_ref
∆U
dc
U
dc_ref
i
Lα
i
Lβ
i
Ld
i
Lq
U
a
U
c
sinγ
UL
sinγ
UL
cosγ
UL
cosγ
UL
Fig. 4.1 Block scheme of AC voltage sensorless VOC
A characteristic feature for this current controller is processing of signals in two
coordinate systems. The first is stationary αβ and the second is synchronously rotating
dq coordinate system. Three phase measured values are converted to equivalent two
phase system αβ and then are transformed to rotating coordinate system in a block
αβ/dq:
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
53
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
−
=
(
¸
(
¸
β
α
γ γ
γ γ
k
k
k
k
UL UL
UL UL
q
d
cos sin
sin cos
(4.1a)
Thanks to this type of transformation the control values are DC signals. An inverse
transformation dq/αβ is achieved on the output of control system and it gives a result
the rectifier reference signals in stationary coordinate:
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
−
=
(
¸
(
¸
q
d
UL UL
UL UL
k
k
k
k
γ γ
γ γ
β
α
cos sin
sin cos
(4.1b)
For both coordinate transformation the angle of the voltage vector γ
UL
is defined as:
( ) ( )
2 2
/ sin
β α β
γ
L L L UL
u u u + = (4.2a)
( ) ( )
2 2
/ cos
β α α
γ
L L L UL
u u u + = . (4.2b)
In voltage oriented dq coordinates, the AC line current vector i
L
is split into two
rectangular components i
L
=
[i
Ld
, i
Lq
] (Fig. 4.2)
.
The component i
Lq
determinates reactive
power, whereas i
Ld
decides about active power flow. Thus the reactive and the active
power can be controlled independently. The UPF condition is met when the line current
vector, i
L
, is aligned with the line voltage vector, u
L
(Fig. 2.7b) By placing the daxis of
the rotating coordinates on the line voltage vector a simplified dynamic model can be
obtained.
α−axis
(fixed)
β−axis
daxis
(rotating)
qaxis
i
L
i
Ld
i
Lq
u
L
= u
Ld
γ
UL
=ωt
ω
i
Lα
i
Lβ
u
Lα
u
Lβ
ϕ
Fig. 4.2: Vector diagram of VOC. Coordinate transformation of line current, line voltage and
rectifier input voltage from stationary α−β coordinates to rotating dq coordinates.
The voltage equations in the dq synchronous reference frame in accordance with
equations 2.19 are as follows:
Lq Sd
Ld
Ld Ld
i L u
dt
di
L i R u ⋅ ⋅ − + + ⋅ = ω (4.3)
Ld Sq
Lq
Lq Lq
i L u
dt
di
L i R u ⋅ ⋅ + + + ⋅ = ω (4.4)
Regarding to Fig. 4.1, the qaxis current is set to zero in all condition for unity power
factor control while the reference current i
Ld
is set by the DClink voltage controller and
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
54
controls the active power flow between the supply and the DClink. For R ≈ 0 equations
(4.3), (4.4) can be reduced to:
Lq Sd
Ld
Ld
i L u
dt
di
L u ⋅ ⋅ − + = ω (4.5)
Ld Sq
Lq
i L u
dt
di
L ⋅ ⋅ + + = ω 0 (4.6)
Assuming that the qaxis current is well regulated to zero, the following equations hold
true
Sd
Ld
Ld
u
dt
di
L u + = (4.7)
Ld Sq
i L u ⋅ ⋅ + = ω 0 (4.8)
As current controller, the PItype can be used. However, the PI current controller has no
satisfactory tracing performance, especially, for the coupled system described by Eqs.
(4.5), (4.6). Therefore for high performance application with accuracy current tracking
at dynamic state the decoupled controller diagram for the PWM rectifier should be
applied what is shown in Fig. 4.3 [49]:
d Ld Lq Sd
u u Li u ∆ + + =ω (4.9)
q Ld Sq
u Li u ∆ + − = ω (4.10)
where ∆ is the output signals of the current controllers
∫
− + − = ∆
∗ ∗
dt i i k i i k u
d d i d d p d
) ( ) ( (4.11)
∫
− + − = ∆
∗ ∗
dt i i k i i k u
q q i q q p q
) ( ) ( (4.12)
The output signals from PI controllers after dq/αβ transformation (Eq. (4.1b)) are used
for switching signals generation by a Space Vector Modulator [see Section 4.4].
PI
voltage controller
PI
current controller
PI
current controller
ωL
ωL
i
d
i
q
i
q
*
=0
i
d
*
U
dc
*
U
dc
∆U
dc
∆U
d
∆U
q
U
Sd
U
Sq
u
Ld
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+


Fig. 4.3 Decoupled current control of PWM rectifier
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
55
4.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE VIRTUAL FLUX ORIENTED CONTROL (VFOC)
The concept of Virtual Flux (VF) can also be applied to improve VOC scheme, because
disturbances superimposed onto the line voltage influence directly the coordinate
transformation in control system (4.2). Sometimes this is solved only by phaselocked
loops (PLL’s) only, but the quality of the controlled system depends on how effectively
the PLL’s have been designed [31]. Therefore, it is easier to replace angle of the line
voltage vector γ
UL
by angle of VF vector γ
ΨL
,
because γ
ΨL
is less sensitive than γ
UL
to
disturbances in the line voltage, thanks to the natural lowpass behavior of the
integrators in (2.42) (because nth harmonics are reduced by a factor 1/k and the ripple
related to the high frequency transistor is strongly damped). For this reason, it is not
necessary to implement PLL’s to achieve robustness in the fluxoriented scheme, since
Ψ
L
rotates much more smoothly than u
L
. The angular displacement of virtual flux vector
Ψ
L
in αβ coordinate is defined as:
( ) ( )
2 2
/ sin
β α β
γ
L L L L
Ψ + Ψ Ψ =
Ψ
(4.13a)
( ) ( )
2 2
/ cos
β α α
γ
L L L L
Ψ + Ψ Ψ =
Ψ
(4.13b)
The Virtual Flux Oriented Control (VFOC) scheme is shown in Fig. 4.4.
VFOC
PWM
L
O
A
D

i
b
PI
U
dc
U
dc_ref
S
c
S
a
S
b
i
a
L
i
c
L
L
Current measurement
&
virtual flux estimation
d q
PWM Adaptive
Modulator


i
d_ref
=0
PI PI
i
q_ref
u
Sβ
u
Sα
α − β
i
Lβ
α − β
d  q
α − β
k  γ
U
a
i
b
i
a
α L
Ψ
β L
Ψ i
Lα
u
Sd
∆i
d
u
Sq
∆i
q
U
b
U
c
i
Ld
i
Lq
sinγ
ΨL
sinγ
ΨL
cosγ
ΨL
cosγ
ΨL
∆U
dc
Fig. 4.4 Block scheme of VFOC
The vector of virtual flux lags the voltage vector by 90
o
(Fig. 4.5). Therefore, for the UPF
condition, the dcomponent of the current vector, i
L
, should be zero.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
56
α−axis
(fixed)
β−axis
daxis
(rotating)
qaxis
i
L
i
Ld
i
Lq
u
L
= u
Lq
γ
ΨL
=ωt
ω
i
Lα
i
Lβ
u
Lα
u
Lβ
ϕ
Ψ
L
Ψ
L α
Ψ
L β
Fig. 4.5: Vector diagram of VFOC. Coordinate transformation of line voltage, rectifier input
voltage and line current from fixed α−β coordinates to rotating dq coordinates.
In the virtual flux oriented coordinates voltage equations are transformed into
Ld Sq
Lq
Lq
i L u
dt
di
L u ⋅ ⋅ + + = ω (4.17)
Lq Sd
Ld
i L u
dt
di
L ⋅ ⋅ − + = ω 0 (4.18)
for i
Ld
= 0 equations (4.17) and (4.18) can be described as:
Sq
Lq
Lq
u
dt
di
L u + = (4.19)
Lq Sd
i L u ⋅ ⋅ − = ω 0 (4.20)
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
57
4.4 PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM)
4.4.1 Introduction
Application and power converter topologies are still expanding thanks to improvements
in semiconductor technology, which offer higher voltage and current rating as well as
better switching characteristics. On the other hand, the main advantages of modern
power electronic converters such as: high efficiency, low weight and small dimensions,
fast operation and high power densities are being achieved trough the use of the so
called switch mode operation, in which power semiconductor devices are controlled in
ON/OFF fashion. This leads to different types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM),
which is basic energy processing technique applied in power converter systems. In
modern converters, PWM is highspeed process ranging – depending on a rated power –
from a few kHz (motor control) up to several MHz (resonant converters for power
supply). Therefore, an online optimisation procedure is hard to be implemented
especially, for three or multiphase converters. Development of PWM methods is,
however, still in progress [70101].
Fig.4.7 presents threephase voltage source PWM converter, which is the most popular
power conversion circuit used in industry. This topology can work in two modes:
! inverter  when energy, of adjusted amplitude and frequency, is converted from DC
side to AC side. This mode is used in variable speed drives and AC power supply
including uninterruptible power supply (UPS),
! rectifier  when energy of mains (50 Hz or 60Hz) is converted from AC side to DC
side. This mode has application in power supply with Unity Power Factor (UPF).
0
DC side PWM Converter
RLE
N
AC side
Sc+ Sb+ Sa+
Sa
Sb Sc
U
dc
/2
U
dc
/2
Energy flow:
inverter
rectifier
a
b
c
Fig. 4.7. Threephase voltage source PWM converter
Basic requirements and definitions
Performance significantly depends on control methods and type of modulation.
Therefore the PWM converter, should perform some general demands like:
! wide range of linear operation, [3, 72, 74, 78, 81, 85, 89],
! minimal number of (frequency) switching to keep low switching losses in power
components, [5, 72, 74, 80, 87, 93],
! low content of higher harmonics in voltage and current, because they produce
additional losses and noise in load [5, 77],
! elimination of low frequency harmonics (in case of motors it generates torque
pulsation)
! operation in overmodulation region including square wave [75, 79, 85, 89, 96].
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
58
Additionally, investigations are lead with the purpose of:
! simplification because modulator is one of the most timeconsuming part of control
algorithm and reducing of computations intensity at the same performance is the main
point for industry (it gives possibility to use simple and inexpensive microprocessors)
[76, 95, 101],
! reduction of common mode voltage [90],
! good dynamics [28, 93],
! reduction of acoustic noise (random modulation)[70].
Basic definition and parameters, which characterize PWM methods, are summarized in
Tab.4.1.
Tab. 4.1. Basic parameters of PWM.
lp. Name of parameter Symbol Definition Remarques
M
M = U
1m
/U
1(sixstep)
=
=U
1m
/(2/π)U
d
1 Modulation index
m m = U
m
/ U
m(t)
Two definition of modulation
index are used. For sinusoidal
modulation 0≤M≤0,785 or 0≤m≤1
M
max
0 ... 0.907
2 Max. linear range
m
max
0 ... 1.154
Depends on shape of modulation
signal
3 Overmodulation
max
max
m m
M M
>
>
Nonlinear range used for increase
of output voltage
4 Frequency modulation ratio m
f
1
/ f
s
f
f
m =
For m
f
> 21 asynchronous
modulation is used
5 Switching frequency (number) f
s
( l
s
)
f
s
= f
T
= 1 / T
s
T
s
– sampling time
Constant
6 Total Harmonic Distortion
THD
1
/ * % 100
s
I
h
I THD= Used for voltage and current
7 Current distortion factor d
I
h(rms)
/ I
h(sixstep)(rms)
Independent of load parameters
8 Polarity consistency rule PCR
Avoids + 1 DC voltage transition
4.4.2. Carrier Based PWM
Sinusoidal PWM
Sinusoidal modulation is based on triangular carrier signal. By comparison of common
carrier signal with three reference sinusoidal signals U
a
*
, U
b
*
, U
c
*
(moved in phase of
2/3π) the logical signals, which define switching instants of power transistor (Fig. 4.8)
are generated. Operation with constant carrier signal concentrate voltage harmonics
around switching frequency and multiple of switching frequency. Narrow range of
linearity is a limitation for CBSPWM modulator because modulation index reaches
M
max
= π/4 = 0.785 (m = 1) only, e.g. amplitude of reference signal and carrier are equal.
Overmodulation region occurs above M
max
and PWM converter, which is treated like a
power amplifier, operates at nonlinear part of characteristic (see Fig. 4.21).
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
59
(a) (b)
RLE
+
+
+



Sa
Sb
Sc
U
a
*
U
b
*
U
c
*
U
dc
carrier
U
t
U
aN
,U
bN
,U
cN
N
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4
 1 0
 8
 6
 4
 2
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4  3 0 0
 2 0 0
 1 0 0
0
1 0 0
2 0 0
3 0 0
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4  3 0 0
 2 0 0
 1 0 0
0
1 0 0
2 0 0
3 0 0
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4
 6 0 0
 4 0 0
 2 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
6 0 0
U
a N
U
b N
U
a b
U
a
*
U
b
*
U
c
*
U
t
Fig. 4.8. a) Block scheme of carrier based sinusoidal modulation (CBSPWM)
(b) Basic waveforms
CBPWM with Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS)
If neutral point on AC side of power converter N is not connected with DC side
midpoint 0 (Fig. 4.7), phase currents depend only on the voltage difference between
phases. Therefore, it is possible to insert an additional Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS) of 3
th harmonic frequency, which does not produce phase voltage distortion U
aN
, U
bN
, U
cN
and without affecting load average currents (Fig. 4.10). However, the current ripple and
other modulator parameters (e.g. extending of linear region to M
max
= 3 2 / π = 0.907,
reduction of the average switching frequency, current harmonics) are changed by the
ZSS. Added ZSS occurs between N and 0 points and is visible like a U
N0
voltage and can
be observed in U
a0
, U
b0
, U
c0
voltages (Fig. 4.10).
RLE
Calculation
of
ZSS
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+



U
a
**
U
b
**
U
c
**
U
a
*
U
b
*
U
c
*
Sa
Sb
Sc
U
dc
carrier
U
t
U
aN
,U
bN
,U
cN
N
Fig. 4.9. Block scheme of modulator based on additional Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS).
Fig. 4.10 presents different waveforms of additional ZSS, corresponding to different
PWM methods. It can be divided in two groups: continuous and discontinuous
modulation (DPWM) [92]. The most known of continuous modulation is method with
sinusoidal ZSS with 1/4 amplitude, it corresponds to minimum of output current
harmonics, and with 1/6 amplitude it corresponds to maximal linear range [86].
Triangular shape of ZSS with 1/4 peak corresponds to conventional (analogue) space
vector modulation with symmetrical placement of zero vectors in sampling time [83]
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
60
(see Section 4.4.3). Discontinuous modulation is formed by unmodulated 60
o
segments
(converter power switches do not switch) shifted from 0 to π/3 (different shift Ψ gives
different type of modulation Fig. 4.11). It finally gives lower (average 33%) switching
losses. Detailed description of different kind of modulation based on ZSS can be found
in [80].
0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
aN
=U
a0
U
N0
0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
aN
U
a0
U
N0
0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
aN
U
a0
U
N0
sinusoidal modulation (SPWM) modulation with 3th harmonic SVPWM
0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
N0
U
a0
U
aN
0.015 0. 02 0.025 0. 03 0. 035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
N0
U
a0
U
aN
0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
N0
U
a0 U
aN
DPWM 1 (ψ=π/6) DPWM 3 PWM 2 (ψ=π/3)
Fig. 4.10. Variants of PWM modulation methods in dependence on shape of ZSS.
Ψ ΨΨ Ψ
π/3 π/3 π/3 π/3
π/6 π/6 π/6 π/6
U
R
U
S
U
T
ZSS
U
a U
b
U
c
π ππ π
U
dc
/2
U
dc
/2
Fig. 4.11. Generation of ZSS for DPWM method.
4.4.3. Space Vector Modulation (SVM)
Basics of SVM
The SVM strategy, based on space vector representation (Fig. 4.12a) becomes very
popular due to its simplicity [97]. A threephase twolevel converter provides eight
possible switching states, made up of six active and two zero switching states. Active
vectors divide plane for six sectors, where a reference vector U* is obtained by
switching on (for proper time) two adjacent vectors. It can be seen that vector U* (Fig.
4.12a) is possible to implement by the different switch on/off sequence of U
1
and U
2
,
and that zero vectors decrease modulation index. Allowable length of U* vector, for
each of α angle, is equal 3 /
max dc
U U =
∗
. Higher values of output voltage (reach six
step mode) up to maximal modulation index (M = 1), can be obtained by an additional
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
61
(a) (b)
Re
Im
(2/3)U
dc
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
U
0
(000)
U
7
(111) (t
1
/T
s
)U
1
(
t
2
/
T
s
)
U
2
U*
α
U*
max
RLE
Sector
Selection
Calculation
t
1
t
2
t
0
2f
s
U*
U
*
(Ts)
Sa
Sb
Sc
t
7
Fig. 4.12. (a) Space vector representation of threephase converter, (b) Block scheme of SVM
nonlinear overmodulation algorithm (see Section 4.4.5).
Contrary to CBPWM, in the SVM there is no separate modulators for each phase.
Reference vector U
*
is sampled with fixed clock frequency 2f
s
= 1/T
s
, and next U
*
(T
s
) is
used to solve equations which describe times t
1,
t
2,
t
0
and t
7
(Fig. 4.12b). Microprocessor
implementation is described with the help of simple trigonometrical relationship for first
sector (4.21a and 4.21b), and, recalculated for the next sectors (n).
) 3 / sin(
3 2
1
α π
π
− =
s
MT t (4.21a)
α
π
sin
3 2
2 s
MT t = (4.21b)
After t
1
and t
2
calculation, the residual sampling time is reserved for zero vectors U
0
, U
7
with condition t
1
+ t
2
≤ T
s
. The equations (4.21a), (4.21b) are identical for all variants of
SVM. The only difference is in different placement of zero vectors U
0
(000) and U
7
(111)
.
It gives different equations defining t
0
and t
7
for each of method, but total duration time
of zero vectors must fulfil conditions:
t
0,7
= T
s
 t
1
 t
2
= t
0
+ t
7
(4.22)
The neutral voltage between N and 0 points is equal: (see Tab. 4.2) [91]
)
3 3
(
1
2
)
2 6 6 2
(
1
7
2 1
0 7 2 1 0 0
t
t t
t
Ts
U
t
U
t
U
t
U
t
U
T
U
dc dc dc dc dc
s
N
+ + − − = + + − − =
(4.23)
Table 4.2. Voltages between a, b, c and N, 0 for eight converter switching state
U
a0
U
b0
U
c0
U
aN
U
bN
U
cN
U
NO
U
0
U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 0 0 0 U
dc
/2
U
1
U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 2U
dc
/3 U
dc
/3 U
dc
/3 U
dc
/6
U
2
U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/3 U
dc
/3 2U
dc
/3 U
dc
/6
U
3
U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/3 2U
dc
/3 U
dc
/3 U
dc
/6
U
4
U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 2U
dc
/3 U
dc
/3 U
dc
/3 U
dc
/6
U
5
U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/3 U
dc
/3 2U
dc
/3 U
dc
/6
U
6
U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/3 2U
dc
/3 U
dc
/3 U
dc
/6
U
7
U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 U
dc
/2 0 0 0 U
dc
/2
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
62
Threephase SVM with symmetrical placement of zero vectors (SVPWM)
The most popular SVM method is modulation with symmetrical zero states (SVPWM):
t
0
= t
7
= (T
s
 t
1
 t
2
)/2 (4.24)
Figure 4.13a shows gate pulses for (SVPWM) and correlation between duty time T
on
, T
off
and duration of vectors t
1
, t
2
, t
0
, t
7
. For the first sector commutation delay can be
computed as:
2 1 0
1 0
0
2 /
2 /
2 /
t t t T
t t T
t T
con
bon
aon
+ + =
+ =
=
2 /
2 /
2 /
0
2 0
2 1 0
t T
t t T
t t t T
coff
boff
aoff
=
+ =
+ + =
(4.25)
For conventional SVPWM times t
1
, t
2
, t
0
are computed for one sector only. Commutation
delay for other sectors can be calculated with the help of matrix:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
2
1
0
6 sec 5 sec 4 sec 3 sec 2 sec 1 sec
5 . 0
0 0 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
1 0 1
1 0 0
1 1 1
1 0 0
1 1 0
1 1 1
1 1 0
0 1 0
1 1 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 1 1
0 1 1
0 0 1
1 1 1
t
t
T
T
T
T
T
tor tor tor tor tor tor
coff
boff
aoff
(4.26)
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
U
0
U
0
U
1
U
1
U
2
U
2
U
7
U
7
T
s
T
s
t
1
t
1
t
2
t
2
t
0
t
0
t
7
t
7
Taon
Tbon
Tcon Tcoff
Tboff
Taoff
b)
1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
0 0
0 0 0 0
T
s
T
s
1
1
1 1
t
1 t
2 t
7
t
2 t
1
t
7
U
7
U
2
U
1
U
7
U
2
U
1
1 1 1 1
1 1
0 0
0
0
0 0 0 0
T
s
T
s
0 0
0 0
t
0
t
1
t
2
t
2
t
1
t
0
U
2
U
1 U
0
U
2
U
0
U
1
(a) (b)
Sa
Sb
Sc
Sa
Sa
Sb
Sb
Sc Sc
Fig. 4.13. Vectors placement in sampling time:
a) threephase SVM (SVPWM, t
0
= t
7
) b) twophase SVM (DPWM, t
0
= 0 and t
7
= 0)
Twophase SVM
This type of modulation proposed in [98] was developed in [72,74,88] and is called
discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM) for CB technique with an additional
Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS) in [80]. The idea bases on assumption that only two phases
are switched (one phase is clamped by 60
0
to lower or upper DC bus). It gives only one
zero state per sampling time (Fig. 4.13b). Twophase SVM provides 33% reduction of
effective switching frequency. However, switching losses also strongly depend on a
load power factor angle (see Chapter 4.4.6). It is very important criterion, which allows
farther reduction of switching losses up to 50% [80].
Fig. 4.14a shows several different kind of twophase SVM. It can be seen that sectors are
adequately moved on 0
0
, 30
0
, 60
0
, 90
0
, and denoted as PWM(0), PWM(1), PWM(2),
PWM(3) respectively (t
0
= 0 means that one phase is clamped to one, while t
7
= 0 means
that phase is clamped to zero). Fig. 4.14b presents phase voltage U
aN
, pole voltage U
a0
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
63
and voltage between neutral points U
N0
for these modulations. Zero states description
for PWM(1) can be written as:
t
0
=0 ⇒ t
7
=T
s
t
1
t
2
when 0≤α<π/6 (4.27)
t
7
=0 ⇒ t
0
=T
s
t
1
t
2
when π/6≤α<π/3
(a)
Re
Im
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
U 0 (000
U 7 (111
t
0
=0
t
7
=0
t
0
=0
t
7
=0
t
0
=0
t
7
=0
PWM(0)
Re
Im
U
1
(100)
U2
(110) U 3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
U 0 (000)
U 7 (111)
t
0
=0
t
0
=0
t
0
=0
t
0
=0
t
0
=0
t
0
=0
t
7
=0
t
7
=0
t
7
=0
t
7
=0
t
7
=0
t
7
=0
PWM(1)
Re
Im
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
U 0(000
U 7(111
t
0
=0
t
7
=0
t
0
=0
t
7
=0
t
0
=0
t
7
=0
PWM(2)
Re
Im
U
1
(100)
U 2 (110) U 3 (010)
U
4
(011)
U 5(001) U 6 (101)
U
0
(000)
U
7 (111)
t
7
=0
t
7
=0
t
7
=0
t
7
=0
t
7
=0 t
0
=0
t
0
=0
t
0
=0
t
0
=0
t
0
=0 t
7
=0
t
0
=0
PWM(3)
(b)
0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
N0
U
a0
U
aN
0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
N0
U
a0
U
aN
0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
N0
U
a0 U
aN
0.015 0.02 0. 025 0.03 0.035
10
5
0
5
10
U
d
/2
U
d
/2
U
N0
U
a0
U
aN
Fig. 4.14 a) Placement of zero vectors in twophase SVM. Succession: PWM(0) = 0
0
, PWM(1) =
30
0
, PWM(2) = 60
0
and PWM(3) = 90
0
b) Phase voltage U
aN
, pole voltage U
a0
and voltage
between neutral points U
N0
for each of modulation
Variants of Space Vector Modulation
From equations (4.21)(4.23) and knowledge of U
N0
(Fig. 4.14b), it is possible to
calculate duration of zero vectors t
0,
t
7.
An evaluation and properties of different
modulation method shows Table 4.3.
Table 4.3. Variants of Space Vector Modulation
Vector modulation
methods
Calculation of t
0
and t
7
Remarques
Vector modulation
with U
N0
= 0
) cos
4
1 (
2
0
α
π
M
T
t
s
− =
t
7
= T
s
t
0
t
1
t
2
• Equivalent of classical CBSPWM (no
difference between U
aN
and U
b0
voltages)
• Linear region M
max
= 0.785
Vector modulation
with 3th harmonic
)) 3 cos
6
1
(cos
4
1 (
2
0
α α
π
− − = M
T
t
s
t
7
= T
s
t
0
t
1
t
2
• Low current distortions
• More complicated calculation of zero vectors
• Extended linear region: M = 0.907
Threephase SVM
with symmetrical
zero states (SVPWM)
t
0
= t
7
= (T
s
t
1
t
2
)/2 • Most often used in microprocessor technique
for the sake of simple zero vector calculation
(symmetrical in sampling time 2T
s
)
• Current harmonic content almost identical like
in previous method
Twophase SVM
t
0
= 0 ⇒ t
7
=T
s
t
1
t
2
when 0≤α<π/6
t
7
= 0 ⇒ t
0
= T
s
t
1
t
2
when π/6≤α<π/3
(for PWM(1))
• Equivalent of DPWM methods in CBPWM
technique
• 33% switching frequency and switching losses
reduction
• Higher current harmonic content at low
modulation index
• Only one zero state per sampling time, simple
calculation (Fig. 4.14)
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
64
The space vector modulation techniques with one zero state in sampling time may be
additionally changed for the sake of different harmonic content what is presented in
Tab.4.4 and Fig.4.15 [73].
Tab. 4.4 Different zero vector placement in PWM(0)
sector PWM(0) Different PWM(0)
1 U
0
U
1
U
2
U
2
U
1
U
0
U
2
U
1
U
0
U
0
U
1
U
2
2 U
3
U
2
U
7
U
7
U
2
U
3
U
3
U
2
U
7
U
7
U
2
U
3
3 U
0
U
3
U
4
U
4
U
3
U
0
U
4
U
3
U
0
U
0
U
3
U
4
4 U
5
U
4
U
7
U
7
U
4
U
5
U
5
U
4
U
7
U
7
U
4
U
5
5 U
0
U
5
U
6
U
6
U
5
U
0
U
6
U
5
U
0
U
0
U
5
U
6
6 U
1
U
6
U
7
U
7
U
6
U
1
U
1
U
6
U
7
U
7
U
6
U
1
a)
1 1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
T
s T
s
U
0
U
0
U
0
U
0
U
1
U
1
U
1
U
1
U
2
U
2
U
2
U
2
b)
Fig. 4.15 Different PWM(0) methods presented above
a) vectors placement b) voltage harmonic content.
4.4.4 Carrier Based PWM Versus Space Vector PWM
Comparison of CBPWM methods with additional ZSS to SVM is shown on Fig. 4.16.
Upper part shows pulse generation through comparison of reference signal U
a
**
, U
b
**
,
U
c
**
with triangular carrier signal. Lower part of figure shows gate pulses generation in
SVM (obtained by calculation of duration time of active vectors U
1 ,
U
2
and zero vectors
U
0
, U
7
). It is visible that both methods generate identical gate pulses. Also it can be
observed from Fig. 4.14 and Fig. 4.16 that the degree of freedom represented in
selection of ZSS waveform in CBPWM, corresponds to different placement of zero
vectors U
0
(000) and U
7
(111) in sampling time T
s
= 1/2f
s
of the SVM. Therefore, there is
no exist difference between CBPWM and SVM (CBDPWM1 = PWM(1)SVM). The
difference is only in the treatment of the threephase quantities: CBPWM operates in
terms of three natural components, whereas SVM uses artificial (mathematically
transformed) vector representation.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
65
(a) (b)
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 . 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 8 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 . 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 8 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 . 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 8 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0.02 0.022 0.024 0.026 0.028 0.03 0.032 0.034 0.036 0. 038 0.04
10
5
0
5
10
T
s
T
s
T
carrier
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
U
0
U
0
U
1
U
1
U
2
U
2
U
7
U
7
a
b
c
T
carr
U
a
**
U
b
**
U
c
**
carri er
T
s
T
s
t 1 t 1 t 2 t 2 t 0 t 0 t 7 t 7
S
V

P
W
M
p
a
t
t
e
r
n
C
B

P
W
M
s
w
i
t
c
h
i
n
g
p
a
t
t
e
r
n
0.02 0.022 0.024 0.026 0.028 0.03 0.032 0.034 0.036 0.038 0.04
10
5
0
5
10
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 . 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 8 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 . 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 8 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 . 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 8 0
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
T
s
T
s
T
carrier
1 1 1 1
1 1
1
0 0
0 0 0 0
U
1
U
1
U
2
U
2
a
b
c
T
carr
U
a
**
U
b
**
U
c
**
carrier
Ts Ts
t t t t t 7 t7 2 1 1 2
1 1
1 1
1
U
7 U
7
S
V

P
W
M
p
a
t
t
e
r
n
C
B

P
W
M
s
w
i
t
c
h
i
n
g
p
a
t
t
e
r
n
Fig. 4.16. Comparison of CBPWM with SVM a) SVPWM b) DPWM
From the top: CBPWM with pulses, short segment of reference signal at high carrier frequency
(reference signals are straight lines), formation of pulses in SVM.
4.4.5 Overmodulation
Modulation is a basic techniques in power electronics, therefore for full description of
this topic is necessary to presents also overmodulation. This part of modulation is not so
important for PWM rectifier in the sake of higher harmonic contents in current but it is
possible to find some application with similar mode [119].
Many approaches have been reported in the literature to increase the range of the PWM
voltage source inverter [75,79,85,89]. Some of them are proposed as extensions of the
Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM), and others as extensions of the Space Vector PWM
(SVPWM). In CBPWM by increasing the reference voltage beyond the amplitude of the
triangular carrier signal, some switching cycles are skipped and the voltage of each
phase remains clamped to one of the dc bus. This range shows a high nonlinearity
between reference and output voltage amplitude and requires infinite amplitude of
reference in order to reach a sixstep output voltage.
In SVM allowable length of reference vector U* which provide linear modulation is
equal 3 /
max dc
U U =
∗
(circle inscribed in hexagon M = 0.906) (Fig. 4.17). To obtain
higher values of output voltage (reach sixstep mode) up to maximal modulation index
M = 1, an additional nonlinear overmodulation algorithm has to be apply. This is
because minimal pulse width becomes shorter than critical (mainly dependent on power
switches characteristic – usually few µs) or even negative. Zero vectors are never used
in this type of modulation.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
66
Re
Im
(2/3)U
dc
2
U
0
(000)
U
7
(111)
(
t
2
/
T
s
)
U
2
U*
α
(t
1
/T
s
)U
1
U (110)
U
6
(101)
U (010)
3
U (100)
1
U
5
(001)
U (011)
4
Overmodulation
region
U
m
a
x
=
(
2
/
π
)
U
d
c
M
=
1
Fig. 4.17 Overmodulation region in space vector representation
Algorithm Based on Two Modes of Operation
Two overmodulation regions are considered (Fig. 4.18). In region I the magnitude of
reference voltage is modified in order to keep space vector within the hexagon. It
defines the maximum amplitude that can be reached for each angle. This mode extends
the range of the modulation index up to 0.95. Mode II starts from M = 0.95 and reach
six step mode M = 1. Mode II defines both the magnitude and the angle of the reference
voltage. To implement both modes a lookup table or neural network [96] based
approach can be applied.
Re
Im
2
U (110)
U (100)
1
Region I
Region II
Fig. 4.18 Subdivision of the overmodulation region
Overmodulation mode I: distorted continuous reference signal
In this range, the magnitude of the reference vector is changed while the angle is
transmitted without any changes (α
p
= α). However, when the original reference
trajectory passes outside the hexagon, the time average equation gives an unrealistic on
duration for the zero vectors. Therefore, to compensate reduced fundamental voltage,
i.e. to track with the reference voltage U*, a modified reference voltage trajectory U is
selected (Fig. 4.19a). The reduced fundamental components in region where reference
trajectory surpass hexagon is compensated by a higher value in corner (equal areas in
one sector  see Fig. 4.19a) [85].
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
67
a) b)
Re
Im
2
U (110)
U (100)
1
U*
U
Re
Im
2
U (110)
U (100)
1
U* α
h
α
h
α
U
α
p
Fig. 4.19 Overmodulation: (a) mode I (0.907 < M < 0.952), (b) mode II (0.952 < M < 1)
U*  reference trajectory (dashed line), U – modified reference trajectory (solid line)
The on time durations for region where modified reference trajectory is moved along
hexagon are calculated as:
α α
α α
sin cos 3
sin cos 3
1
+
−
=
S
T t (4.28 a)
1 2
t T t
S
− = (4.28 b)
0
0
= t (4.28 c)
Overmodulation mode II: distorted discontinuous reference signal.
The operation in this region is illustrated in Fig. 4.19b. The trajectory changes gradually
from a continuous hexagon to the sixstep operation. To achieve control in
overmodulation mode II, both the reference magnitude and reference angle (from α to
α
p
) are changed:
3 / 3 /
3 /
0
3 /
6 6 /
0
π α α π
α π α α
α α
π
π
α π
α α
α
≤ ≤ −
− ≤ ≤
≤ ≤
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
−
−
=
h
h h
h
h
h
p
(4.29)
The modified vector is held at a vertex of the hexagon for holding angle α
h
over
particular time and then partly tracking the hexagon sides in every sector for the rest of
the switching period. The holding angle α
h
controls the time interval when active
switching state remains at the vertices, which uniquely controls the fundamental
voltage. It is a nonlinear function of the modulation index, which can be piecewise
linearized as [89]:
09 . 6 4 . 6 − ⋅ = M
h
α (0.95< M < 0.98)
34 . 11 75 . 11 − ⋅ = M
h
α (0.98< M < 0.9975) (4.30)
43 . 48 96 . 48 − ⋅ = M
h
α (0.9975< M < 1.0)
The sixstep mode is characterized by selection of the switching vector, which is closest
to the reference vector for onesixth of the fundamental period. In this way the
modulator generates the maximum possible converter voltage. For a given switching
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
68
frequency, the current distortion increases with the modulation index. The distortion
factor strongly increases when the reference waveform becomes discontinuous in the
mode II.
Algorithm Based on Single Mode of Operation
In a simple technique proposed in [75], the desired voltage angle is held constant when
the reference voltage vector is located outside of hexagon. The value, at which the
command angle is held, is determined by the intersection of the circle (respond with
modulation index) with the hexagon (Fig. 4.20). The angle at which the command is
held (hold angles) depends on the desired modulation index (M) and can be found from
Eq. (4.31) (max circular trajectory is related to the maximum possible fundamental
output voltage 2/πU
dc
not to 2/3U
dc
– see Fig. 4.17):


.

\

=
' 2
3
arcsin
1
M
α (4.31a)

.

\

−
−
+


.

\

−
−
=
π
π
π 3 2
3
3 2
3 3 2
' M M (4.31b)
1 2
3
α
π
α − = (4.31c)
Re
Im
2
U (110)
U (100)
1
U*
α
1
α
2
=π/3−α
1
π/6
Fig. 4.20 Overmodulation: single mode of operation
U*  reference trajectory (dashed line), U – modified reference trajectory (solid line)
For a desired angle between 0 and α
1
, the commanded angle tracks its value. When the
desired angle increases over α
1
, the commanded angle stays at α
1
until the desired angle
becomes π/6. After that, the commanded angle jumps to value of α
2
= π/3α
1
. The
commanded value of α is kept constant at α
2
for any desired angle between π/6 and α
2
.
For a desired angle between α
2
and π/3, the commanded angle tracks the value of
desired angle, as in Fig. 4.20. The advantage of linearity and easy implementation is
obtained on the cost of higher harmonic distortion.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
69
4.4.6 Performance criteria
Several performance criteria are considered for selection of suitable modulation method
[3]. Some of them are defined in the Table 4.1. Below further important criteria as:
range of linear operation, current distortion factor and switching losses are discussed.
Range of linear operation
The linear range of the control characteristic for sinusoidal CBPWM ends at M = π/4 =
0.785 (m = 1) of modulation index (Fig. 4.21) i.e. to equal of reference and carrier peak.
The SVM or CBPWM with ZSS injection provide extension of linear range up to M
max
=
3 2 / π = 0.907 (m
max
= 1.15). The region above M = 0.907 is the nonlinear
overmodulation range.
1
1.15
3.24
2
m
U
ab(rms)
Udc
0.78
1
2 3
b)
1
2
3
linear range
overmodulation
six step mode
0.612
with ZSS
0.703
SPW M
M
0.785 0.907
1.0
Fig. 4.21 Control characteristic of PWM converter
Switching losses
Power losses of the PWM converter can be generally divided into: conduction and
switching losses (see in [87]). Conduction losses are practically the same for different
PWM techniques and they are lower than switching losses. For the switching losses
calculation, the linear dependency of a switching energy loss on the switched current is
assumed. This also was proved by the measurement results [87]. Therefore, for high
switching frequency, the total average value of the transistor switching power losses can
be for the continuous PWM expressed as:
π
α
π
ϕ
π
ϕ
π
s TD
s TD c sl
If k
d f i k P = ⋅ ⋅ =
∫
+
+ −
2
2
) (
2
1
(4.32)
where: k
TD
= k
T
+k
D
 proportional relation of the switching energy loss per pulse period
to the switched current for the transistor and the diode.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
70
In the case of discontinuous PWM the following properties hold from the symmetry of
the pole voltage:
) ( ) ( ϕ ϕ
sl sl
P P = −
) ( ) ( ϕ π ϕ − =
sl sl
P P where 0<ϕ<π. (4.33)
Therefore, it is sufficient to consider the range of from 0 to π/2 for the DPWM as
follows [87]:
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
< < ⋅
< < − ⋅
= ⇒
2 / 3 / )
2
sin 3
3 / 0 ) cos
2
1
1 (
) ( ) 1 (
) (
) (
π ϕ π
ϕ
π ϕ ϕ
ϕ
for P
for P
P PWM
c sl
c sl
sl
(4.34)
)
6
( ) ( ) 0 (
)) 1 ( (
π
ϕ ϕ − ⋅ = ⇒
PWM sl sl
P P PWM (4.35)
)
6
( ) ( ) 2 (
)) 1 ( (
π
ϕ ϕ + ⋅ = ⇒
PWM sl sl
P P PWM (4.36)
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
< <
−
− ⋅
< <
+
⋅
< <
−
− ⋅
= ⇒
2 / 3 / ) sin
2
1 3
1 (
3 / 6 /
2
cos sin
6 / 0 ) cos
2
1 3
1 (
) ( ) 3 (
) (
) (
) (
π ϕ π ϕ
π ϕ π
ϕ ϕ
π ϕ ϕ
ϕ
for P
for P
for P
P PWM
c sl
c sl
c sl
sl
(4.37)
Switching losses depends on type of discontinuous modulation and power factor angle
what is shown in Fig. 4.22 (comparison to continuous modulation). Since the switching
losses increase with the magnitude of the phase current (approximately linearly),
selecting a suitable modulation can significantly improve performance of the converter.
Switching losses are average reduced about 33%. In favour conditions, when
modulation is clamped in phase conducting max. current, switching losses decrease up
to 50%.
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
Power factor angle
S
w
i
t
c
h
i
n
g
l
o
s
s
e
s
(
x
1
0
0
%
)
PWM(3)
PWM(2)
PWM(1)
PWM(0)
Fig. 4.22. Switching losses (P
sl(φ)
/P
sl(c)
) versus power factor angle
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
71
Distortion and Harmonic Copper Loss Factor
The current waveform quality of the PWM converter is determined by harmonics of
switching frequency what have influence for copper losses and the instantaneous power
ripple. Harmonics are changed according to the selected switching sequence. Detailed
description is presented in [84, 98]. The rms harmonic current defined as:
∫
− =
T
L L rms h
dt t i t i
T
I
0
2
1 ) (
)] ( ) ( [
1
, (4.38)
depends on type of PWM and AC side impedance. To eliminate influence of AC side
impedance parameters, the distortion factor is commonly used (see Table 4.1):
d = I
h(rms)
/ I
h(sixstep)(rms)
(4.39)
For sixstep operation the distortion factor is d = 1. It should be noted that harmonic
copper losses in the ACside are proportional to d
2
. Therefore, d
2
can be considered as a
loss factor. Values of loss factor can be compute for different modulation methods
[3,87]. It depends on switching frequency, modulation index M, and shape of the ZSS
(Fig. 4.23):
 for continuous modulation:
SPWM
(
¸
(
¸
∈ + − =
4
, 0
3
3
32
1
6
4
2
2
π
π
π π
M
M M
k
M
d
SB
f
(4.40)
SVPWM
(
¸
(
¸
∈


.

