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Stoichiometry and The Mole Concept

Symbols and Formulae

A symbol is used to represent one atom of an element. The symbol


can be a two letter, the first of which must be a capital. Examples are
H for hydrogen and Li for Lithium.

An integer in front of a symbol indicates the number of that atom.


Examples are 3H represents three atoms of hydrogen, 5Cu represents
five atoms of copper.

The formula of a substance shows the relative numbers of atoms or


ions that have combined together. Examples are as follow:

The formula represents one


molecule of nitrogen

e.g One molecule of nitrogen contains


Substance is an
element N2 two nitrogen atoms

2N2 represent two molecules of


nitrogen. Two molecules of nitrogen
contain a total of four N atoms
The formula represents one
molecule of water
e.g
One molecule of water contains two
Substance is a
covalent compound
H2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen
atom
O 2H2O represent two molecules of
water that contain a total of four H
atoms and two O atoms
Na2O represents one unit of sodium
oxide
e.g

Substance is an ionic
compound
Na One unit of sodium oxide contains
two Na+ ions and one O2- ion

2O 2Na2O represents two units of


sodium oxide that contain four Na+
ions and two O2- ions

Writing Formulae of Simple Compounds

The valency of an element is needed to be able to write the formulae


of a compound.

The valency of an element is a number which shows its combining


power and in ionic compounds, the valency of an ion is equal to
the charge
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POSITIVE ION VALENCY NEGATIVE ION VALENCY
H+
Hydrogen 1 F-
Fluoride 1
Na+ Sodium 1 Cl- Chloride 1
K+
Potassium 1 Br- Bromide 1
Ba 2+
Barium 2 I-
Iodide 1
Ca2+ Calcium 2 S2- Sulphide 2
Mg2+ Magnesium 2 O2- Oxide 2
Al3+ Aluminium 3 OH- Hydroxide 1
Ag +
Silver (I) 1 NO3- Nitrate 1
Cu 2+
Copper (II) 2 NO2 -
Nitrite 1
Fe2+ Iron (II) 2 HCO3- Hydrogen 1
carbonate
Pb2+ Lead (II) 2 CH3CO Ethanoate 1
O-
Zn2+ Zinc 2 SO32- Sulphite 2
Ni2+ Nickel (II) 2 SO42- Sulphate 2
Fe3+ Iron (III) 3 CO32- Carbonate 2
Cr3+ Chromium 3 PO43- Phosphate 3
(III)

In writing formula of ionic compounds note that:

• Ionic compounds are made up of positive and negative ions


• In an ionic compound, the total positive charges must equal the
total negative charges. In other words, the total charges in an
ionic compound must equal zero

Example 1
Method A Method B
Sodium Formula of Na+ Cl -

chloride ions
Valency of 1 1
ions
Simplest ratio 1 1
of combining
ions
Formula NaCl
Magnesium Formula of Mg 2+
O2-
oxide ions
Valency of 2 2
ions
Simplest ratio 1 1
of combining
ions
Formula MgO

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Calcium Formula of Ca2+ NO3-
nitrate ions
Valency of 2 1
ions
Simplest ratio 1 2
of combining
ions
Formula Ca(NO3)2
Sodium Formula of Na+ SO42-
sulphate ions
Valency of 1 2
ions
Simplest ratio 2 1
of combining
ions
Formula Na2SO4
Iron (II) Formula of Fe 2+
PO43-
phosphate ions
Valency of 2 3
ions
Simplest ratio 3 2
of combining
ions
Formula Fe3(PO4)2

Worked Example:

1. Iron (III) oxide is a chemical compound found in an iron ore


called haematite
(a) Give the symbol of all the elements in iron (III) oxide

(b) Give the formula of all the ions in iron (III) oxide

(c) What is the formula of iron (III) oxide?

In writing the formula of covalent compounds, the valency of an


element is the number of covalent bonds which it can form with
hydrogen atom.

Relative Molecular Mass (Mr)

By definition, Mr of a substance is defined as the average mass of a


molecule of a compound, compared with the mass of a 126C atom
which is taken as 12 units.