\

− + − =
3 2
, 0
4
3 3
1
2
9
3
32
1
6
4
2
2
π
π π
π π
M
M M
k
M
d
SB
f
(4.41)
 for discontinuous modulation (DPWM):
DPWM1 ( )
(
¸
(
¸
∈


.

\

+ + + − =
3 2
, 0
2
3
2
2
9
3 15 8
3
4
4
6
4
2
2
π
π π
π π
M
M M
k
M
d
SB
f
(4.42)
DPWM0(2)
(
¸
(
¸
∈


.

\

+ + − =
3 2
, 0
4
3 3
2
2
9
3
140
4
6
4
2
2
π
π π
π π
M
M M
k
M
d
SB
f
(4.43)
DPWM3 ( )
(
¸
(
¸
∈


.

\

+ + − − =
3 2
, 0
3
2
2
9
3 15 62
3
4
4
6
4
2
2
π
π π
π π
M
M M
k
M
d
SB
f
(4.44)
where
SB
f
k is defined as a ratio of carrier frequency (sampling time) to base of carrier
frequency. All continuous PWM have the advantage over DPWM methods for the sake
of small distortion factor in the low range of modulation. When the modulation index
increases and the PWM performance rapidly decreases, the SVPWM maintain at lowest
distortion factor. The harmonic content for SVPWM and DPWM at the same carrier
frequency is similar at high modulation index only (Fig. 4.23). However, we should
remember that DPWM possess lower switching losses. Therefore, the carrier frequency
can be increased by factor 3/2 for 33% reduction of switching losses, or 2 times
increased for 50% reduction of switching losses. It provides to lower current distortion
for DPWM in comparison to SVPWM.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
72
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
d
2
M
SVPWM (f
SB
)
SPWM (f
SB
)
DPWM1 (f
SB
)
DPWM0(2) and (f
SB
)
DPWM3 (f
SB
)
DPWM1 (1.5f
SB
)
DPWM1 (2f
SB
)
Fig. 4.23. Square of current distortion factor as function of modulation index.
4.4.7 Adaptive Space Vector Modulation (ASVM)
The concept of adaptive space vector modulation (ASVM) proposed by Author [93,
Patent No. P340113] provides:
! full control range including overmodulation and sixstep operation,
! theoretically, up to 50% reduction of switching losses at 33% reduction of average
switching frequency,
! high dynamics.
The above features are achieved by use of four different modes of SVM with an
instantaneous tracking of the AC current peak and an optimal switching table for fast
response to step changes of the load. Four PWM operation modes are distributed in the
range of modulation index (M) as follows (Fig. 4.24a):
A: 0 < M < 0.5 – conventional SVM with symmetrical zero switching states,
B: 0.5 < M < 0.908 – discontinuous SVM with one zero state per sampling time (two
phase or flap top PWM),
C: 0.908 < M < 0.95 – overmodulation mode I, (see Section 4.4.6)
D: 0.95 < M < 1 – overmodulation mode II.
The combination of regions A with B without current tracing, suggested in [72,80] is
known as hybrid PWM. In the region B of discontinuous PWM, for maximal reduction
of switching losses, the peak of the current should be located in the centre of “flat”
parts. Therefore, it is necessary to observe the peak current position. Components i
Lα
, i
Lβ
of the measured current are transformed into polar coordinates and compared with
voltage reference angle (Eq. (4.45)). It gives possibility to identify power factor angle ϕ,
which decide about placement of clamped region. Thus, the ring from Fig. 24b will be
adequately moved (ϕ). For each of sector:
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
73
if α < ϕ + κ ⇒ t
0
= 0 (4.45)
if α > ϕ + κ ⇒ t
7
= 0
where: α  reference voltage angle, ϕ – power factor angle, κ  for successive sectors
π/6, π/2, 5π/6, 7π/6, 3π/2, 11π/6
This provides tracking of the power factor angle in full range of ϕ (from π to π), what
guarantees maximal reduction of switching losses (Fig. 4.25)
(a) (b)
Re
Im
(2/3)U
dc
U
1
(100)
U
2
(110) U
3
(010)
U
4
(011)
U
5
(001) U
6
(101)
U
0
(000)
U
7
(111)
(
t
2
/
T
s
)
U
2
U*
α
U
*
max
(t
1
/T
s
)U
1
SVPWM
DPWM
OVPWM
Fig. 4.24. Adaptive modulator
a) effect of modulation index b) effect of power factor angle
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
SVPWM
ASVM
Power factor angle
S
w
i
t
c
h
i
n
g
l
o
s
s
e
s
(
x
1
0
0
%
)
Fig. 4.25. Switching losses versus power factor angle for conventional SVPWM and ASVM
The dynamic state is identified after step change of load what results that switching
table is used. After returning to steady state the ASVM operates like a conventional
SVM. The full algorithm of adaptive modulator is presented in Fig. 4.26. Fig. 4.27
shows an example of implementation in a current regulator. Adaptive modulation with
simplified switching time calculation is described in A.3.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
74
if
SVPWM
OVPWM
(5.45)
U
Sα
U
Sβ
i
Lα
i
Lβ
M
α
+

ϕ α
a) M<0.5
cd) M>0.908
b) 0.5<M<0.908
a
cd
b
αβ
nφ
αβ
kγ
αβ
lδ
αβ
Μα
ULα
ULβ
iα_ref
iβ_ref
+

if
switching
table
SVM
steady
state
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
s
s
t
a
t
e
Fig. 4.26. Algorithm of ASVM
RLE
i
Lβ
αβ
dq
PI
PI


+
+
i
d_ref
i
Ld
Current
regulator
U
DC
i
q_ref
i
Lq
αβ
ABC
PWM
adaptive
modulator
i
a
i
c
b
i
γ
L
sin
γ
cos
L
i
Lα
U
Lα
U
Lβ
S
a
S
b
S
c
αβ
dq
αβ
dq
iα_ref
iβ_ref
Coordinate
transformation
Fig. 4.27: ASVM in PI synchronous current controller.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
75
4.4.8 Simulation and experimental results of modulation
Simulation of CBPWM with additional ZSS was realized in SIMULINK [A.5]. Fig. 4.28
presents results of: sinusoidal modulation (SPWM), modulation with 3th harmonic
(amplitude 1/6), analogue SVPWM and DPWM1.
Simulations of SVM are made in the DESIM. Selected results which illustrate work of
modulators with U
N0
= 0, 3th harmonic, threephase modulation SVPWM and two
phase modulation with one zero states in sampling time are shown on Fig. 4.294.30.
Discussed method of SVM was implemented on the laboratory setup described in A.6.
Investigation was done with 100µs sampling time and deadtime compensation
algorithm [A.3]. Experimental results for different variants of SVM are shown in Fig.
4.294.30. Results presents that higher harmonic ripple at low modulation index is one
disadvantage of DPWM compared to SVPWM. This drawback can be neglected for
PWM rectifier, because under normal conditions the PWM rectifier operates, at high
linear modulation index. Much more important is that DPWM provides lower switching
losses in the converter.
ASVM is an universal solution for different kind of PWM converters, therefore
investigation was carriedout both for PWM rectifier using Voltage Oriented Control
(VOC) [44] and PWM inverter using Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC) [4].
Experimental results of ASVM are presented in Fig. 4.314.32. Fig. 4.33 presents
comparison of phase currents at step change of load.
Moreover, it was found that ASVM in Cartesian coordinates is threetimes less time
consuming than its counterpart in polar coordinates [A.3].
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
76
MODULATION WITH ADDITIONAL ZSS (SIMULATION)
(a)
0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 5 4
 3
 2
 1
0
1
2
3
0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 5 4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0
1 1
0. 036 0.038 0. 04 0. 042 0.044 0.046 0. 048 0.05 0.052 0. 054
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
ZS S
S a
I
a
U
Sa0
U
Sab
(b)
0. 036 0. 038 0. 04 0. 042 0. 044 0. 046 0. 048 0. 05 0. 052 0. 054
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 5 4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0
1 1
0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 5 4
 3
 2
 1
0
1
2
3
ZSS
Sa
I
a
U
Sa0
U
Sab
(c)
0.036 0.038 0.04 0.042 0.044 0.046 0.048 0.05 0.052 0.054
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 5 4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0
1 1
0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 5 4
 3
 2
 1
0
1
2
3
ZSS
Sa
I
a
U
Sa0
U
Sab
(d)
0. 04 0. 042 0. 044 0. 046 0. 048 0. 05 0. 052 0. 054 0. 056 0. 058
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
U
RN
U
RS
I
R
I
a
U
Sa0
U
Sab
0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 0 5 6 0 . 0 5 8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0
1 1
0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 0 5 6 0 . 0 5 8
 3
 2
 1
0
1
2
3
Fig. 4.28. Simulation results for CBPWM with additional ZSS (Fig. 4.9): a) SPWM b) with 3th
harmonic c) analogue SVPWM d) DPWM1. Each of cases presents : u
Sab,
 filtered line to line
voltage of converter, u
Sa0
– filtered pole voltage, i
a
 phase current, pulses S
a
and ZSS; (m=0.95)
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
77
SPACE VECTOR MODULATION
Simulation results Experimental results
a)
b)
Fig. 4.29. Simulation and experimental results for various SVM (Fig. 4.12b):
a) with U
N0
= 0 (SPWM) b) with 3th harmonic.
Each of cases presents: pulses S
a
, phase current i
a
, phase voltage u
SaN
and pole voltage u
Sa0
(estimated from U
dc
and switching state).
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
78
Simulation results Experimental results
c)
d)
Fig. 4.30. Simulation and experimental results for various SVM (Fig. 4.12):
c) threephase SVM with symmetrical zero states (SVPWM) d) twophase SVM (PWM(1)).
Each of cases presents: pulses S
a
, phase current i
a
, phase voltage u
SaN
and pole voltage u
Sa0
(estimated from U
dc
and switching state).
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
79
ADAPTIVE SPACE VECTOR MODULATION (ASVM)
(A) (B)
Fig. 4.31. Experimental waveforms of VS converter with adaptive modulation
(A) transition from three to two – phase SVM,
(B) transition from overmodulation to six–step operation.
From the top: phase voltage u
SaN
and pole voltage u
Sa0
(estimated from U
dc
and switching state), current i
a
, pulses S
a
.
(A) (B)
Fig. 4.32. Experimental waveforms of (A) VS converter with adaptive modulation for two 
phase SVM – peak current tracing during load change, (B) VS line rectifier with adaptive
modulation: two–phase SVM – peak current tracing during reactive power change.
From the top: phase voltage u
SaN
and pole voltage u
Sa0
(estimated from U
dc
and switching state), current i
a
, pulses S
a
.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
80
(A) (B)
Fig. 4.33: Simulation results of phase current response at 100% step change
of load for PWM rectifier with A) SVPWM B) ASVM
4.4.9 Summary of modulation
This chapter has shown many of the PWM techniques developed during recent
years. Most important conclusions can be summarized as below:
! parameters of PWM converter (linear range of operation, current harmonic and
switching losses in power components) depends on:
• zero vectors placement in SVM,
• shape of zero sequence signal (ZSS) in CBPWM.
! there is no one method of PWM, which provide minimal current distortion in
whole range of control (Fig. 4.23),
! threephase SVM with symmetrical zero states (SVPWM) should be used in low
range of modulation index, twophase SVM with one zero state in sampling
time (DPWM) should be used in high range of modulation index,
! maximal reduction of switching losses in DPWM is achieved when the peak of
the line current is located in the centre of clamped (not switching) region (Fig.
4.22),
! SVPWM and DPWM should be applied for industrial applications, because both
methods have low timeconsuming algorithms and high linearity,
! Adaptive Space Vector Modulation (ASVM) is a universal solution for three
phase PWM converter, among its main features are: full control range
including overmodulation and sixstep operation, tracking of peak current for
instantaneous selection of twophase PWM (this guarantees maximal reduction
of switching losses up to 50%), higher efficiency of the converter and high
dynamics by switching table application,
! ASVM with simplified switching time calculation provide low time consuming
algorithm based on implementation in Cartesian coordinates, it gives three
times less time consuming algorithm than it’s counterpart in polar coordinates.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
81
4.5 SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The main parameters of the system under consideration are summarized in Table A.4.1
and Table A.6.2. The research has been carried out for two cases:
! ideal line voltage (balanced and sinusoidal),
! distorted line voltage with 5% 5
th
harmonics and 4.5% unbalance [see A.1].
A PWM rectifier with the presented control schemes has been simulated using SABER
[A4]. The simulated waveforms for VOC with SVPWM and VOC with DPWM under
purely sinusoidal line voltage are presented in Fig. 4.34 and Fig. 4.35 respectively. The
switching and sampling frequency is 5kHz for VOCSVPWM. The current has only a
total harmonic distortion (THD) of 4.5 %, and the estimated line voltage is very close to
the real supply voltage. The simulation results for the VOC with DPWM presents that
the current THD is only 2.6 %. The difference to the classical control with SVPWM is
mainly because of a higher sampling and switching frequency. In DPWM the switching
frequency can be twice as high with the same switching losses what can reduce the size
of the input filter. A more practical advantages for the industry is shown by [99].
Therefore the simulations are made with a sampling frequency of 10 kHz. The estimated
line voltage is very close to the real supply voltage.
Fig. 4.36 shows the simulation results for the VOC with SVPWM where the supply
voltage is predistorted and unbalanced. The THD of the line current is 11.8% because
of a high content of 5
th
harmonic current. The estimated line voltage is still very close to
the real supply voltage and the current follows the voltage very well. Fig. 4.37 shows
the simulation results for the classical control with DPWM where the supply voltage is
predistorted and unbalanced. The THD of the line current is 10.1%. The estimated line
voltage is still very close to the real supply voltage and the current follows the voltage
well. These oscillograms are obtained for the same operation conditions. Note, that the
estimated line voltage follows the actual line voltage very close for both under pre
distorted and unbalanced conditions as well as under ideal conditions. There is a small
time delay of one sample because the old value of the rectifier voltage reference is
added to the estimated voltage drop across the inductance. In classical control the
voltage is not as important as the angle γ
L
between the fixed reference frame and the
rotating reference frame. The angle γ
L
can be feedforward compensated by adding ∆γ
L
.
∆γ
L
can be calculated as a function of the line frequency and the sampling frequency.
The experimental results for the conventional VOC strategy and no ACline voltage
sensors with SVPWM and DPWM modulation techniques were realized on laboratory
setup presented in A.7 and they are presented in Fig. 4.34Fig. 4.37. The simulation and
experimental results for the VFOC and no ACline voltage sensors with SVPWM are
presented in Fig. 4.38. The current has only 4.5% of THD at purely sinusoidal voltage
(similarly to VOC). For nonsinusoidal line voltage the THD of current for VFOC is
lower than VOC.
The current total harmonic distortion factor (THD) together with the different operating
conditions for the two control schemes are summarized in Table 5.1.
Transient of the step change of the load for VOC are presented in Fig. 4.39 (current
controllers without decoupling) and Fig. 4.40 (current controllers with decoupling).
Results show that decoupled control system of PWM rectifier possess better
performance.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
82
STEADY STATE BEHAVIOUR
! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE OF VOC
(a) SIMULATION (b) EXPERIMENT
0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8
x 1 0
 3
 4 0 0
 2 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
2 6 0 2 8 0 3 0 0 3 2 0 3 4 0 3 6 0
 4 0 0
 2 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8
x 1 0
 3
 1 0
 5
0
5
1 0
0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
Fig. 4.34: Line voltage, estimated line voltage and input current, together with the harmonic
spectrum of the input current for the VOC with SVPWM: a) simulation results
(the current THD = 4,5 %); b) experimental results (the current THD = 6,1 %).
(a) (b)
0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8
x 1 0
 3
 4 0 0
 2 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
3 0 0 3 2 0 3 4 0 3 6 0 3 8 0 4 0 0 4 2 0 4 4 0 4 6 0 4 8 0
 4 0 0
 2 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8
x 1 0
 3
 1 0
 5
0
5
1 0
0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
Fig. 4.35: Line voltage, estimated line voltage and input current, together with the harmonic
spectrum of the input current for the VOC with DPWM: a) simulation results
(the current THD = 2,6 %.); b) experimental results (the current THD = 3,1 %).
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
83
! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE OF VOC
(a) SIMULATION (b) EXPERIMENT
0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8
x 1 0
 3
 4 0 0
 2 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
3 0 0 3 2 0 3 4 0 3 6 0 3 8 0 4 0 0
 4 0 0
 2 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8
x 1 0
 3
 1 0
 5
0
5
1 0
0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
Fig. 4.36: Line voltage, estimated line voltage and input current, together with the harmonic
spectrum of the input current for the VOC with SVPWM and 4.5% voltage unbalance and 5% 5
th
harmonic voltage: a) simulation results (the current THD = 9,2 %); b) experimental results
(the current THD = 11,8 %).
(a) (b)
0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8
x 1 0
 3
 4 0 0
 2 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 4 0 1 6 0 1 8 0 2 0 0
 4 0 0
 2 0 0
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8
x 1 0
 3
 1 0
 5
0
5
1 0
0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0
0
2
4
6
8
1 0
Fig. 4.37: Line voltage, estimated line voltage and input current, together with the harmonic
spectrum of the input current for the VOC with DPWM and 4.5% voltage unbalance and 5% 5
th
harmonic voltage: a) simulation results (the current THD = 7.1 %); b) experimental results
(the current THD = 10.1 %).
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
84
! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL AND NON SINUSOIDAL LINE
VOLTAGE OF VFOC
SIMULATION
(a) (b)
EXPERIMENT
(c)
Fig. 4.38: Line voltage, estimated virtual flux and input current, together with the harmonic
spectrum of the input current for the VFOC with SVPWM: a) simulation results for purely
sinusoidal line voltage (the current THD = 4,5%); b) simulation results for 4.5% voltage
unbalance and 5% 5
th
harmonic voltage (the current THD = 8,7 %);
c) experimental results (the current THD = 10,5 %).
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
85
DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR
! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATION)
Fig. 4.39. Transient of the step change of the load for VOC (current controllers without
decoupling). From the top: line voltage, line currents, i
Ld
and i
Lq
currents.
Fig. 4.40. Transient of the step change of the load for VOC (current controllers with
decoupling). From the top: line voltage, line currents, i
Ld
and i
Lq
currents.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
86
4.6 SUMMARY
It is shown by simulations and experimental results that line voltage estimators
perform very well even under unbalanced and predistorted conditions.
Furthermore, the current follows the voltage fairly well with VOC control
strategies what provide high value of total power factor. However, sometimes
sinusoidal currents are desired even under unbalanced and predistorted conditions
because sinusoidal current do not produce nonsinusoidal voltage drops across the
line impedance’s. For the conventional VOC scheme some compensating
algorithms exists [35,55,62,63,107] or concept of Virtual Flux VF can be applied
to improve VOC scheme.
The VOC with line voltage estimation and VFOC with virtual flux estimator,
compared to DPC, exhibit some advantages:
! low sampling frequency (cheaper A/D converters and microcontrollers) can
be used for good performance, e.g. 5kHz,
! fixed switching frequency (easier design of the input filter),
! possible implementation of modern PWM techniques (see Section 4.4.7).
Moreover the VFOC provide improved rectifier control under nonideal line
voltage condition, because AC voltage sensorless operation is much less noisy
thanks to the natural lowpass behaviour of the integrator used in the flux
estimator.
There are also some disadvantages for both control strategies:
! exist coupling between active and reactive components and some decoupling
solution is required,
! coordinate transformation and PI controllers are required.
Comparative Study
87
5. COMPARATIVE STUDY
5.1 INTRODUCTION
For better assessment of the individual rectifier control techniques presented, a
comparative investigation of these techniques has been carried out. This issue is of great
importance to designers and manufacturers of AC ASDs. PWM rectifiers have been
increasingly employed as frontend converters in these drives (e.g., Siemens or ABB).
Results of the investigation are presented below.
5.2 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON
! Condition of study
All the four control schemes have been simulated using the SABER software [A.4].
Values of the sampling and switching frequency, respectively, were as follows: (a) VOC
– 5 kHz, 5 kHz, (b) DPC – 80 kHz, 5 kHz (average), (c) VFOC – 5 kHz, 5 kHz, and (d)
VFDPC – 50 kHz, 4 kHz (average). Other parameters of power circuit are given in
Table A.4.1. For fairness of the comparison, no outerloop voltage controller was used
in the dynamic investigation. The comparative study was conducted with respect to the
complexity of control algorithms, operation with unbalanced and distorted line voltages,
parameter sensitivity, and dynamic performance.
! Complexity of control algorithms
To illustrate differences between the techniques with respect to the computational effort,
the number of instructions per sampling cycle is shown in Fig. 5.1. The control
strategies utilizing the virtual flux enjoy certain edge over their voltagebased
counterparts. Computation intensity, that is, the processor load per sampling cycle, is
illustrated in Fig. 5.2 for all methods under consideration. It can be seen that the direct
power control strategies require distinctly faster processors than the VOC and VFOC
techniques.
Fig. 5.1 Computational effort (number of instructions per sampling cycle).
Comparative Study
88
75%
50%
10% 10%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
VOC VFOC VDPC VFDPC
Fig. 5.2 Computation intensity (dSpace 1103)
! Influence of unbalanced and distorted line voltage
Under ideal conditions the PWM rectifier should provide sinusoidal line current.
However there are three major reasons of disturbances, which may distort the current
waveform:
• voltage unbalance,
• voltage distortion,
• distortion of reference instantaneous active power and current (because ripple on u
dc
created by unbalanced and distorted condition).
With unbalanced line voltage the second harmonic appear in control structure (100Hz).
Another two distortion produce most significant harmonic as: 5
th
, 7
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
and 17
th
.
Fig. 5.3 shows the influence of unbalanced and distorted line voltage on DClink
voltage and reference angle in control structure. Figure 5.3(a) shows basic waveforms of
signals, when a ideal voltage is applied. On the other hands, Fig 5.3(b) shows the same
waveforms, when the threephase line voltage is unbalanced and distorted.
(a) Sinusoidal and balanced supply voltage (b) Distorted and unbalanced supply voltage
Fig.5.3. Waveforms of basic signals in the VOC scheme.
From the top: line voltages, DClink voltage, reference angle of line voltage.
Comparative Study
89
Figs. 5.4 and 5.5 illustrate the effect of nonideal line voltage on the current drawn by a
rectifier under various control options. Specifically, the total harmonic distortion (THD)
of the current is shown as a function of the coefficient of imbalance (Fig. 5.4) and
magnitude of the 5
th
harmonic (Fig. 5.5). Again, the VFOC and VFDPC strategies
display distinct superiority over the VOC and DPC schemes.
Fig. 5.4. THD of the line current as a function of voltage imbalance.
Fig. 5.5.THD of the line current as a function of the magnitude of fifth harmonic
of the line voltage.
The line current (THD) factor for the different control schemes are summarized in Table
5.1 together with the different operating conditions and experimental results.
TABLE 5.1. Simulation and experimental results
Control strategy Sampling Switching THD of line current
frequency frequency Sinusoidal voltage Unbalanced and distorted line voltage
Simulation Experimental Simulation Experimental
VOC with SVPWM and
AC voltage sensors
5 kHz 5 kHz 4.3 % 6.0 % 9.0 % 11.7 %
VOC with SVPWM 5 kHz 5 kHz 4.5 % 6.1 % 9.2 % 11.8 %
VOC with DPWM 10 kHz 6.66 kHz 2.6 % 3.1 % 8.0 % 10.1 %
VFOC with SVPWM 5 kHz 5 kHz 4.5%  8.7 % 10.5%
VDPC 80 kHz 5 kHz (average) 5.6 %  8.9 % 
VFDPC 50 kHz 3.5 kHz (average) 5.2 %  5.6 % 5.6%
Comparative Study
90
! Parameter sensitivity
Figure 5.6 shows the dependence of the line current THD on variations of the line
inductance. As expected, the VOC and VFOC techniques are insensitive to these
variations, because the line inductance affects only the estimated angular position of the
line voltage or virtual flux vectors. Therefore, it influences the input power factor but
not the THD of the current. To the contrary, in the DPC schemes, the line inductance
directly affects the estimated active and reactive power values, which in the closed
control loop define switching instants and, as a result, the current THD. However, the
impact of inaccurate line inductance estimation on the performance of a VFDPC
rectifier is considerably lower than that of a DPC rectifier. This is so because in the
former rectifier no line current differentiation is performed (see (3.8) and (3.9)) and the
integrator used in flux calculation (see (2.42a) and (2.42b)) displays a lowpass filter
behaviour.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20
VDPC
VFDPC
VFOC
VOC
T
H
D
[
%
]
∆ ∆∆ ∆L [%]
Fig. 5.6 Current THD versus error in estimation of the line inductance.
! Dynamic performance
A simulated response to a step change in the active power in the virtualflux based
control systems under consideration is shown in Fig. 5.7. As seen in Fig. 5.7a, to reduce
the control error, the VFDPC scheme selects directly an appropriate voltage vector,
providing very fast power control. Contrastingly, the dynamic response of a VFOC
rectifier, illustrated in Fig. 5.7b, is determined by the performance of current controllers.
With PI controllers, the rectifier’s reaction is slower than that with hysteresis
controllers.
Comparative Study
91
(a) VFDPC (b) VFOC
Fig. 5.7 Response of the VFDPC and the VFOC rectifiers to a step change in active power.
From the top: line voltage u
a
, line current i
a
, i
Ld
current, i
Lq
current,
instantaneous active power p, instantaneous reactive power q, line to line voltage u
ab
and instantaneous active power p.
Comparative Study
92
5.3. SUMMARY
Advantages and disadvantages of the control schemes compared are listed in Table 5.2.
Taking into account all operational features, the VFDPC technique seems to be the
most advantageous of all.
TABLE 5.2: Advantages and disadvantages of control techniques for PWM rectifiers
TECHNIQUE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
VOC
• Fixed switching frequency (easier design of the EMI
input filter)
• Advanced PWM strategies can be used
• Cheaper A/D converters
• No sensitivity for inductance variation
• Coordinate transformation and decoupling between active
and reactive current is required
• Complex algorithm
• Input power factor lower than that for DPC
DPC
• No separate voltage modulation block
• No current regulation loops
• No coordinate transformation
• Good dynamics
• Simple algorithm
• Decoupled active and reactive power control
• Instantaneous variables with all harmonic components
are estimated (improvement of the power factor and
efficiency)
• Variable switching frequency
• High values of the inductance and sampling frequency are
needed (important point for the estimator, because smooth
shape of the current waveform is required)
• Power and voltage estimation should be avoided at the
moment of switching (it yields high errors)
• Fast microprocessor and A/D converters required
VFOC
• Fixed switching frequency
• Advanced PWM strategies can be used.
• Cheaper A/D converters
• No sensitivity for inductance variation
• Coordinate transformation and decoupling between active
and reactive components is required
• Complex algorithm
• Input power factor lower than that for DPC
VFDPC
• Simple and noiseresistant power estimation algorithm,
easy to implement in a DSP
• Lower sampling frequency than that for DPC
• Low THD of line currents at a distorted and unbalanced
line voltage (sinusoidal line currents)
• No separate voltage modulation block
• No current regulation loops
• No coordinate transformation
• Good dynamics
• Simple algorithm
• Decoupled active and reactive power control
• Variable switching frequency
• Fast microprocessor and A/D converters required
Conclusions
93
6. CONCLUSION
The theses formulated in the Chapter 1 has been proved by simulation and experimental
investigation. It was shown that application of virtual flux (VF) based control yields
lower current distortion for both the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC) and Direct Power
Control (DPC) scheme (see Fig. 5.5 and 5.6). Also, the VF estimation is much less
noisy than that of the line voltage (see Fig 3.21). Moreover, a line voltage or virtual flux
estimator can replace ACline voltage sensors without deterioration in protection and
performance of PWM rectifiers. Therefore, taking into account all operational features
(see Table 5.2), the Virtual Flux Based Direct Power Control (VFDPC) technique
seems to be the most advantageous of all. Other most important results of the work can
be summarized as below:
VFDPC versus DPC
• lower sampling frequency,
• simple and noise robust power estimation algorithm,
• sinusoidal line currents (low THD) even under unbalanced and distorted line
voltage,
VFDPC versus VOC and VFOC
• simpler algorithm,
• no current control loops,
• coordinate transformation and PI controllers are not required,
• no separate PWM voltage modulation block,
• decoupled active and reactive power controls,
• sinusoidal line currents (low THD) even under unbalanced and distorted line
voltage,
• good dynamic performance,
• power estimation gives possibility of obtaining instantaneous variables with all
harmonic components, which have an impact on improvement of the total power factor
and efficiency.
Conclusions
94
Additionally, it has been shown that for implementation of VOC and VFOC schemes,
one of the most important blocks is the voltage modulator. Therefore, special attention
was paid to various PWM techniques. As result the new concept of Adaptive Space
Vector Modulation (ASVM) was developed. Investigation shows that ASVM is a
universal solution for threephase PWM converters. Among its main features are: full
control range including overmodulation and sixstep operation, tracking of peak current
for instantaneous selection of twophase PWM (this guarantees maximal reduction of
switching losses up to 50%), good dynamic performance by the switching table
application. ASVM with simplified switching time calculation provide a time efficient
algorithm based on implementation in Cartesian coordinates. It consumes one third of
the time required by it’s counterpart in polar coordinates.
Appendices
95
Appendices
A.1 PER UNIT NOTIFICATION
nom
LL
B
S
U
Z
2
= ;
B
Hz
PU
Z
Z
Z
50
=
U
LL
 Input lineline rms voltage (U
ab
= 1 per unit)
S
nom
 Fundamental apparent input power (S
1
= 1 per unit)
Z
B
 Base impedance (S
1
= 1 per unit (100%))
The voltage unbalance is defined as:
u
e
e
n
p
=
e
p
 positive sequence of input voltage vector
e
n
 negative sequence of input voltage vector
A.2 HARMONIC DISTORTION IN POWER SYSTEM
The specification of power system harmonic, conventional and instantaneous power
theories will be reviewed under ideal and distorted conditions. A waveform is distorted
when a voltage or current in power system contains other frequencies than the
fundamental frequency of the mains. The distorting components of waveforms under
steady state conditions are usually integer multiples of the fundamental power
frequency.
Specification of power system distortion
When the periodical function performs a Dirichlet conditions (the conditions are
performed almost by all real electrical signals) then it can be represented as an infinite
concurrent Fourier series. The sum of this series is equal f(x) function
∑
∞
=
+ + =
1
0
) sin(
2
) (
n
n n
nx F
a
x f ψ (A.2.1a)
or
∑
∞
=
+ + =
1
0
) sin(
2
) (
n
n s n s
t n F
a
t f ψ ω ω (A.2.1b)
where:
F
n
 trigonometric Fourier series coefficient with physical meaning of n harmonic
amplitude
a
0
/2 – average component
F
1
sin (ω
s
t+ψ
1
) – fundamental harmonic
F
n
sin (nω
s
t+ψ
n
) – harmonic of n order
ψ
n
– initial phase of n order harmonic
Appendices
96
ω
s
= 2π/T
s
= ω
1
T
s
– period
If we describe:
F
n
sin (nω
s
t+ψ
n
) = F
n
(sin nω
s
t cosψ
n
+ cos nω
s
t sinψ
n
) (A.2.2)
and with notation (Fig. A.2.1)
F
n
sin ψ
n
= b
n
, F
n
cos ψ
n
= a
n
(A.2.3)
and
n
n
n
a
b
tg = ψ ,
2 2
n n n
b a F + = (A.2.4)
Im
Re
F
n
ψ
n
b
n
a
n
Fig. A.2.1 F
n
decomposition into a
n
and b
n
with this consideration the series can be represented as
∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
+ + =
1 1
0
sin cos
2
) (
n
s n
n
s n s
t n b t n a
a
t f ω ω ω (A.2.5)
or
∑
∞
=


.

\



.

\

+


.

\

+ =
1
0
2
sin
2
cos
2
) (
n s
n
s
n s
T
nt
b
T
nt
a
a
t f
π π
ω (A.2.6)
The coefficient a
0
represents the average value of f(x) and the coefficients a
n
and b
n
represents the orthogonal components of the nth harmonic. The coefficients are
determined as follows:
dt t f
T
a
s
T
s
s
∫
=
0
0
) (
2
ω (A.2.7a)
dt
T
nt
t f
T
dt t n t f
T
a
s s
T
s
s
s
T
s s
s
n
∫ ∫ 

.

\

= =
0 0
2
cos ) (
2
cos ) (
2 π
ω ω ω (A.2.7b)
dt
T
nt
t f
T
dt t n t f
T
b
s s
T
s
s
s
T
s s
s
n
∫ ∫ 

.

\

= =
0 0
2
sin ) (
2
sin ) (
2 π
ω ω ω (A.2.7c)
Appendices
97
Most of periodical signals perform some of symmetry conditions. Elements of Fourier
series disappear in this case.
• Symmetry to abscissa axis
Area over and under axis are equal. It means that a
0
= 0 and expansion of Fourier series
will be an infinity series about uneven harmonics.
• Symmetry to ordinate axis
Sinus expression disappears from Fourier series because sinus function is uneven.
• Symmetry to beginning of coordinate system
The function is uneven. Therefore a
0
= 0 and cosinus expression disappears from
Fourier series, because cosinus function is even.
When symmetry to abscissa axis and symmetry to beginning of coordinate system
occur, the Fourier series will have only uneven expression with sinus. Therefore, we can
describe:
∑
∞
=
=
... 5 , 3 , 1
sin ) (
n
s n s
t n b t f ω ω (A.2.8)
Conventional decomposition of voltage, currents and powers
According to the above description periodical signal of voltage, current and power can
be represented as Fourier series
) sin( 2 ) (
0
n n n
n
t U t u ψ ω + =
∑
∞
=
(A.2.9)
) sin( 2 ) (
0
n n n n
n
t I t i ϕ ψ ω − + =
∑
∞
=
(A.2.10)
where ) , (
n n n
I U ∠ = ϕ  phase angle between nth voltage and current harmonics
ω
n
= nω
1
; ω
n
is the angular frequency of the nth harmonic
1
1
2
2
T
n
nf
n
π
π ω = = (A.2.11)
U
n
and I
n
are the rms (root mean square) value of the nth harmonic voltage and current
respectively:
∫
=
T
n n
dt t x
T
X
0
2
) (
1
(A.2.12)
based on Parseval theorem the rms value of the distorted voltage and current is given
by:
... ) (
1
2
2
2
1
2
0
0
2
0
2
+ + + = = =
∑
∫
∞
U U U U dt t u
T
U
n
T
rms
(A.2.13)
Appendices
98
... ) (
1
2
2
2
1
2
0
0
2
0
2
+ + + = = =
∑
∫
∞
I I I I dt t i
T
I
n
T
rms
(A.2.14)
The total harmonic distortion factor (THD) is most commonly used to characterize the
magnitude of the distorted signals. The THD gives the ratio between the geometric sum
of the magnitudes or rms of the harmonics and the magnitude (or rms value) of the
fundamental component:
1
2
2
X
X
THD
n
n ∑
∞
=
= . (A.2.15)
The main disadvantage of the THD is that the detailed information about harmonic
spectrum is lost.
The instantaneous power is defined as:
p(t) = u(t) i(t) (A.2.16)
Classical approaches define that active power is an average value of instantaneous
power
n
n
n n
T T
n
n
I U I U P dt t i t u
T
dt t p
T
P γ cos ) ( ) (
1
) (
1
1
0 0
0 0
0
∑
∫ ∫
∑
∞
=
∞
=
+ = = ⋅ = =
∑ ∑
∫ ∫
∞
=
∞
=
= = ⋅ =
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
) (
1
) (
1
n
n
n
n
T T
rms rms
I U dt t i
T
dt t u
T
I U S (A.2.17)
2 2
P S Q − =
For a typical threephase system without neutral wire, U
0
I
0
will be zero since a zero
sequence components of the current system do not exists. Therefore, the equations
(A.2.17) posses only AC components:
n
n
n n
n
n
I U P P γ cos
1 1
∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
= = (A.2.18)
∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
=
1
2
1
2
n
n
n
n
I U S (A.2.19)
∑ ∑
∞
=
∞
=
= =
1 1
sin
n
n n n
n
n
I U Q Q γ (A.2.20)
Where the active power P will thus represent a measure of the average energy flow even
in a disturbed power system. The apparent power S is usually used to specify the size of
required power system equipment. The apparent power S is considered as representing
the maximum active power, which can be delivered by a voltage source while the line
losses are maintained constant. The reactive power Q is of interest for specifying the
Appendices
99
size of compensation equipment in power system such as PWM converters and active
power filters.
From the comparison of Eqs. (A.2.18), (A.2.20) with (A.2.19) can be seen that as
distinct from sinusoidal signals the square sum of active and reactive power is not equal
to apparent power. Therefore, to complete the definitions a “distortion power” D has
been introduced (Fig. A.2.2). The separate power are connected in equation
2 2 2
Q P S D − − = (A.2.21)
Q
D
S
P
Fig. A.2.2 Graphical representation of power components
Instantaneous decomposition of powers
Many theories of instantaneous power exist in scientific literature [810,1315] and it is
in detail described in [7,1112]. The extension of the reactive power to nonsinusoidal
waveforms is now a subject of controversy. Many new theories have been proposed and
they are not accepted for all researchers around the world. However, the definition of
this topic is still confusing and it is difficult to find a general and unified definition of
power components under nonsinusoidal conditions, particularly when threephase
systems are analyzed. The most popular definition for instantaneous reactive
(imaginary) and active (real) power has been proposed by Takahashi and by Akagi
[8,9,13]. However, the instantaneous imaginary power proposed by Akagi does not have
a clear physical meaning.
Furuhashi presents a new definition of instantaneous reactive power [13], which is
generated by compensating equipment such as an active filter. In author opinion most
clear presentation of instantaneous components of active and reactive power was
presented by Peng [14].
Instantaneous power for threephase system are usually considered in orthogonal
coordinates αβ0 then in three phase coordinate abc. Therefore, the Clarke
transformation C and its reverse transformation C
1
define the relationship between the
threephase system abc and the stationary reference frame αβ0 are described as:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
b
a
x
x
x
x
x
x
2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / 3 2 / 3 0
2 / 1 2 / 1 1
3
2
0
β
α
(A.2.22a)
Appendices
100
where x denotes currents or voltages
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
− −
− =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
0
2 / 1 2 / 3 2 / 1
2 / 1 2 / 3 2 / 1
2 / 1 0 1
3
2
x
x
x
x
x
x
c
b
a
β
α
(A.2.22b)
The αβ components can be represented in the Cartesian plane by a space vector x
αβ
:
β α
αβ
jx x x + = (A.2.23)
where the αaxis and the aaxis have the same orientation. The βaxis leads the aaxis
with 90
0
.
For a threephase power system, instantaneous voltages u
a
, u
b
, u
c
and instantaneous
currents i
a
, i
b
, i
c
are expressed as instantaneous space vectors u and i
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
c
b
a
u
u
u
u and
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
c
b
a
i
i
i
i (A.2.24)
For threephase voltages and currents u
a
, u
b
, u
c
and i
a
, i
b
, i
c
the α, β and 0 components
are expressed as:
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
b
a
u
u
u
C
u
u
u
0
β
α
and [ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
b
a
i
i
i
C
i
i
i
0
β
α
(A.2.25)
For the typical threephase system without neutral wire, zero sequence component i
0
of
the current system does not exist ( 0 = + +
c b a
i i i ). It gives finally simple realization of
signal processing thanks to only two signals in αβ coordinate what is the main
advantage of abc/αβ transformation. With this assumption the equations (A.2.25) can
be described as:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
=
(
¸
(
¸
c
b
a
u
u
u
u
u
2 / 3
2 / 1
2 / 3
2 / 1
0
1
3
2
β
α
(A.2.26)
and
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
=
(
¸
(
¸
c
b
a
i
i
i
i
i
2 / 3
2 / 1
2 / 3
2 / 1
0
1
3
2
β
α
(A.2.27)
General threephase fourwire system is represented as separated: threephase three
wire system and a singlephase system, which represents the zero sequence components.
Appendices
101
) ( ) (
0
0 0
t p t p
i
i
i
u
u
u
i
i
i
u
u
u
p
T
c
b
a
T
c
b
a
+ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
∑ β
α
β
α
(A.2.28)
The instantaneous zero sequence power p
0
(t) is only observable if exist both zero
sequence components (u
0
, i
0
).
0 0 0
) ( i v t p ⋅ =
(A.2.29)
The Takahashi define the instantaneous active power p as scalar product between the
threephase voltages and currents and instantaneous reactive power q as vector product
between them:
c c b b a a abc abc
i u i u i u i u p + + = ⋅ =
) ( ) (
(A.2.30)
c c b b a a abc abc
i u i u i u i u q
' ' '
) ( ) (
+ + = × = (A.2.31)
where u
’
a
, u
’
b,
u
’
c
is 90
0
lag of u
a
, u
b
, u
c
respectively. The same equations can be
described in matrix form as:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
¸
(
¸
c
b
a
c
c
b
b
a
a
i
i
i
u
u
u
u
u
u
q
p
' ' '
, (A.2.32)
where
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
−
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
ba
ac
ca
a b
c a
b c
c
b
a
u
u
u
u u
u u
u u
u
u
u
3
1
3
1
'
'
'
. (A.2.33)
Additional information can be obtained by defining an instantaneous complex power
p(t) in the Cartesian plane:
{ } { }
] ) ( ) ( ) [(
3
1
) ( ) ( ) ( Im ) ( Re ) ( ) ( ) (
*
c b a b a c a c b c c b b a a
i u u i u u i u u j i u i u i u
t jq t p t p t p t i t u t p
− + − + − + + + =
= + = + = ⋅ =
(A.2.34)
The most frequently referred power theory was proposed by Akagi [9] when the three
phase voltages and currents are transformed into αβ coordinates, and additionally the
threephase voltages and currents excluding zerophase sequence components.
Therefore, instantaneous power on the threephase circuit can be defined as follows:
β β α α
i u i u p + = (A.2.37)
where p is equal to the conventional equation (A.2.30). In order to define the
instantaneous reactive power, Akagi introduced the instantaneous imaginary power
space vector defined by:
Appendices
102
α β β α
i u i u q × + × = (A.2.38)
(imaginary axis vector is perpendicular to the real plane on the αβ coordinates)
From equation (A.2.37) the conventional instantaneous power p and the above defined
instantaneous imaginary power q, which is the amplitude of space vector q are
expressed by:
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
−
=
(
¸
(
¸
β
α
α β
β α
i
i
u u
u u
q
p
(A.2.39)
u
α
i
α
and u
β
i
β
obviously mean instantaneous power because they are defined by product
of the instantaneous voltage in one axis and the instantaneous current in the same axis.
Therefore, p is the real power in the threephase circuit and its dimension is [W].
Conversely, u
α
i
β
and u
β
i
α
are not instantaneous power, because they are defined by the
product of the instantaneous voltage in one axis and instantaneous current not in the
same axis but in the perpendicular axis.
The αβ currents can be obtained by the equations inverse to (A.2.39):
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
−
=
(
¸
(
¸
−
q
p
u u
u u
i
i
1
α β
β α
β
α
(A.2.40)
and gives finally
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
−
+
=
(
¸
(
¸
q
p
u u
u u
u u
i
i
α β
β α
β α
β
α
2 2
1
(A.2.41)
The theory proposed by Peng [14] base on equations (A.2.30), (A.2.31) and defines
vector q designated as the instantaneous reactive (or nonactive) power vector of the
threephase circuit. The magnitude (or the length) of q is designated as the instantaneous
reactive power that is
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
b a
b a
a c
a c
c b
c b
c
b
a
i i
u u
i i
u u
i i
u u
q
q
q
q (A.2.43)
and
2 2 2
c b a
q q q q q + + = = (A.2.44)
Next the instantaneous active current vector i
p
, the instantaneous reactive current vector
i
q
, the instantaneous apparent power s and the instantaneous power factor λ are defined
as:
Appendices
103
u
u u
p
i
i
i
i
def
cp
bp
ap
p
⋅
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
= (A.2.45)
u u
u q
i
i
i
i
def
cq
bq
aq
q
⋅
×
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
= (A.2.46)
ui s
def
= and
s
p
def
= λ (A.2.47)
where
2 2 2
c b a
u u u u u + + = = and
2 2 2
c b a
i i i i i + + = = (A.2.48)
are the instantaneous magnitudes (or norms) of the threephase voltage and current,
respectively.
Moreover, following interesting properties can be observed:
! a threephase current vector i is always equal to the sum of i
p
and i
q
i.e.
q p
i i i + ≡
! i
q
is orthogonal to u, and i
p
parallel to u namely 0 ≡ ⋅
q
i u and 0 ≡ ×
p
i u
! all properties of the conventional reactive power theory still hold true for new theory
such as:
2 2 2
q p
i i i + ≡ ,
2 2 2
q p s + ≡ , and
2 2 2 2
/ ) ( u q p i + ≡ , where
p p
i i = and
q q
i i =
! for a threephase system without zero sequence voltage and current i.e.
0 = + +
c b a
u u u and 0 = + +
c b a
i i i , it is true that:
a b b a c a a c b c c b c b a
i u i u i u i u i u i u q q q q − = − = − = = = =
c a a c a a c c b c c b c c b b a b b a b b a a
i u i u i u i u i u i u i u i u i u i u i u i u p + + + = + + + = + + + = ) ( 2 ) ( 2 ) ( 2
The definitions of the instantaneous reactive components are all based on the direct
quantities of threephase voltages and currents. If necessary these newly defined
quantities can be expressed in any other coordinates.
) ( ) ( (abc) (abc)
i u i u p
0 0 αβ αβ
⋅ = ⋅ = (A.2.49)
[ ]
) 0 ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) (
) (
αβ αβ
i u i u q q q q
abc abc
T
c b a
abc
× = × = = (A.2.50)
After αβ transformation all equations proposed by Peng are identical to definition
described in [9].
Other popular theory was proposed by Furuhashi [13], especially, for active filters
because the new instantaneous reactive power q
k
is defined with the power of each line
of the active filter (active filter does not generate the instantaneous active power) as:
Fk k k
i u q ∗ = ) ,..., 2 , 1 ( n k = (A.2.51)
where u
k
– phase voltage i
Fk
– phase current of active filter.
Appendices
104
Since the active filter does not generate the instantaneous active power, the following
constraint is imposed on the power in (A.2.51):
∑
=
=
n
k
k
q
1
0 (A.2.52)
All of researchers only agree with definition that the instantaneous active and reactive
power „p” and „q” can be decomposed into average DC components p q, corresponding
to the fundamental of the load current and an oscillating (ripple) components
p q
~
,
~
corresponding to the harmonics:
q q p p q p p
phase
~ ~
3
+ + + = + =
−
(A.2.53)
p p p
~
+ = and q q q
~
+ = (A.2.54)
where:
phase
p
− 3
total threephase instantaneous power demanded by the load
pinstantaneous active components of
phase
p
− 3
q instantaneous reactive components of
phase
p
− 3
p  direct (average) components of p associated to the fundamental frequency active
components of load current
p
~
 alternating (ripple) components of p associated to the harmonic active components
of load current
q  direct (average) components of q associated to the fundamental frequency reactive
components of load current
q
~
 alternating (ripple) components of q associated to the harmonic reactive components
of load current
Only in the Peng’s definition p
~
and q
~
can additionally be split into two parts (2ω
components and harmonic components) as
h
p p p + =
ω 2
~
(A.2.55)
h
q q q + =
ω 2
~
(A.2.56)
where
ω 2
p and
ω 2
q are the negativesequence active and reactive power (2ω
components) originating from asymmetrical fundamental (negative sequence)
components of the load current, and
h
p and
h
q are the harmonic active and reactive
power (harmonic components) originating from harmonic components of load current.
A.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF SVM
Simplified switching time calculation for SVM
This point presents an approach, which allows simplified calculations and the algorithm
in real time implementation is much faster, compare to the conventional method. The
new algorithm is based on the assumption, that the conduction times in each phase are
calculated directly using only information about command phase voltages. In classical
Appendices
105
SVM techniques the polar coordinate system is used to calculate these times, whereas in
presented method the Cartesian coordinate system is used.
The description is based on the simple equations [101]. It is easy to show that the
average values of output voltages with respect to neutral point of converter (Fig. 4.7) are
calculated as:
2
,
2
,
2
0 0 0
dc
c
s
dc
c b
dc
s
dc
b
dc
a
s
dc
a
U
T
T
U
u T
U
T
U
u
U
T
T
U
u − ⋅ = ⋅ − = − ⋅ = (A.3.1)
where T
a
, T
b
, T
c
are the conduction times in each phase of the converter.
Note, that in balanced system, the neutral point voltage is expressed as:
2
) (
3
1
0
dc
c b a
s
dc
N
U
T T T
T
U
u − + + ⋅ = (A.3.2)
After simple calculations we can obtain the relationship between phase voltages and
conduction times in the form:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
− −
− −
− −
⋅ ==
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
b
a
s
dc
cN
bN
aN
T
T
T
T
U
u
u
u
2 1 1
1 2 1
1 1 2
3
1
(A.3.3)
Note, that the matrix used in the above equation is singular, and that is no unique
solution, if we want to calculate conduction times from phase voltages. This one degree
of freedom gives us possibility to construct different modulation methods. The only
limitation is that all these times should be in the range [0, T
s
]. It is easy to conclude that
lower voltage gives lower conduction time. So, the minimum time is for the minimum
voltage (Fig. A.3.1a).
(a) (b)
a
V
1
(100)
V
2
(110)
V
3
(010)
V
4
(011)
V
5
(001)
V
6
(101)
V
0
(000)
V
7
(111)
V*
b
c
v
max
v
vmid
min
REGION 2
REGION 3
REGION 4
REGION 5
REGION 6
REGION 1
Fig. A.3.1 a) Correspondence between phase voltages and conduction times.
From the top: phase voltages and pulses.
b) Space vector representation of threephase converter in natural a, b, c coordinate.
Appendices
106
If we introduce the following notation (Fig. A.3.1b):
u
min
= min(u
ao
, u
bo
, u
co
),
u
max
= max(u
ao
, u
bo
, u
co
),
u
min
< u
mid
< u
max
.
and assume that T
min
, T
mid
, T
max
, are the conduction times in phases for which the
voltages are u
min
, u
mid
, u
max
respectively. The minimum value, which can be taken for
T
min
, is zero. In this case we can calculate another conduction times using equation:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
0
min
min max
min
max
u u
u u
U
T
T
T
T
mid
dc
s
mid
(A.3.4)
If we rewrite this formula with phase indexes we can obtain the following equivalent
form:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
−
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
min
min
min
u u
u u
u u
U
T
T
T
T
cN
bN
aN
dc
s
c
b
a
(A.3.5)
The algorithm using the above equation is the discontinues modulation algorithm, and
each phase in the period 120° is not switched. Generally any modulation algorithm can
be described by the equation:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
−
−
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
0
0
0
min
min
min
T
T
T
k
u u
u u
u u
U
T
T
T
T
cN
bN
aN
dc
s
c
b
a
(A.3.6)
where
) (
min max 0
u u
U
T
T T
dc
s
s
− − = (A.3.7)
and 0 ≤ k ≤ 1. Note, that for k = 0.5, the algorithm correspond to the modulation with
symmetrical zero states (SVPWM).
Adaptive Modulation with simplified switching time calculation
The new idea of ASVM [93] bases on assumption that modulator should provide
maximal reduction of switching losses in linear range of modulation [see Section 4.4.7].
Therefore, modulator use k = 0.5 for low values of modulation index, what gives good
performance at startup condition and, moreover, guarantees low current harmonic
distortion. In the discontinues modulation method zero vectors could be chosen as
U
0
(0,0,0) or U
7
(1,1,1). In the first case in the described algorithm Eqs. A.3.8 k = 0 in
the second case k = 1. The selection, which method is used depends on the following
condition:
if u
max
+u
min
< 0 then k = 0 else k = 1 (A.3.8)
Appendices
107
This algorithm describes the discontinues modulation method without current tracking.
If we want take into account the phase values of the current, the algorithm is modified.
We must additional made sorting of current values
i
min
= min(i
a
,i
b
,i
c
),
i
max
= max(i
a
, i
b
, i
c
),
i
min
< i
mid
< i
max.
and use instead of algorithm Eq. A.3.8, the adaptive algorithm based on the condition
presented below:
if i
max
+i
min
< 0 then k = 0 else k = 1 (A.3.9)
Dead time compensation
One of the main problems encountered in openloop PWM voltagesource converter is
the nonlinear voltage gain caused by the nonideal characteristics of the power converter.
The most important nonlinearity is introduced by the necessary dead time (T
d
) to avoid
the shoottrought of the DClink. In most cases, the compensation techniques are based
on an average value theory, the lost volt seconds are averaged over an entire period and
added vectorially to the commanded voltage. Regardless of the used method, all dead
time compensation techniques are based on information of the polarity of the current,
hence current detection becomes an important issue. This is particularly important
around the zero crossings, where an accurate current measurement is needed to exactly
compensate for the deadtime. In this case the compensation is added to pulse, before
the dead time generation for positive current, and subtracted from the pulse for negative
current [71][91]. Simple algorithm of dead time compensation is presented below:
if (0 < i
a
< i
min
) {T
a
= T
a
+ T
d
/T
s
;}
if (0 > i
a
> i
min
) {T
a
= T
a
 T
d
/T
s
;}
if (0 < i
b
< i
min
) {T
b
= T
b
+ T
d
/T
s
;}
if (0 > i
b
> i
min
) {T
b
= T
b
 T
d
/T
s
;}
if (0 < i
c
< i
min
) {T
c
= T
c
+ T
d
/T
s
;}
if (0 > i
c
> i
min
) {T
c
= T
c
 T
d
/T
s
;}
Appendices
108
A.4 SABER MODEL
Fig. A.4.1 Example of Saber model
The control algorithms of PWM rectifier was implemented in SABER, which provides
analysis of the complete behavior of analog and mixedsignal systems, including
electrical subsystems. The main electrical parameters of the power circuit and control
data are given in the Table A.4.1. The example of PWM rectifier model is shown in Fig.
A.4.1. The electrical elements are taken from library, but control algorithm has been
written in MAST language. The example of VFDPC algorithm implemented in SABER
is shown below.
Table A.4.1 Parameters used in simulation
Sampling frequency (DPC): 80kHz
Sampling frequency (VFDPC): 50kHz
Sampling frequency (VOC, VFOC): 5kHz
Resistance of reactors R: 100mΩ
Inductance of reactors L: 10mH
DClink capacitor: 1mF
Load resistance RL: 100Ω
Switching frequency (DPC) f: 5kHz
Switching frequency (VF_DPC) f: 3.5kHz
Switching frequency (VOC, VFOC) f: 5kHz
Phase voltage V: 230 RMS
Source voltage frequency: 50 Hz
DClink voltage: 620V
Resistance of source R: 8mΩ
Inductance of source L: 0.127mH
n Inductance per unit notification: 8.7%
Appendices
109
#******************************************************************************#
#* Direct Power Control for Saber  MM *#
#******************************************************************************#
element template dpc_udc smp,ia,ib,Sa_out,Sb_out,Sc_out,Sa_out_i,Sb_out_i,Sc_out_i,vaz,vbz,vcz,udc_z
state nu smp,ia,ib,udc_z,vaz,vbz,vcz
state logic_4 Sa_out,Sb_out,Sc_out,Sa_out_i,Sb_out_i,Sc_out_i
{
<consts.sin
state nu ic,ialf,ibet,L=0.013,hh=1,Kp=0.0,Ti=0.0,pi=math_pi,T_in =0.1, Ts=10u
state nu Theta,delta_Udc,p,q,delta_q,delta_p,p_old,q_old, I_ref_old, delta_Udc_old
state nu i,Sq,Sq_old,Sp,Sp_old,sector,udc_ref=610,p_ref,q_ref=0,pdc=1
state nu ui,up,I_ref,ie,Sa,Sb,Sc,Sa_old,Sb_old,Sc_old
state nu Psi_alf,Psi_bet, usa, usb, usc, Psi_alf_s=1.0, Psi_bet_s=0.0, Psi_alf_c, Psi_bet_c
number pi_r=0.7,ti_r=5m
state nu tab_11[1:12]=[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
state nu tab_12[1:12]=[0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0]
state nu tab_13[1:12]=[1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1]
state nu tab_21[1:12]=[1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0]
state nu tab_22[1:12]=[1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0]
state nu tab_23[1:12]=[0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0]
state nu tab_31[1:12]=[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1]
state nu tab_32[1:12]=[0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0]
state nu tab_33[1:12]=[1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]
state nu tab_41[1:12]=[1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1]
state nu tab_42[1:12]=[0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]
state nu tab_43[1:12]=[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0]
when(time_init){
schedule_event(time,Sa_out,l4_0)
schedule_event(time,Sa_out_i,l4_0)
schedule_event(time,Sb_out,l4_0)
schedule_event(time,Sb_out_i,l4_0)
schedule_event(time,Sc_out,l4_0)
schedule_event(time,Sc_out_i,l4_0)
}
when(event_on(smp)){
#*Transformacje wspolrzednych
ic=(ia+ib) #* "ic" calculation
ialf=ia #*abc/alfa_beta transformation
ibet=(1/sqrt(3))*(ia+2*ib)
#*Virtual flux estimation
usa=1.0/3.0*udc_z*(2.0*Sa_oldSb_oldSc_old);
usb=1.0/3.0*udc_z*(Sa_old+2.0*Sb_oldSc_old);
usc=1.0/3.0*udc_z*(Sa_oldSb_old+2.0*Sc_old);
Ualf=usa;
Ubet=(1/sqrt(3))*(usa+2.0*usb);
Psi_alf_c=Psi_alf_s+Ts*(Ualf(1/T_in)*Psi_alf_c)
Psi_alf_s=Psi_alf_c
Psi_alf=Psi_alf_c+ialf*L
Psi_bet_c=Psi_bet_s+Ts*(Ubet(1/T_in)*Psi_bet_c)
Psi_bet_s=Psi_bet_c
Psi_bet=Psi_bet_c+ibet*L
#*Instantaneous power estimation
p= 3/2*314*(Psi_alf*ibet  Psi_bet*ialf)
q= 314*(Psi_alf*ialf + Psi_bet*ibet)
if(Psi_alf<0 & Psi_bet>0) Theta = atan(Psi_bet/( Psi_alf+0.000001p))+math_pi
else if(Psi_alf<0 & Psi_bet< 0) Theta = atan(Psi_bet/( Psi_alf+0.000001p))math_pi
else Theta=atan(Psi_bet/( Psi_alf+0.000001p))
#*Sector selection
if ((0 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/6)) sector = 2 #* 0 <= Theta < 30 *#
if ((pi/6 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/3)) sector = 3 #* 30 <= Theta < 60 *#
if ((pi/3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/2)) sector = 4 #* 60 <= Theta < 90 *#
if ((pi/2 <= Theta) & (Theta < 2*pi/3)) sector = 5 #* 90 <= Theta < 120*#
if ((2*pi/3 <= Theta) & (Theta < 5*pi/6)) sector = 6 #*120 <= Theta < 150*#
if ((5*pi/6 <= Theta) & (Theta <= pi)) sector = 7 #*150 <= Theta < 180*#
if ((pi <= Theta) & (Theta < 5*pi/6)) sector = 8 #*180 <= Theta < 210*#
Appendices
110
if ((5*pi/6 <= Theta) & (Theta < 2*pi/3)) sector = 9 #*210 <= Theta < 240*#
if ((2*pi/3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/2)) sector = 10 #*240 <= Theta < 270*#
if ((pi/2 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/3)) sector = 11 #*270 <= Theta < 300*#
if ((pi/3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/6)) sector = 12 #*300 <= Theta < 330*#
if ((pi/6 <= Theta) & (Theta < 0)) sector = 1 #*330 <= Theta < 360*#
delta_Udc=udc_refudc_z #*voltage control
I_ref= I_ref_old + pi_r*delta_Udc + pi_r*((Ts/ti_r)1)*delta_Udc_old #* regulator PI
p_ref=I_ref*udc_z
I_ref_old=I_ref
delta_Udc_old=delta_Udc
#* Control Structure
delta_p=p_refp
delta_q=q_refq
#****************************************************************************#
if (delta_p>hh) Sp = 1 #* p histeres *#
if (delta_p<(hh)) Sp = 0
if ((delta_p<hh) & (delta_p>(hh))) Sp=Sp_old
Sp_old=Sp
#*************************************************************************#
if (delta_q>hh) Sq = 1 #* q histeres *#
if (delta_q<(hh)) Sq = 0
if ((delta_q<hh) & (delta_q>(hh))) Sq=Sq_old
Sq_old=Sq
#*************************************************************************#
if((Sp==1) & (Sq==0)){
Sa=tab_11[sector], Sb=tab_12[sector], Sc=tab_13[sector]
}
if((Sp==1) & (Sq==1)){
Sa=tab_21[sector], Sb=tab_22[sector], Sc=tab_23[sector]
}
if((Sp==0) & (Sq==0)){
Sa=tab_31[sector], Sb=tab_32[sector], Sc=tab_33[sector]
}
if((Sp==0) & (Sq==1)){
Sa=tab_41[sector], Sb=tab_42[sector], Sc=tab_43[sector]
}
Sa_old=Sa
Sb_old=Sb
Sc_old=Sc
#*************************************************************************#
if(Sa==0){
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sa_out,l4_0)
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sa_out_i,l4_1)
}
if(Sa==1){
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sa_out,l4_1)
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sa_out_i,l4_0)
}
if(Sb==0){
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sb_out,l4_0)
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sb_out_i,l4_1)
}
if(Sb==1){
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sb_out,l4_1)
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sb_out_i,l4_0)
}
if(Sc==0){
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sc_out,l4_0)
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sc_out_i,l4_1)
}
if(Sc==1){
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sc_out,l4_1)
schedule_event(time+Ts,Sc_out_i,l4_0)
}
schedule_next_time(time)
}
}
Appendices
111
A.5 SIMULINK MODEL
Different modulation techniques with additional Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS) has been
simulated using MATLABSIMULINK program. The model is presented on Fig. A.5.1.
3
control
ZSS
XY Graph1
XY Graph
WYNIKI
Voltages2
Voltages1
Voltages
Vab1
Transport
Delay1
TRIANGLE
THIPWM
Scope4
Scope3
R
S
T
Out1
SVPWM
0
SPWM
SIN REF
SIN
+ZERO SIQUENCE
SIGNAL
Mux
Mux4
Mux
Mux3
Mux
Mux
Mux
Mux
Mux
Multiport
Switch
ZSS
TR
PWMR
REF+ZSS
PWMS
R
SINREF
S
T
PWMT
MODULATOR
LP_filter1
LP_filter
In1
In2
In3
Va
Vb
Vc
ia
ib
ic
Vab
Vbc
Vca
LOAD
s
1
Integrator
+
IN1
IN2
IN3

R
S
T
INVERTER
Ibeta
Ialfa
HAVA
[Va]
Goto2
[Vab]
Goto1
[Ia]
Goto
R
S
T
In
Out1
Out2
Out3
Out4
GDPWM1
[Va]
From2
[Vab]
From1
[Ia]
From
Demux
Demux1
1
DPWM3
Currents
A
B
C
ALFA
BETA
ABC/ALFABETA1
A
B
C
ALFA
BETA
ABC/ALFABETA
220

220
+
Fig. A.5.1. PWM model in Simulink
A.6 LABORATORY SETUP BASED ON DS1103
Laboratory setup consist of two parts:
! power circuit,
! control and measurement systems.
Appendices
112
TM
PWM Rectifier
DS1103 dSPACE
Master : PowerPC 604e
Slave: DSP TMS320F240
Measurement
Equipment
AC Motor
DSP Interface
DC link
Pentium
TM
Host Computer
3 3 2
TM
PWM Inverter
IPC
Optic fiber
receiver
IPC
Optic fiber
receiver
3 Phase
Grid
A
C
V
o
lta
g
e
&
C
u
r
r
e
n
ts
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
ts
O
p
tic
fib
e
r
6
O
p
tic
fib
e
r
6
A
C
V
o
lta
g
e
&
C
u
r
r
e
n
ts
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
ts
D
C
V
o
lta
g
e
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
ts
Fig. A.6.1. Configuration of laboratory setup
Power circuit
The laboratory setup (Fig. A.6.1) consists of two commercial Danfoss inverters VLT
5000 series (Table A.6.1)[122] and a 3kW induction motor as active and resistor as a
passive load. The main electrical parameters of the power circuit and control data are
given in the Table A.6.2.
Table A.6.1 General parameters of VLT5005 inverter
ULN ILN IVLT,N SVLT,N PVLT,N Efficiency
[V] [A] [A] [kVA] [kW] 
380 7 7,2 5,5 3,0 0,96
where:
U
LN
 line voltage, I
LN
 line current, I
VLT,N
 output current, S
VLT,N
 output power, P
VLT,N
 power on shaft.
Table A.6.2 Parameters used in experiment
Sampling frequency (DPC, VFDPC): 50kHz
Sampling frequency (VOC, VFOC): 5kHz
Resistance of reactors R: 100mΩ
Inductance of reactors L: 10mH
DClink capacitor: 470µF
Load resistance RL: 100Ω
Switching frequency (DPC, VFDPC) f: 3.5 kHz
Switching frequency (VOC, VFOC) f: 5 kHz
Phase voltage V: 230 RMS
Source voltage frequency: 50 Hz
DClink voltage: 620V
Appendices
113
Control and measurement systems
This part of system consists of following elements (Fig. A.6.2):
! dSpace DS1103 board inserted into a PCPentium,
! interface board and measurement system,
! software.
Measurement
Equipment
Measurement
Equipment
DS1103
DS1103
Isolation
Amplifiers
START
STOP
START
STOP
AC&DC
Voltages&Currents
AC&DC
Voltages&Currents
PWM
Signals
Input/Output
Signals
Optic Fiber
Receivers
Optic Fiber
Receivers
O
p
t
i
c
F
i
b
e
r
s
Optic Fiber
Drivers
Optic Fiber
Drivers
DA
Converters
LEM55 Converters
and
Isolation
Amplifiers
AD
Converters
Fig. A.6.2. Block diagram of DSP interface
The power converters are controlled by the dSpace DS1103 board inserted into a PC
Pentium (Fig. A.6.3). The mixed RISC/DSP/CAN digital controller based on two
microprocessors (PowerPC604e – 333MHz and TMS320F240 – 20MHz) and four high
resolution analogtodigital (A/D) converters (0.8µs  12 bit) provide a very fast
processing for floating point calculations. It makes possible real time control.
Fig. A.6.3 DS1103 inside the Pentium PC
Basic parameters of DS1103[125126]:
! master processor  Motorola PowerPC604e/333MHz
! slave processor – fixed point DSP of TI’s TMS320F240
! 16 channels of ADC – 16 bit (resolution) – 4 µs (sampling time), +10V
! 4 channels of ADC – 12 bit – 0.8 µs, +10V
Appendices
114
! 8 channels of DAC – 14 bit  5 µs, +10V
! incremental Encoder Interface – 7 channels
! 32 digital I/O lines
! ControlDesk software
The DSP subsystem, based on the Texas Instruments TMS320F240 fixed point
processor, is especially designed for control of power electronics. Among other I/O
capabilities, the DSP provides one threephase PWM generator and four single phase
PWM generators. The other CAN subsystem based on Siemens 80C164 microcontroller
is used for connection to a CAN bus.
The PPC has access to both the DSP and the CAN subsystems. The PPC is the master,
whereas the DSP and the CAN microcontroller are slaves. The following figures give an
overview of the functional units of the DS1103 PPC.
I
S
A
B
u
s
i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
c
o
n
e
c
t
o
r
(
H
o
s
t
i
n
t
r
f
a
c
e
)
Master PPC
Decrementer
,
Timebase
Timer A & B
Interrupt Control
I/O Units
ADC Unit
DAC Unit
Incremental
Encoder
Interface
Bit I/O Unit
Serial
Interface
DPMEM DPMEM
C
A
N
S
u
b
s
y
s
t
e
m
Slave MC
CAN
Controller
CAN Subsystem
ADC Unit
Timing I/O
Unit (PWM,
CAP)
Bit I/O Unit
Slave DSP
I
/
O
C
o
n
n
e
c
t
o
r
s
P
1
,
P
2
,
P
3
a) b)
Fig.A.6.4. a) Block scheme of DS1103; b) Placement of main components.
DSP interface provide galvanic isolation between control board DS1103 and power
circuit. All PWM signals are generated by DS1103 and send using optic fibers to the
Interface and Protection Card IPC [124] that is mounted on the front panel of the
inverter, instead of original Danfoss control board. The IPC includes: optic fiber
receivers, 4MHz modulation of gate signals and protective function required by the
VLT, i.e. shortcircuit, shoottrough of the DC link, over voltage and over temperature.
Appendices
115
Software
Operation on DS1103 is provided by an integrated ControlDesk program (Fig. A.6.5)
[123]. Thanks to this application it is possible to change structure and parameters in real
time. For algorithms application it is possible to use: assembler, C language (see the
next page) and Simulink (Fig. A.6.6).
Fig. A.6.5 Screen of ControlDesk
Fig. A.6.6 Some functional blocks for Simulink RTI interface.
Appendices
116
/*DPC for dSpace 1103  written by Mariusz Malinowski*/
#include <Brtenv.h>
#include <math.h>
//#include <Io1103.h>
/**/
#define DT 20e6
#define _1_sqrt3 0.57735 /* Constants */
#define sqrt2 1.414213562
/* variables for communication with Slave DSP */
Int16 task_id = 0; /* communication channel */
Int16 index = 1; /* slave DSP command index */
Float64 deadband = 2e6; /* deadband period */
UInt16 sync_mode = SLVDSP1103_PWM3_SYNC_LEFT; /* sync mode */
Float64 exec_time, total_time; /* variables for TRACE and COCKPIT */
Float64 period = 20e6; /* PWM period */
/* variables for PWM rectifier */
Float64 L=0.010,Kp=0.0,Ti=0.0,Ts=DT,pi=PI, ia, ib, ic, i_alf, i_bet, psi_alf,psi_bet,psi_alf_c,psi_bet_c;
Float64 Theta,delta_Udc,u_alf,u_bet,delta_udc_old=0.0,udc, udc_old=0.0,ualf,ubet;
Float64 p,q,delta_q,delta_p,p_old=0.0,q_old=0.0,p_ref, I_ref,I_ref_old=0.0,I_ref_max=10.0;
int sector,Sa_old,Sb_old,Sc_old,Sq,Sq_old,Sp,Sp_old, _Ts,_T_in;
volatile Float64 hh=0; udc_ref=600.0; q_ref=0.0; pdc=0.1; ti=0.1; T_in=0.0159; ku1=1435.0; ki1=18.55; ki2=18.55;
unsigned int tab_11[12]={1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0};
unsigned int tab_12[12]={0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0};
unsigned int tab_13[12]={1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1};
unsigned int tab_21[12]={1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0};
unsigned int tab_22[12]={1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0};
unsigned int tab_23[12]={0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0};
unsigned int tab_31[12]={1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1};
unsigned int tab_32[12]={0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0};
unsigned int tab_33[12]={1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1};
unsigned int tab_41[12]={1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1};
unsigned int tab_42[12]={0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0};
unsigned int tab_43[12]={0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0};
void measure(void);
void control(void);
void da_converter(void);
void PWM_sync_interrupt(void);
/**/
void measure(void)
{
ds1103_adc_start(DS1103_ADC_CH17); /* specifies channels to be started */
ds1103_adc_start(DS1103_ADC_CH18);
ds1103_adc_start(DS1103_ADC_CH19);
udc= ds1103_adc_read_ch(17); /* read converter 17*/
ia= ds1103_adc_read_ch(18);
ib= ds1103_adc_read_ch(19);
udc=udc0.0025; ia=ia+0.002; ib=ib+0.003; /*scaling signals */
udc=ku1*udc; ia=ki1*ia; ib=ki2*ib;
}
void control(void)
{
ic=(ia+ib); uc=(ua+ub); /*Transformations*/
i_alf = sqrt23*(ia0.5*ib0.5*ic);
i_bet = sqrt23*(_sqrt3to2)*(ibic);
/* Flux, instantaneous active and reactive power estimator */
ualf=0.6666*udc*(Sa_old0.5(Sb_old+Sc_old)); /*Converter Voltage*/
ubet=_1sqrt3*udc*(Sb_old Sc_old);
psi_alf_c += Ts*(ualf_T_in*psi_alf_c); /*Converter Flux*/
psi_bet_c += Ts*(ubet_T_in*psi_bet_c);
psi_alf = psi_alf_c + i_alf*L; /* Line Flux */
psi_bet = psi_bet_c + i_bet*L;
p= 2*314*(psi_alf*i_bet  psi_bet*i_alf); /* Instantaneous power estimations*/
q= 314*(psi_alf*i_alf + psi_bet*i_bet);
Theta_est=atan2(psi_bet,psi_alf);
/* Sector detection */
if ((0 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi_6)) {sector = 1;} /* 0 <= Theta < 30 */
if ((pi_6 <= Theta) & (Theta < _1pi3)) {sector = 2;} /* 30 <= Theta < 60 */
if ((_1pi3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi_2)) {sector = 3;} /* 60 <= Theta < 90 */
Appendices
117
if ((pi_2 <= Theta) & (Theta < _2pi3)) {sector = 4;} /* 90 <= Theta < 120*/
if ((_2pi3 <= Theta) & (Theta < _5pi_6)) {sector = 5;} /*120 <= Theta < 150*/
if ((_5pi_6 <= Theta) & (Theta <= pi)) {sector = 6;} /*150 <= Theta < 180*/
if ((pi <= Theta) & (Theta < _2pi3)) {sector = 7;} /*180 <= Theta < 210*/
if ((_5pi_6 <= Theta) & (Theta < _2pi3)) {sector = 8;} /*210 <= Theta < 240*/
if ((_2pi3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi_2)) {sector = 9;} /*240 <= Theta < 270*/
if ((pi_2 <= Theta) & (Theta < _1pi3)) {sector = 10;} /*270 <= Theta < 300*/
if ((_1pi3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi_6)) {sector = 11;} /*300 <= Theta < 330*/
if ((pi_6 <= Theta) & (Theta < 0)) {sector = 0;} /*330 <= Theta < 360*/
/*Control structure*/
delta_Udc=udc_refudc;
I_ref=I_ref_old+pdc*delta_Udc+pdc*((Ts/ti)1)*delta_udc_old;
p_ref=I_ref*udc;
delta_p=p_refp;
if (delta_p>hh) Sp = 1; /* p histeres */
if (delta_p<(hh)) Sp = 0;
if ((delta_p<hh) & (delta_p>(hh))) Sp=Sp_old;
/*************************************************************************/
delta_q=q_refq;
if (delta_q>hh) Sq = 1; /* q histeres */
if (delta_q<(hh)) Sq = 0;
if ((delta_q<hh) & (delta_q>(hh))) Sq=Sq_old;
/*************************************************************************/
if((Sp==1) & (Sq==0)){D_R=tab_11[sector]; D_S=tab_12[sector]; D_T=tab_13[sector]; }
if((Sp==1) & (Sq==1)){D_R=tab_21[sector]; D_S=tab_22[sector]; D_T=tab_23[sector]; }
if((Sp==0) & (Sq==0)){D_R=tab_31[sector]; D_S=tab_32[sector]; D_T=tab_33[sector]; }
if((Sp==0) & (Sq==1)){D_R=tab_41[sector]; D_S=tab_42[sector]; D_T=tab_43[sector];}
udc_old=udc; p_old=p; q_old=q; /*Old values*/
Sp_old=Sp; Sq_old=Sq; Sa_old=D_R; Sb_old=D_S; Sc_old=D_T; I_ref_old=I_ref; delta_udc_old=delta_Udc; ;
break; /*END*/
}
}
void da_converter(void)
{
ds1103_dac_write(1,ia*0.1); /* output via DS1103 onboard DAC channel 1 */
ds1103_dac_write(2,px*0.001);
ds1103_dac_write(3,qx*0.001);
ds1103_dac_strobe();
}
void PWM_sync_interrupt(void) /* interrupt service routine for PWM sync interrupt */
{
host_service(1, 0); /* TRACE service */
ds1103_tic_start(); /* start time measurement */
measure();
control();
ds1103_slave_dsp_pwm3_duty_write(task_id, index,D_R,D_S,D_T);
da_converter();
exec_time = ds1103_tic_read();
}
main()
{
ds1103_init(); /* basic initialization of DS1103 */
ds1103_tic_delay(2.0e6); /* ensure 2 us settling time */
ds1103_dac_init(DS1103_DACMODE_LATCHED); /* init D/A converter in latched mode */
ds1103_slave_dsp_communication_init(); /* initialization of slave DSP communication */
ds1103_slave_dsp_pwm3_init(task_id, period,D_R,D_S,D_T, deadband, sync_mode); /* init and start of 3phase PWM on DSP */
ds1103_slave_dsp_pwm3_start(task_id);
ds1103_slave_dsp_pwm3_duty_write_register(task_id, &index); /* registration of PWM duty cycle update command */
ds1103_set_interrupt_vector(ds1103_int_slave_DSP_PWM,(DS1103_Int_Handler_Type)&PWM_sync_interrupt,save_regs_on);
ds1103_enable_hardware_int(DS1103_INT_SLAVE_DSP_PWM);
ds1103_GLOBAL_INTERRUPT_ENABLE();
while(1)
{
master_cmd_server();
host_service(0, 0); /*
COCKPIT service */
}
}
Appendices
118
(a) (b)
Fig. A.6.7. View of the laboratory setup
(a) Danfoss converters, (b) interface, measurements and PC with DS1103 card.
A.7 LABORATORY SETUP BASED ON ADSP 21062 (SHARC)
Some experiments concern VOC was carriedout at experimental setup of the Institute
of Energy Technology at Aalborg University (Denmark) (Fig.A.7.1). The laboratory
setup consists of a threephase 30 kVA programmable power supply (Fig.A.7.2), two
commercial inverters controlled by two DSP’s (ADSP 21062) and a motorgenerator
setup as active load.
3phase grid
1500ix3
Transformer
and
filters
PC
R
S
2
3
2
Galvanic isolation &
ADC
VLT 3008 VLT 3008
IM PMSM
SIEMENS
µ µµ µC
SAB80C167
µ µµ µC
SAB80C167
DSP
ADSP21062
DSP
ADSP21062
PC
IRQ
S/H
Fig. A.7.1. Laboratory setup based on sharc ADSP 21062
Fig.A.7.2. Threephase 30 kVA programmable power supply of California Instruments (1500ix3)
Appendices
119
A.8 HARMONIC LIMITATION
IEEE 5191992
Sets limits for harmonic voltage and currents at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). It places
responsibility on large commercial and industrial consumers.
Voltage Distortion Limits
Bus Voltage at PCC Individual voltage distortion [%]* Total voltage distortion [%]
below 69kV 3.0 5.0
69kV to 138kV 1.5 2.5
Above 138kV 1.0 1.5
* maximum for individual harmonic
Current Distortion Limits
Maximum odd harmonic current distortion in percent of I
L
for general distribution systems (120V – 69kV)
I
SC
/I
L
<11 11<n<17 17<n<23 23<n<35 35<n TDD
<20 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
20<50 7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0
50<100 10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0
100<1000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
>1000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
I
SC
 maximum short circuit current at the PCC
I
L
 fundamental of the average (over 12 months) maximum monthly demand load current at PCC
TDD – total demand distortion, harmonic current distortion in % of maximum demand load current (15 or
30 minute demand)
IEC 6100032 (IEC 100032)
It is addresses for small customer equipment. Emphasis on public, lowvoltage and household.
IEC 100032 Limits for Class D Equipment
Harmonic order Maximum permissible
harmonic current per watt
Maximum permissible
harmonic current
N mA/W A
3 3.4 2.3
5 1.9 1.14
7 1.0 0.77
9 0.5 0.40
11 0.35 0.33
13<n<39 (odd har. only) 3.85/n Refer to class A
IEC 6100034 (IEC 100034)
It’s addresses for larger customers (single and threephase harmonic limits). It gives a consideration of the
short circuit ratio R
SCC
.
IEC 100034 limits for threephase equipment
Minimal R
SCC
Upper limits for harmonic distortion
factors
Limits for individual harmonic in %
of I
1
THD PWHD I
5
I
7
I
11
I
13
66 17 22 12 10 9 6
120 18 29 15 12 12 8
175 25 33 20 14 12 8
250 35 39 30 18 13 8
350 48 46 40 25 15 10
450 58 51 50 35 20 15
>600 70 57 60 40 25 18
∑
=


.