To obtain the relative molecular mass, we add together the individual


relative atomic masses. These masses can be found from the Periodic
Table.
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For example;

1. Relative molecular mass of sulphuric acid

The formula of sulphuric acid = H2SO4

Sulphuric acid contains:


2 Hydrogens 2 x Ar of H = 2 x 1 = 2
1 Sulphur 1 x Ar of S = 1 x 32 = 32
4 Oxygens 4 x Ar of O = 4 x 16 = 64
Therefore Mr = 2 + 32 + 64
= 98

2. Relative molecular mass of hydrated sodium carbonate

The formula of hydrated sodium carbonate = Na2CO3 . 10H2O

Hydrated sodium carbonate contains:


2 Sodiums 2 x Ar of Na = 2 x 23 = 46
1 Carbons 1 x Ar of C = 1 x 12 = 12
3 Oxygens 3 x Ar of O = 3 x 16 = 48
10 Water 10 x (Mr of H2O)
molecules 10 x (2 x Ar of H + 1 x Ar of O)
10 x (2 x 1 + 1 x 16)
10 x (18) = 180
Therefore Mr = 46 + 12 + 48 + 180
= 286

Test Your Understanding

Using the Ar found in your periodic table, find the Mr of the following
substances:
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2

Sodium oxide Na2O

Ammonium sulphate

Calcium hydrogen Ca(HCO3)


carbonate 2
Nitrogen trichloride

Hydrogen sulphide

Sodium peroxide Na2O2

Calcium hydrogen Ca(HSO4)2


sulphate
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The Percentage Composition of Elements in a Molecule

If we know the chemical formula of a substance, we can calculate its


percentage composition by mass, without doing as experiment.
The rules are:

1. Write down the chemical formula of the substance


2. Find out its Mr
3. Express the total mass of each element as a percentage of the
total relative molecular mass

For example;

1. Percentage composition of sulphuric acid

Chemical formula H2SO4


Relative molecular 98
mass
Percentage 2
% of hydrogen = ×100 =2.04%
composition 98
32
% of sulphur = ×100 =32.65%
98
64
% of oxygen = ×100 =65.31%
98

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2. Percentage composition of hydrated sodium carbonate crystals

Chemical formula Na2CO3 . 10H2O


Relative molecular 286
mass
Percentage 46
% of sodium = ×100 =16.08%
composition 286
12
% of carbon = ×100 =4.20%
286
48
% of oxygen = ×100 =16.78%
286
180
% of water = ×100 =62.94%
286

The percentage composition of pure substances does not change. For


example water molecule will always contain 11.11% hydrogen and
88.89% oxygen whether its in New York, New Delhi, New Zealand or
the Moon (it never varies)

Test Your Understanding

What is the percentage composition of the elements, carbon and


hydrogen, in the hydrocarbon molecules listed below?

a) Methane (CH4)

b) Ethane (C2H6)

c) Propane (C3H8)

d) Butane (C4H10)

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The Emperical Formula: The Formula from the Percentage
Composition

By definition, the empirical formula is the simplest formula which


shows the relative numbers of the atoms of the different elements
present.

The empirical formula can be determined once the percentage or


mass of each element is known. The rules are:

1. Divide the percentage or mass of each element by its Ar


2. Divide by the smallest number to convert to the simplest ratio
3. The number of atoms of the different elements is the empirical
formula

For example:
Given that a molecule contain 88.89% oxygen and 11.11% hydrogen,
what is its empirical formula?

H O
Divide % by Ar 11.11% ÷ 1 = 11.11 88.89% ÷ 16 = 5.55
Simplest ratio 11.11 ÷ 5.55 = 2 5.55 ÷ 5.55 = 1
Empirical formula H2 O

Test Your Understanding

Calculate the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon molecules listed


below using the percentage composition given

a) 75% C, 25% H

b) 80% C, 20% H

c) 81.8% C, 18.2% H

d) 82.7% C, 17.3% H

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THE MOLE

What is the mole?

It is a term in chemistry to describe an amount of atoms, ions and


molecules. It enables chemists to count these particles by weighing.

Definition of the mole:


The amount of substance which contains the Avogadro Number of
particles. The Avogadro Number is 6.02 X 1023 (or 602 000 000 000
000 000 000 000)

Definition of Avogadro Number:


The number of atoms in 12g of the carbon-12 isotope

Substances Unit Number


Drawing Pins
Gross 144

Football boots

Pair 2

Eggs

Dozen 12

Playing cards

Pack 52

Paper

Ream 480 sheets

CARBON (12g)
MOLE 6.02 x 1023 PARTICLES

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Moles of Atoms: Relative Atomic Mass in Grams

If we weigh 12 g of carbon, this would contain 6.02 x 1023 atoms of


carbon. In the same way, so would 23 g of sodium, or 27 g of
aluminium, or 16g of oxygen, or 1 g of hydrogen.