\

=
40
14
2
1 n
n
I
I
PWHD
Appendices
120
A.9 EQUIPMENT
Instrument Type
Digital oscilloscope LeCroy 9314AM 400MHz
Digital oscilloscope Oscyloskop Tektronix TDS3014 100MHz
Analyzer NORMA D6000  Goerz Instruments
Voltage differential probe Tektronix P5200
Current probe LEM PR30
Simualtion program SABER  Analogy
Simualtion program Matlab6.0, Simulink and Real Time Workshop
Simualtion program DESIM
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121
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Preface
The work presented in the thesis was carried out during my Ph.D. studies at the Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics at the Warsaw University of Technology and scholarship of the Foundation for Polish Science. Some parts of the work was realized in cooperation with foreign Universities and companies: ! University of Nevada, Reno, USA (US National Science Foundation grant – Prof. Andrzej Trzynadlowski), ! University of Aalborg, Denmark (International Danfoss Professor Programme – Prof. Frede Blaabjerg), ! Danfoss Drives A/S, Denmark (Dr Steffan Hansen). First of all, I would like to thank Prof. Marian P. Kaźmierkowski for continuous support and help. His precious advice and numerous discussions enhanced my knowledge and scientific inspiration. I am grateful to Prof. Tadeusz Citko from the Białystok Technical University and Prof. Roman Barlik from the Warsaw University of Technology for their interest in this work and holding the post of referee. Furthermore, I thank my colleagues from the Group of Intelligent Control in Power Electronics for their support and friendly atmosphere. Mr Marek Jasiński’s support in preparation of the laboratory setup is especially appreciated. Finally, I am very grateful for my wife Ann’s and son Kacper’s love, patience and faith. I would also like to thank my whole family, particularly my parents for their care over the years.
1
Introduction
1. INTRODUCTION Methods for limitation and elimination of disturbances and harmonic pollution in the power system have been widely investigated. This problem rapidly intensifies with the increasing amount of electronic equipment (computers, radio set, printers, TV sets etc.). This equipment, a nonlinear load, is a source of current harmonics, which produce increase of reactive power and power losses in transmission lines. The harmonics also cause electromagnetic interference and, sometimes, dangerous resonances. They have negative influence on the control and automatic equipment, protection systems, and other electrical loads, resulting in reduced reliability and availability. Moreover, nonlinear loads and nonsinusoidal currents produce nonsinusoidal voltage drops across the network impedance’s, so that nonsinusoidal voltages appears at several points of the mains. It brings out overheating of line, transformers and generators due to the iron losses. Reduction of harmonic content in line current to a few percent allows avoiding most of the mentioned problems. Restrictions on current and voltage harmonics maintained in many countries through IEEE 5191992 in the USA and IEC 6100032/IEC 6100034 in Europe standards, are associated with the popular idea of clean power. Many of harmonic reduction method exist. These technique based on passive components, mixing single and threephase diode rectifiers, and power electronics techniques as: multipulse rectifiers, active filters and PWM rectifiers (Fig. 1.1). They can be generally divided as: A) harmonic reduction of already installed nonlinear load; B) harmonic reduction through linear power electronics load installation;
2
Filters are usually constructed as seriesconnected legs of capacitors and chokes. gives a reduced THD because the 5th and 7th harmonic current of a singlephase diode rectifier often are in counterphase with the 5th and 7th harmonic current of a threephase diode rectifier [106]. 7th. risk of resonance problems).1 Most popular threephase harmonic reduction techniques of current A) Harmonic reduction of already installed nonlinear load B) Harmonic reduction through linear power electronics load installation The traditional method of current harmonic reduction involves passive filters LC. 3 .1. 11th.Introduction Harmonic reduction techniques A FILTERS [7] MIXING SINGLE AND THREEPHASE DIODE RECTIFIERS [106] B PWM RECTIFIERS MULTIPULSE RECTIFIER PASSIVE FILTER HYBRID BUCK RECTIFIER [35] BOOST RECTIFIER ACTIVE PWM FILTER 2LEVEL 3LEVEL [112] Fig. The disadvantages are: ! each installation is designed for a particular application (size and placement of the filters elements. 13th). In case of diode rectifier. the simpler way to harmonic reduction of current are additional series coils used in the input or output of rectifier (typical 15%). The advantages of passive filters are simplicity and low cost [105]. The other technique. based on mixing single and threephase nonlinear loads. parallelconnected to the grid. ! high fundamental current resulting in extra power losses. ! filters are heavy and bulky. The number of legs depends on number of filtered harmonics (5th.
Although easy to implement. 1.2). Active filters are mainly divided into two different types: the active shunt filter (current filtering) (Fig. 1.1. AF provide: ! compensation of fundamental reactive components of load current. The threephase twolevel shunt AF consist of six active switches and its topology is identical to the PWM inverter. and increased harmonic currents at nonsymmetrical load or line voltages. AF represents a controlled current source iF which added to the load current iLoad yields sinusoidal line current iL (Fig.2) and the active series filter (voltage filtering) [7].2 Threephase shunt active filter together with nonlinear load. ! load symetrization (from grid point of view). for reduction of this effects.3 PWM rectifier 4 . An alternative to the passive filter is use of the active PWM filter (AF). inclusion of a small lowpass passive filter between the line and the AF is necessary. AFs possess certain disadvantages as complex control. which displays better dynamics and controls the harmonic and fundamental currents.Introduction The other already power electronics techniques is use of multipulse rectifiers. increased voltage drop. switching losses and EMC problems (switching noise is present in the line current and even in the line voltage). Therefore. possess several disadvantages such as: bulky and heavy transformer. iL iLOAD Nonlinear load iF AF L Fig. ! harmonic compensation much better than in passive filters. In spite of the excellent performance. 1. load Fig.
! low harmonic distortion of line current (THD below 5%). and the second.4 Two basic topologies of PWM rectifier: a) boost with voltage output b) buck with current output Among the main features of PWM rectifier are: ! bidirectional power flow. with a voltage source output (Fig. it can be properly operated under line voltage distortion and notching. 1.4b) can be used. Furthermore. 1.4a) and a current source output (Fig. ! regulation of input power factor to unity. Two types of PWM converters. A properly designed lowpass passive filter is needed in front of the PWM rectifier due to EMI concerns. the PWM rectifier has a complex control structure. ! adjustment and stabilization of DClink voltage (or current). First of them called a boost rectifier (increases the voltage) works with fixed DC voltage polarity. and high ratings) and digital signal 5 . 1. iload Ui uLa uLb uLc ia ib ic iload Ldc C Udc 3xL b) u La u Lb uLc ia ib ic Udc 3xL 3xC a) Fig. and line voltage frequency variations.3). The last technique is most promising thanks to advances in power semiconductor devices (enhanced speed and performance. ! nearly sinusoidal input current. Similar to the PWM active filter. the efficiency is lower than the diode rectifier due to extra switching losses.Introduction The other interesting reduction technique of current harmonic is a PWM (active) rectifier (Fig. called a buck rectifier (reduces the voltage) operates with fixed DC current flow. ! reduced capacitor (or inductor) size due to the continues current. 1.
It is shown that the VFDPC exhibits several advantages. which allow fast operation and cost reduction. particularly it provides sinusoidal line current when the supply voltage is nonideal. the author used an analytical and simulation based approach. Test results show excellent 6 . An other less known method based on instantaneous direct active and reactive power control is called Direct Power Control (DPC) [16. 3069].Introduction processors. In order to prove the above thesis. Both strategies are also investigated under unbalanced and distorted line voltages. Voltage and virtual flux estimation are summarized at the end of the chapter. Appropriate control can provide both the rectifier performance improvements and reduction of passive components. This thesis is devoted to investigation of different control strategies for boost type of threephase bridge PWM rectifiers. The steady state and dynamic behavior of VFDPC are presented. General features of the sensorless operation focused on AC voltagesensorless. The mathematical model and operation description of PWM rectifier are also presented. Theoretical principles of both methods are discussed.VOC) [3069]. It offers possibilities for implementation of sophisticated control algorithm. A wellknown method based on indirect active and reactive power control is based on current vector orientation with respect to the line voltage vector (Voltage Oriented Control . Therefore. the following thesis can be formulated: “using the control strategy based on virtual flux instead of the line voltage vector orientation provides lower harmonic distortion of line current and leads to linevoltage sensorless operation”. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 3 covers the existing solution of Direct Power Control and presents a new solution based on Virtual Flux estimation [17]. Chapter 2 is devoted to presentation of various topologies of rectifiers for ASD’s. 2023]. illustrating the operation and performance of the proposed system as compared with a conventional DPC method. as well as experimental verification on the laboratory setup with a 5kVA IGBT converter. Both mentioned strategies do not produce sinusoidal current when the line voltage is distorted. The thesis consists of six chapters. Several control techniques for PWM rectifiers are known [1623.
Direct Power Control (DPC).5). with particular presentation of adaptive modulation. ! elaboration of new Virtual Flux based Direct Power Control for PWM rectifiers – (Section 3. Chapter 4 is focused on the Voltage Oriented and Virtual Flux Oriented Controls.3].Introduction performance of the proposed system.5). development and investigation of novel modulation techniques is described and discussed. Chapter 5 contains comparative study of discussed control methods. Finally Chapter 6 presents summary and general conclusions. 7 . ! development of a new Adaptive Space Vector Modulator for threephase PWM converter.6).4. P340 113) – (Section 4. Virtual Flux Oriented Control (VFOC) – (Sections 3. ! construction and practical verification of the experimental setup based on a mixed RISC/DSP (PowerPC 604/TMS320F240) digital controller – (Appendix A. reduction of switching losses and good dynamics. Additionally.6 and 4.4).4] and the laboratory setup [A.6]. It provides a wide range of linearity. Voltage Oriented Control (VOC). In the author’s opinion the following parts of the thesis represent his original achievements: ! development of a new line voltage estimator – (Section 2. The thesis is supplemented by nine Appendices among which are: conventional and instantaneous power theories [A.7).4). implementation of a space vector modulator [A. ! development of a simulation algorithm in SABER and control algorithm in C language for investigation of proposed solutions – (Appendix A.2]. description of the simulation program [A. working in polar and cartesian coordinate system (Patent No. ! implementation and investigation of various closedloop control strategies for PWM rectifiers: Virtual Flux – Based Direct Power Control (VF DPC).
2 Block diagram of the VOC 4.1 Mathematical description of the PWM rectifier 2.2 Performance comparison 5.4 Carrier based PWM versus space vector PWM 4. VFOC) 4.4.3 Instantaneous power estimation based on the line voltage 3.4 Sensorless operation 2.6 Summary Chapter 5 Comparative Study 5.3 Operation of the PWM rectifier 2.1 Introduction 2.8 Simulation and experimental results of modulation 4.4 Pulse width modulation (PWM) 4. VFDPC) 3.1 Introduction 4.3 Space vector modulation (SVM) 4.3 Block diagram of the VFOC 4.7 Summary Chapter 4 Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control (VOC.3.5 Voltage and virtual flux estimation Chapter 3 Voltage and Virtual Flux Based Direct Power Control (DPC.6 Simulation and experimental results 3.2 Steadystate properties and limitations 2.1 Introduction 5.4.3.2 Basic block diagram of DPC 3.3.4.5 Switching table 3.4.4.4.Contents Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 PWM rectifier 2.1 Introduction 3.9 Summary of modulation 4.5 Simulation and experimental results 4.7 Adaptive space vector modulation (ASVM) 4.4 Instantaneous power estimation based on the virtual flux 3.4.6 Performance criteria 4.1 Introduction 4.4.5 Overmodulation 4.4.Summary Chapter 6 Conclusion 8 .2 Carrier based PWM 4.2 Rectifiers topologies 2.
9 Equipment 9 .5 Simulink model A.7 Laboratory setup based on SHARC A.4 Saber model A.2 Harmonic distortion in power systems A.Contents References Appendices A.1 Per unit notification A.3 Implementation of SVM A.6 Laboratory setup based on DS1103 A.8 Harmonic limitation A.
complex vector x . q coordinates uL – line voltage vector uLα – line voltage vector components in the stationary α. β coordinates ΨLd – virtual line flux vector components in the synchronous d.fundamental power factor f – frequency i(t).phase angle of current ω . q coordinates ΨLq – virtual line flux vector components in the synchronous d. i – instantaneous current j – imaginary unit kP.magnitude (length) of function ∆X . β coordinates uLd – line voltage vector components in the synchronous d. β coordinates uLβ – line voltage vector components in the stationary α. β coordinates 10 .power factor ϕ .phase angle of reference vector λ . p – instantaneous active power q(t).control phase angle cosϕ .deviation Symbols (special) α .conjugate complex vector * X .average value. β coordinates iLβ – line current vector components in the stationary α. v . ∆x . ~ . q coordinates uLq – line voltage vector components in the synchronous d. kI – proportional control part. integral control part p(t). average (continuous) part ~ X . x – instantaneous value X * . q coordinates iL – line current vector iLα – line current vector components in the stationary α. q – instantaneous reactive power t – instantaneous time v(t).phase angle ε .angular frequency ψ .oscillating part x x .instantaneous voltage ΨL – virtual line flux vector ΨLα – virtual line flux vector components in the stationary α.List of Symbols List of Symbols Symbols (general) x(t). x * . β coordinates ΨLβ – virtual line flux vector components in the stationary α.reference X . x .
0 . q coordinates uS.maximum .rms .positive.reference .losses ..amplitude .+....b..minimum . harmonic component . Sb. β coordinates uSd – converter voltage vector components in the synchronous d.alpha..q . . uconv – converter voltage vector uSα – converter voltage vector components in the stationary α.impedance Subscripts ..load .phases of threephase system ..a..m .List of Symbols iLd – line current vector components in the synchronous d.c . beta components and zero sequence component .n – harmonic order ..Loss .direct and quadrature component .min .converter .. q coordinates udc – DC link voltage idc – DC link current Sa. .. ..Load .β. 0 ... .LL .. β coordinates uSβ – converter voltage vector components in the stationary α. .d. Sc – Switching state of the converter C – capacitance I – root mean square value of current L – inductance R – resistance S – apparent power T – time period P – active power Q – reactive power Z .root mean square value Abbreviations AF ANN ASD ASVM CBPWM active PWM filter artificial neural network adjustable speed drives adaptive space vector modulation carrier based pulse width modulation 11 . q coordinates uSq – converter voltage vector components in the synchronous d.α..max ..line to line .. q coordinates iLq – line current vector components in the synchronous d.h – harmonic order of current and voltage.ref .conv . negative and zero sequence component .. .
List of Symbols CSI DPC DSP DTC EMI FOC IFOC IGBT PCC PFC PI PLL PWM REC SVM THD UPF VF VFDPC VFOC VOC VSI ZSS current source inverter direct power control digital signal processor direct torque control electromagnetic interference fieldoriented control indirect fieldoriented control insulated gate bipolar transistor point of common coupling power factor correction proportional integral (controller) phase locked loop pulsewidth modulation rectifier space vector modulation total harmonic distortion unity power factor virtual flux virtual flux based direct power control virtual flux oriented control voltage oriented control voltage source inverter zero sequence signal 12 .
causes a number of problems in the power distribution system like: • • voltage distortion and electromagnetic interface (EMI) affecting other users of the power system. as the basic mode of operation the lineside converter will be called as PWM rectifier. the topology is ideal for fourquadrant operation.). an increasing part of the generated electric energy is converted through rectifiers. The lineside converter operates as rectifier in forward energy flow. and the control is complex. transmission lines.4). it is believed that threephase PWM boost AC/DC converter will replace the diode rectifier. The resulting topology consists of two identical bridge PWM converters (Fig. In the area of variable speed AC drives. transformers. However. PWM RECTIFIER 2. 13 . the PWM rectifier provides DC bus voltage stabilization and can also act as active line conditioner (ALC) that compensate harmonics and reactive power at the point of common coupling of the distribution network. Additionally. As a consequence a great number of new switchmode rectifier topologies that comply with the new standards have been developed. Although such a PWM rectifier/inverter (AC/DC/AC) system is expensive. Therefore. reducing the cost of the PWM rectifier is vital for the competitiveness compared to other frontend rectifiers. The AC side voltage of PWM rectifier can be controlled in magnitude and phase so as to obtain sinusoidal line current at unity power factor (UPF). The cost of power switching devices (e. diode and thyristor rectifiers are commonly applied in the front end of DClink power converters as an interface with the AC line power (grid) Fig. consequently. IGBT) and digital signal processors (DSP’s) are generally decreasing and further reduction can be obtained by reducing the number of sensors.g. generate harmonic currents in to the AC line power. etc. before it is used at the final load.1. governments and international organizations have introduced new standards (in the USA: IEEE 519 and in Europe: IEC 610003)[A8] which limit the harmonic content of the current drown from the power line by the rectifiers. 2. INTRODUCTION As it has been observed for recent decades. In power electronic systems. In farther discussion assuming the forward energy flow. Sensorless control exhibits advantages such as improved reliability and lower installation costs. The high harmonic content of the line current and the resulting low power factor of the load.1. especially. The rectifiers are nonlinear in nature and.PWM rectifier 2. and as inverter in reverse energy flow. 2. increasing voltampere ratings of the power system equipment (generators.
1) (2.1)(2.2d results. etc. The ripple current is equal 1/L times the integral of the DC ripple voltage. ub uc ib ic C Fig. 2. 11th. Eqs. RECTIFIERS TOPOLOGIES A voltage source PWM inverter with diode frontend rectifier is one of the most common power configuration used in modern variable speed AC drives (Fig.2.1 Diode rectifier 14 LOAD ua ia .. it allows only undirectional power flow. The full description of harmonic calculation in sixpulse converter can be found in [116]. (2. 13 th etc. The magnitude of actual harmonic currents often differs from the relationship described in (2.2) Harmonic orders as multiples of the fundamental frequency: 5th. 2.1).1) and (2.PWM rectifier 2.2). 2. However. A further restriction is that the maximum motor output voltage is always less than the supply voltage. 2. robust and low cost. The shape of the AC current depends on the input inductance of converter (Fig. 550 and 650 Hz. energy returned from the motor must be dissipated on power resistor controlled by chopper connected across the DC link. Equations (2.2). with a 50 Hz fundamental. 350. The magnitude of the harmonics in per unit of the fundamental is the reciprocal of the harmonic order: 20% for the 5th . With infinite inductance the ripple current is zero and the flaptop wave of Fig. Equations (2.. 7th. (2. respectively.2) are calculated from the Fourier series for ideal square wave current (critical assumption for infinite inductance on the input of the converter). An uncontrolled diode rectifier has the advantage of being simple. corresponds to 250.2) can be used to determine the order and magnitude of the harmonic currents drawn by a sixpulse diode rectifier: h = 6k ± 1 Ih =1/ h I1 k = 1.1) is fairly good description of the harmonic orders generally encountered.. 2. Therefore.3% for the 7th. 14. 3.. The diode input circuit also results in lower power factor and high level of harmonic input currents.
The topology of Fig. Next topologies (b) and (c) uses a PWM rectifier modules with a very low current rating (2025% level of rms current comparable with (e) topology).2 Simulation results of diode rectifier at different input inductance (from 0 to infinity) Besides of sixpulse bridge rectifier a few other rectifier topologies are known [117118]. Among disadvantages are: high perunit current ratting. 2.3. 2. and high switching losses. UPS and recently like a PWM rectifier. Hence they have a low cost potential provide only possibility of regenerative braking mode (b) or active filtering (c). The main advantage is low switch voltage. but not typical switches are required. poor immunity to shootthrough faults.3e presents most popular topology used in ASD. The features of all topologies are compared in Table 2. Fig.6% Fig. This universal topology has the advantage of using a lowcost threephase module with a bidirectional energy flow capability. Some of them are presented in Fig. The main drawback of this solution is stress on the components. 2.3d presents 3level converter called Vienna rectifier [112].3(a) presents simple solution of boost – type converter with possibility to increase DC output voltage.PWM rectifier THD=76% THD=53% THD=29% THD=27. 2. This is important feature for ASD’s converter giving maximum motor output voltage.1 Features of threephase rectifiers feature topology Diode rectifier Rec(a) Rec(b) Rec(c) Rec(d) Rec(e) Regulation of DC output voltage + + + Low harmonic distortion of line current + + + Near sinusoidal current waveforms + + + Power factor correction + + + + Bidirectional power flow + + Remarks UPF UPF UPF 15 . Fig. Table 2. low frequency distortion of the input current. 2.1.
2. In a DC distributed Power System (Fig. ABB and other).4). It provides UPF and low current harmonic content. 2.5) or AC/DC/AC converter (Fig. DC/DC converter. multidrive operation. 16 LOAD ua ia C LOAD ia ua ia LOAD ia . etc.PWM rectifier (a) (b) ua ub uc LOAD ia ib ic ua ub uc C 3xL ib ic C 3xL (c) (d) ua ub uc LOAD ib ic C 3xL ub uc ib ic C 3xL (e) ub uc ib ic 3xL Fig. such as adjustable speed drives for induction motors (IM) and permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). the AC power is first transformed into DC thanks to threephase PWM rectifier.3 Basic topologies of switchmode threephase rectifiers a) simple boosttype converter b) diode rectifier with PWM regenerative braking rectifier c) diode rectifier with PWM active filtering rectifier d) Vienna rectifier (3 – level converter) e) PWM reversible rectifier (2 – level converter) The last topology is most promising therefore was chosen by most global company (SIMENS. The converters connected to the DCbus provide further desired conversion for the loads.2.
Furthermore.12 MW) complete fourquadrant drive.5 DC distributed Power System 17 . 2. Other solution used in industry is shown in Fig. AC/DC/AC provide: • the motor can operate at a higher speed without field weakening (by maintaining the DCbus voltage above the supply voltage peak).PWM rectifier The AC/DC/AC converter (Fig. Similar solutions possess SIEMENS in Simovert Masterdrive (2. • the response of the voltage controller can be improved by fedforward signal from the load what gives possibility to minimize the DC link capacitance while maintaining the DClink voltage within limits under step load conditions [104.2.5 kW up to 1. • decreased theoretically by onethird common mode voltage compared to conventional configuration thanks to the simultaneous control of rectifier . 2. 111]. Ua Ub Uc L L L Re ctifie r Inve rte r ia ib ic PW M PW M Fig.2 kW – 2. 2.5 like a multidrive operation [120].3 MW) [127].4) is known in ABB like an ACS611/ACS617 (15 kW .inverter (same switching frequency and synchronized sampling time may avoid commonmode voltage pulse because the different type of zero voltage (U0. The line converter is identical to the ACS600 (DTC) motor converter with the exception of the control software [20.5 MW) and Siemens Simovert Masterdrive in range of power from 7.4 AC/DC/AC converter Ua Ub Uc L L L Rectifier ia ib ic DC Power Distribution Bus PWM Filter PWM Filter PWM DC/DC Converter Inverter Inverter PWM Load IM PMSM Fig.5 MW.U7) are not applied at the same time) [114]. 2.1.121]. ABB propose active frontend converter ACA 635 (250 kW .
2. uL is the line voltage and uS is the bridge converter voltage controllable from the DCside. When we control phase angle ε and amplitude of converter voltage uS.6 Simplified representation of threephase PWM rectifier for bidirectional power flow. 2. L and R represents the line inductor.6a. Magnitude of uS depends on the modulation index and DC voltage level. (a) Ua AC .PWM rectifier 2. 2. a) main circuit b) singlephase representation of the rectifier circuit (a) q uL uS iL (b) RiL 90o d jωLiL (c) RiL uS q ε iL uS uL jωLiL RiL d iL q ε uL jωLiL d Fig. The line current iL is controlled by the voltage drop across the inductance L interconnecting two voltage sources (line and converter).6b shows a singlephase representation of the rectifier circuit presented in Fig.7 Phasor diagram for the PWM rectifier a) general phasor diagram b) rectification at unity power factor c) inversion at unity power factor Inductors connected between input of rectifier and lines are integral part of the circuit.side R L (b) Bridge Converter DC . It means that the inductance voltage uI equals the difference between the line voltage uL and the converter voltage uS. we control 18 . 2.3 OPERATION OF THE PWM RECTIFIER Fig.side LOAD Ub R L A B C C jωLiL L uL iL RiL R uS=uconv Udc Uc R L M Fig. It brings current source character of input circuit and provide boost feature of converter.
GTO thyristors. In this way average value and sign of DC current is subject to control what is proportional to active power conducted through converter.7 presents general phasor diagram and both rectification and regenerating phasor diagrams when unity power factor is required.PWM rectifier indirectly phase and amplitude of line current. Fig.6a) consists of three legs with IGBT transistor or. The reactive power can be controlled independently with shift of fundamental harmonic current IL in respect to voltage UL.8 Switching states of PWM bridge converter 19 + + +     +  + k=1 A B C + +  U2 U dc . The bridge converter voltage can be represented with eight possible switching states (Fig. The figure shows that the voltage vector uS is higher during regeneration (up to 3%) then rectifier mode. 2. 2.3) + Sc= 0 U1 Sc= 0 Sa=1 A B C U dc Sb=1 k=2 Sb=1 Sa=0 U3 Sc= 0 Sa=0 k=3 Sb=1 U4 Sc=1 A B C U dc A B C U dc k=4 Sa=0 Sb=0 U5 Sc=1 k=5 Sa=1 Sb=0 U6 Sc=1 A B C U dc A B C U dc U0 Sa=0 Sc=0 Sb=0 U7 Sa=1 Sb=1 A B C U dc Sc=1 A B C U dc Fig. 2. 2. It means that these two modes are not symmetrical [67]. in case of high power.8 sixactive and twozero) described by equation: (2 / 3)u dc e jkπ / 3 u k +1 = for k = 0…5 0 k=0 Sb= 0 Sa=1 (2. Main circuit of bridge converter (Fig.
respectively.1 Mathematical description of the PWM rectifier The basic relationship between vectors of the PWM rectifier is presented in Fig.4c) (2.PWM rectifier 2.9 Relationship between vectors in PWM rectifier Description of line voltages and currents Three phase line voltage and the fundamental line current is: u a = E m cos ωt 2π ) 3 2π u c = Em cos(ωt − ) 3 u b = Em cos(ωt + (2.4a) (2.4b) (2.9.5c) ia = I m cos(ωt + ϕ ) 2π ib = I m cos(ωt + +ϕ) 3 2π ic = I m cos(ωt − +ϕ) 3 where Em (Im) and ω are amplitude of the phase voltage (current) and angular frequency. 2. β b q d ω uL iL ϕ id uI=jωLiL us ε iq γL=ωt a α c Fig.5b) (2. 2.5a) (2. with assumption 20 .3.
6) we can transform equations (2.12b) (2. 2.PWM rectifier ia + ib + ic ≡ 0 (2. ±1/3 and ±2/3.10c) (2.12c) The fa.10b) (2.9) are expressed by: 2 2 u Ld 3 E u Lα + u Lβ u = 2 m = 0 Lq 0 (2.11b) (2.8) and the input voltage in the synchronous dq coordinates (Fig. 2. 2. fb.7) (2.12a) (2.22a) and the input voltage in αβ stationary frame are expressed by: u Lα = u Lβ = 3 Em cos(ωt ) 2 3 Em sin(ωt ) 2 (2.11a) (2.9) Description of input voltage in PWM rectifier Line to line input voltages of PWM rectifier can be described with the help of Fig.8 as: u Sab = ( S a − S b ) ⋅ u dc u Sbc = ( S b − S c ) ⋅ u dc u Sca = ( S c − S a ) ⋅ u dc and phase voltages are equal: u Sa = f a ⋅ u dc u Sb = f b ⋅ u dc u Sc = f c ⋅ u dc where: 2S a − (S b + S c ) 3 2S − (S a + S c ) fb = b 3 2S c − (S a + S b ) fc = 3 fa = (2.13) 21 .2.11c) (2.10a) (2. fc are assume 0.7b): uL = uI + uS (2. Description of PWM rectifier Model of threephase PWM rectifier The voltage equations for balanced threephase system without the neutral connection can be written as (Fig.4) to αβ system thanks to equations (A.
15) and (2.15. 2.16) can be represented as threephase block diagram (Fig. S β = (Sb − S c ) 6 2 22 . idc ua + Sa uSa 1 R + sL ia +  1 sC u dc fa +  ub + uSb 1 R + sL ib + + + + + + + Sb 1 3 fb  uc + uS c 1 R + sL ic Sc fc +  Fig.10 Block diagram of voltage source PWM rectifier in natural threephase coordinates Model of PWM rectifier in stationary coordinates (α .10) [34].14) (2.15) and additionally for currents C du dc = S a ia + S b ib + S c ic − idc dt (2.17) and C du dc = (i Lα Sα + i Lβ S β ) − idc dt (2. 2. 2. 2. 2.16) and are written as: i Lα u Lα d iLα u S = R + L + α u dt i Lβ u S β i Lβ Lβ (2.2.PWM rectifier u L = Ri L + L + uS dt u a ia ia u Sa u = R i + L d i + u b Sb b b dt u c ic ic u Sc d iL (2.12.18) where: Sα = 1 1 (2S a − S b − S c ) .16) The combination of equations (2.22a) to (2.11.β ) The voltage equation in the stationary α β coordinates are obtained by applying (A.
19a) (2. 2.19b) (2.11. 2. 2. S q = S β cos ωt − Sα sin ωt A block diagram of dq model is presented in Fig.12 Block diagram of voltage source PWM rectifier in synchronous dq coordinates 23 . + uLα uSα Sα  1 R + sL iLα idc + + 1 sC udc Sβ uSβ + uLβ 1 R + sL iLβ Fig. + uLd uSd Sd + 1 R + sL − ωL iLd idc + + 1 sC udc Sq uSq uLq + + ωL 1 R + sL iLq Fig. 2.12.20) where: S d = Sα cos ωt + S β sin ωt .11 Block diagram of voltage source PWM rectifier in stationary αβ coordinates Model of PWM rectifier in synchronous rotating coordinates (dq) The equations in the synchronous dq coordinates are obtained with the help of transformation 4.PWM rectifier A block diagram of αβ model is presented in Fig.1a: diLd − ωLi Lq + u Sd dt di Lq u Lq = RiLq + L + ωLi Ld + u Sq dt du C dc = (iLd S d + iLq S q ) − idc dt u Ld = RiLd + L (2.
28) (if we make assumption of unity power factor.26) (u bc ia + u ca ib + u ab ic ) 3 It gives in the synchronous dq coordinates: β α i − uα i β = 1 p = (u Lq i Lq + u Ld i Ld ) = 3 Em I m 2 (2. i Ld = I m .2] { } q = Im{ ⋅ i } = u u * * p = Re u ⋅ i = uα iα + u β i β = u a ia + u b ib + u c ic (2.13 Power flow in bidirectional AC/DC converter as dependency of iL direction. 2. (2.24a) (2.17). 24 . (2.27) q = (u Lq i Ld − u Ld i Lq ) (2.13)).22) u a ia u Sa u = L d i + u b Sb b dt u c ic u Sc u Lα d i Lα u Sα u = L i + u dt Lβ S β Lβ diLd − ωLi Lq + u Sd u Ld = L dt di Lq u Lq = L + ωLiLd + u Sq dt (2. we will obtain following properties 3 3 iLq = 0. q = 0 (see Fig. uL = d iL dt L + uS (2.19). (2.15). uLq = 0.23) (2. 2 2 β q() d q(+) p(+) q p() uL iL uS jωLiL ω α Fig.25) (2. 2. what gives simplified equations (2. u Ld = Em .14).21) (2.PWM rectifier R can be practically neglected because voltage drop on resistance is much lower than voltage drop on inductance.24b) The active and reactive power supplied from the source is given by [see A.
3.30) Equation (2. Other publication [36. (2. Generally it can be determined by the peak of linetoline supply voltage: Vdc min 〉VLN ( rms ) ∗ 3 ∗ 2 = 2. Up6. Up5. Up3. Equations (2.2 Steadystate properties and limitations For proper operation of PWM rectifier a minimum DClink voltage is required. 2.45 ∗ VLN ( rms ) (2. 2. The determination of this voltage is more complicated and is presented in [59].24) can be transformed to vector form in synchronous dq coordinates defining derivative of current as: L d i Ldq dt = u Ldq − jωLi Ldq − u Sdq . U1. q U (u U1 p1 ) s U p6 6 ω U ξ p2 iL U p0 Up 7 uL U5 jωLiL Up5 d ) U 2(u s U 3* 2/ U dc U Fig. U5. U4. Up2. Up1.14). U7 the current derivatives are denoted respectively as Up0. For vectors U0. U6.29) It is true definition but not concern all situations. Up7 (Fig. Six active vectors (U16) of input voltage in PWM rectifier rotate clockwise in synchronous dq coordinates. U3. Up4.30) defines direction and rate of current vector movement.14 Instantaneous position of vectors 25 U4 U 3 U p3 p4 . U2.37] defines minimum voltage but do not take into account line current (power) and line inductors.PWM rectifier 2.
PWM rectifier q iLref iL Up1 ξ Up6 uL Up0 Up7 Up4 Up3 d Up5 Up2 Fig. current (load) and inductance. output dc voltage. a high current (high power) through the inductance requires either a high DClink voltage or a low inductance (low impedance). It also means that sum of vector u Ldq − jωLi Ldq should not exceed linear region of modulation i. Therefore. It results from trigonometrical condition that vectors Up1.33) 26 .4). Fig. uLdq = Em.15). circle inscribed in the hexagon (see Section 4. from simple trigonometrical relationship. after transformation of equation (2. Consequently.15 Limitation for operation of PWM rectifier The full current control is possible when the current is kept in specified error area (Fig. 2. but simultaneously reduce the operation range of the rectifier.15 presents that any vectors can force current vector inside error area when angle created by vectors Up1 and Up2 is ξ < π. iLdq = iLd (for UPF) we get condition for minimal DClink voltage: 2 u dc 〉 3 Em + (ωLi Ld ) 2 [ ] and ξ > π . 2. The voltage drop across the inductance has influence for the line current.32) the maximal inductance can be determinate as: 2 u dc 2 − Em 3 . Up2. This voltage drop is controlled by the input voltage of the PWM rectifier but maximal value is limited by the DClink voltage. assumpting that uSdq = 2/3Udc.31) and after transformation. Therefore. 2. 2.e. ω i Ld L〈 (2. The inductor has to be designed carefully because low inductance will give a high current ripple and will make the design more depending on the line impedance.14 and Fig.32) Above equation shows relation between supply voltage (usually constant). The high value of inductance will give a low current ripple. (2. U1 and U2 form an equilateral triangle for ξ = π where u Ldq − jωLi Ldq is an altitude. it is possible to define boundary condition as: u Ldq − jωLi Ldq = 3 u sdq 2 (2.
New improved method presented in [30.PWM rectifier 2. DClink current and line currents.16 together with a voltage vector’s patterns determining the direction of current flow. 2. No fully protection is main practical problem in the system.2. Particularly for PWM rectifier the zero vectors (U0. ! AC voltage sensorless. A relationship between the applied active vectors and the phase currents measured from DC link sensor is shown in TABLE 2. 115] is to sample DClink current few times in one switching period. ! The line operates at constant frequency 50Hz and synchronization is necessary. which is based on eight voltage vectors composed of six active vectors and two zero vectors. The twophase currents may be estimated based on information of DC link current and reference voltage vector in every PWM period. The most used solution for reducing of sensors include: ! AC voltage and current sensorless. but the rectifier application differ from the inverter operation in the following reasons: ! Zero vector will shorted the line power. Voltage Vector DC link current idc U1(100) +ia U2(110) ic U3(010) +ib U4(011) ia U5(001) +ic U6(101) ib U0(000) 0 U7(111) 0 Fig. isolation between the power circuit and control system. 2.16 PWM signals and DC link current in sector I 27 .2 Relationship between voltage vectors of converter. One active voltage vector takes it to reconstruct one phase current and another voltage vector is used to reconstruct a second phase current using values measured from DC current sensor. the PWM rectifier needs three kinds of sensors: ! DCvoltage sensor (1 sensor) ! ACline current sensors (2 or 3 sensors) ! ACline voltage sensors (2 or 3 sensors) The sensorless methods provide technical and economical advantages to the system as: simplification. The possibility to reduce the number of the expensive sensors have been studied especially in the field of motor drive application [1].4 SENSORLESS OPERATION Normally. Ts Ts A 0 0 0 U0 1 0 0 U1 ia 1 1 0 U2 ic 1 1 1 U7 1 1 1 U7 1 1 0 U2 ic 1 0 0 U1 ia 0 0 0 U0 B C idc Table 2. AC voltage and current sensorless Reductions of current sensors especially for AC drives are well known [1]. Basic principle of current reconstruction is shown in Fig. reliability and cost effectiveness. ! AC current sensorless. U7) presents no current in DClink and three line phases are short circuit simultaneously.
it is impossible to reconstruct phase current. unbalance and start up condition are not reported. 2. Im U3(010) U 2(110) U4 (011) U1 (100) Re U 5(001) U6(101) Fig.PWM rectifier The main problem of AC current estimation based on minimum pulsetime for DClink current sampling. PWM rectifier circuit when the zero voltage vector is applied. which are introduced by the PWM pulse adjustment and then compensate this error in the next switching period. This occur in the case of reference voltage vectors passing one of the six possible active vectors or a low modulation index (Fig. The way to solve the problem is to adjust the PWMpulses or to allow that no currents information is present in some time period. AC current sensorless This very simple solution based on inductor voltage (uI) measurement in two lines. when a reference voltage passes one of possible six active vectors and in case of low modulation index and overmodulation The AC voltage and current sensorless methods in spite of cost reduction posses several disadvantages: higher contents of current ripple. The minimum short time to obtain a correct estimation depends on the rapidness of the system. cable length and deadtime [30]. delays. 28 . 2. problems with discontinuous modulation and overmodulation mode [see Section 4.18) uI L uL iL uS=0 Fig.4]. Therefore improved compensation consists of calculating the error. sampling is presented few times per switching state what is not technically convenient.18. 2. Voltage vector area requiring the adjustment of PWM signals. 2.17). or is applied only for a short time. Supply voltage can be estimated with assumption that voltage on inductance is equal to line voltage when the zerovector occurs in converter (Fig. It appears when either of two active vectors is not present.17. In such a case.
36) (2.35) the observed current will not be affected by derivation noise. Not only the fundamental component should be estimated correct. but it directly reduces the dynamic of the control. Therefore the DCvoltage and the ACline current sensors are an important part of the overvoltage and overcurrent protection. Using equation (2.36) and (2. the AC currents are sampled during the zerovector states because no switching noise is present and a filter in the current feedback for the current control loops can be avoided. dt 3 dt (2.34) u IR = L diLR dt (2. 2. In [21] the current is sampled and the power is estimated several times in every switching state. However.37) 29 . This gains problems with overcurrent protection AC voltage sensorless Previous solutions present some over voltage and over current protection troubles.34) the line current can be calculated as: iLR = 1 u IR dt L∫ (2. In conventional space vector modulation (SVM) for threephase voltage source converters.5 VOLTAGE AND VIRTUAL FLUX ESTIMATION Line voltage estimator [44] An important requirement for a voltage estimator is to estimate the voltage correct also under unbalanced conditions and preexisting harmonic voltage distortion. It is possible to calculate the voltage across the inductance by the current differentiating. The line voltage can then be estimated by adding reference of the rectifier input voltage to the calculated voltage drop across the inductor [52]. this approach has the disadvantage that the current is differentiated and noise in the current signal is gained through the differentiation. It gives a higher total power factor [21]. To prevent this a voltage estimator based on the power estimator of [21] can be applied.35) Thanks to equation (2.PWM rectifier On the basis of the inductor voltage described in equation (2. but also the harmonic components and the voltage unbalance. while it is possible to replace the ACline voltage sensors with a line voltage estimator or virtual flux estimator what is described in next point.37) the estimated active and reactive power in this special case (zero states) can be expressed as: di di di p = L a ia + b ib + c ic = 0 dt dt dt di 3L dia q= ic − c i a .
20). 30 .38) where: uIα. the estimated voltages across the inductance is: u Iα 1 iLα − iLβ 0 = 2 u 2 Iβ i Lα + i Lβ iLβ i Lα q (2. Threephase PWM rectifier system with ACside presented as virtual AC motor Thus. AC . R and L represent the stator resistance and the stator leakage inductance of the virtual motor and phasetophase line voltages: Uab. The estimated line voltage uL(est) can now be found by adding the voltage reference of the PWM rectifier to the estimated inductor voltage [44]. uIβ are the estimated values of the threephase voltages across the inductance L. in stationary αβ coordinates (Fig. Based on instantaneous power theory. 2. This ensures a robust and noise insensitive performance of the voltage estimator. 2. Uca would be induced by a virtual air gap flux. Since powers are DCvalues it is possible to prevent the noise of the differentiated current by use of a simple (digital) low pass filter. In other words the integration of the voltages leads to a virtual line flux vector ΨL. in the fixed αβ coordinates.39) Virtual flux estimator The voltage imposed by the line power in combination with the AC side inductors are assumed to be quantities related to a virtual AC motor as shown in Fig.side Ua R L PWM Rectifier DC . u L ( est ) = u S + u I (2. 2.19.19.PWM rectifier It should be noted that in this special case it is only possible to estimate the reactive power in the inductor. Ubc.side LOAD Ub R L A B C C Udc Uc R L M Virtual AC Motor Fig.
line voltage vector.PWM rectifier q β uI uS uL iL iq ΨL d rotated γL=ωt id α (fixed) ΨL – virtual line flux vector.side PW M Rectifier DC . Reference coordinates and vectors Similarly to Eq.side Idc A B C A Udc Udc B C M M POWER FLOW POWER FLOW q uI uL iL uS uS uI uL q ψS ψL d ψI ψL ψI d ϕ1 = 0ο ψS ϕ 1 = 180 ο iL Fig.39) a virtual flux equation can be presented as [65. (2.side Idc (2. uS – converter voltage vector. 102] (Fig.21 Relation between voltage and flux for different power flow direction in PWM rectifier. 2.20.side PWM Rectifier DC .40) AC . iL – line current vector Fig. 2. 2. uL . 31 .21): ψ L ( est ) = ψ S + ψ I AC . uI – inductance voltage vector.
42b) The virtual flux components calculation is shown in Fig. 2.PWM rectifier Based on the measured DClink voltage Udc and the converter switch states Sa.41b) Then. Sb. Block scheme of virtual flux estimator with first order filter.41) in stationary (αβ) coordinates system Ψ L α ( est ) = Ψ L β ( est ) = ∫ (u ∫ (u Sα Sβ di L α ) dt dt di L β + L ) dt dt +L (2.42a) (2. the virtual flux ΨL components are calculated from the (2.41a) (2. Sc the rectifier input voltages are estimated as follows u Sα = u Sβ = 2 1 U dc ( S a − ( S b + S c )) 3 2 1 U dc ( S b − S c ) 2 (2. 2. 32 .22. 1 T usα 1 TN _ ∫ iLα L ΨLα iLβ usβ 1 TN ∫ _ 1 T ΨLβ Fig.22.
The virtual flux based method corresponds to direct analogy of IM control. because the converter switching states are selected by a switching table based on the instantaneous errors between the commanded and estimated values of active and reactive power. VOLTAGE AND VIRTUAL FLUX BASED DIRECT POWER CONTROL 3. 3. which guarantees high dynamics and static performance via an internal current control loops. 3.Direct Power Control (DPC) 3. [51]. In DPC there are no internal current control loops and no PWM modulator block. Therefore. the final configuration and performance of the VOC system largely depends on the quality of the applied current control strategy [6]. Particularly. as shown in Fig. Another control strategy called Direct Power Control (DPC) is based on the instantaneous active and reactive power control loops [21].3. Various control strategies have been proposed in recent works on this type PWM converter.2.1 Relationship between control of PWM line rectifier and PWM inverter – fed IM The control techniques for PWM rectifier can be generally classified as voltage based and virtual flux based. the key point of the DPC implementation is a correct and fast estimation of the active and reactive line power. Although these control strategies can achieve the same main goals. has become very popular and has constantly been developed and improved [46. Control strategies for PWM Rectifier Voltage Based Control VOC DPC Virtual Flux Based Control VFOC VFDPC Fig. [22]. Consequently.1) [4. [5354].110]. Ua Ub Uc L L L P W Rectifier Inverter ia ib ic PWM PWM IM In d u c t io n o to r C o n tr o l M R e c tif ie r C o n tr o l M D P C D T C V O C F O C Fig. 48]. their principles differ.1 INTRODUCTION Control of PWM rectifier can be considered as a dual problem to vector control of an induction motor (Fig. such as the high power factor and nearsinusoidal current waveforms. the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC). 3.2 Classification of control methods for PWM rectifier 33 .
2 BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DIRECT POWER CONTROL (DPC) The main idea of DPC proposed in [22] and next developed by [21] is similar to the wellknown Direct Torque Control (DTC) for induction motors.2b) π 6 ≤ γ n < (n − 1) π 6 where n = 1. Instead of torque and stator flux the instantaneous active (p) and reactive (q) powers are controlled (Fig.. which by accessing the address of the lookup table selects the appropriate voltage vector according to the switching table (described in section 3. 3. where: Hq & Hp are the hysteresis bands. 3. Ua Ub Uc L L L ia ib ic Sa Sb Sc PWM U dc Sa Sb Sc Switching Table Load i a.5 and the sectors can be numerically expressed as: ( n − 2) (3.3 and 3.1a) (3.12 (3. The digitized output signal of the reactive power controller is defined as: dq = 1 for q < qref .3 Block scheme of DPC. in reactive and active power hysteresis controllers. 3.3). dq and the voltage vector position γUL = arc tg (uLα/uLβ) or flux vector position γΨL = arc tg (ψLα/ψLβ) form a digital word. 2. The region of the voltage or flux vector position is divided into twelve sectors.Hq dq = 0 for q > qref + Hq..b Current measurement Instantaneous power & linevoltage or virtual flux estimator sector γUL or γ ΨL selection dq p ref q ref = 0 dp U dc PI Udcref q p  Fig.2a) (3.3) 34 .5).4).Direct Power Control (DPC) 3.Hp dp = 0 for p > pref + Hp. and similarly of the active power controller as dp = 1 for p < pref . respectively. The digitized variables dp. as shown in Fig. The commands of reactive power qref (set to zero for unity power factor) and active power pref (delivered from the outer PIDC voltage controller) are compared with the estimated q and p values (described in section 3.1b) (3.
therefore. No transformation into rotating coordinates is needed and the equations are easy implemented.3. that the sampling frequency has to be about few times higher than the average switching frequency. 3. Further improvements regarding VFDPC operation can be achieved by using sector detection with PLL (PhaseLocked Loop) generator instead of zero crossing voltage detector (Fig. Block scheme of VFDPC with PLL generator 35 . This very simple solution allows precisely control of instantaneous active and reactive power and errors are only limited by the hysteresis band. 3.19). 3. This guarantees a very stable and free of disturbances sector detection.5 Sector selection for DPC and VFDPC Note.Direct Power Control (DPC) β γ6 γ7 γ8 γ9 γ10 γ11 γ12 γ5 γ4 γ3 γ2 γ1 α γ9 γ10 γ11 γ12 γ1 β γ8 γ 7 γ6 γ5 γ4 γ2 γ3 α Fig.b C urrent measurement V irtual flux estimator (V FE ) γ i Lα i LβΨ Lα Ψ Lβ PLL SA SB SC sector selectio n SA S B S C Switching Table dq dp U dc PI U dcref Instantaneous active & reactive power estimator (PE ) p q  p ref q ref Fig. This method deals with instantaneous variables.6). This feature also improves the total power factor and efficiency [21]. even under operation with distorted and unbalanced line voltages (Fig. estimated values contain not only a fundamental but also harmonic components.6. L ia Ua PW M ib L Ub U dc Load ic L Uc i a.
9 ) Sa Sb Sc iL α u dc q p u Lα u Lβ Fig. The instantaneous values of active (p) and reactive power (q) in AC voltage sensorless system are estimated by Eqs. whereas the reactive power q is calculated as a vector product of them.26).10) The instantaneous power and AC voltage estimators are shown in Fig. The active power p is the scalar product of the current and the voltage. The ACline voltage sector is necessary to read the switching table. therefore the instantaneous active and reactive powers are proportional to the iLd and iLq. 3.9) dt dt 3 As can be seen in (3. the line voltage can easily be calculated from instantaneous power theory as: u Lα 1 iLα − iLβ p = 2 u 2 Lβ i Lα + i Lβ iLβ iLα q (3. the form of equations have to be changed according to the switching state of the converter. and both equations require the knowledge of the line inductance L.3 INSTANTANEOUS POWER ESTIMATION BASED ON THE LINE VOLTAGE The main idea of voltage based power estimation for DPC was proposed in [2122]. 36 . p = L( dib dic dia ic ) +Udc(Saia + Sbib + Scic ) ia + ib + dt dt dt (3.252.8) q= 1 di di {3L( a ic − c ia ) −Udc[Sa (ib −ic ) + Sb(ic −ia ) + Sc (ia −ib)]} (3. ia ib 2 3 abc αβ iL β v o lt a g e e s t im a t o r E q u a t io n (3 .9).9).Direct Power Control (DPC) 3.1 0 ) in s t a n t a n e o u s a c t iv e a n d r e a c t iv e p o w e r e s t im a t o r E q u a t io n s ( 3 . However.7.8) and (3. 8 ) a n d ( 3 . therefore knowledge of the line voltage is essential. once the estimated values of active and reactive power are calculated and the ACline currents are known. 3. Supply voltage usually is constant. (3.7 Instantaneous power estimator based on line voltage. The instantaneous active and reactive powers are defined by the product of the three phase voltages and currents (2. The first part of both equations represents power in the inductance and the second part is the power of the rectifier.8) and (3.
15) (3.13) (3.17b) 37 .11) (3. • power estimation depends on the switching state. Here it will be applied for instantaneous power estimation. because a smooth shape of current is needed). dt (3. With the definitions where Ψ L = ∫ u L dt (3. because of high estimation errors. 3. the instantaneous power can be calculated as follows: p = Re(u L ⋅ i L ) q = Im( u L ⋅ i L ) ∗ ∗ (3.16a) In practice. where voltage imposed by the line power in combination with the AC side inductors are assumed to be quantities related to a virtual AC motor as shown in section 2.5. Therefore.4 INSTANTANEOUS POWER ESTIMATION BASED ON THE VIRTUAL FLUX The Virtual Flux (VF) based approach has been proposed by Author to improve the VOC [42. calculation of the power and voltage should be avoided at the moment of switching. 56].Direct Power Control (DPC) In spite of the simplicity. R can be neglected.17a) (3.16b) Using complex notation.12) (3.14) u Lα 1 1 / 2 u ab u L = = 2 / 3 0 3 / 2 ubc u Lβ Ψ L α ∫ u L α dt ΨL = = Ψ Lβ ∫ u L β dt 0 i a i L α 3/ 2 iL = = 2/3 3 ib 3/2 i Lβ uAM usα 1 −1/ 2 −1/ 2 uS =uconv = = 2/ 3 uBM 0 3 / 2 − 3 / 2u usβ CM the voltage equation can be written as u L = Ri L + d ( Li L + Ψ S ) . giving uL = L diL d di + ΨS = L L + uS dt dt dt (3. this power estimation method has several disadvantages such as: • high values of the line inductance and sampling frequency are needed (important point for the estimator.
20) it is reduced to: q = ωΨLd iLd (3.26b) 38 .18) as p = d Ψ Ld i Ld + ω Ψ Ld i Lq dt (3.20).20) (3. For the virtual flux oriented dq coordinates (Fig. and the instantaneous active power can be calculated from (3. produce the instantaneous active power. (3. Using (3. in αβ coordinates (Fig.18) uL = dΨL dt +j α dΨL dt β + jω ΨLα + jΨL β ( ) ) (i Lα (3.19) For sinusoidal and balanced line voltages. the power estimator for the DPC system should use statororiented quantities.26a) and dΨ dΨ q = − L iLβ + L iLα +ω ΨLαiLα +ΨL β iLβ dt β dt α ( ). equation (3. 2.23) However.17) and (3. the instantaneous reactive power can be calculated as: q=− d Ψ Ld i Lq + ω Ψ Ld i Ld dt (3.Direct Power Control (DPC) where * denotes the conjugate line current vector.2.21) which means that only the current components orthogonal to the flux ΨL vector.17a) and (3. ΨL=ΨLd.25) That gives dΨ dΨ p = L iLα + L iLβ +ω ΨLα iLβ − ΨL β iLα dt β dt α ( ) (3.24) − jiLβ ) dΨ dΨ uLiL* = L + j L + jω ΨLα + jΨLβ dt β dt α ( (3.22) and with (3.19) is reduced to d Ψ Ld =0 dt p = ω Ψ Ld i Lq (3.18) dt dt dt dt where ΨL denotes the space vector and ΨL its amplitude.20). The line voltage can be expressed by the virtual flux as uL = d d dΨL jωt dΨL jωt Ψ L = (ΨLe jωt ) = e + jωΨLe jωt = e + jω Ψ L (3. Similarly. to avoid coordinate transformation into dq coordinates.
The instantaneous active and reactive powers can be computed as [1719] p = ω ⋅ (ΨLα iLβ − ΨLβ iLα ) q = ω ⋅ (ΨLα iLα + ΨLβ iLβ ) .27a) (3.9. different pattern of switching table can be applied to direct control (DTC.Direct Power Control (DPC) For sinusoidal and balanced line voltage the derivatives of the flux amplitudes are zero.ΨLβ are delivered to the instantaneous power estimator block (PE) as depicted in Fig. b ) SA flu x e s t im a t o r E q u a t io n s ( 2 . ia ib 2 3 abc αβ iL α in s t a n t a n e o u s a c t iv e a n d r e a c t iv e p o w e r e s t im a t o r E q u a t io n s ( 3 . 3. 2 7 a . DPC). 3.9 presents four different situations. 39 . For drives exist more switching table techniques because of wide range of output frequency and dynamic demands [2429].8. switching frequency and dynamic performance. propose different switching tables for DTC but we cannot find too much reference for DPC.4 2 a . Some works.27b) The measured line currents ia. 3. which illustrate the variations of instantaneous power. It has indirect influence on inductance voltage as well as phase and amplitude of line current. b ) SB Sc iL β PE u dc q p ψ Lα ψ Lβ Fig. that the instantaneous active and reactive power depends on position of converter voltage vector. For PWM rectifier we have constant line frequency and only instantaneous power varies.5 SWITCHING TABLE It can be seen in Fig. ib and the estimated virtual flux components ΨLα . Point M presents reference values of active and reactive power. (3. Fig. Therefore.8 Instantaneous power estimator based on virtual flux 3. 3. It influence control condition as: instantaneous power and current ripple.
β sector 5 (U3.10 Selection of voltage vectors for q 40 .(3. 3.3.U5) sector 4 (U3.10. qref>q (1.Direct Power Control (DPC) (a) β (b) β uL iL ∆iL jωLiL ω V3 uL p ref V2 V1 jωLiL ω V3 V4 V5 V2 V1 V6 p ref M ∆iL V4 V5 V6 iL iL* uS q ref α iL * uS M q ref α (c) β (d) β uL V4 jωLiL ω V3 V2 V1 V5 V6 pref M qref uL ∆iL jωLiL ω M V3 V4 V5 V6 V2 V1 p ref iL* ∆iL uS iL* iL uS qref α iL α Fig. 3.1). qref>q (0.0).U5) sector 6 (U4.U4) sector 7 (U4. d) pref<p.1). The selection of vector is made so that the error between q and qref should be within the limits (Eqs. c) pref>p. qref<q (1.2)).U6) sector 3 (U2. (3.U6) sector 2 (U2. b) pref>p. qref<q (0.1).U4) sector 8 qref Hq qref Hq sector 2 sector 3 sector 4 sector 5 α sector 1 t Fig.0).9 Instantaneous power variation: a) pref<p. It depends not only on the error of the amplitude but also the direction of q as shown in Fig.
two of four possible active vectors are wrong..U4(011).11). 3.U2(110). (a) sector 3 β sector 2 sector 6 β sector 3 (b) sector 5 sector 4 sector 7 sector 2 α sector 4 α sector 1 sector 8 sector 1 sector 9 sector 12 sector 5 sector 6 sector 10 sector 11 Fig. For instance when the instantaneous reactive power vector is close to one of sector boundary.1. Number of sectors Usually the vectors plane is divided for 6 (3.U5(001). 2.U4(011).b Switching table for 6 sectors dq Sector A 0 UB 1 U0 0 0 UB 1 UA UA=U1(100). ! two and three level hysteresis controllers.U5(001)..U2(110). .U6(101) UB=U6(101).. One of them is to add more sectors or hysteresis levels. Sector A is located closer to UA and sector B closer to UB.U3(010). 12 (3.U5(001) U0=U0(000). 6 n = 1. A few methods to improve the DPC behaviour in the sector bonders is well known.U3(010). 28) or 12 (3. 3.28) (3.U1(100). 41 . .1).U5(001) U0=U0(000). the area between adjoining vectors contain two sectors. Therefore. It has influence for switching table construction (Table 3.U4(011).Direct Power Control (DPC) Some behaviour of DPC are not satisfactory.a Switching table for 12 sectors dq Sector A Sector B 0 UB U7 U7 1 U0 0 0 UB 1 UA UA=U1(100)..1.U2(110).U1(100).U7(111) dp 1 When region of the voltage vector position is divided into twelve sectors.U3(010).U7(111) Table 3..U2(110).11 Voltage plane with a) 6 sectors b) 12 sectors (2n − 3) π (n − 2) π dp 1 6 ≤ γ n < (2n − 1) π 6 n = 1..29) 6 ≤ γ n < (n − 1) π 6 Table 3.U3(010).U6(101) UB=U6(101). switching table are generally constructed with difference in: ! number of sectors. This is easy visible on a current. 29) sectors (Fig. These wrong vectors can only change the instantaneous active power without correction of the reactive power error. ! dynamic performance. 2.U4(011).
The controllers proposed by [21] in classical DPC are two level comparators for instantaneous active and reactive power (Fig 3. UK+1. UK+1 and UK+2. or UK+3. Conversely. the average converter switching frequency. 3.3. 3. a single arrow means a small variation. In the table. whereas two arrows mean a large variation. c) three levels. 4. Dynamic performance Combinations of each converter voltage space vector used for instantaneous active and reactive power variation are summarized in Table 3. UK2 or U0. the power pulsation and the losses are strongly affected by the hysteresis wide. the harmonic current distortion. Situation is presented for vector located in the kth sector (k = 1.12. Active power increase when UK+2. UK1 are applied. a decrement of reactive power (↓) is obtained by applying vector UK2. 3. 3. As it appears from the table. β plane as shown in Fig. 5. U7 are applied and active power decrease when UK. b) mixed two and three level. 42 . In particular. Three level comparators can provide further improvements.12 Hysteresis controllers: a) two level. Possible combinations of hysteresis controllers for active and reactive power are presented in Fig.Direct Power Control (DPC) Hysteresis controllers The wide of the instantaneous active and reactive hysteresis band have a relevant effect on the converter performance. 6) of the α. UK+3. an increment of reactive power (↑) is obtained by applying the space vector UK. a) 1 0 b) 1 c) 1 dp Ηp −Η p 1 0 dp Ηp −Ηp 1 0 dp Ηp −Ηp 1 0 1 1 dq Ηq 0 dq Ηq −Ηq 1 0 dq Ηq −Ηq −Ηq Fig. The three level hysteresis controllers for the instantaneous active power can be described as a sum of two level hysteresis if ∆p > Hp then dp = 1 if 0 ≤ ∆p ≤ Hp and d∆p/dt > 0 then dp = 0 if 0 ≤ ∆p ≤ Hp and d∆p/dt < 0 then dp = 1 if Hq ≤ ∆p ≤ 0 and d∆p/dt > 0 then dp = 1 if Hq ≤ ∆p ≤ 0 and d∆p/dt < 0 then dp = 0 if ∆p < Hp then dp = 1. UK1.12a). 2.13 [24]. The two level hysteresis controllers for instantaneous reactive power can be described as if ∆q > Hq then dq = 1 if Hq ≤ ∆q ≤ Hq and d∆q/dt > 0 then dq = 0 if Hq ≤ ∆q ≤ Hq and d∆q/dt < 0 then dq = 1 if ∆q < Hq then dq = 0.
the number of switching is considerably smaller than in the system with twolevel hysteresis comparators. ! For DPC only the neighbour vectors should be selected what decrease dynamics but provide low current and power ripples (low THD). ! By using threelevel comparators.7 UpK1 iL UpK UpK2 UK UpK+3 UpK+2 α Up0.7 UpK+1 UK2 UK1 Fig.13 Variation of converter voltage space vector Table 3. even under distorted and unbalanced line voltages. ! Zero vectors U0(000) and U7(111) should be appropriate chosen. 3. the zero vectors are naturally and systematically selected. ! 12 sectors provide more accurate voltage vector selection. ! Zero vectors decrease switching frequency but it provides shortcircuit for the line to line voltage. Thus.Direct Power Control (DPC) UK+2 β UK+1 sector k UK+3 U0. 43 . ! Switching table with PLL (PhaseLocked Loop) sector detection guarantees a very stable and free of disturbances operation.3 Instantaneous active and reactive variations due to the applied voltage vectors UK2 UK1 UK UK+1 UK+2 UK+3 U0U7 q ↓↓ ↓ ↑↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑↓ p ↑ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑↑ ↑↑ ↑ General features of switching table and hysteresis controllers ! The switching frequency depends on the hysteresis wide of active and reactive power comparators.
6 SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS To study the operation of the VFDPC system under different line conditions and to carry out a comparative investigation.24. Experimental results were realized on laboratory setup presented in A. 3. 3.2.21). The dynamic behaviour under a step change of the load is presented in Fig. These results were obtained for purely sinusoidal supply line voltage. ! presenting the dynamic performance of power control.14. The excellent dynamic properties of the VFDPC system at distorted and unbalanced supply voltage are shown in Fig. 3. which is necessary in conventional DPC for sensorless voltage estimation.1).Direct Power Control (DPC) 3. The shape of the current for conventional DPC is strongly distorted because two undesirable conditions are applied: # sampling time was 20µs (should be about 10µs [21]). 3. The simulated waveforms for the proposed by Author VFDPC and for the DPC reported in [21] are shown in Fig. The main electrical parameters of the power circuit and control data are given in the Table A. The experimental results are measured for significantly distorted line voltage what is presented in Fig.22.21.233.20) with low total harmonic distortion. the derivation of the line current. 3. is in the VFDPC eliminated.1. 3. VFDPC in comparison with the conventional solution at the same condition provides sinusoidal current (Fig. Steady state operation for DPC and VFDPC are shown in Fig. as well as performance comparison with the conventional scheme where the instantaneous power is estimated based on calculated voltage (not virtual flux) signals [21]. However. 3.21b) in comparison to the conventional DPC system with 80 kHz sampling frequency (Fig.4.6. The simulation study has been performed with two main objectives: ! explaining and presenting the steady state operation of the proposed by Author VFDPC with a purely sinusoidal and distorted unbalanced supply line voltage. 3.15 shows on oscilogram for distorted (5% of 5th harmonic) and unbalanced (4. # the line voltage was not purely sinusoidal.6. The dynamic behaviour under a step change of the load for VFDPC are shown in Fig.16 show that VFDPC provides sinusoidal and balanced line currents even at distorted and unbalanced supply voltage. Similarly Fig. This is thanks to the natural lowpass filter behaviour of the integrators used in (2. The main electrical parameters of the power circuit and control data are given in the Table A.4].193.20. the dynamic behaviour of both control systems.5%) line voltages (see A. the PWM rectifier with the whole control scheme has been simulated using the SABER software [A. Fig. 3. 3. Note.21a).15 and Fig. 3.42) (because kth harmonics are reduced by a factor 1/k and the ripple caused by high frequency power transistor switching is effectively damped). that in spite of the lower sampling frequency (50 kHz). 3. This is thanks to fact that voltage was replaced by virtual flux.3.18 . 44 . the VF based power estimator gives much less noisy instantaneous active and reactive power signals (Fig. 3.17. are identical (see Fig. Consequently.
15. DPC THD = 5. instantaneous active and reactive power. 45 . VFDPC THD = 5. line currents. From the top: line voltage. 3.6%. line currents.2%. Simulated waveforms and line current harmonic spectrum under predistorted (5% of 5th harmonic) and unbalanced (4. harmonic spectrum of the line current. From the top: line voltage. harmonic spectrum of the line current.Direct Power Control (DPC) STEADY STATE BEHAVIOUR ! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATION) (a) (b) Fig. 3.14 Simulated basic signal waveforms and line current harmonic spectrum under purely sinusoidal line voltage: a) conventional DPC presented in [21]. estimated line voltage(left) and virtual flux (right). estimated line voltage (left) and estimated virtual flux (right). b) proposed VFDPC. ! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATION) Fig..5%) line voltage for conventional DPC and VFDPC.
6% ! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (EXPERIMENT) UL Udif Fig. Line voltage with harmonic spectrum (uL – line voltage.5%) line voltage. line currents. From the top: line voltages.Direct Power Control (DPC) Fig.17. udif distortion from purely sinusoidal supply line voltage). Simulated basic signal waveforms in the VFDPC under predistorted (5% of 5th harmonic) and unbalanced (4.16. 46 .3. 3. THD = 5.
3.18. line currents (5A/div) and estimated virtual flux 47 .DPC. UL IL ΨL Fig. Experimental waveforms with distorted line voltage for VF. line currents (5A/div) and estimated virtual flux.19.3.Direct Power Control (DPC) UL IL ΨL Fig. From the top: line voltage. From the top: line voltage. Experimental waveforms with distorted line voltage for conventional DPC.
6%) [17]. From the top: line voltage. line currents (5A/div). 48 . instantaneous active (2 kW/div) and reactive power (2 kVAr/div).3. Experimental waveforms with distorted line voltage for VFDPC.Direct Power Control (DPC) UL IL p q 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 Fig. harmonic spectrum of line current (THD = 5.20.
49 .22. ! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATIONS) (a) (b) Fig. line currents. (b) proposed VFDPC. From the top: line voltage. Transient to the step change of the load in the VFDPC: (a) load increasing (b) load decreasing. line currents. instantaneous active and reactive power.21. From the top: line voltages. Transient of the step change of the load: (a) conventional DPC presented in [21].. 3.Direct Power Control (DPC) DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR ! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATION) (a) (b) Fig. 3. instantaneous active and reactive power.
instantaneous active (2 kW/div) and reactive power (2 kVAr/div). line currents (5A/div). 50 .23. line currents (5A/div).Direct Power Control (DPC) ! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (EXPERIMENT) UL IL p q Fig. Transient of the step change of the load in the improved VFDPC: load increasing. From the top: line voltages. instantaneous active (2 kW/div) and reactive power (2 kVAr/div). 3. From the top: line voltages. Fig. 3.24 Transient of the step change of the load in the improved VFDPC: startup of converter.
Direct Power Control (DPC) 3. ! simple and noise robust power estimation algorithm. ! the switching frequency is not constant. ! sinusoidal line currents (low THD). The typical disadvantages are: ! variable switching frequency. a high value of inductance is needed (about 10%). ! no separate PWM voltage modulation block. Also. therefore. what have influence for improvement of total power factor and efficiency [21]. 51 . This method uses the estimated Virtual Flux (VF) vector instead of the line voltage vector. it is important to have high sampling frequency. voltage sensorless line power estimation is much less noisy thanks to the natural lowpass behaviour of the integrator used in the calculation algorithm. differentiation of the line current is avoided in this scheme. decoupled active and reactive power control. (this is an important point for the line voltage estimation because a smooth shape of current is needed). it means that result precisely depends on sampling time). when designing the necessary LC input filter. ! the wide range of the variable switching frequency can be problem. (good performance is obtained at 80kHz sampling frequency. ! power and voltage estimation gives possibility to obtain instantaneous variables with all harmonic components. Based on duality with a PWM inverterfed induction motor. thanks to duality phenomena. an experience with the high performance decoupled PWM inverterfed induction motor control can be used to improve properties of the PWM rectifier control. ! calculation of power and voltage should be avoided at the moment of switching because it gives high errors of the estimated values. ! fast microprocessor and A/D converters. ! lower sampling frequency (as conventional DPC [21]). therefore. ! coordinate transformation and PI controllers are not required. However. the presented VFDPC of PWM rectifier has the following features and advantages: ! no line voltage sensors are required. ! high dynamic. a new method of instantaneous active and reactive power calculation has been proposed. ! no current regulation loops. So. are required. easy to implement in a DSP. Consequently.8 SUMMARY The presented DPC system constitutes a viable alternative to the VOC system [see Chapter 4] of PWM line rectifiers. As shown in the Chapter 3. conventional solution shown by [21] possess several disadvantages: ! the estimated values are changed every time according to the switching state of the converter.
VOLTAGE AND VIRTUAL FLUX ORIENTED CONTROL (VOC. Ua Ub Uc L L L ia ib ib ic Sa Sb Sc U dc Current m easurem ent & line voltage estim ation PW M Adaptive M odulator iLα iLβ uLα α−β uLβ sinγ UL uSα α−β d q uSβ U dc_ref ∆U dc k . The easiest solution is hysteresis current control that provides a fast dynamic response.1 INTRODUCTION Similarly as in FOC of an induction motor [4].1. 4.γ cosγ UL α−β dq sinγ UL cosγ UL uSq uSd PI iLd iLq PI ∆iq i q_ref= 0 PI ∆id id_ref Fig. Consequently. which makes the switching pattern uneven and random.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control 4. the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC) scheme is shown in Fig. resulting in additional stress on switching devices and difficulties of LC input filter design. where the currents being regulated are DC quantities what eliminates steady state error. VFOC) 4. the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC) and Virtual Flux Oriented Control (VFOC) for line side PWM rectifier is based on coordinate transformation between stationary αβ and synchronous rotating dq reference system. 4. [3840].1 Block scheme of AC voltage sensorless VOC A characteristic feature for this current controller is processing of signals in two coordinate systems. However the major problem of hysteresis control is that its average switching frequency varies with the load current. Three phase measured values are converted to equivalent twophase system αβ and then are transformed to rotating coordinate system in a block αβ/dq: 52 LOAD ia PW M    . [6869].2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE VOLTAGE ORIENTED CONTROL (VOC) The conventional control system uses closedloop current control in rotating reference frame. The first is stationary αβ and the second is synchronously rotating dq coordinate system. Therefore. Among presented regulators the widely used scheme for high performance current control is the dq synchronous controller. Both strategies guarantees fast transient response and high static performance via an internal current control loops. 4. the final configuration and performance of system largely depends on the quality of applied current control strategy [6]. thus. no DC offset and high robustness. several strategies are reported in literature to improve performance of current control [2]. good accuracy.