The mass of one mole of atoms is its relative atomic mass in


grams

Element Relative atomic Mass of 1 mole Number of atoms


mass in 1 mole
Hydrogen 1 1g 6.02 x 1023
Carbon 12 12 g 6.02 x 1023
Oxygen 16 16 g 6.02 x 1023
Aluminium 27 27 g 6.02 x 1023
Calcium 40 40 g 6.02 x 1023
Silver 108 108 g 6.02 x 1023

Moles of Molecules: Relative Molecular Mass in Grams

If we weigh 44 g of carbon dioxide, this would contain 6.02 x 1023


molecules of carbon dioxide. In the same way, so would 18 g of water,
or 32 g of oxygen gas, or 2 g of hydrogen gas.

The mass of one mole of molecules is its relative molecular


mass in grams

Molecule Relative Mass of 1 mole Number of atoms


Molecular in 1 mole
mass
Carbon dioxide 44 44 g 6.02 x 1023
(CO2)
Water (H2O) 18 18 g 6.02 x 1023
Oxygen (O2) 32 32 g 6.02 x 1023
Hydrogen (H2) 2 2g 6.02 x 1023

Moles of Gases: Molar Gas Volumes

Gases are made up of particles and are usually molecules except for
the inert gases (Group 8) which composed of atoms.

Accordingly, as one mole contain the same number of particles, one


mole of different gases would also occupy identical volume (under the
same temperature and pressures).

One mole of any gas at room temperature and pressure occupies a


volume of 24000 cm3 or 24dm3

This is sometimes called the molar gas volume.

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In all chemical calculations, gas volumes will be measured at room
temperature and pressure (r.t.p). Room temperature is taken as 25oC
(298K) and room pressure as one atmosphere (760 mm of mercury).

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Molecule Relative Mass of 1 Number of Volume
Molecular mole atoms in 1 occupied
mass mole at r.t.p
Carbon dioxide 44 44 g 6.02 x 1023 24 000 cm3
(CO2)
Chlorine (Cl2) 71 71 g 6.02 x 1023 24 000 cm3
Oxygen (O2) 32 32 g 6.02 x 1023 24 000 cm3
Hydrogen (H2) 2 2g 6.02 x 1023 24 000 cm3

Calculations with Moles

Formula A:

mass in grams
Numberof moles=
Ar or Mr of atom or molecule

Example:

How many moles are there in


(a) 88 g of carbon dioxide?
(b)64 g of oxygen molecules?

Solution:

(a) Mr of carbon dioxide molecule = 44

88
Number of moles = = 2 moles
44

(b)Mr of oxygen molecule = 32

64
Number of moles = = 2 moles
32

Test Your Understanding

How many moles are there in

(a) 25 g of calcium carbonate CaCO3?

(b) 49 g of sulphuric acid H2SO4?

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(c) 64 g of methane gas?

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Formula B:

Mass in grams = Number of moles x Ar or Mr of substance

Example:

How many grams are there in


(a) 10 moles of water?
(b)0.25 moles of oxygen atoms?

Solution:

(a) Mr of water molecules H2O = 18

Mass in grams = 10 x 18 = 180 g

(b)Mr of oxygen atoms O = 16

Mass in grams = 0.25 x 16 = 4 g

Test Your Understanding

How many grams are there in

(a) 5 moles of carbon dioxide CO2 ?

(b) 0.5 moles of ethene C2H4 ?

(c) 0.1 moles of calcium carbonate?

(d)0.2 moles of bromine gas?

(e) 2 moles of sulphur, S8 ?

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Formula C:

Number of particles = Number of moles x Avogadro


Number

Example

How many particles are there in


(a) 16 g of oxygen molecules?
(b)11 g of carbon dioxide molecules?

Solution

(a) Number of moles of oxygen molecules = Mass / Mr

= 16 / 32 = 0.5 moles

Number of particles = 0.5 x 6 x 1023

= 3 x 1023 molecules

(b)Number of moles of carbon dioxide molecules = Mass / Mr

= 11 / 44 = 0.25
moles

Number of particles = 0.25 x 6 x 1023

= 1.5 x 1023 molecules

Test Your Understanding

How many particles are there in

(a) 0.1 moles of ethene?

(b)5 moles of bromine?

(c) 64 g of methane gas?