1b) For both coordinate transformation the angle of the voltage vector γUL is defined as: sin γ UL = u Lβ / cos γ UL = u Lα / (u Lα )2 + (u Lβ )2 (u Lα )2 + (u Lβ )2 . the AC line current vector iL is split into two rectangular components iL = [iLd.3) (4.1a) Thanks to this type of transformation the control values are DC signals. 4. 4.2a) (4. Coordinate transformation of line current. line voltage and rectifier input voltage from stationary α−β coordinates to rotating dq coordinates. The UPF condition is met when the line current vector.2). iL. Thus the reactive and the active power can be controlled independently.1. iLq] (Fig.19 are as follows: u Ld = R ⋅ iLd + L di Ld + u Sd − ω ⋅ L ⋅ i Lq dt diLq = R ⋅ i Lq + L + u Sq + ω ⋅ L ⋅ i Ld dt (4.2: Vector diagram of VOC. (4. An inverse transformation dq/αβ is achieved on the output of control system and it gives a result the rectifier reference signals in stationary coordinate: kα cos γ UL k = β sin γ UL − sin γ UL k d cos γ UL k q (4. The component iLq determinates reactive power. 4.7b) By placing the daxis of the rotating coordinates on the line voltage vector a simplified dynamic model can be obtained. is aligned with the line voltage vector. 2.2b) In voltage oriented dq coordinates.4) u Lq Regarding to Fig. The voltage equations in the dq synchronous reference frame in accordance with equations 2. whereas iLd decides about active power flow. the qaxis current is set to zero in all condition for unity power factor control while the reference current iLd is set by the DClink voltage controller and 53 . uL (Fig.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control k d cos γ UL k = q − sin γ UL sin γ UL kα cos γ UL k β (4. β−axis qaxis iLβ iLq uLβ iL ω daxis (rotating) α−axis (fixed) ϕ γUL=ωt u =u iLd L Ld uLα iLα Fig.
5).10) where ∆ is the output signals of the current controllers ∗ ∗ ∆u d = k p (id − id ) + k i ∫ (id − id )dt ∗ ∗ ∆u q = k p (iq − iq ) + k i ∫ (iq − iq )dt (4.11) (4. the PI current controller has no satisfactory tracing performance. However. (4.8) As current controller.7) dt 0 = u Sq + ω ⋅ L ⋅ i Ld (4.4].5) (4. (4.4) can be reduced to: u Ld = L di Ld + u Sd − ω ⋅ L ⋅ iLq dt (4. 4.3 Decoupled current control of PWM rectifier 54 .12) The output signals from PI controllers after dq/αβ transformation (Eq. especially. the PItype can be used. 4.6). (4. For R ≈ 0 equations (4. Therefore for high performance application with accuracy current tracking at dynamic state the decoupled controller diagram for the PWM rectifier should be applied what is shown in Fig.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control controls the active power flow between the supply and the DClink. the following equations hold true di u Ld = L Ld + u Sd (4.6) 0=L diLq dt + u Sq + ω ⋅ L ⋅ i Ld Assuming that the qaxis current is well regulated to zero. for the coupled system described by Eqs.1b)) are used for switching signals generation by a Space Vector Modulator [see Section 4. (4. uLd Udc* ∆Udc PI voltage controller id* + PI current controller ∆Ud + + + + USd Udc id ωL iq ωL iq*=0 + PI current controller ∆Uq + + USq Fig.9) (4.3 [49]: u Sd = ωLi Lq + u Ld + ∆u d u Sq = −ωLi Ld + ∆u q (4.3).
iL. 4. should be zero. because disturbances superimposed onto the line voltage influence directly the coordinate transformation in control system (4. it is not necessary to implement PLL’s to achieve robustness in the fluxoriented scheme.2). thanks to the natural lowpass behavior of the integrators in (2. the dcomponent of the current vector. for the UPF condition. it is easier to replace angle of the line voltage vector γUL by angle of VF vector γΨL.42) (because nth harmonics are reduced by a factor 1/k and the ripple related to the high frequency transistor is strongly damped).4.4 Block scheme of VFOC The vector of virtual flux lags the voltage vector by 90o (Fig. For this reason. The angular displacement of virtual flux vector ΨL in αβ coordinate is defined as: sin γ ΨL = ΨLβ / cos γ ΨL = ΨLα / (ΨLα )2 + (ΨLβ )2 (ΨLα )2 + (ΨLβ )2 VFOC ib U dc Sa Sb Sc LOAD ia ic PWM (4. because γΨL is less sensitive than γUL to disturbances in the line voltage.γ cosγ ΨL α−β dq sinγ ΨL cosγ ΨL uSd u Sq iLd iLq PI ∆id PI ∆iq id_ref= 0 iq_ref Fig. Therefore. 4.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control 4. Sometimes this is solved only by phaselocked loops (PLL’s) only.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE VIRTUAL FLUX ORIENTED CONTROL (VFOC) The concept of Virtual Flux (VF) can also be applied to improve VOC scheme.13a) (4. Therefore. 55 PI U dc_ref ∆U dc   . 4. since ΨL rotates much more smoothly than uL. Ua Ub Uc L L L ia ib Current measurement & virtual flux estimation PW M Adaptive Modulator iLα i Lβ ΨLα α−β Ψ Lβ sinγ ΨL u Sα α−β u Sβ d q k .5).13b) The Virtual Flux Oriented Control (VFOC) scheme is shown in Fig. but the quality of the controlled system depends on how effectively the PLL’s have been designed [31].
17) (4.19) (4. In the virtual flux oriented coordinates voltage equations are transformed into u Lq = L 0=L diLq dt + u Sq + ω ⋅ L ⋅ i Ld (4.20) 56 .Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control qaxis uL = uLq iL iLq β−axis uLβ iLβ ω ΨL γΨL=ωt ϕ iLα uLα iLd ΨL β daxis (rotating) α−axis (fixed) ΨL α Fig.18) di Ld + u Sd − ω ⋅ L ⋅ i Lq dt for iLd = 0 equations (4.17) and (4. rectifier input voltage and line current from fixed α−β coordinates to rotating dq coordinates.5: Vector diagram of VFOC.18) can be described as: u Lq = L + u Sq dt 0 = u Sd − ω ⋅ L ⋅ i Lq diLq (4. Coordinate transformation of line voltage. 4.
4. 85. 79. 74. This topology can work in two modes: ! inverter . [3. Therefore.7. This leads to different types of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). 89]. is converted from DC side to AC side. 87. 80. Development of PWM methods is.4 PULSE WIDTH MODULATION (PWM) 4. ! rectifier . ! elimination of low frequency harmonics (in case of motors it generates torque pulsation) ! operation in overmodulation region including square wave [75. fast operation and high power densities are being achieved trough the use of the so called switch mode operation. Fig. 57 .Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control 4.when energy. still in progress [70101].4. This mode is used in variable speed drives and AC power supply including uninterruptible power supply (UPS). Threephase voltage source PWM converter Basic requirements and definitions Performance significantly depends on control methods and type of modulation. This mode has application in power supply with Unity Power Factor (UPF). ! low content of higher harmonics in voltage and current. an online optimisation procedure is hard to be implemented especially. PWM is highspeed process ranging – depending on a rated power – from a few kHz (motor control) up to several MHz (resonant converters for power supply). which is the most popular power conversion circuit used in industry. In modern converters. of adjusted amplitude and frequency. which offer higher voltage and current rating as well as better switching characteristics. 72. ! minimal number of (frequency) switching to keep low switching losses in power components. 77]. low weight and small dimensions. 72. which is basic energy processing technique applied in power converter systems. 93]. 96]. 81. because they produce additional losses and noise in load [5. 89. DC side Sa+ U dc /2 0 PW M Converter AC side Sc+ Sb+ b a SaSbSc c RLE N U dc /2 Energy flow : inverter rectifier Fig. On the other hand.when energy of mains (50 Hz or 60Hz) is converted from AC side to DC side. 4. however. 74. 85. the main advantages of modern power electronic converters such as: high efficiency. 78.1 Introduction Application and power converter topologies are still expanding thanks to improvements in semiconductor technology. in which power semiconductor devices are controlled in ON/OFF fashion. for three or multiphase converters. [5.7 presents threephase voltage source PWM converter. Therefore the PWM converter. should perform some general demands like: ! wide range of linear operation.
4. ! reduction of acoustic noise (random modulation)[70]... Operation with constant carrier signal concentrate voltage harmonics around switching frequency and multiple of switching frequency. Narrow range of linearity is a limitation for CBSPWM modulator because modulation index reaches Mmax = π/4 = 0. e. Overmodulation region occurs above Mmax and PWM converter. ! good dynamics [28. 101]. investigations are lead with the purpose of: ! simplification because modulator is one of the most timeconsuming part of control algorithm and reducing of computations intensity at the same performance is the main point for industry (it gives possibility to use simple and inexpensive microprocessors) [76. Uc* (moved in phase of 2/3π) the logical signals. 95..907 0 . are summarized in Tab. which define switching instants of power transistor (Fig. lp. For sinusoidal modulation 0≤M≤0. which characterize PWM methods. Basic definition and parameters.785 (m = 1) only. which is treated like a power amplifier. Carrier Based PWM Sinusoidal PWM Sinusoidal modulation is based on triangular carrier signal.785 or 0≤m≤1 Depends on shape of modulation signal Nonlinear range used for increase of output voltage For mf > 21 asynchronous modulation is used Constant Used for voltage and current Independent of load parameters Avoids + 1 DC voltage transition m f = f s / f1 fs = fT = 1 / Ts Ts – sampling time THD= 100 * I h / I s1 % THD d PCR Ih(rms) / Ih(sixstep)(rms) 4. linear range Overmodulation Frequency modulation ratio Switching frequency (number) Total Harmonic Distortion Current distortion factor Polarity consistency rule mf fs ( ls ) Symbol M m Mmax mmax Definition M = U1m/U1(sixstep)= =U1m/(2/π)Ud m = Um / Um(t) 0 . 1. By comparison of common carrier signal with three reference sinusoidal signals Ua*. Ub*.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control Additionally. ! reduction of common mode voltage [90]. Tab. Basic parameters of PWM. amplitude of reference signal and carrier are equal. 0.21).8) are generated.154 M > M max m > m max Remarques Two definition of modulation index are used. 93]. operates at nonlinear part of characteristic (see Fig.1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name of parameter Modulation index Max.1.2. 4. 4..4.g. 58 .4.
0 2 0 . 0 2 8 0 . extending of linear region to Mmax = π / 2 3 = 0. 0 2 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 3 6 0 . corresponding to different PWM methods. 0 2 8 * c 0 . it corresponds to minimum of output current harmonics. 0 3 2 0 .8 . 0 3 0 .UcN 3 0 0 U 2 0 0 b N  1 0 0 carrier 0 1 0 0  2 0 0  3 0 0 0 . current harmonics) are changed by the ZSS. it is possible to insert an additional Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS) of 3th harmonic frequency. However. 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 4 0 . Added ZSS occurs between N and 0 points and is visible like a UN0 voltage and can be observed in Ua0.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control (a) Udc Ua* Ub* Uc* + + + Ut Sa Sb Sc 3 (b) 1 0 8 6 4 2 0 . Triangular shape of ZSS with 1/4 peak corresponds to conventional (analogue) space vector modulation with symmetrical placement of zero vectors in sampling time [83] 59 . 0 2 0 . phase currents depend only on the voltage difference between phases. UcN and without affecting load average currents (Fig. 0 3 4 0 .10). Fig. reduction of the average switching frequency. 4. 0 4 0 0 U 2 0 0 a N  1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0  3 0 0 0 .g. 0 2 2 0 . 4.UbN. 4.1 0 0 . It can be divided in two groups: continuous and discontinuous modulation (DPWM) [92]. 0 3 8 0 . 4. a) Block scheme of carrier based sinusoidal modulation (CBSPWM) (b) Basic waveforms CBPWM with Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS) If neutral point on AC side of power converter N is not connected with DC side midpoint 0 (Fig. 0 2 8 0 . Ub0. Uc0 voltages (Fig. 0 2 2 0 .907. 0 2 2 0 . 0 3 2 0 . Udc Ua* Ub* Uc* Calculation of ZSS + + + + + + Ua** + Ub** + + Ut Sa Sb Sc Uc** UaN. 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 U * a U * b U t U 0 . 0 2 0 .7). 4. 0 3 4 0 . 0 4 UaN. 0 4 Fig. 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 2 0 .4 . the current ripple and other modulator parameters (e. 0 3 0 . Therefore. 0 3 6 0 .6 . The most known of continuous modulation is method with sinusoidal ZSS with 1/4 amplitude. 0 2 4 0 .2 . 4. 0 2 6 0 .UbN. 0 2 2 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 3 0 . UbN.9.8. which does not produce phase voltage distortion UaN.UcN carrier RLE N Fig.10). 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 4 RLE N U 6 0 0 a b  4 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0  4 0 0  6 0 0 0 . 0 3 0 . Block scheme of modulator based on additional Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS). 0 2 8 0 . and with 1/6 amplitude it corresponds to maximal linear range [86]. 0 2 4 0 .10 presents different waveforms of additional ZSS.
02 0.03 0. U d /2 10 U aN =U a0 U d /2 10 U aN U a0 U d /2 10 U aN U a0 5 5 5 0 0 0 U N0 5 5 U N0 U N0 5 10 10 10 U d /2 0.035 Ud/2 0.02 0. and that zero vectors decrease modulation index. A threephase twolevel converter provides eight possible switching states.025 0.035 U d /2 0.12a) becomes very popular due to its simplicity [97].035 sinusoidal modulation (SPWM) modulation with 3th harmonic Ud/2 10 SVPWM Ud/2 10 Ua0 UaN Ud/2 10 UaN UaN Ua0 5 5 5 Ua0 0 UN0 5 0 0 UN0 5 UN0 5 10 10 10 Ud/2 0.3.10. 4. Variants of PWM modulation methods in dependence on shape of ZSS. 4.025 0.11.03 0. Generation of ZSS for DPWM method. Detailed description of different kind of modulation based on ZSS can be found in [80].025 0. Allowable length of U* vector. is equal U max = U dc / 3 .015 0.3). can be obtained by an additional 60 . 4.015 0.03 0. Discontinuous modulation is formed by unmodulated 60o segments (converter power switches do not switch) shifted from 0 to π/3 (different shift Ψ gives different type of modulation Fig.015 0.4.03 0. 4. Space Vector Modulation (SVM) Basics of SVM The SVM strategy.035 U d /2 0.03 0.035 DPWM 1 (ψ=π/6) DPWM 3 PWM 2 (ψ=π/3) Fig.12a) is possible to implement by the different switch on/off sequence of U1 and U2. for ∗ each of α angle. 4. It finally gives lower (average 33%) switching losses. It can be seen that vector U* (Fig.035 Ud/2 0.015 0. U dc/2 Ψ π/3 π/6 π Ua UT US Ub Uc UR U dc/2 ZSS Fig.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control (see Section 4.02 0.11). where a reference vector U* is obtained by switching on (for proper time) two adjacent vectors.02 0.02 0. made up of six active and two zero switching states.02 0.015 0.4.025 0.025 0. Higher values of output voltage (reach sixstep mode) up to maximal modulation index (M = 1). 4.025 0.015 0. based on space vector representation (Fig. Active vectors divide plane for six sectors.03 0.
Voltages between a. The only difference is in different placement of zero vectors U0(000) and U7(111).21a and 4.t1 . 4. in the SVM there is no separate modulators for each phase.12.4. Contrary to CBPWM. 0 for eight converter switching state Ua0 Ub0 Uc0 UaN UbN UcN UNO Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/2 0 0 0 Udc/2 U0 U1 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/2 2Udc/3 Udc/3 Udc/3 Udc/6 Udc/3 2Udc/3 Udc/6 U2 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/3 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/3 2Udc/3 Udc/3 Udc/6 U3 Udc/3 Udc/6 U4 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/2 2Udc/3 Udc/3 2Udc/3 Udc/6 U5 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/3 Udc/3 2Udc/3 Udc/3 Udc/6 U6 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/3 0 0 Udc/2 U7 Udc/2 Udc/2 Udc/2 0 61 . Microprocessor implementation is described with the help of simple trigonometrical relationship for first sector (4.5).21b) π MT s sin α After t1 and t2 calculation. (b) Block scheme of SVM nonlinear overmodulation algorithm (see Section 4.22) (4. t1 = 2 3 t2 = π 2 3 MT s sin( π / 3 − α ) (4. c and N. the residual sampling time is reserved for zero vectors U0.21b) are identical for all variants of SVM. 4.23) Table 4.21a) (4. (4. It gives different equations defining t0 and t7 for each of method. and next U*(Ts) is used to solve equations which describe times t1. b.21b). The equations (4. recalculated for the next sectors (n).7 = Ts . Reference vector U* is sampled with fixed clock frequency 2fs = 1/Ts. and.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control (a) Im U3(010) (t2/Ts)U2 (b) U2(110) (2/3)Udc U4(011) U0(000) U7(111) α U* U1(100) Re U* 2f s U * (Ts) Sector Selection (t1/Ts)U1 Sa Sb Sc U*max t1 t2 t0 t7 Calculation RLE U5(001) U6(101) Fig. but total duration time of zero vectors must fulfil conditions: t0. t2.12b). U7 with condition t1 + t2 ≤ Ts.2.2) [91] U N0 = U U U U U t t 1 1 ( − dc t 0 − dc t1 + dc t 2 + dc t 7 ) = dc ( −t 0 − 1 + 2 + t 7 ) Ts 2 6 6 2 2 Ts 3 3 (4. 4. t0 and t7 (Fig.21a). (a) Space vector representation of threephase converter.t2 = t0 + t7 The neutral voltage between N and 0 points is equal: (see Tab.
900. Vectors placement in sampling time: a) threephase SVM (SVPWM.74.13a shows gate pulses for (SVPWM) and correlation between duty time Ton. It can be seen that sectors are adequately moved on 00.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control Threephase SVM with symmetrical placement of zero vectors (SVPWM) The most popular SVM method is modulation with symmetrical zero states (SVPWM): t0 = t7 = (Ts . However.14b presents phase voltage UaN. For the first sector commutation delay can be computed as: Taon = t 0 / 2 Tbon = t 0 / 2 + t1 Tcon = t 0 / 2 + t1 + t 2 T aoff T boff T coff = t 0 / 2 + t1 + t 2 = t0 / 2 + t2 = t0 / 2 (4. 4. pole voltage Ua0 62 . Fig.25) For conventional SVPWM times t1.5T0 t 1 t2 T s (4. t2. Commutation delay for other sectors can be calculated with the help of matrix: sector1 sector2 sector3 sector4 sector5 sector6 Taoff 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 Tboff = 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 10 0 1 1 0 1 Tcoff 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 11 0 1 1 0 0 Ts t0 Sa t1 t2 t7 t7 t2 Ts t1 t0 T 0.26) T s t1 Sa T s t7 t7 t2 t1 Sa T s t1 t2 t2 t1 t0 t2 t0 0 0 0 Taon 1 0 0 U1 Tbon 1 1 0 U2 1 1 1 U7 1 1 1 U7 1 1 0 U2 Tboff 1 0 0 Taoff 0 0 0 U0 1 1 0 1 0 0 U 1 U 2 1 1 1 U 7 1 1 1 U 7 1 1 1 0 0 0 U U 2 1 0 0 0 U 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 U 1 U 2 U 2 U 1 0 0 0 U 0 Sb Sb Sb Sc Sc Sc U0 U1 (a) (b) Fig. It is very important criterion. t0 = t7) b) twophase SVM (DPWM.24) Figure 4. t2. 4.88] and is called discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM) for CB technique with an additional Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS) in [80]. which allows farther reduction of switching losses up to 50% [80].14a shows several different kind of twophase SVM. t7. while t7 = 0 means that phase is clamped to zero). t0 = 0 and t7 = 0) b) Tcon Tcoff Twophase SVM This type of modulation proposed in [98] was developed in [72.t2)/2 (4. 600. PWM(2). 4. PWM(1). and denoted as PWM(0).4. 300. Toff and duration of vectors t1.6).t1 . PWM(3) respectively (t0 = 0 means that one phase is clamped to one.13b). Fig. t0. It gives only one zero state per sampling time (Fig. t0 are computed for one sector only.13. The idea bases on assumption that only two phases are switched (one phase is clamped by 600 to lower or upper DC bus). 4. Twophase SVM provides 33% reduction of effective switching frequency. switching losses also strongly depend on a load power factor angle (see Chapter 4.
simple calculation (Fig. t7.015 Ud/2 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.3. 4.035 0. PWM(1) = 300.785 (no Twophase SVM t0 = 0 ⇒ t7 =Tst1t2 when 0≤α<π/6 t7 = 0 ⇒ t0 = Tst1t2 when π/6≤α<π/3 (for PWM(1)) • • • • Low current distortions More complicated calculation of zero vectors Extended linear region: M = 0.035 0. An evaluation and properties of different modulation method shows Table 4.27) Im PWM(2) t 7=0 t =0 7 U2 (110) U3(010) Im PWM(1) t0=0 t7=0 U2(110) U3(010) U2(110) U3(010) Im PWM(3) t =0 0 U2(110) t =0 7 t7=0 t 7=0 U0 (000 U7 (111 t7=0 t 0=0 t0=0 U0(000 U7 (111 t 7=0 t7=0 t0=0 U4 (011) U1(100) Re t 0=0 U4(011) t7=0 U0 (000) t7=0 t =0 0 t 0=0 t0=0 t7=0 U1(100) Re U4 (011) U1 (100) Re U4(011) t0=0 U 0(000) U 7 (111) t7=0 t7=0 t0=0 U1(100) Re U7(111) t =0 0 t 0=0 t7=0 t7=0 t0=0 t 7=0 t0=0 t7=0 t =0 0 (a) Ud/2 U5(001) U6 (101) U5(001) U6(101) U5 (001) U6(101) U5(001) U6(101) 10 Ua0 Ud/2 10 Ua0 UaN Ud/2 10 UaN Ua0 Ud/2 10 UaN 5 5 5 5 Ua0 0 0 UN0 5 0 0 UN0 5 5 UN0 5 UN0 UaN 10 10 10 10 (b) Fig.035 0.907 Most often used in microprocessor technique for the sake of simple zero vector calculation (symmetrical in sampling time 2Ts ) Current harmonic content almost identical like in previous method Equivalent of DPWM methods in CBPWM technique 33% switching frequency and switching losses reduction Higher current harmonic content at low modulation index Only one zero state per sampling time. pole voltage Ua0 and voltage between neutral points UN0 for each of modulation 0.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control and voltage between neutral points UN0 for these modulations.21)(4. Succession: PWM(0) = 00.025 0.3.025 0.015 0.23) and knowledge of UN0 (Fig.14b).03 0.02 0.03 0.015 Variants of Space Vector Modulation From equations (4. PWM(2) = 600 and PWM(3) = 900 b) Phase voltage UaN. Variants of Space Vector Modulation Vector modulation methods Vector modulation with UN0 = 0 Vector modulation with 3th harmonic Threephase SVM with symmetrical zero states (SVPWM) Calculation of t0 and t7 Remarques Ts 4 (1 − M cos α ) 2 π t7 = Tst0t1t2 t0 = t7 = Tst0t1t2 t0 = t7 = (Tst1t2)/2 T 4 1 t 0 = s (1 − M (cos α − cos 3α )) 2 π 6 • • • • • • • Equivalent of classical CBSPWM difference between UaN and Ub0 voltages) Linear region Mmax = 0.015 0. 4. Zero states description for PWM(1) can be written as: t0=0 ⇒ t7=Tst1t2 when 0≤α<π/6 t7=0 ⇒ t0=Tst1t2 when π/6≤α<π/3 U3 (010) Im PWM(0) t 0=0 t =0 0 (4.035 Ud/2 Ud/2 Ud/2 0.025 0. 4.14) 63 . it is possible to calculate duration of zero vectors t0.02 0. Table 4.14 a) Placement of zero vectors in twophase SVM.
4 Different zero vector placement in PWM(0) sector 1 2 3 4 5 6 PWM(0) U0U1U2U2U1U0 U3U2U7U7U2U3 U0U3U4U4U3U0 U5U4U7U7U4U5 U0U5U6U6U5U0 U1U6U7U7U6U1 Different PWM(0) U2U1U0U0U1U2 U3U2U7U7U2U3 U4U3U0U0U3U4 U5U4U7U7U4U5 U6U5U0U0U5U6 U1U6U7U7U6U1 a) Ts U0 U1 U2 U2 U1 U0 U2 U1 Ts U0 U0 U1 U2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 b) Fig.15 Different PWM(0) methods presented above a) vectors placement b) voltage harmonic content. Also it can be observed from Fig. 64 .14 and Fig. Ub**. 4. 4.16 that the degree of freedom represented in selection of ZSS waveform in CBPWM. Tab. It is visible that both methods generate identical gate pulses. Uc** with triangular carrier signal. whereas SVM uses artificial (mathematically transformed) vector representation.4. The difference is only in the treatment of the threephase quantities: CBPWM operates in terms of three natural components.4.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control The space vector modulation techniques with one zero state in sampling time may be additionally changed for the sake of different harmonic content what is presented in Tab. 4.4 and Fig. Lower part of figure shows gate pulses generation in SVM (obtained by calculation of duration time of active vectors U1 . U7). 4.16. corresponds to different placement of zero vectors U0(000) and U7(111) in sampling time Ts = 1/2fs of the SVM.4. U2 and zero vectors U0.15 [73]. Upper part shows pulse generation through comparison of reference signal Ua**.4 Carrier Based PWM Versus Space Vector PWM Comparison of CBPWM methods with additional ZSS to SVM is shown on Fig. 4. 4. Therefore. there is no exist difference between CBPWM and SVM (CBDPWM1 = PWM(1)SVM).
906) (Fig.028 0. 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 .038 0. 0 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 2 6 0 . an additional nonlinear overmodulation algorithm has to be apply. 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 2 0 1 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 4 T Ts 1 2 1 0 8 c a rr Tcarrier T carr CBPWM switching pattern Ts Tcarrier 1 2 1 0 U a ** U b ** 1 1 6 4 2 0 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 .89].032 0. 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 8 6 0 U c ** 1 2 1 0 8 6 4 2 0 4 2 0 1 2 1 0 8 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 0 .03 0. 0 3 4 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 2 0 . short segment of reference signal at high carrier frequency (reference signals are straight lines).16. 65 SVPWM pattern a SVPWM pattern 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 a 2 0 0 1 . 0 2 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 2 6 4 0 .02 0. 0 3 4 0 . therefore for full description of this topic is necessary to presents also overmodulation. 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 2 6 1 5 0 . 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 .026 0. 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 4 0 .02 2 1 0 0. 0 2 8 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 3 8 0 . and others as extensions of the Space Vector PWM (SVPWM). 0 2 8 0 .024 0. 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 3 4 0 .034 0. This part of modulation is not so important for PWM rectifier in the sake of higher harmonic contents in current but it is possible to find some application with similar mode [119]. 0 2 2 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 4. 0 4 2 1 0 1 2 8 1 0 6 8 4 6 2 4 0 0 2 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 4. 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 2 4 0 .Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control (a) 10 (b) 10 5 5 0 0 5 5 10 10 0. 0 2 6 8 6 4 b 0 0 U0 t 0 0 0 U1 t 1 1 0 Ts U2 t 2 1 1 U7 t 7 1 1 U7 t 7 1 0 U2 t 2 0 0 Ts U1 t 1 0 0 U0 t 0 b 0 0 U1 t 1 1 0 U2 t 2 1 1 Ts U7 t7 1 1 U7 t7 T s 1 0 U2 t 2 0 0 U1 t 1 c c Fig. 0 3 6 0 . 0 2 6 1 8 CBPWM switching pattern Ua ** Ts Ts .024 0.85.032 0. Zero vectors are never used in this type of modulation. 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 6 8 2 0 8 2 6 0 4 2 ca rrie r 0 . 0 4 1 2 1 2 1 0 1 0 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 . 038 0. 4. formation of pulses in SVM. 0 3 2 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . In CBPWM by increasing the reference voltage beyond the amplitude of the triangular carrier signal. 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 3 0 . 0 1 2 6 1 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 4 0 0 . 0 3 0 .79.036 0. This is because minimal pulse width becomes shorter than critical (mainly dependent on power switches characteristic – usually few µs) or even negative. 0 3 2 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 3 6 0 .5 Overmodulation Modulation is a basic techniques in power electronics.4. 0 2 6 4 0 . 0 3 8 0 .022 0. 0 4 0 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . This range shows a high nonlinearity between reference and output voltage amplitude and requires infinite amplitude of reference in order to reach a sixstep output voltage. 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 2 6 2 0 . 0 4 4 2 0 1 0 . Comparison of CBPWM with SVM a) SVPWM b) DPWM From the top: CBPWM with pulses.034 0. 0 3 8 0 .022 0. 0 3 2 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 .04 1 0. 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 2 6 0 .03 0. 0 2 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 3 4 0 . 0 1 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 1 0 .028 0. Some of them are proposed as extensions of the Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM). 0 2 6 7 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 .026 0.17). 0 2 8 0 . 0 2 6 6 0 . 0 2 6 3 0 . 0 2 6 0 . 0 3 6 0 . In SVM allowable length of reference vector U* which provide linear modulation is ∗ equal U max = U dc / 3 (circle inscribed in hexagon M = 0. 0 2 0 . Many approaches have been reported in the literature to increase the range of the PWM voltage source inverter [75. 0 3 8 0 .036 0. To obtain higher values of output voltage (reach sixstep mode) up to maximal modulation index M = 1. 0 2 2 0 . some switching cycles are skipped and the voltage of each phase remains clamped to one of the dc bus. 0 2 6 1 0 . 0 3 2 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 2 6 5 0 . 0 2 6 8 Ub ** Uc ** 1 1 8 6 4 2 0 0 . 0 2 4 0 . 0 2 8 0 . 0 2 6 8 8 ca rrie r 0 .04 8 6 1 2 4 1 0 8 2 6 0 0 .
In region I the magnitude of reference voltage is modified in order to keep space vector within the hexagon.18 Subdivision of the overmodulation region Overmodulation mode I: distorted continuous reference signal In this range. 66 . the magnitude of the reference vector is changed while the angle is transmitted without any changes (αp = α).19a) [85].18). The reduced fundamental components in region where reference trajectory surpass hexagon is compensated by a higher value in corner (equal areas in one sector . a modified reference voltage trajectory U is selected (Fig. 4. 4.19a).95 and reach six step mode M = 1. Mode II defines both the magnitude and the angle of the reference voltage. 4. This mode extends the range of the modulation index up to 0.e. when the original reference trajectory passes outside the hexagon. However.17 Overmodulation region in space vector representation Algorithm Based on Two Modes of Operation Two overmodulation regions are considered (Fig. Im U 2 (110) U ma = x Region I Region II U1 (100) Re Fig. to track with the reference voltage U*. i. to compensate reduced fundamental voltage.see Fig.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control Im U 3 (010) U2 (110) Overmodulation region (t 2 /Ts )U2 (2/3)Udc U* α (t 1/T s )U1 U4 (011) U 0(000) U 7(111) U1(100) Re (2 M= /π)U 1 dc U 5 (001) U 6 (101) Fig. the time average equation gives an unrealistic on duration for the zero vectors.95. 4. It defines the maximum amplitude that can be reached for each angle. To implement both modes a lookup table or neural network [96] based approach can be applied. 4. Therefore. Mode II starts from M = 0.
The operation in this region is illustrated in Fig. 4.0) (4.28 c) t 2 = TS − t1 t0 = 0 Overmodulation mode II: distorted discontinuous reference signal.4 ⋅ M − 6.9975< M < 1.reference trajectory (dashed line).95< M < 0.29) π / 6 −αh 6 π / 3 −α h ≤ α ≤ π / 3 π /3 The modified vector is held at a vertex of the hexagon for holding angle αh over particular time and then partly tracking the hexagon sides in every sector for the rest of the switching period. which is closest to the reference vector for onesixth of the fundamental period. which can be piecewise linearized as [89]: α h = 6.907 < M < 0.9975) (0.30) The sixstep mode is characterized by selection of the switching vector.28 b) (4. In this way the modulator generates the maximum possible converter voltage. The holding angle αh controls the time interval when active switching state remains at the vertices.952 < M < 1) U* .28 a) (4.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control a) Im b) Im U 2(110) U 2(110) U* U αh U U* U1(100) Re αp α αh U1 (100) Re Fig.75 ⋅ M − 11. It is a nonlinear function of the modulation index.09 α h = 11. which uniquely controls the fundamental voltage. For a given switching 67 .19b. (b) mode II (0. The trajectory changes gradually from a continuous hexagon to the sixstep operation.43 (0.96 ⋅ M − 48. 4. U – modified reference trajectory (solid line) The on time durations for region where modified reference trajectory is moved along hexagon are calculated as: t1 = TS 3 cos α − sin α 3 cos α + sin α (4.98< M < 0.952).19 Overmodulation: (a) mode I (0. both the reference magnitude and reference angle (from α to αp) are changed: 0 0 ≤α ≤ αh α −α π h αp = α h ≤ α ≤ π / 3 −α h (4. To achieve control in overmodulation mode II.98) (0.34 α h = 48.
4. is determined by the intersection of the circle (respond with modulation index) with the hexagon (Fig. (4. The advantage of linearity and easy implementation is obtained on the cost of higher harmonic distortion.reference trajectory (dashed line). 4. The distortion factor strongly increases when the reference waveform becomes discontinuous in the mode II. as in Fig. the desired voltage angle is held constant when the reference voltage vector is located outside of hexagon.31c) 2 3 −3 3 −π M '= 2 3 − π M + 2 3 − π α2 = π 3 − α1 Im U 2 (110) U* α2=π/3−α1 π/6 α1 U1(100) Re Fig. The value.31) (max circular trajectory is related to the maximum possible fundamental output voltage 2/πUdc not to 2/3Udc – see Fig. After that. 68 . the commanded angle jumps to value of α2 = π/3α1.17): α 1 = arcsin 3 2M ' (4. at which the command angle is held.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control frequency. the commanded angle stays at α1 until the desired angle becomes π/6. When the desired angle increases over α1. Algorithm Based on Single Mode of Operation In a simple technique proposed in [75].20. 4. 4. The angle at which the command is held (hold angles) depends on the desired modulation index (M) and can be found from Eq. the commanded angle tracks its value. the current distortion increases with the modulation index.31b) (4.31a) (4. The commanded value of α is kept constant at α2 for any desired angle between π/6 and α2. the commanded angle tracks the value of desired angle. For a desired angle between α2 and π/3.20 Overmodulation: single mode of operation U* .20). U – modified reference trajectory (solid line) For a desired angle between 0 and α1.
1 5 2 3 .7 8 5 1 . for high switching frequency. the total average value of the transistor switching power losses can be for the continuous PWM expressed as: π Psl ( c ) 1 = 2π 2 +ϕ TD − +ϕ 2 ∫k π ⋅i ⋅ f s dα = kTD If s π (4. 4.15).32) where: kTD= kT+kD .4.21 Control characteristic of PWM converter Switching losses Power losses of the PWM converter can be generally divided into: conduction and switching losses (see in [87]).6 1 2 S P W M 1 2 3 lin e a r ra n g e o ve rm o d u la tio n six ste p m o d e 1 2 3 m 1 0 .1.9 0 7 Fig. Range of linear operation The linear range of the control characteristic for sinusoidal CBPWM ends at M = π/4 = 0. 4. the linear dependency of a switching energy loss on the switched current is assumed. b) Ua b (rm s) Udc w ith Z S S 0 .Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control 4.907 is the nonlinear overmodulation range.7 8 0 .6 Performance criteria Several performance criteria are considered for selection of suitable modulation method [3]. Below further important criteria as: range of linear operation. The region above M = 0.907 (mmax = 1. current distortion factor and switching losses are discussed.7 0 3 0 .21) i. Some of them are defined in the Table 4. The SVM or CBPWM with ZSS injection provide extension of linear range up to Mmax = π / 2 3 = 0. Therefore. For the switching losses calculation. This also was proved by the measurement results [87]. to equal of reference and carrier peak.proportional relation of the switching energy loss per pulse period to the switched current for the transistor and the diode. Conduction losses are practically the same for different PWM techniques and they are lower than switching losses.e. 69 .0 M 0 .785 (m = 1) of modulation index (Fig.2 4 1 .
Since the switching losses increase with the magnitude of the phase current (approximately linearly).55 0. current. 0.34) PWM (1) ⇒ Psl (ϕ ) = 3 sin ϕ Psl ( c ) ⋅ ) for π / 3 < ϕ < π / 2 2 PWM (0) ⇒ Psl (ϕ ) = Psl ( PWM (1)) ⋅ (ϕ − ) 6 π (4.36) PWM (2) ⇒ Psl (ϕ ) = Psl ( PWM (1)) ⋅ (ϕ + ) 6 3 −1 cosϕ) for 0 < ϕ < π / 6 Psl(c) ⋅ (1 − 2 sinϕ + cosϕ PWM(3) ⇒ Psl (ϕ) = Psl(c) ⋅ forπ / 6 < ϕ < π / 3 (4. Switching losses are average reduced about 33%. selecting a suitable modulation can significantly improve performance of the converter.65 0.22 (comparison to continuous modulation).85 0. (4. 4. it is sufficient to consider the range of from 0 to π/2 for the DPWM as follows [87]: 1 Psl ( c ) ⋅ (1 − 2 cos ϕ ) for 0 < ϕ < π / 3 (4.75 0. switching losses decrease up to 50%.6 0.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control In the case of discontinuous PWM the following properties hold from the symmetry of the pole voltage: Psl (−ϕ ) = Psl (ϕ ) Psl (ϕ ) = Psl (π − ϕ ) where 0<ϕ<π. In favour conditions.33) Therefore.7 0.8 PW M(1) PW M(3) 0.22. when modulation is clamped in phase conducting max.37) 2 P ⋅ (1 − 3 −1 sinϕ) forπ / 3 < ϕ < π / 2 sl(c) 2 Switching losses depends on type of discontinuous modulation and power factor angle what is shown in Fig. Switching losses (Psl(φ)/Psl(c)) versus power factor angle 70 . 4.5 150 PW M(0) 100 50 0 50 PW M(2) 100 150 Power factor angle Fig.35) (4.9 π Switching losses (x100%) 0.
Therefore. the SVPWM maintain at lowest distortion factor.38) depends on type of PWM and AC side impedance. or 2 times increased for 50% reduction of switching losses. Detailed description is presented in [84. d2 can be considered as a loss factor.23): . It provides to lower current distortion for DPWM in comparison to SVPWM. 4. Harmonics are changed according to the selected switching sequence.44) 2 3 DPWM0(2) d = DPWM3 d = 9M 2 3 3 2 + 4− + 2π 4π 3π 2 140M 4M 3π 2 4M 6πk fSB M (62−15 3) + 92π 2+ π3 2 where k f SB is defined as a ratio of carrier frequency (sampling time) to base of carrier frequency. the carrier frequency can be increased by factor 3/2 for 33% reduction of switching losses. T0 T (4. 71 . 4 π M ∈ 0. and shape of the ZSS (Fig. we should remember that DPWM possess lower switching losses. the distortion factor is commonly used (see Table 4. (4.40) (4.41) SVPWM d = 32M + 9M 2 3 3 1 − 2π 4π . It depends on switching frequency. It should be noted that harmonic copper losses in the ACside are proportional to d2. 4.for continuous modulation: SPWM d= 4M 6πk f SB 4M 6πk f SB 1− 1− 32M 3π 3π 2 2 + 3M 2 π π M ∈ 0. To eliminate influence of AC side impedance parameters.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control Distortion and Harmonic Copper Loss Factor The current waveform quality of the PWM converter is determined by harmonics of switching frequency what have influence for copper losses and the instantaneous power ripple. (4. However.87].23). The rms harmonic current defined as: I h ( rms ) = 1 2 ∫ [iL (t ) − iL1 (t )] dt .42) 2 3 π M ∈0.1): d = Ih(rms) / Ih(sixstep)(rms) (4. When the modulation index increases and the PWM performance rapidly decreases. modulation index M. The harmonic content for SVPWM and DPWM at the same carrier frequency is similar at high modulation index only (Fig.43) 2 3 π M ∈0. (4.for discontinuous modulation (DPWM): DPWM1 d = 4M 6πk fSB 4M 6πk f SB 4− 4− 4M 3π 2 3 M (8+15 3) + 92π 2 + 2π 2 π M ∈0. 2 3 (4. Values of loss factor can be compute for different modulation methods [3. Therefore. 98]. All continuous PWM have the advantage over DPWM methods for the sake of small distortion factor in the low range of modulation.39) For sixstep operation the distortion factor is d = 1.
4.4.908 < M < 0.02 0. (4. which decide about placement of clamped region.5 – conventional SVM with symmetrical zero switching states.7 Adaptive Space Vector Modulation (ASVM) The concept of adaptive space vector modulation (ASVM) proposed by Author [93. ! theoretically. For each of sector: 72 . C: 0.03 0.2 0.1 0. Thus. B: 0. Therefore.08 0. Square of current distortion factor as function of modulation index. In the region B of discontinuous PWM. P340113] provides: ! full control range including overmodulation and sixstep operation.4 0.01 0 0 0.05 d 2 0. ! high dynamics. the peak of the current should be located in the centre of “flat” parts.5 < M < 0. suggested in [72.7 0. 4.24a): A: 0 < M < 0.45)). 4. Four PWM operation modes are distributed in the range of modulation index (M) as follows (Fig. iLβ of the measured current are transformed into polar coordinates and compared with voltage reference angle (Eq.908 – discontinuous SVM with one zero state per sampling time (twophase or flap top PWM).95 < M < 1 – overmodulation mode II. Patent No. 24b will be adequately moved (ϕ). (see Section 4.04 0. 4. for maximal reduction of switching losses.5 0.3 0.5fSB) DPWM1 (2fSB) 1 M Fig.80] is known as hybrid PWM. The combination of regions A with B without current tracing.9 SPWM (fSB) DPWM1 (fSB) DPWM0(2) and (fSB) DPWM3 (fSB) SVPWM (fSB) DPWM1 (1.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control 0.06 0. up to 50% reduction of switching losses at 33% reduction of average switching frequency.95 – overmodulation mode I. the ring from Fig. The above features are achieved by use of four different modes of SVM with an instantaneous tracking of the AC current peak and an optimal switching table for fast response to step changes of the load.23. it is necessary to observe the peak current position.6) D: 0. It gives possibility to identify power factor angle ϕ.07 0.8 0.6 0. Components iLα.
8 0. 5π/6. 3π/2.45) where: α .3. ϕ – power factor angle.25. Adaptive modulator a) effect of modulation index b) effect of power factor angle 1 Switching losses (x100 %) SVPWM 0. 7π/6. 73 .26. κ .6 ASVM 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 0.for successive sectors π/6. 4. Fig. 4. Adaptive modulation with simplified switching time calculation is described in A.5 Power factor angle Fig.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control if α < ϕ + κ if α > ϕ + κ ⇒ t0 = 0 ⇒ t7 = 0 (4. 11π/6 This provides tracking of the power factor angle in full range of ϕ (from π to π). After returning to steady state the ASVM operates like a conventional SVM.7 0. 4.24. 4.27 shows an example of implementation in a current regulator. π/2. The full algorithm of adaptive modulator is presented in Fig. what guarantees maximal reduction of switching losses (Fig.25) (a) Im U3(010) U2(110) (b) (t2/Ts)U2 (2/3)Udc U* α (t1/T s)U 1 U*max U4(011) U0(000) U7(111) U1(100) Re SVPWM DPWM OVPWM U5(001) U6(101) Fig. Switching losses versus power factor angle for conventional SVPWM and ASVM The dynamic state is identified after step change of load what results that switching table is used. 4.reference voltage angle.9 0.
Algorithm of ASVM dq αβ iβ_ref iα_ref Coordinate Current transformation regulator ULα S id_ref + dq PWM Sa PI b adaptive Sc ULβ + αβ modulator PI i q_ref sin γL cos γL ia iLd iLα αβ dq UDC i Lq αβ iLβ ABC ib ic RLE Fig.5<M<0. 4.5 b) 0.+ SVPWM a ϕ dynamics state if steady state switching table if cd (5.27: ASVM in PI synchronous current controller. 74 .908 OVPWM SVM Fig.45) a) M<0.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control ULα USα Μα USβ αβ lδ ULβ iLα iLβ αβ αβ iα_ref αβ iβ_ref kγ nφ M α + α b .908 cd) M>0.26. 4.
4. 4.3].5].294. Experimental results for different variants of SVM are shown in Fig. analogue SVPWM and DPWM1.3]. modulation with 3th harmonic (amplitude 1/6).30.314. Selected results which illustrate work of modulators with UN0 = 0. Discussed method of SVM was implemented on the laboratory setup described in A.6. 4. Moreover. because under normal conditions the PWM rectifier operates. 3th harmonic.30. threephase modulation SVPWM and twophase modulation with one zero states in sampling time are shown on Fig. 4. 4.33 presents comparison of phase currents at step change of load. Fig. at high linear modulation index.4. Simulations of SVM are made in the DESIM. ASVM is an universal solution for different kind of PWM converters.32. therefore investigation was carriedout both for PWM rectifier using Voltage Oriented Control (VOC) [44] and PWM inverter using Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC) [4].294. Experimental results of ASVM are presented in Fig. Results presents that higher harmonic ripple at low modulation index is one disadvantage of DPWM compared to SVPWM. Investigation was done with 100µs sampling time and deadtime compensation algorithm [A.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control 4.28 presents results of: sinusoidal modulation (SPWM). Fig. 75 . Much more important is that DPWM provides lower switching losses in the converter.8 Simulation and experimental results of modulation Simulation of CBPWM with additional ZSS was realized in SIMULINK [A. This drawback can be neglected for PWM rectifier. it was found that ASVM in Cartesian coordinates is threetimes less timeconsuming than its counterpart in polar coordinates [A.
Each of cases presents : uSab.05 0. 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 0 . uSa0 – filtered pole voltage. 05 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 5 2 0 .052 0.0 5 8 1 1 1 0 9 8 1 1 1 0 9 8 7 Sa 7 6 5 4 3 6 2 5 1 4 0 0 . 0 5 0 .046 0. 0 5 4 Sa ZSS  7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 5 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 .Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control MODULATION WITH ADDITIONAL ZSS (SIMULATION) (a) 20 (c) U Sab U Sa0 Ia 10 5 20 USab 15 15 U Sa0 Ia 10 5 0 0 5 5 10 10 15 15 20 0.0 48 0.9): a) SPWM b) with 3th harmonic c) analogue SVPWM d) DPWM1. 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 0 .042 0. 0 3 8 0 . 0 5 4 Fig.048 0. 4. 04 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 46 0 .0 5 6 0 . 0 5 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 ZSS 0 . 04 4 0. 0 5 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 4 6 0 .95) 76 .28. 0 5 2 0 . 0 5 4 3 (b) 20 (d) U Sab U S a0 Ia 20 15 10 15 URN U Sa0 USab URS IRIa 10 5 5 0 0 5 5 10 1 0 15 1 5 20 0.054 20 0. 0 4 2 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 5 0 .filtered line to line voltage of converter. 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 4 8 0 .038 0.052 0. 0 5 0 .048 0. 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 4 6 0 . pulses Sa and ZSS.0 44 0. 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 0 .042 0. (m=0.05 2 0 .036 0. 0 4 8 0 . 0 5 6 0 .042 0 . . 0 3 6 0 . 0 4 2 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 4 0 . Simulation results for CBPWM with additional ZSS (Fig. 0 4 0 . 4.054 2 0 0 . 0 5 2 0 .04 0. 0 5 8 3 3 2 1 0 ZSS  2 1 0  1 1  2 2  3 3 0 . 0 5 4 0 . 0 5 4 0 .04 0 .048 0. 0 4 2 0 .038 0.05 0.0 38 0 . 0 5 2 0 . 0 4 8 0 .036 0. 0 5 2 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 4 8 0 . 0 4 2 0 .05 0. 0 5 0 . 0 4 2 0 . ia .054 1 1 1 0 9 1 0 9 1 1 8 Sa 7 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 . 0 4 4 0 .0 36 0. 0 3 8 0 .044 0.046 0. 0 5 2 0 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 . 0 3 8 0 . 0 5 0 .04 0. 0 5 0 . 0 5 8 0 . 0 5 4  1 1  2 2  3 0 . 0 4 6 0 . 0 3 6 0 . 0 4 4 0 .phase current. 0 4 8 0 .044 0. 0 5 2 0 .046 0.0 4 2 0 .052 0. 0 4 6 0 .
77 . 4.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control SPACE VECTOR MODULATION Simulation results Experimental results a) b) Fig.29. Simulation and experimental results for various SVM (Fig. phase voltage uSaN and pole voltage uSa0 (estimated from Udc and switching state). phase current ia. Each of cases presents: pulses Sa.12b): a) with UN0 = 0 (SPWM) b) with 3th harmonic. 4.
Simulation and experimental results for various SVM (Fig.30. 4. phase voltage uSaN and pole voltage uSa0 (estimated from Udc and switching state).Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control Simulation results Experimental results c) d) Fig. 78 .12): c) threephase SVM with symmetrical zero states (SVPWM) d) twophase SVM (PWM(1)). 4. phase current ia. Each of cases presents: pulses Sa.
(B) transition from overmodulation to six–step operation. From the top: phase voltage uSaN and pole voltage uSa0 (estimated from Udc and switching state). pulses Sa. Experimental waveforms of VS converter with adaptive modulation (A) transition from three to two – phase SVM. pulses Sa. (A) (B) Fig. From the top: phase voltage uSaN and pole voltage uSa0 (estimated from Udc and switching state).31. current ia. current ia.32.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control ADAPTIVE SPACE VECTOR MODULATION (ASVM) (A) (B) Fig. 4. 4. (B) VS line rectifier with adaptive modulation: two–phase SVM – peak current tracing during reactive power change. Experimental waveforms of (A) VS converter with adaptive modulation for two phase SVM – peak current tracing during load change. 79 .
4.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control (A) (B) Fig. tracking of peak current for instantaneous selection of twophase PWM (this guarantees maximal reduction of switching losses up to 50%).9 Summary of modulation This chapter has shown many of the PWM techniques developed during recent years. among its main features are: full control range including overmodulation and sixstep operation. current harmonic and switching losses in power components) depends on: • zero vectors placement in SVM. 80 .33: Simulation results of phase current response at 100% step change of load for PWM rectifier with A) SVPWM B) ASVM 4. ! maximal reduction of switching losses in DPWM is achieved when the peak of the line current is located in the centre of clamped (not switching) region (Fig. twophase SVM with one zero state in sampling time (DPWM) should be used in high range of modulation index. which provide minimal current distortion in whole range of control (Fig.4. 4. Most important conclusions can be summarized as below: ! parameters of PWM converter (linear range of operation. it gives three times less time consuming algorithm than it’s counterpart in polar coordinates. ! there is no one method of PWM. higher efficiency of the converter and high dynamics by switching table application.23). ! threephase SVM with symmetrical zero states (SVPWM) should be used in low range of modulation index. ! ASVM with simplified switching time calculation provide low time consuming algorithm based on implementation in Cartesian coordinates. ! Adaptive Space Vector Modulation (ASVM) is a universal solution for threephase PWM converter. 4. • shape of zero sequence signal (ZSS) in CBPWM. because both methods have low timeconsuming algorithms and high linearity.22). ! SVPWM and DPWM should be applied for industrial applications.
The simulated waveforms for VOC with SVPWM and VOC with DPWM under purely sinusoidal line voltage are presented in Fig. and the estimated line voltage is very close to the real supply voltage.37 shows the simulation results for the classical control with DPWM where the supply voltage is predistorted and unbalanced. 4. 4.8% because of a high content of 5th harmonic current. The simulation results for the VOC with DPWM presents that the current THD is only 2.2.5 SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The main parameters of the system under consideration are summarized in Table A. The current has only 4. The current total harmonic distortion factor (THD) together with the different operating conditions for the two control schemes are summarized in Table 5. The experimental results for the conventional VOC strategy and no ACline voltage sensors with SVPWM and DPWM modulation techniques were realized on laboratory setup presented in A.40 (current controllers with decoupling). 4. The estimated line voltage is still very close to the real supply voltage and the current follows the voltage well.1%. In classical control the voltage is not as important as the angle γL between the fixed reference frame and the rotating reference frame.5% unbalance [see A. 4.7 and they are presented in Fig. ∆γL can be calculated as a function of the line frequency and the sampling frequency. The THD of the line current is 11. For nonsinusoidal line voltage the THD of current for VFOC is lower than VOC.38.36 shows the simulation results for the VOC with SVPWM where the supply voltage is predistorted and unbalanced.5% of THD at purely sinusoidal voltage (similarly to VOC).1]. A PWM rectifier with the presented control schemes has been simulated using SABER [A4]. 4.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control 4. The estimated line voltage is still very close to the real supply voltage and the current follows the voltage very well.34Fig. The THD of the line current is 10. Therefore the simulations are made with a sampling frequency of 10 kHz.37. 4.1 and Table A. A more practical advantages for the industry is shown by [99].34 and Fig. ! distorted line voltage with 5% 5th harmonics and 4. The difference to the classical control with SVPWM is mainly because of a higher sampling and switching frequency.5 %. Results show that decoupled control system of PWM rectifier possess better performance.1. The angle γL can be feedforward compensated by adding ∆γL. Fig. The estimated line voltage is very close to the real supply voltage. 81 . In DPWM the switching frequency can be twice as high with the same switching losses what can reduce the size of the input filter. 4. The research has been carried out for two cases: ! ideal line voltage (balanced and sinusoidal). The current has only a total harmonic distortion (THD) of 4. The switching and sampling frequency is 5kHz for VOCSVPWM. 4. Fig. Transient of the step change of the load for VOC are presented in Fig.35 respectively. The simulation and experimental results for the VFOC and no ACline voltage sensors with SVPWM are presented in Fig. Note. that the estimated line voltage follows the actual line voltage very close for both under predistorted and unbalanced conditions as well as under ideal conditions.6.6 %.4. There is a small time delay of one sample because the old value of the rectifier voltage reference is added to the estimated voltage drop across the inductance. 4.39 (current controllers without decoupling) and Fig. These oscillograms are obtained for the same operation conditions.
estimated line voltage and input current. 4.5 %). b) experimental results (the current THD = 3. together with the harmonic spectrum of the input current for the VOC with SVPWM: a) simulation results (the current THD = 4.3 1 0 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 Fig. b) experimental results (the current THD = 6.3 1 0 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 Fig.1 %).5 .Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control STEADY STATE BEHAVIOUR ! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE OF VOC (a) SIMULATION 4 0 0 2 0 0 (b) EXPERIMENT 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 x 1 0 3 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 2 6 0 1 0 2 8 0 3 0 0 3 2 0 3 4 0 3 6 0 5 0 . 82 .34: Line voltage. 4. estimated line voltage and input current.1 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 x 1 0 . (a) 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 (b) 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 x 1 0 3 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 3 2 0 3 4 0 3 6 0 3 8 0 4 0 0 4 2 0 4 4 0 4 6 0 4 8 0 5 0 .6 %.1 %).5 .1 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 x 1 0 .). together with the harmonic spectrum of the input current for the VOC with DPWM: a) simulation results (the current THD = 2.35: Line voltage.
b) experimental results (the current THD = 11.1 %).2 0 0 .4 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 x 1 0 .2 0 0 .4 0 0 2 0 1 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 4 0 1 6 0 1 8 0 2 0 0 5 0 . together with the harmonic spectrum of the input current for the VOC with SVPWM and 4.8 %).3 1 0 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 Fig.2 %).5% voltage unbalance and 5% 5th harmonic voltage: a) simulation results (the current THD = 9.5 . estimated line voltage and input current. 4.1 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 x 1 0 .Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control ! RESULTS UNDER NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE OF VOC (a) SIMULATION (b) 4 0 0 2 0 0 EXPERIMENT 0 . 4.1 %).4 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 x 1 0 . (a) (b) 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 .5% voltage unbalance and 5% 5th harmonic voltage: a) simulation results (the current THD = 7.37: Line voltage.2 0 0 . estimated line voltage and input current.3 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 .1 0 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 x 1 0 .5 .36: Line voltage. 83 . together with the harmonic spectrum of the input current for the VOC with DPWM and 4. b) experimental results (the current THD = 10.3 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 3 2 0 3 4 0 3 6 0 3 8 0 4 0 0 5 0 .3 1 0 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0 Fig.
5% voltage unbalance and 5% 5th harmonic voltage (the current THD = 8.7 %). b) simulation results for 4. estimated virtual flux and input current.38: Line voltage. c) experimental results (the current THD = 10.5%). 4. 84 .5 %). together with the harmonic spectrum of the input current for the VFOC with SVPWM: a) simulation results for purely sinusoidal line voltage (the current THD = 4.Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control ! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL AND NON SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE OF VFOC (a) SIMULATION (b) EXPERIMENT (c) Fig.
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR ! RESULTS UNDER PURELY SINUSOIDAL LINE VOLTAGE (SIMULATION)
Fig. 4.39. Transient of the step change of the load for VOC (current controllers without decoupling). From the top: line voltage, line currents, iLd and iLq currents.
Fig. 4.40. Transient of the step change of the load for VOC (current controllers with decoupling). From the top: line voltage, line currents, iLd and iLq currents.
85
Voltage and Virtual Flux Oriented Control
4.6 SUMMARY
It is shown by simulations and experimental results that line voltage estimators perform very well even under unbalanced and predistorted conditions. Furthermore, the current follows the voltage fairly well with VOC control strategies what provide high value of total power factor. However, sometimes sinusoidal currents are desired even under unbalanced and predistorted conditions because sinusoidal current do not produce nonsinusoidal voltage drops across the line impedance’s. For the conventional VOC scheme some compensating algorithms exists [35,55,62,63,107] or concept of Virtual Flux VF can be applied to improve VOC scheme. The VOC with line voltage estimation and VFOC with virtual flux estimator, compared to DPC, exhibit some advantages:
! low sampling frequency (cheaper A/D converters and microcontrollers) can be used for good performance, e.g. 5kHz, ! fixed switching frequency (easier design of the input filter), ! possible implementation of modern PWM techniques (see Section 4.4.7).
Moreover the VFOC provide improved rectifier control under nonideal line voltage condition, because AC voltage sensorless operation is much less noisy thanks to the natural lowpass behaviour of the integrator used in the flux estimator. There are also some disadvantages for both control strategies: ! exist coupling between active and reactive components and some decoupling solution is required, ! coordinate transformation and PI controllers are required.
86
Comparative Study
5. COMPARATIVE STUDY 5.1 INTRODUCTION
For better assessment of the individual rectifier control techniques presented, a comparative investigation of these techniques has been carried out. This issue is of great importance to designers and manufacturers of AC ASDs. PWM rectifiers have been increasingly employed as frontend converters in these drives (e.g., Siemens or ABB). Results of the investigation are presented below.
5.2 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON ! Condition of study
All the four control schemes have been simulated using the SABER software [A.4]. Values of the sampling and switching frequency, respectively, were as follows: (a) VOC – 5 kHz, 5 kHz, (b) DPC – 80 kHz, 5 kHz (average), (c) VFOC – 5 kHz, 5 kHz, and (d) VFDPC – 50 kHz, 4 kHz (average). Other parameters of power circuit are given in Table A.4.1. For fairness of the comparison, no outerloop voltage controller was used in the dynamic investigation. The comparative study was conducted with respect to the complexity of control algorithms, operation with unbalanced and distorted line voltages, parameter sensitivity, and dynamic performance.
! Complexity of control algorithms
To illustrate differences between the techniques with respect to the computational effort, the number of instructions per sampling cycle is shown in Fig. 5.1. The control strategies utilizing the virtual flux enjoy certain edge over their voltagebased counterparts. Computation intensity, that is, the processor load per sampling cycle, is illustrated in Fig. 5.2 for all methods under consideration. It can be seen that the direct power control strategies require distinctly faster processors than the VOC and VFOC techniques.
Fig. 5.1 Computational effort (number of instructions per sampling cycle).
87
Comparative Study
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
VOC VFOC
75%
50%
10%
10%
VDPC
VFDPC
Fig. 5.2 Computation intensity (dSpace 1103)
! Influence of unbalanced and distorted line voltage
Under ideal conditions the PWM rectifier should provide sinusoidal line current. However there are three major reasons of disturbances, which may distort the current waveform: • voltage unbalance, • voltage distortion, • distortion of reference instantaneous active power and current (because ripple on udc created by unbalanced and distorted condition). With unbalanced line voltage the second harmonic appear in control structure (100Hz). Another two distortion produce most significant harmonic as: 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th and 17th. Fig. 5.3 shows the influence of unbalanced and distorted line voltage on DClink voltage and reference angle in control structure. Figure 5.3(a) shows basic waveforms of signals, when a ideal voltage is applied. On the other hands, Fig 5.3(b) shows the same waveforms, when the threephase line voltage is unbalanced and distorted.
(a) Sinusoidal and balanced supply voltage (b) Distorted and unbalanced supply voltage
Fig.5.3. Waveforms of basic signals in the VOC scheme. From the top: line voltages, DClink voltage, reference angle of line voltage.
88
4 and 5. Specifically.1.0 % 9. Simulation and experimental results Control strategy VOC with SVPWM and AC voltage sensors VOC with SVPWM VOC with DPWM VFOC with SVPWM VDPC VFDPC Sampling frequency 5 kHz 5 kHz 10 kHz 5 kHz 80 kHz 50 kHz Switching frequency 5 kHz 5 kHz 6. 5.6% 89 .3 % 6. Again.6 % 11.8 % 10.6 % 4.5).6 % 5.5.5% 5.9 % 5. THD of the line current as a function of voltage imbalance.5% 5.7 % 8. 5. 5. TABLE 5.4) and magnitude of the 5th harmonic (Fig.66 kHz 5 kHz 5 kHz (average) 3.5 kHz (average) THD of line current Sinusoidal voltage Unbalanced and distorted line voltage Simulation Experimental Simulation Experimental 4.1 % 9.2 % 8.THD of the line current as a function of the magnitude of fifth harmonic of the line voltage.5 illustrate the effect of nonideal line voltage on the current drawn by a rectifier under various control options.5 % 2. Fig. the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the current is shown as a function of the coefficient of imbalance (Fig. The line current (THD) factor for the different control schemes are summarized in Table 5. Fig.7 % 4.1 together with the different operating conditions and experimental results.1 % 10. 5.0 % 11. the VFOC and VFDPC strategies display distinct superiority over the VOC and DPC schemes.4.1 % 3.Comparative Study Figs.2 % 6. 5.0 % 8.
This is so because in the former rectifier no line current differentiation is performed (see (3. To the contrary. the current THD. the line inductance directly affects the estimated active and reactive power values. the VOC and VFOC techniques are insensitive to these variations.7b. 5. 5.7a. 90 . With PI controllers. 20 VD PC 18 16 14 VF D PC VF O C VO C THD [%] 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 ∆ L [% ] Fig. to reduce the control error. because the line inductance affects only the estimated angular position of the line voltage or virtual flux vectors. 5. illustrated in Fig. the rectifier’s reaction is slower than that with hysteresis controllers. in the DPC schemes.42b)) displays a lowpass filter behaviour. Contrastingly. As seen in Fig.9)) and the integrator used in flux calculation (see (2.42a) and (2. Therefore. as a result.6 shows the dependence of the line current THD on variations of the line inductance. it influences the input power factor but not the THD of the current. As expected. the impact of inaccurate line inductance estimation on the performance of a VFDPC rectifier is considerably lower than that of a DPC rectifier. the VFDPC scheme selects directly an appropriate voltage vector.7.Comparative Study ! Parameter sensitivity Figure 5. ! Dynamic performance A simulated response to a step change in the active power in the virtualflux based control systems under consideration is shown in Fig. is determined by the performance of current controllers. the dynamic response of a VFOC rectifier.6 Current THD versus error in estimation of the line inductance. providing very fast power control.8) and (3. which in the closed control loop define switching instants and. However. 5.
instantaneous reactive power q. 5. iLd current. iLq current.Comparative Study (a) VFDPC (b) VFOC Fig. line current ia.7 Response of the VFDPC and the VFOC rectifiers to a step change in active power. line to line voltage uab and instantaneous active power p. 91 . instantaneous active power p. From the top: line voltage ua.
the VFDPC technique seems to be the most advantageous of all. Taking into account all operational features. SUMMARY Advantages and disadvantages of the control schemes compared are listed in Table 5.3. TABLE 5. Cheaper A/D converters No sensitivity for inductance variation Simple and noiseresistant power estimation algorithm. easy to implement in a DSP Lower sampling frequency than that for DPC Low THD of line currents at a distorted and unbalanced line voltage (sinusoidal line currents) No separate voltage modulation block No current regulation loops No coordinate transformation Good dynamics Simple algorithm Decoupled active and reactive power control • • • • • • • • • • • • DISADVANTAGES Coordinate transformation and decoupling between active and reactive current is required Complex algorithm Input power factor lower than that for DPC Variable switching frequency High values of the inductance and sampling frequency are needed (important point for the estimator. because smooth shape of the current waveform is required) Power and voltage estimation should be avoided at the moment of switching (it yields high errors) Fast microprocessor and A/D converters required DPC VFOC VFDPC Coordinate transformation and decoupling between active and reactive components is required Complex algorithm Input power factor lower than that for DPC Variable switching frequency Fast microprocessor and A/D converters required 92 .2: Advantages and disadvantages of control techniques for PWM rectifiers TECHNIQUE VOC • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ADVANTAGES Fixed switching frequency (easier design of the EMI input filter) Advanced PWM strategies can be used Cheaper A/D converters No sensitivity for inductance variation No separate voltage modulation block No current regulation loops No coordinate transformation Good dynamics Simple algorithm Decoupled active and reactive power control Instantaneous variables with all harmonic components are estimated (improvement of the power factor and efficiency) Fixed switching frequency Advanced PWM strategies can be used.2.Comparative Study 5.
coordinate transformation and PI controllers are not required. no separate PWM voltage modulation block. sinusoidal line currents (low THD) even under unbalanced and distorted line voltage. 93 .5 and 5. 5. the VF estimation is much less noisy than that of the line voltage (see Fig 3. Therefore. Moreover. It was shown that application of virtual flux (VF) based control yields lower current distortion for both the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC) and Direct Power Control (DPC) scheme (see Fig.21).2). decoupled active and reactive power controls. Also. which have an impact on improvement of the total power factor and efficiency. harmonic components. Other most important results of the work can be summarized as below: VFDPC versus DPC • • • lower sampling frequency. sinusoidal line currents (low THD) even under unbalanced and distorted line good dynamic performance. taking into account all operational features (see Table 5. simple and noise robust power estimation algorithm. no current control loops. VFDPC versus VOC and VFOC • • • • • • • • simpler algorithm.Conclusions 6. CONCLUSION The theses formulated in the Chapter 1 has been proved by simulation and experimental investigation. a line voltage or virtual flux estimator can replace ACline voltage sensors without deterioration in protection and performance of PWM rectifiers. power estimation gives possibility of obtaining instantaneous variables with all voltage. the Virtual Flux Based Direct Power Control (VFDPC) technique seems to be the most advantageous of all.6).
Therefore. tracking of peak current for instantaneous selection of twophase PWM (this guarantees maximal reduction of switching losses up to 50%). It consumes one third of the time required by it’s counterpart in polar coordinates. it has been shown that for implementation of VOC and VFOC schemes. special attention was paid to various PWM techniques. Among its main features are: full control range including overmodulation and sixstep operation. good dynamic performance by the switching table application. Investigation shows that ASVM is a universal solution for threephase PWM converters. one of the most important blocks is the voltage modulator. As result the new concept of Adaptive Space Vector Modulation (ASVM) was developed. 94 . ASVM with simplified switching time calculation provide a time efficient algorithm based on implementation in Cartesian coordinates.Conclusions Additionally.
Input lineline rms voltage (Uab = 1 per unit) Snom .1b) where: Fn.1a) or f (ω s t ) = a0 ∞ + ∑ Fn sin( nω s t + ψ n ) 2 n =1 (A.2 HARMONIC DISTORTION IN POWER SYSTEM The specification of power system harmonic. conventional and instantaneous power theories will be reviewed under ideal and distorted conditions.trigonometric Fourier series coefficient with physical meaning of n harmonic amplitude a0/2 – average component F1 sin (ωst+ψ1) – fundamental harmonic Fn sin (nωst+ψn) – harmonic of n order ψn – initial phase of n order harmonic 95 .Appendices Appendices A.1 PER UNIT NOTIFICATION ZB = 2 U LL . The distorting components of waveforms under steady state conditions are usually integer multiples of the fundamental power frequency.positive sequence of input voltage vector en .negative sequence of input voltage vector A. The sum of this series is equal f(x) function f ( x) = ∞ a0 + ∑ Fn sin( nx + ψ n ) 2 n =1 (A. A waveform is distorted when a voltage or current in power system contains other frequencies than the fundamental frequency of the mains.Base impedance (S1 = 1 per unit (100%)) The voltage unbalance is defined as: u= en ep ep .2.Fundamental apparent input power (S1 = 1 per unit) ZB . Specification of power system distortion When the periodical function performs a Dirichlet conditions (the conditions are performed almost by all real electrical signals) then it can be represented as an infinite concurrent Fourier series.2. S nom Z PU = Z 50 Hz ZB ULL .
Fn = an + bn an Im Fn bn ψn an Re (A.2.2.7b) (A.2.2. The coefficients are determined as follows: 2 a0 = Ts 2 an = Ts Ts 2πnt f (ω s t ) cos ∫ ∫ T dt s 0 0 T T 2πnt 2 s 2 s bn = ∫ f (ω s t ) sin nω s tdt = ∫ f (ω s t ) sin T dt Ts 0 Ts 0 s 0 Ts ∫ f (ω t )dt s (A.2.2. Fn cos ψn= an tgψ n = bn 2 2 .7a) Ts 2 f (ω s t ) cos nω s tdt = Ts (A.1) and Fn sin ψn= bn.2.1 Fn decomposition into an and bn with this consideration the series can be represented as f (ω s t ) = ∞ a0 ∞ + ∑ a n cos nω s t + ∑ bn sin nω s t 2 n =1 n =1 (A.3) (A. A.4) Fig. A.2.Appendices ωs = 2π/Ts = ω1 Ts – period If we describe: Fn sin (nωst+ψn) = Fn (sin nωst cosψn + cos nωst sinψn) (A.5) or f (ω s t ) = 2πnt 2πnt a0 ∞ + bn sin + ∑ a n cos T T 2 n =1 s s (A.2.7c) 96 .6) The coefficient a0 represents the average value of f(x) and the coefficients an and bn represents the orthogonal components of the nth harmonic.2) and with notation (Fig.2.
.13) 97 .9) (A. ωn is the angular frequency of the nth harmonic ω n = 2πnf 1 = 2πn T1 (A. • Symmetry to beginning of coordinate system The function is uneven. It means that a0 = 0 and expansion of Fourier series will be an infinity series about uneven harmonics.12) based on Parseval theorem the rms value of the distorted voltage and current is given by: U rms = 1 2 ∫ u (t ) dt = T 0 T ∑U 0 ∞ 2 n 2 2 = U 0 + U 12 + U 2 + .2.2. 5.Appendices Most of periodical signals perform some of symmetry conditions.2. • Symmetry to abscissa axis Area over and under axis are equal.11) Un and In are the rms (root mean square) value of the nth harmonic voltage and current respectively: Xn = 1 2 x n (t )dt T∫ 0 T (A. Therefore. Therefore a0 = 0 and cosinus expression disappears from Fourier series.. current and power can be represented as Fourier series u (t ) = ∑ 2U n sin(ω n t + ψ n ) i (t ) = ∑ 2 I n sin(ω n t + ψ n − ϕ n ) n =0 n =0 ∞ ∞ (A.10) where ϕ n = ∠(U n . 3. because cosinus function is even.2.2. Elements of Fourier series disappear in this case.8) Conventional decomposition of voltage.phase angle between nth voltage and current harmonics ωn = nω1. the Fourier series will have only uneven expression with sinus.. (A. When symmetry to abscissa axis and symmetry to beginning of coordinate system occur. currents and powers According to the above description periodical signal of voltage. we can describe: f (ω s t ) = n n =1. ∑b ∞ sin nω s t (A..2. I n ) . • Symmetry to ordinate axis Sinus expression disappears from Fourier series because sinus function is uneven.
The reactive power Q is of interest for specifying the 98 . the equations (A.2. (A. U0I0 will be zero since a zero sequence components of the current system do not exists. The apparent power S is usually used to specify the size of required power system equipment.2.2.17) posses only AC components: P = ∑ Pn = ∑ U n I n cos γ n n =1 n =1 ∞ ∞ ∞ (A. which can be delivered by a voltage source while the line losses are maintained constant.2.17) For a typical threephase system without neutral wire. The THD gives the ratio between the geometric sum of the magnitudes or rms of the harmonics and the magnitude (or rms value) of the fundamental component: THD = ∑X n=2 ∞ 2 n X1 .2. The instantaneous power is defined as: p(t) = u(t) i(t) (A. Therefore..19) (A.18) (A.15) The main disadvantage of the THD is that the detailed information about harmonic spectrum is lost.2.2.2.16) Classical approaches define that active power is an average value of instantaneous power P= ∞ ∞ 1 1 p(t )dt = ∫ u (t ) ⋅ i (t )dt = ∑ Pn = U 0 I 0 + ∑ U n I n cos γ n T∫ T 0 n=0 n =1 0 T T S = U rms ⋅ I rms = Q = S 2 − P2 1 1 2 2 ∫ u(t ) dt T ∫ i(t ) dt = T0 0 T T ∑U n2 ∑ I n2 n =0 n =0 ∞ ∞ (A. The apparent power S is considered as representing the maximum active power. (A..Appendices I rms 1 = i (t ) 2 dt = T∫ 0 T ∑I 0 ∞ 2 n 2 2 = I 0 + I 12 + I 2 + .20) S= ∑U n2 ∑ I n2 n =1 n =1 ∞ ∞ n =1 n =1 ∞ Q = ∑ Qn = ∑ U n I n sin γ n Where the active power P will thus represent a measure of the average energy flow even in a disturbed power system.14) The total harmonic distortion factor (THD) is most commonly used to characterize the magnitude of the distorted signals.