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Formula D:

Volume of gas = Number of moles x molar gas volume

Example

What volume (at r.t.p) would the following gases occupy?


(a) 2 moles of oxygen gas?
(b)0.1 mole of hydrogen gas?

(Molar Gas Volume at r.t.p = 24 dm3)

Solution

(a) Volume of oxygen gas = 2 x 24 = 48 dm3

(b) Volume of hydrogen gas = 0.1 x 24 = 2.4 dm3

Test Your Understanding

What volume (at r.t.p) would the following gases occupy?

(a) 0.2 moles of carbon dioxide gas

(b)3 moles of nitrogen gas

(c) 4 g of oxygen gas

(d)4 g of sulphur dioxide gas

Test Your Understanding

What would be the mass of 12 dm3 of the following gases at r.t.p?

(a) chlorine gas (b) sulphur dioxide gas

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Moles and Equations

Stoichiometry is the study of the quantitative composition of chemical


substances and quantitative changes that occur in chemical
reactions.

Consider a car manufacturer uses liquid hydrogen as fuel. He may


have to determine how much fuel is necessary for a particular
journey. When hydrogen burns in oxygen it forms water. The balanced
chemical equation is:

2H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2H2O (g)

In the reaction, 2 hydrogen molecules react with one oxygen molecule


to form 2 water molecules.

If we use moles, then 2 moles of hydrogen gas react with one


mole of oxygen gas to form two moles of steam. A balanced
chemical equation shows the stoichiometric ratio and this gives the
exact amount of reactant and product.

Lets use the equation again to find out how much water would be
produced if 10g of hydrogen were burnt in the air.

2H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2H2O (g)


2 moles 1 mole 2 moles

No of moles of water 2
Mole Ratio: =
No of moles of hydrogen 2

No of moles of water = 2 x No of moles of hydrogen

Mass of hydrogen
No of moles of water = 2 x
Mr of hydrogen

10 
No of moles of water = 2 x   = 5 moles
2

In the reaction, 5 moles of water or 90g of water [5 x 18]


are produced.

Now, lets look at the same problem from a different point of view.

How much oxygen is necessary to form 54g of water by burning


hydrogen?

Taking the same chemical equation:

2H2 (g) + O2 (g)  2H2O (g)


2 moles 1 mole 2 mole
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No of moles of oxygen 1
Mole Ratio: =
No of moles of water 2

 1
No of moles of oxygen =   x No of moles of water
 2

 1 Mass of water
No of moles of oxygen =   x
 2 Mr of water

 1   54 
No of moles of oxygen =   x   = 1.5 moles
 2   18 

In the reaction, 1.5 moles of oxygen or 48g of oxygen [1.5


x 32] are required.

Test Your Understanding

For each of these equations, state how many moles of each reactant
and product there are. Convert the moles into grams.
S (s) + O2 (g)  SO2 (g) CaCO3 (s)  CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

2Cu (s) + O2 (g)  2CuO (s) 2NaOH (aq) + H2SO4 (aq)  Na2SO4 (aq) +
2H2O (l)

Calculating Percentage Purity and Yield

Percentage Purity

Most chemicals that we use are never 100% pure. When comparing
chemical’s purity, we refer to its percentage purity. For example,
crystals of potassium nitrate can be sold as at least 99% pure.

e.g potassium nitrate


minimum assay 99%
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maximum limits of impurity:
chloride 0.02%
sulphate 0.02%
sodium 0.05%

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Percentage Yield

In any reaction, the amount of product produced experimentally is


always less than produced theoretically (by calculation from
equation). This can be expressed in terms of percentage yield

experimental value 
Percentage yield =  ×100%
 theoretical value 

Example:

Calculate the percentage yield if, on heating 50g of limestone


(CaCO3), 21g of lime (CaO) were obtained.

Calcium carbonate  calcium oxide + carbon dioxide

CaCO3 (s)  CaO (s) + CO2 (g)

Mr = 100 Mr = 56 Mr = 44
(1 mole) (1 mole) (1 mole)

no of moles CaO 1
Mole Ratio: =
no of moles CaCO3 1

no of moles CaO =
1×no of moles CaCO3

mass of CaCO3 
no of moles CaO =1× 
 M r CaCO3 

50 
no of moles CaO =1× =0.5
100 

Theoretically, 0.5 moles or 28g (0.5 x 56) of CaO is produced when


50g of CaCO3 is heated

experimental value 
Therefore, percentage yield = ×100%
 theoretical value 

21g 
=  ×100% =75%
28g

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Moles and Solution

What is a solute? solvent? and solution?