2).9. However.2. The separate power are connected in equation D = S 2 − P2 − Q2 (A.2 Graphical representation of power components Instantaneous decomposition of powers Many theories of instantaneous power exist in scientific literature [810.2.1112]. the definition of this topic is still confusing and it is difficult to find a general and unified definition of power components under nonsinusoidal conditions.21) D S Q P Fig. From the comparison of Eqs. The extension of the reactive power to nonsinusoidal waveforms is now a subject of controversy.20) with (A. The most popular definition for instantaneous reactive (imaginary) and active (real) power has been proposed by Takahashi and by Akagi [8. (A. particularly when threephase systems are analyzed. Therefore.2.1315] and it is in detail described in [7. A. the instantaneous imaginary power proposed by Akagi does not have a clear physical meaning. Many new theories have been proposed and they are not accepted for all researchers around the world.22a) 99 . the Clarke transformation C and its reverse transformation C1 define the relationship between the threephase system abc and the stationary reference frame αβ0 are described as: xα x = β x0 − 1 / 2 − 1 / 2 xa 1 2 3 / 2 − 3 / 2 x b 0 3 1 / 2 1 / 2 1 / 2 x c (A. Therefore. Furuhashi presents a new definition of instantaneous reactive power [13].2.2. In author opinion most clear presentation of instantaneous components of active and reactive power was presented by Peng [14]. (A. which is generated by compensating equipment such as an active filter. Instantaneous power for threephase system are usually considered in orthogonal coordinates αβ0 then in three phase coordinate abc. However.19) can be seen that as distinct from sinusoidal signals the square sum of active and reactive power is not equal to apparent power.Appendices size of compensation equipment in power system such as PWM converters and active power filters.18).2. A.2.13]. to complete the definitions a “distortion power” D has been introduced (Fig.
instantaneous voltages ua.25) can be described as: u α u = β and u a 2 1 − 1 / 2 − 1 / 2 ub 3 0 3 / 2 − 3 / 2 u c i a 2 1 − 1 / 2 − 1 / 2 ib 3 0 3 / 2 − 3 / 2 i c (A. ib. The βaxis leads the aaxis with 900.2.2.23) where the αaxis and the aaxis have the same orientation.2. ub.2.22b) The αβ components can be represented in the Cartesian plane by a space vector xαβ: x αβ = xα + jx β (A. which represents the zero sequence components. ic the α. uc and instantaneous currents ia.27) General threephase fourwire system is represented as separated: threephase threewire system and a singlephase system.2.25) For the typical threephase system without neutral wire. ic are expressed as instantaneous space vectors u and i u a u = u b u c and ia i = ib ic (A.2.26) iα i = β (A. zero sequence component i0 of the current system does not exist ( ia + ib + ic = 0 ). β and 0 components are expressed as: u α u a u = [C ]u β b u0 u c and iα i a i = [C ]i β b i0 ic (A. 100 . It gives finally simple realization of signal processing thanks to only two signals in αβ coordinate what is the main advantage of abc/αβ transformation.Appendices where x denotes currents or voltages xa x = b xc 1 0 1 / 2 xα 2 3 / 2 1/ 2 xβ − 1 / 2 3 − 1 / 2 − 3 / 2 1 / 2 x0 (A.2. ub.24) For threephase voltages and currents ua. ib. For a threephase power system. With this assumption the equations (A. uc and ia.
uc respectively. i0).2. ub.2.28) The instantaneous zero sequence power p0(t) is only observable if exist both zero sequence components (u0. The same equations can be described in matrix form as: ia p u a u b u c i .2. Therefore.33) Additional information can be obtained by defining an instantaneous complex power p(t) in the Cartesian plane: p(t ) = u(t ) ⋅ i(t )* = Re p(t ) + Im p(t ) = p(t ) + jq(t ) = = ua ia + ub ib + uc ic + j 1 3 [(ub − uc )ia + (uc − ua )ib + (ua − ub )ic ] (A.30).2. ua − uc ac u b = 3 3 ' u c u b − u a u ba (A. p 0 (t ) = v0 ⋅ i0 (A. and additionally the threephase voltages and currents excluding zerophase sequence components. Akagi introduced the instantaneous imaginary power space vector defined by: 101 .31) q = u ( abc ) × i ( abc ) = u i + u i + u i ' a a ' b b ' c c where u’a. instantaneous power on the threephase circuit can be defined as follows: p = u α iα + u β i β (A. u’c is 900 lag of ua. u’b.34) { } { } The most frequently referred power theory was proposed by Akagi [9] when the threephase voltages and currents are transformed into αβ coordinates.2.Appendices u a p ∑ = u b u c T ia uα i = u b β i c u 0 T iα i = p (t ) + p (t ) 0 β i0 (A.30) (A. q = ' ' ' b u a u b u c i c where ' u a u c − u b u ca 1 ' = 1 u .2. In order to define the instantaneous reactive power.37) where p is equal to the conventional equation (A.2.2.2.32) (A.29) The Takahashi define the instantaneous active power p as scalar product between the threephase voltages and currents and instantaneous reactive power q as vector product between them: p = u ( abc ) ⋅ i ( abc ) = u a ia + u b ib + u c ic (A.
the instantaneous reactive current vector iq. Conversely.2.Appendices q = uα × i β + u β × iα (A.2. p is the real power in the threephase circuit and its dimension is [W].38) (imaginary axis vector is perpendicular to the real plane on the αβ coordinates) From equation (A. the instantaneous apparent power s and the instantaneous power factor λ are defined as: 102 .40) uα iα 1 i = 2 2 β uα + u β u β − u β p uα q (A.30). (A.44) Next the instantaneous active current vector ip.2.39) uαiα and uβiβ obviously mean instantaneous power because they are defined by product of the instantaneous voltage in one axis and the instantaneous current in the same axis.2. uα iβ and uβ iα are not instantaneous power.39): iα uα i = − u β β and gives finally u β p uα q −1 (A. The αβ currents can be obtained by the equations inverse to (A.43) 2 2 q = q = q a + qb + q c2 (A.2.2.41) The theory proposed by Peng [14] base on equations (A. which is the amplitude of space vector q are expressed by: p uα q = − u β u β iα uα i β (A.2. because they are defined by the product of the instantaneous voltage in one axis and instantaneous current not in the same axis but in the perpendicular axis.37) the conventional instantaneous power p and the above defined instantaneous imaginary power q. Therefore.2. The magnitude (or the length) of q is designated as the instantaneous reactive power that is ub i q a b u q = qb = c i qc c u a i a and uc ic ua ia ub ib (A.2.31) and defines vector q designated as the instantaneous reactive (or nonactive) power vector of the threephase circuit.2.
2. 103 .2.47) (A..2.e.45) (A.2. and ip parallel to u namely u ⋅ i q ≡ 0 and u × i p ≡ 0 ! all properties of the conventional reactive power theory still hold true for new theory 2 2 such as: i 2 ≡ i p + iq . q ( abc ) = [q a p = u (abc) ⋅ i (abc) = u (αβ 0 ) ⋅ i (αβ 0 ) (A.48) where 2 2 2 u = u = u a + u b + u c2 and i = i = i a + ib2 + ic2 are the instantaneous magnitudes (or norms) of the threephase voltage and current..50) qb qc ] = u ( abc ) × i ( abc ) = u (αβ 0) × i (αβ 0 ) T After αβ transformation all equations proposed by Peng are identical to definition described in [9]. following interesting properties can be observed: ! a threephase current vector i is always equal to the sum of ip and iq i. respectively. Moreover.49) (A.Appendices iap def p i p = ibp = u u ⋅u icp iaq def q × u i q = ibq = u ⋅u icq s = ui def (A.2. and i 2 ≡ ( p 2 + q 2 ) / u 2 . u a + u b + u c = 0 and ia + ib + ic = 0 .2. If necessary these newly defined quantities can be expressed in any other coordinates. for active filters because the new instantaneous reactive power qk is defined with the power of each line of the active filter (active filter does not generate the instantaneous active power) as: q k = u k ∗ i Fk (k = 1.51) where uk – phase voltage iFk – phase current of active filter. i ≡ i p + i q ! iq is orthogonal to u. it is true that: q = qa = qb = qc = ub ic − uc ib = uc ia − u a ic = u a ib − ub ia p = 2(u a ia + u b ib ) + u a ib + u b ia = 2(u b ib + u c ic ) + u b ic + u c ib = 2(u c ic + u a ia ) + u c i a + u a ic The definitions of the instantaneous reactive components are all based on the direct quantities of threephase voltages and currents. where i p = i p and iq = i q ! for a threephase system without zero sequence voltage and current i...2. Other popular theory was proposed by Furuhashi [13].46) and λ= def p s (A. n) (A.e. s 2 ≡ p 2 + q 2 .2. especially.
Appendices
Since the active filter does not generate the instantaneous active power, the following constraint is imposed on the power in (A.2.51):
∑q
k =1
n
k
=0
(A.2.52)
All of researchers only agree with definition that the instantaneous active and reactive power „p” and „q” can be decomposed into average DC components q , p corresponding to the fundamental of the load current and an oscillating (ripple) components ~ p q , ~ corresponding to the harmonics:
~ p 3− phase = p + q = p + ~ + q + q p ~ p= p+ ~ p and q=q +q
(A.2.53) (A.2.54)
where: p3− phase total threephase instantaneous power demanded by the load
pinstantaneous active components of p3− phase q instantaneous reactive components of p3− phase p  direct (average) components of p associated to the fundamental frequency active components of load current ~  alternating (ripple) components of p associated to the harmonic active components p of load current q  direct (average) components of q associated to the fundamental frequency reactive components of load current ~ q  alternating (ripple) components of q associated to the harmonic reactive components of load current
~ Only in the Peng’s definition ~ and q can additionally be split into two parts (2ω p components and harmonic components) as
~= p +p p 2ω h ~=q +q q
2ω
h
(A.2.55) (A.2.56)
where p 2ω and q 2ω are the negativesequence active and reactive power (2ω components) originating from asymmetrical fundamental (negative sequence) components of the load current, and p h and q h are the harmonic active and reactive power (harmonic components) originating from harmonic components of load current.
A.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF SVM Simplified switching time calculation for SVM This point presents an approach, which allows simplified calculations and the algorithm in real time implementation is much faster, compare to the conventional method. The new algorithm is based on the assumption, that the conduction times in each phase are calculated directly using only information about command phase voltages. In classical
104
Appendices
SVM techniques the polar coordinate system is used to calculate these times, whereas in presented method the Cartesian coordinate system is used. The description is based on the simple equations [101]. It is easy to show that the average values of output voltages with respect to neutral point of converter (Fig. 4.7) are calculated as:
ua0 = Udc U U U U U ⋅ Ta − dc , ub0 = dc − dc ⋅ Tb, uc0 = dc ⋅ Tc − dc 2 2 2 Ts Ts Ts
(A.3.1)
where Ta, Tb, Tc are the conduction times in each phase of the converter. Note, that in balanced system, the neutral point voltage is expressed as:
uN 0 = U 1 U dc ⋅ (Ta + Tb + Tc ) − dc 3 Ts 2
(A.3.2)
After simple calculations we can obtain the relationship between phase voltages and conduction times in the form:
u aN u == 1 ⋅ U dc bN 3 Ts u cN 2 − 1 − 1 Ta − 1 2 − 1 T b − 1 − 1 2 Tc
(A.3.3)
Note, that the matrix used in the above equation is singular, and that is no unique solution, if we want to calculate conduction times from phase voltages. This one degree of freedom gives us possibility to construct different modulation methods. The only limitation is that all these times should be in the range [0, Ts] . It is easy to conclude that lower voltage gives lower conduction time. So, the minimum time is for the minimum voltage (Fig. A.3.1a).
b V3(010)
REGION 2 REGION 1 v min
V2 (110)
REGION 3
V 4 (011)
V*
V0 (000) V7 (111) REGION 4 vmid vmax REGION 6
V 1(100) a
REGION 5
V5(001)
V6 (101)
(a)
(b)
c
Fig. A.3.1 a) Correspondence between phase voltages and conduction times. From the top: phase voltages and pulses. b) Space vector representation of threephase converter in natural a, b, c coordinate.
105
Appendices
If we introduce the following notation (Fig. A.3.1b):
umin = min(uao, ubo, uco), umax = max(uao, ubo, uco), umin < umid < umax.
and assume that Tmin, Tmid, Tmax, are the conduction times in phases for which the voltages are umin, umid, umax respectively. The minimum value, which can be taken for Tmin, is zero. In this case we can calculate another conduction times using equation:
Tmax T = Ts mid U dc Tmin u max − u min u − u min mid 0
(A.3.4)
If we rewrite this formula with phase indexes we can obtain the following equivalent form:
Ta T = Ts b U dc Tc
u aN − u min u − u min bN u cN − u min
(A.3.5)
The algorithm using the above equation is the discontinues modulation algorithm, and each phase in the period 120° is not switched. Generally any modulation algorithm can be described by the equation:
Ta T = Ts b U dc Tc
where
T0 = Ts −
u aN − u min T0 u − u + k T min bN 0 u cN − u min T0
(A.3.6)
Ts (u max − u min ) U dc
(A.3.7)
and 0 ≤ k ≤ 1. Note, that for k = 0.5, the algorithm correspond to the modulation with symmetrical zero states (SVPWM).
Adaptive Modulation with simplified switching time calculation The new idea of ASVM [93] bases on assumption that modulator should provide maximal reduction of switching losses in linear range of modulation [see Section 4.4.7]. Therefore, modulator use k = 0.5 for low values of modulation index, what gives good performance at startup condition and, moreover, guarantees low current harmonic distortion. In the discontinues modulation method zero vectors could be chosen as U0(0,0,0) or U7(1,1,1). In the first case in the described algorithm Eqs. A.3.8 k = 0 in the second case k = 1. The selection, which method is used depends on the following condition:
if umax+umin < 0 then k = 0 else k = 1
(A.3.8)
106
the compensation techniques are based on an average value theory. all dead time compensation techniques are based on information of the polarity of the current. Simple algorithm of dead time compensation is presented below: if (0 < ia < imin) {Ta = Ta + Td/Ts.9) Dead time compensation One of the main problems encountered in openloop PWM voltagesource converter is the nonlinear voltage gain caused by the nonideal characteristics of the power converter. If we want take into account the phase values of the current.} if (0 > ib > imin) {Tb = Tb .Td/Ts. hence current detection becomes an important issue. the adaptive algorithm based on the condition presented below: if imax+imin < 0 then k = 0 else k = 1 (A.} if (0 < ib < imin) {Tb = Tb + Td/Ts. In most cases.} if (0 > ic > imin) {Tc = Tc . and subtracted from the pulse for negative current [71][91].ib. Regardless of the used method. before the dead time generation for positive current.} 107 . ib.Td/Ts.} if (0 > ia > imin) {Ta = Ta . We must additional made sorting of current values imin = min(ia.ic).Appendices This algorithm describes the discontinues modulation method without current tracking.} if (0 < ic < imin) {Tc = Tc + Td/Ts. imin < imid < imax. A.3.3.8. imax = max(ia. The most important nonlinearity is introduced by the necessary dead time (Td) to avoid the shoottrought of the DClink. This is particularly important around the zero crossings. where an accurate current measurement is needed to exactly compensate for the deadtime. the lost volt seconds are averaged over an entire period and added vectorially to the commanded voltage. ic). the algorithm is modified.Td/Ts. In this case the compensation is added to pulse. and use instead of algorithm Eq.
5kHz 5kHz 230 RMS 50 Hz 620V 8mΩ 0.1.7% 108 .4. A. VFOC) f: Phase voltage V: Source voltage frequency: DClink voltage: Resistance of source R: Inductance of source L: n Inductance per unit notification: 80kHz 50kHz 5kHz 100mΩ 10mH 1mF 100Ω 5kHz 3. A. The main electrical parameters of the power circuit and control data are given in the Table A.4 SABER MODEL Fig.1. The example of PWM rectifier model is shown in Fig.4.Appendices A. but control algorithm has been written in MAST language.127mH 8.4.1 Example of Saber model The control algorithms of PWM rectifier was implemented in SABER. including electrical subsystems. which provides analysis of the complete behavior of analog and mixedsignal systems.1 Parameters used in simulation Sampling frequency (DPC): Sampling frequency (VFDPC): Sampling frequency (VOC. Table A. VFOC): Resistance of reactors R: Inductance of reactors L: DClink capacitor: Load resistance RL: Switching frequency (DPC) f: Switching frequency (VF_DPC) f: Switching frequency (VOC. The electrical elements are taken from library. The example of VFDPC algorithm implemented in SABER is shown below.4.
Sq_old.0/3.L=0.Sb.MM *# #******************************************************************************# element template dpc_udc smp. 1.013. 0.l4_0) schedule_event(time. 1.Sb_out_i.Sa_out_i. 1.T_in =0.Sa_out. 0. 0. 1. 0.Ti=0.0. 1. 0. 1.l4_0) schedule_event(time.l4_0) } when(event_on(smp)){ ic=(ia+ib) ialf=ia ibet=(1/sqrt(3))*(ia+2*ib) usa=1.Sb_out. 1. 1. 0.delta_Udc.udc_z state nu smp.0.vcz state logic_4 Sa_out. 1. 0] state nu tab_22[1:12]=[1. 0. 0. 1.vaz.0. 0. 1. 1. 1.ie. 1. 0.sector. 0.pi=math_pi. 0.Sc_out. Psi_alf_c. Ubet=(1/sqrt(3))*(usa+2. 0.vbz. 0. 1. 0.Sc_out_i.p_ref.q_ref=0.udc_z. usb.vbz.Sb_out. Psi_alf_s=1. 0. 1.sin state nu ic.Kp=0.l4_0) schedule_event(time. 0. 0.ti_r=5m state nu tab_11[1:12]=[1. 1] state nu tab_42[1:12]=[0.0*udc_z*(Sa_old+2.Sc_old state nu Psi_alf. 1.0. usa. 1. 0] state nu tab_33[1:12]=[1. 1. 1. 1.0*Sa_oldSb_oldSc_old).Sa_old. usc.0*usb). 0. 0.0*Sc_old). 1. 1. 1. Psi_alf_c=Psi_alf_s+Ts*(Ualf(1/T_in)*Psi_alf_c) Psi_alf_s=Psi_alf_c Psi_alf=Psi_alf_c+ialf*L Psi_bet_c=Psi_bet_s+Ts*(Ubet(1/T_in)*Psi_bet_c) Psi_bet_s=Psi_bet_c Psi_bet=Psi_bet_c+ibet*L #*Instantaneous power estimation p= 3/2*314*(Psi_alf*ibet . 0. 0.Sb_out_i.ib. 1. 0.Sb_out.0*udc_z*(2. 0. 0. 1.vcz. 0. 1. delta_Udc_old state nu i.Sa. 0.1.Sa_out_i.0*Sb_oldSc_old).ib. 0. 1. 0] state nu tab_43[1:12]=[0. 1.q. 0] state nu tab_23[1:12]=[0. 0. 0. 1] state nu tab_41[1:12]=[1.Sa_out_i. 0. 1. 1.Sc_out. 1.Appendices #******************************************************************************# #* Direct Power Control for Saber .Sb_old.Sp_old. 0. 0.Sc.Sc_out. Ts=10u state nu Theta. 0] state nu tab_31[1:12]=[1. 1. 1. 1. 0.ialf. 0.7. 0. 1. 1.delta_p. 1. 1.0/3.pdc=1 state nu ui. 1. 1.Sq. 0.Psi_bet*ialf) q= 314*(Psi_alf*ialf + Psi_bet*ibet) if(Psi_alf<0 & Psi_bet>0) Theta = atan(Psi_bet/( Psi_alf+0. 0. 1.000001p))+math_pi else if(Psi_alf<0 & Psi_bet< 0) Theta = atan(Psi_bet/( Psi_alf+0. 1.delta_q. 1. 0. 1.hh=1.vaz.Sb_out_i.up. 1. 0] state nu tab_12[1:12]=[0. 0] when(time_init){ schedule_event(time. 0. 1. 1.Sc_out_i { <consts.p.l4_0) schedule_event(time.q_old. 1. 1. 0.udc_ref=610.000001p)) #*Sector selection if ((0 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/6)) if ((pi/6 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/3)) if ((pi/3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/2)) if ((pi/2 <= Theta) & (Theta < 2*pi/3)) if ((2*pi/3 <= Theta) & (Theta < 5*pi/6)) if ((5*pi/6 <= Theta) & (Theta <= pi)) if ((pi <= Theta) & (Theta < 5*pi/6)) sector = 2 #* 0 <= Theta < 30 *# sector = 3 #* 30 <= Theta < 60 *# sector = 4 #* 60 <= Theta < 90 *# sector = 5 #* 90 <= Theta < 120*# sector = 6 #*120 <= Theta < 150*# sector = 7 #*150 <= Theta < 180*# sector = 8 #*180 <= Theta < 210*# #*Transformacje wspolrzednych #* "ic" calculation #*abc/alfa_beta transformation #*Virtual flux estimation 109 .ibet. usb=1. 0. I_ref_old.ia. Psi_bet_s=0. 0.000001p))math_pi else Theta=atan(Psi_bet/( Psi_alf+0. usc=1. 1. 1. 0.0*udc_z*(Sa_oldSb_old+2. Psi_bet_c number pi_r=0. 0.p_old. 1. 1. 0. 1. 0. 0. 1. 1. 0. 0. 0.I_ref. 1.Sp. 0] state nu tab_13[1:12]=[1. 0.Sc_out_i. 0. 1] state nu tab_32[1:12]=[0. 1. 0. 0.Sa_out.l4_0) schedule_event(time. 0. 0. 0.0/3. 1.Psi_bet. Ualf=usa. 1. 0.ia. 1] state nu tab_21[1:12]=[1.
Sc_out.l4_0) schedule_event(time+Ts.Sb_out_i.Sa_out. Sc=tab_33[sector] } if((Sp==0) & (Sq==1)){ Sa=tab_41[sector].Sc_out_i. Sb=tab_12[sector].l4_1) schedule_event(time+Ts.Sc_out_i.l4_0) } schedule_next_time(time) } } 110 .l4_1) schedule_event(time+Ts.Sa_out. Sb=tab_22[sector].Sa_out_i.l4_0) schedule_event(time+Ts. Sb=tab_42[sector].Sa_out_i.l4_0) } if(Sc==0){ schedule_event(time+Ts.Sb_out.l4_1) } if(Sc==1){ schedule_event(time+Ts.l4_1) } if(Sb==1){ schedule_event(time+Ts. Sc=tab_43[sector] } Sa_old=Sa Sb_old=Sb Sc_old=Sc #*************************************************************************# if(Sa==0){ schedule_event(time+Ts. Sc=tab_13[sector] } if((Sp==1) & (Sq==1)){ Sa=tab_21[sector].Sb_out_i.Sc_out.Appendices if ((5*pi/6 <= Theta) & (Theta < 2*pi/3)) sector = 9 #*210 <= Theta < 240*# if ((2*pi/3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/2)) sector = 10 #*240 <= Theta < 270*# if ((pi/2 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/3)) sector = 11 #*270 <= Theta < 300*# if ((pi/3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi/6)) sector = 12 #*300 <= Theta < 330*# if ((pi/6 <= Theta) & (Theta < 0)) sector = 1 #*330 <= Theta < 360*# delta_Udc=udc_refudc_z I_ref= I_ref_old + pi_r*delta_Udc + pi_r*((Ts/ti_r)1)*delta_Udc_old p_ref=I_ref*udc_z I_ref_old=I_ref delta_Udc_old=delta_Udc #*voltage control #* regulator PI #* Control Structure delta_p=p_refp delta_q=q_refq #****************************************************************************# if (delta_p>hh) Sp = 1 #* p histeres *# if (delta_p<(hh)) Sp = 0 if ((delta_p<hh) & (delta_p>(hh))) Sp=Sp_old Sp_old=Sp #*************************************************************************# if (delta_q>hh) Sq = 1 #* q histeres *# if (delta_q<(hh)) Sq = 0 if ((delta_q<hh) & (delta_q>(hh))) Sq=Sq_old Sq_old=Sq #*************************************************************************# if((Sp==1) & (Sq==0)){ Sa=tab_11[sector].l4_1) schedule_event(time+Ts. Sc=tab_23[sector] } if((Sp==0) & (Sq==0)){ Sa=tab_31[sector].l4_0) } if(Sb==0){ schedule_event(time+Ts.l4_1) } if(Sa==1){ schedule_event(time+Ts. Sb=tab_32[sector].l4_0) schedule_event(time+Ts.Sb_out.
5.5 SIMULINK MODEL Different modulation techniques with additional Zero Sequence Signal (ZSS) has been simulated using MATLABSIMULINK program. A.1. A. [Ia] Goto XY Graph1 ALFA THIPWM Scope3 BETA A B C B C SPWM 0 Mux control 3 TR PWMR REF+ZSS PWMS ZSS R S T PWMT Multiport Switch MODULATOR R Out1 S T SVPWM Out1 R Out2 Out3 S T Demux1 Mux4 HAVA Mux LP_filter [Ia] From [Vab] From1 [Va] From2 Mux WYNIKI SIN REF SIN +ZERO SIQUENCE SIGNAL Mux Demux Voltages Mux [Va] Goto2 Vab1 SINREF INVERTER + R IN1 IN2S IN3 .5.6 LABORATORY SETUP BASED ON DS1103 Laboratory setup consist of two parts: ! power circuit.Appendices A. ! control and measurement systems.1.T 220 In2 ZSS TRIANGLE Va + 220 In1 Vb Vc ia ib ic Vab In3 Vbc Vca LOAD 1 s Integrator Voltages2 LP_filter1 Mux Voltages1 Mux Currents BETA Scope4 A ALFA XY Graph Ialfa ABC/ALFABETA1 ABC/ALFABETA Mux3 Ibeta [Vab] Goto1 Out4 In GDPWM1 DPWM3 1 Transport Delay1 Fig. PWM model in Simulink A. The model is presented on Fig. 111 .
5 kHz Switching frequency (VOC.N [kVA] 5.0 Efficiency 0.line current.line voltage.power on shaft.1.6.6.N .6.N .1 General parameters of VLT5005 inverter ULN [V] 380 ILN [A] 7 IVLT.6.1)[122] and a 3kW induction motor as active and resistor as a passive load.output power. VFOC): 5kHz Resistance of reactors R: 100mΩ Inductance of reactors L: 10mH DClink capacitor: 470µF Load resistance RL: 100Ω Switching frequency (DPC. VFDPC) f: 3.1) consists of two commercial Danfoss inverters VLT 5000 series (Table A. Table A.2 Parameters used in experiment Sampling frequency (DPC.2. Configuration of laboratory setup Power circuit The laboratory setup (Fig.6.2 SVLT. IVLT.N [kW] 3. A.6.Appendices PWM Rectifier TM PWM Inverter TM 3 Phase Grid IPC Optic fiber receiver IPC Optic fiber receiver 3 Optic fiber AC Voltage&Currents Measurements 2 DC link Optic fiber AC Voltage&Currents Measurements DC Voltage Measurements 3 6 6 Measurement Equipment DSP Interface Pentium TM DS1103 dSPACE Master : PowerPC 604e Slave: DSP TMS320F240 AC Motor Host Computer Fig.5 PVLT. A. Table A. The main electrical parameters of the power circuit and control data are given in the Table A. VFOC) f: 5 kHz Phase voltage V: 230 RMS Source voltage frequency: 50 Hz DClink voltage: 620V 112 . VFDPC): 50kHz Sampling frequency (VOC. SVLT.output current.N [A] 7.N . ILN . PVLT.96 where: ULN .
A. Block diagram of DSP interface The power converters are controlled by the dSpace DS1103 board inserted into a PCPentium (Fig. +10V 113 .2): ! dSpace DS1103 board inserted into a PCPentium.3).3 DS1103 inside the Pentium PC Basic parameters of DS1103[125126]: ! master processor . A.6.6.Motorola PowerPC604e/333MHz ! slave processor – fixed point DSP of TI’s TMS320F240 ! 16 channels of ADC – 16 bit (resolution) – 4 µs (sampling time). A. A.Appendices Control and measurement systems This part of system consists of following elements (Fig. Fig. +10V ! 4 channels of ADC – 12 bit – 0. The mixed RISC/DSP/CAN digital controller based on two microprocessors (PowerPC604e – 333MHz and TMS320F240 – 20MHz) and four highresolution analogtodigital (A/D) converters (0.8 µs.6.8µs .12 bit) provide a very fast processing for floating point calculations.2. ! software. Measurement Equipment Measurement Equipment AC&DC Voltages&Currents AC&DC Voltages&Currents Optic Fiber Receivers Optic Fiber Receivers Optic Fibers Isolation Amplifiers LEM55 Converters and Isolation Amplifiers Optic Fiber DriversFiber Optic Drivers START STOP START STOP DA Converters AD Converters Input/Output Signals PWM Signals DS1103 DS1103 Fig. It makes possible real time control.6. ! interface board and measurement system.
P3 Serial Interface I/O Units b) Interrupt Control DPMEM DPMEM ADC Unit Slave MC CAN Subsystem Slave DSP Timing I/O Unit (PWM. +10V ! incremental Encoder Interface – 7 channels ! 32 digital I/O lines ! ControlDesk software The DSP subsystem.6. Among other I/O capabilities. whereas the DSP and the CAN microcontroller are slaves. P2. instead of original Danfoss control board. 4MHz modulation of gate signals and protective function required by the VLT.Appendices ! 8 channels of DAC – 14 bit . All PWM signals are generated by DS1103 and send using optic fibers to the Interface and Protection Card IPC [124] that is mounted on the front panel of the inverter. The PPC has access to both the DSP and the CAN subsystems. The IPC includes: optic fiber receivers.5 µs. shoottrough of the DC link. The PPC is the master. DSP interface provide galvanic isolation between control board DS1103 and power circuit. Timebase ADC Unit DAC Unit Incremental Encoder Interface Timer A & B Bit I/O Unit I/O Connectors P1. a) Block scheme of DS1103. is especially designed for control of power electronics.4. The other CAN subsystem based on Siemens 80C164 microcontroller is used for connection to a CAN bus. The following figures give an overview of the functional units of the DS1103 PPC.e. b) Placement of main components. shortcircuit. the DSP provides one threephase PWM generator and four single phase PWM generators. CAP) CAN Controller Bit I/O Unit CAN Subsystem Fig. over voltage and over temperature. based on the Texas Instruments TMS320F240 fixed point processor. i. 114 .A. a) ISA Bus interface conector (Host intrface) Master PPC Decrementer .
5) [123]. A.6.6). A.Appendices Software Operation on DS1103 is provided by an integrated ControlDesk program (Fig. A.6 Some functional blocks for Simulink RTI interface.6. Thanks to this application it is possible to change structure and parameters in real time.6.6.5 Screen of ControlDesk Fig. Fig. 115 . C language (see the next page) and Simulink (Fig. A. For algorithms application it is possible to use: assembler.
1. 1. ds1103_adc_start(DS1103_ADC_CH18). unsigned int tab_43[12]={0. 1.002. 1.5*ib0. 1. ubet=_1sqrt3*udc*(Sb_old. 0.psi_alf). 0. 0}. 0. 0. 1. p= 2*314*(psi_alf*i_bet . 0. 0.0025. 0}. psi_bet = psi_bet_c + i_bet*L. 0. 1}.Sp_old. 1. 0. 1. ib=ib+0.delta_p. 0. 0. 1. 1.psi_bet_c. 1. ia= ds1103_adc_read_ch(18). 1.Kp=0. 0}.0. 1. ualf=0. psi_alf. 0. 0. Float64 p. 0. 0. Float64 exec_time. 1. T_in=0. 1. 0. 0.0.u_bet. /**/ void measure(void) { ds1103_adc_start(DS1103_ADC_CH17). unsigned int tab_23[12]={0. unsigned int tab_41[12]={1. ia=ia+0. instantaneous active and reactive power estimator */ /*Converter Voltage*/ /*Converter Flux*/ /* Line Flux */ /* Instantaneous power estimations*/ Sector detection */ /* {sector = 1. 0. 0. q_ref=0. unsigned int tab_31[12]={1. ia. psi_alf_c += Ts*(ualf_T_in*psi_alf_c). void measure(void). 0. ti=0. 1. unsigned int tab_13[12]={1. unsigned int tab_32[12]={0. i_bet.57735 #define sqrt2 1. ki2=18. udc= ds1103_adc_read_ch(17). 0. Int16 index = 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 0.5(Sb_old+Sc_old)).written by Mariusz Malinowski*/ #include <Brtenv. 0. int sector.Sq. unsigned int tab_42[12]={0. 1}. 0.psi_bet*i_alf).q_old=0. 0. 1.I_ref_max=10.Sa_old. 0. 0. ia=ki1*ia.0. 1.p_ref.0. 1.1.1. 0. 1. void control(void). unsigned int tab_21[12]={1. void PWM_sync_interrupt(void). 0}. 1. 0. 1. ds1103_adc_start(DS1103_ADC_CH19). 1. 0}. 0.0. 1.0. 1}. 0. ib= ds1103_adc_read_ch(19). 1.p_old=0. 0.delta_q. 1. 1. 1. unsigned int tab_12[12]={0. 1.h> #include <math.udc. Float64 Theta. /* Constants */ /* variables for communication with Slave DSP */ /* communication channel */ /* slave DSP command index */ /* deadband period */ /* sync mode */ /* variables for TRACE and COCKPIT */ /* PWM period */ /* variables for PWM rectifier */ Float64 L=0. psi_bet_c += Ts*(ubet_T_in*psi_bet_c). 0. 1. 1. ki1=18.delta_Udc. 0.414213562 Int16 task_id = 0. 0. 1. 0. udc_ref=600.pi=PI. udc=ku1*udc. 0.Sc_old. 0}. q= 314*(psi_alf*i_alf + psi_bet*i_bet). 1. 0. 0. pdc=0. 1.} /* 30 <= Theta < 60 */ {sector = 3. 0. ku1=1435. 0. 0.} /* 0 <= Theta < 30 */ {sector = 2. i_alf = sqrt23*(ia0. 1. uc=(ua+ub). 1. 1. ib=ki2*ib. Theta_est=atan2(psi_bet. 1. 1.Ti=0.0. _Ts. Float64 period = 20e6. Float64 deadband = 2e6.Sq_old. 1. 1. i_alf. 0}.Sp.0. 0. 0.Sc_old).I_ref_old=0.0.0. 1. ib. 0._T_in.6666*udc*(Sa_old0. 0.0159. } void control(void) { ic=(ia+ib). void da_converter(void). i_bet = sqrt23*(_sqrt3to2)*(ibic). 1. 0. 1.Ts=DT. 0.Sb_old. total_time. 1.0. 1.psi_alf_c. 0.Appendices /*DPC for dSpace 1103 . 0.55. volatile Float64 hh=0. 0. 1.010.q. 0. 1.psi_bet. 0. 1.h> //#include <Io1103.u_alf. 0}. 1. 1. unsigned int tab_22[12]={1.ualf.h> /**/ #define DT 20e6 #define _1_sqrt3 0.} /* 60 <= Theta < 90 */ 116 . 0. 0. unsigned int tab_11[12]={1.55. 1. udc=udc0. 1}. 1. 1. psi_alf = psi_alf_c + i_alf*L.003. 1. 0. ic. 0. 0. UInt16 sync_mode = SLVDSP1103_PWM3_SYNC_LEFT. 0. unsigned int tab_33[12]={1.5*ic). 1. if ((0 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi_6)) if ((pi_6 <= Theta) & (Theta < _1pi3)) if ((_1pi3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi_2)) /* specifies channels to be started */ /* read converter 17*/ /*scaling signals */ /*Transformations*/ /* Flux. I_ref.ubet.delta_udc_old=0. 1. 0. udc_old=0.
qx*0.} /*180 <= Theta < 210*/ {sector = 8.} /*240 <= Theta < 270*/ {sector = 10. Sa_old=D_R. ds1103_tic_start().001). /* init D/A converter in latched mode */ ds1103_slave_dsp_communication_init().0e6). index. /* basic initialization of DS1103 */ ds1103_tic_delay(2.} /*150 <= Theta < 180*/ {sector = 7.} /*330 <= Theta < 360*/ /*Control structure*/ delta_Udc=udc_refudc. /* ensure 2 us settling time */ ds1103_dac_init(DS1103_DACMODE_LATCHED). D_S=tab_22[sector]. /* init and start of 3phase PWM on DSP */ ds1103_slave_dsp_pwm3_start(task_id). } void PWM_sync_interrupt(void) { host_service(1. deadband. D_T=tab_23[sector]. sync_mode). exec_time = ds1103_tic_read().(DS1103_Int_Handler_Type)&PWM_sync_interrupt. . if ((delta_q<hh) & (delta_q>(hh))) Sq=Sq_old. delta_p=p_refp. I_ref_old=I_ref. measure(). if (delta_p<(hh)) Sp = 0.001). D_T=tab_43[sector].D_T. control(). D_S=tab_32[sector].save_regs_on).D_R.} /*270 <= Theta < 300*/ {sector = 11. /* initialization of slave DSP communication */ ds1103_slave_dsp_pwm3_init(task_id.} /* 90 <= Theta < 120*/ {sector = 5.} udc_old=udc. D_S=tab_12[sector]. ds1103_GLOBAL_INTERRUPT_ENABLE(). while(1) { master_cmd_server(). if (delta_p>hh) Sp = 1. } if((Sp==0) & (Sq==1)){D_R=tab_41[sector]. } if((Sp==1) & (Sq==1)){D_R=tab_21[sector]. /*************************************************************************/ /* p histeres */ delta_q=q_refq.D_R.D_S. COCKPIT service */ } } /* 117 . D_T=tab_33[sector]. if (delta_q<(hh)) Sq = 0.} /*210 <= Theta < 240*/ {sector = 9. p_ref=I_ref*udc. /* registration of PWM duty cycle update command */ ds1103_set_interrupt_vector(ds1103_int_slave_DSP_PWM. /*************************************************************************/ /* q histeres */ if((Sp==1) & (Sq==0)){D_R=tab_11[sector].ia*0. break.px*0.Appendices if ((pi_2 <= Theta) & (Theta < _2pi3)) if ((_2pi3 <= Theta) & (Theta < _5pi_6)) if ((_5pi_6 <= Theta) & (Theta <= pi)) if ((pi <= Theta) & (Theta < _2pi3)) if ((_5pi_6 <= Theta) & (Theta < _2pi3)) if ((_2pi3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi_2)) if ((pi_2 <= Theta) & (Theta < _1pi3)) if ((_1pi3 <= Theta) & (Theta < pi_6)) if ((pi_6 <= Theta) & (Theta < 0)) {sector = 4. I_ref=I_ref_old+pdc*delta_Udc+pdc*((Ts/ti)1)*delta_udc_old. /*END*/ } } void da_converter(void) { ds1103_dac_write(1. } if((Sp==0) & (Sq==0)){D_R=tab_31[sector]. da_converter(). 0). D_T=tab_13[sector]. ds1103_slave_dsp_pwm3_duty_write_register(task_id.} /*120 <= Theta < 150*/ {sector = 6. ds1103_dac_write(2. ds1103_dac_strobe(). } /*Old values*/ /* output via DS1103 onboard DAC channel 1 */ /* interrupt service routine for PWM sync interrupt */ /* TRACE service */ /* start time measurement */ main() { ds1103_init(). ds1103_enable_hardware_int(DS1103_INT_SLAVE_DSP_PWM).D_S. ds1103_dac_write(3.} /*300 <= Theta < 330*/ {sector = 0. q_old=q.D_T). delta_udc_old=delta_Udc. host_service(0. p_old=p. &index). 0). if (delta_q>hh) Sq = 1. period. Sc_old=D_T. Sp_old=Sp. Sb_old=D_S.1). Sq_old=Sq. if ((delta_p<hh) & (delta_p>(hh))) Sp=Sp_old. ds1103_slave_dsp_pwm3_duty_write(task_id. D_S=tab_42[sector].
A. measurements and PC with DS1103 card. two commercial inverters controlled by two DSP’s (ADSP 21062) and a motorgenerator setup as active load.7.A.1).A. Threephase 30 kVA programmable power supply of California Instruments (1500ix3) 118 .6. PC RS232 VLT 3008 VLT 3008 SIEMENS 3phase grid 1500ix3 Transformer and filters Galvanic isolation & ADC IM PMSM S/H µC SAB80C167 IRQ DSP ADSP21062 µC SAB80C167 DSP ADSP21062 PC Fig.7. View of the laboratory setup (a) Danfoss converters. A. The laboratory setup consists of a threephase 30 kVA programmable power supply (Fig.7.7 LABORATORY SETUP BASED ON ADSP 21062 (SHARC) Some experiments concern VOC was carriedout at experimental setup of the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University (Denmark) (Fig. Laboratory setup based on sharc ADSP 21062 Fig.7.Appendices (a) (b) Fig. (b) interface.2).7.2.A.1. A.
4 20.77 9 0.6 0.4 2. It places responsibility on large commercial and industrial consumers.maximum short circuit current at the PCC IL.0 2.0 0.0 100<1000 12.9 1.fundamental of the average (over 12 months) maximum monthly demand load current at PCC TDD – total demand distortion.0 ISC.Appendices A.5 2. lowvoltage and household.0 2.0 5.0 1.3 5 1.7 12.0 3.3 5.5 0.0 1.14 7 1.0 15.5 Above 138kV 1.5 4.0 >1000 15.0 69kV to 138kV 1.5 1. Emphasis on public.0 20<50 7.0 0. IEC 100034 limits for threephase equipment Minimal RSCC Upper limits for harmonic distortion Limits for individual harmonic in % factors of I1 THD PWHD I5 I7 I11 I13 66 17 22 12 10 9 6 120 18 29 15 12 12 8 175 25 33 20 14 12 8 250 35 39 30 18 13 8 350 48 46 40 25 15 10 450 58 51 50 35 20 15 >600 70 57 60 40 25 18 I PWHD = ∑ n n =14 I1 40 2 119 .40 11 0.5 8.0 7.5 1. only) 3.0 4. IEC 100032 Limits for Class D Equipment Harmonic order Maximum permissible Maximum permissible harmonic current per watt harmonic current N mA/W A 3 3.5 0.5 0.33 13<n<39 (odd har.5 * maximum for individual harmonic Current Distortion Limits Maximum odd harmonic current distortion in percent of IL for general distribution systems (120V – 69kV) ISC/IL <11 11<n<17 17<n<23 23<n<35 35<n TDD <20 4.5 2. Voltage Distortion Limits Bus Voltage at PCC Individual voltage distortion [%]* Total voltage distortion [%] below 69kV 3. harmonic current distortion in % of maximum demand load current (15 or 30 minute demand) IEC 6100032 (IEC 100032) It is addresses for small customer equipment.0 2.8 HARMONIC LIMITATION IEEE 5191992 Sets limits for harmonic voltage and currents at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC).0 50<100 10.0 5. It gives a consideration of the short circuit ratio RSCC.0 6.0 1.5 5.85/n Refer to class A IEC 6100034 (IEC 100034) It’s addresses for larger customers (single and threephase harmonic limits).0 1.35 0.
Appendices A.Goerz Instruments Tektronix P5200 LEM PR30 SABER .Analogy Matlab6.0.9 EQUIPMENT Instrument Digital oscilloscope Digital oscilloscope Analyzer Voltage differential probe Current probe Simualtion program Simualtion program Simualtion program Type LeCroy 9314AM 400MHz Oscyloskop Tektronix TDS3014 100MHz NORMA D6000 . Simulink and Real Time Workshop DESIM 120 .
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