Solute: a substance that dissolves in a liquid


Solvent: the liquid in which the solute dissolves
Solution: the resulting mixture

SOLUTE SOLVENT SOLUTION


+ 

(g) (dm3) (g/dm3)

• The volume of the solution is measured in dm3.


• The concentration of the solution tells you how much solute is
dissolved in 1 dm3 of solution.
• The amount of solute can be measured in grams or moles.

A concentration of 10 gdm-3 means there is 10 g of solute


dissolved in 1 dm3 of solution

A concentration of 2 moldm-3 means there are 2 moles of solute


dissolved in 1 dm3 of solution

How to convert concentration in gdm3 to moldm3? (Concentration


Conversion)

Concentration (gdm-3) = concentration (moldm-3) x mass of 1 mole of


solute

Consider dissolving sodium hydroxide NaOH in water:

• 1 mole (40g) in 1000 cm3 (1 dm3) = 1 moldm-3

• 2 moles (80g) in 1000 cm3 (1 dm3) = 2 moldm-3


Twice the amount of solute in the same volume of solvent

• 0.5 moles (20g) in 1000 cm3 (1 dm3) = 0.5 moldm-3


Half the amount of solute in the same volume of solvent

• 1 mole (40g) in 500 cm3 (0.5 dm3) = 2 moldm-3


Same amount of solute in half the volume of solvent so twice as
concentrated

• 1 mole (40g) in 2000 cm3 (2 dm3) = 0.5 moldm-3


Same amount of solute in twice the volume of solvent so half as
concentrated

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Concentration of Solutions

It is necessary for a chemist to try to work out the number of moles of


solute in a certain volume of solution. For example how much sodium
hydroxide is contained in 200 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide
solution? This can be calculated as follows:

1000 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 contains 2 moles of NaOH


2
1 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 contains mole of NaOH
1000
2 ×200
200 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 contain mole of NaOH = 0.4 mole of
1000
NaOH

In general

Number of moles of solute = Concentration in moldm-3 ×


Volume in cm 3
1000 cm 3

Moles and Titration

What is titration?
• Quantitative experimental technique
• Involves reaction between acids and alkalis (Neutralisation
Reaction)
• How is titration carried out?
o Acid (or alkali) of unknown concentration is added from
burette into a conical flask containing alkali (or acid)
o Exact volume of acid or alkali to be placed in the conical
flask is measured by using a pipette
o An indicator is added to find the end-point of the
titration

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To find the concentration of the unknown acid, the following acid and
alkali relationship is required:

MV  MV 
  = 
 n acid  n alkali

where M = molarity or concentration inn mol dm-3


V= volume in cm3
n= number of moles shown in the chemical
equation

Example 1:

What volume of 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid will be required to


neutralize 25cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide?

The equation for the reaction is:


Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide  sodium chloride + water

HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)  NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)

From the equation 1 mole of acid reacts with 1 mole of sodium


hydroxide

Here;
Macid = 0.1 mol dm-3 Malkali = 0.1 mol dm-3
Vacid = unknown Valkali = 25 cm3
nacid = 1 nalkali =1

Therefore;
0.1 ×Vacid 0.2 ×25
=
1 1

Thus;
0.2
Vacid = ×25 =50 cm 3
0.1

Example 2:

If 25 cm3 of potassium hydroxide is neutralized by 20 cm3 of 2.5 mol


dm-3 sulphuric acid, what is the molarity of the alkali?

The equation for the reaction is:


Sulphuric acid + potassium hydroxide  potassium sulphate +
water

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Test Your Understanding

What volume of 2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid would be required to


neutralize

(a) 25 cm3 of 4 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide?

(b) 25 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 potassium hydroxide?

(c) 25 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide?

What is the concentration in mol dm-3 of a sodium hydroxide solution


if 25 cm3 of it is neutralized by

(a) 25 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid?

(b) 25 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid?

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Further Molar Calculations from Equation

Problem 1
Calculate how much carbon dioxide gas would be evolved if 50 g of
chalk (calcium carbonate) were dissolved in excess acid. You may
assume that the reaction takes place at room temperature and
pressure (r.t.p).

Molar gas volume = 24 000 cm3

The equation for the reaction is;

Calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid  calcium chloride + water +


carbon dioxide

Problem 2
Calculate the volume of

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