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The objective is:
To understand the absorption( Gas-Liquid) process
To make the material balance for a absorption system To understand the concept of equilibrium stages and their estimation
To understand the stripping process
To make the material balance for a stripping system To understand the concept of equilibrium stages and their estimation
A mass transfer operation – same category as distillation Exclusive to gas-liquid separation Distillation uses the VLE, i.e. difference in boiling temperatures Absorption uses the GLE, i.e. solubility
gas is absorbed into liquid liquid solvent or absorbent gas absorbed solute or absorbate
Stripping is reverse of absorption
liquid absorbed into gas act of regenerating the absorbent
T.M 4 . NO2 .Introduction Absorption in the industry Air pollution control – scrubbing of SO2 . from combustion exhaust (power plant flue gas) Absorption of ammonia from air with water Hydrogenation of edible oils – H2 is absorbed in oil and reacts with the oil in the presence of catalyst Dr.
T.M 5 .How does it work? Good product Solvent This section can be trayed or packed Solute with inert gas unwanted gas solution to disposal or recovery Dr.
T.How does it work? Tray tower Packed tower Dr.M 6 .
T.M 7 .How does it work? Tray tower: Absorption on each tray Dr.
T.How does it work? Tray tower: Types of tray Sieve Valve Bubble Cap A full tray Dr.M 8 .
Structured packing 2.How does it work? Packed tower: 1.T.M 9 . Random packing Dr.
M 10 .T.How does it work? Packed tower: Structured packing Dr.
T.How does it work? Packed tower: Structured packing Dr.M 11 .
How does it work? Packed tower: Random packing Dr.T.M 12 .
M 13 .How does it work? Spray tower Dr.T.
T.M 14 .How does it work? Bubble Column Liquid solvent “bed” Dr.
M and 15 .T. allowable gas pressure drop Dr. temperature and pressure • Desired degree of recovery of one or more solutes • Choice of absorbent (stripping agent) • Operating pressure and temperature. composition.General Design Considerations • Entering gas (liquid) flow rate.
General Design Considerations • Minimum absorbent (stripping agent) flow rate and actual absorbent (stripping agent) flow rate as a multiple of the minimum flow rate • Number of equilibrium stages • Heat effects and need for cooling (heating) • Type of absorber (stripper) equipment • Diameter of absorber (stripper) Dr.M 16 .T.
The ideal absorbent should: • • • • • • • • have a high solubility for the solute have a low volatility be stable be noncorrosive have a low viscosity be nonfoaming be nontoxic and nonflammable be available. if possible.M 17 .T. within the process Dr.
The most widely used absorbents are: • water • hydrocarbon oil • aqueous solution of acids and bases The most widely used stripping agents are: • water vapor • air • inert gases • hydrocarbon gases Dr.M 18 .T.
M 19 .T.Equilibrium Contact Stages Single multiple Dr.
Single Equilibrium Stage V1 L0 V2 L1 Single equilibrium stage system above Mass balance: L0 + V2 = L1 + V1 Dr.M 20 .T.
Single Equilibrium Stage V1 L0 V2 L1 Mass balance: L0 + V2 = L1 + V1 Gas-liquid absorption – usually 3 components involved.0 Dr. then L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1 L0xC0 + V2yC2 = L1xC1 + V1yC1 and xA + xB + xC = 1. B and C be the components. Let A.M 21 .T.
M 22 .Single Equilibrium Stage V1 L0 V2 L1 L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1 L0xC0 + V2yC2 = L1xC1 + V1yC1 xA + xB + xC = 1.T.0 To solve these 3 equations – their equilibrium relations will be required Dr.
Single Equilibrium Stage V1 L0 V2 L1 Gas phase – V Components – A (solute) and B (inert) Liquid phase – L Components – C In gas phase you have binary A-B In liquid phase you have binary A-C Dr.T.M 23 .
Single Equilibrium Stage V1 L0 V2 L1 Only A redistributes between both phases.M 24 .T. Take mole balance of A: x A0 L 1 x A0 ' y A2 V 1 y A2 ' x A1 L 1 x A1 ' y A1 V 1 y A1 ' where L’ moles of C and V’ moles of B Tutorial: Derive/Proof this Dr.
Use Henry’s Law: yA1= H’ xA1 H’ – Henry’s law constant (obtainable in Handbooks eg Perry’s) Dr. equilibrium relationship between yA1 and xA1 is needed.T.Single Equilibrium Stage V1 L0 V2 L1 x A0 L 1 x A0 ' y A2 V 1 y A2 ' x A1 L 1 x A1 ' y A1 V 1 y A1 ' To solve this.M 25 .
Countercurrent Multiple-Contact Stages V1 1 L0 L1 V2 2 V3 Vn n Vn+1 VN N VN+1 L2 Ln-1 Ln LN-1 LN Total overall balance: L0 + VN + 1 = LN + V1 = M where M is the total flow Overall Component Balance: L0xo + VN + 1 yN +1 = LNxN + V1 y1 = Mxm Dr.M 26 .T.
yn 1 Ln x n Vn 1 V1y 1 L0 x0 Vn 1 Operating Line Dr. L0xo + Vn + 1 yn +1 = Lnxn + V1 y1 Solving for yn +1.Making a total balance over the first n stages.M 27 . L0 + Vn + 1 = Ln + V1 Making a component balance over the first n stages.T.
M 28 . the operating line is a straight line Dr.Countercurrent contact with immiscible streams • An important case in which the solute A is being transferred occurs when the solvent stream V contains components A and B with no C and solvent stream L contains A and C with no B.T. y1 1 y2 2 x1 y4 y3 y2 3 y4 N=4 yN + 1 x5 y1 1 x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 3 x0 Operating line yN + 1 4 Equilibrium line y3 x2 2 xN Note: If the streams L and V are dilute in key species.
Analytical Equations for Countercurrent Stage Contact (Kremser Equation) • When the flow rates V and L in a countercurrent process are essentially constant.T.M 29 . simplified analytical expressions can be derived for number of equilibrium stages in a countercurrent stage process Overall component balance on component A: L0xo + Vn + 1 yn +1 = Lnxn + V1 y1 Dr. the operating line equation becomes straight • If the equilibrium line is also a straight line over the concentration range.
T.Vn + 1y n+1 Thus. LNxN .VN + 1 y N + 1 = Loxo .VN + 1 y N + 1 = Lnxn .Vn + 1y n+1 Dr.V1y1 Component balance for A on the first n stages. LNxN .V1y1 = Lnxn . Loxo .Rearranging. L0xo + Vn + 1 yn +1 = Lnxn + V1 y1 Rearranging.M 30 .
xn 1 Ax n yN 1 m Dr.Since the molar flows are constant.M AxN (B) 31 .T. yN + 1 = mxN + 1 Substituting mxn + 1 for yn + 1 and calling A = L/mV.yN+1) (A) = Since yn + 1 and xn + 1 are in equilibrium and the equilibrium line is straight. Also. L (xn .xN) = V(yn+1 . Ln = LN constant = L and Vn+1= VN+1 = constant = V. yn + 1 = mxn + 1.
T.For transfer of solute A from phase V to L (absorption) y N 1 y1 y N 1 mx0 AN 1 A AN 1 1 N When A = 1. y N 1 mx0 1 ln 1 y1 mx0 A ln A 1 A N y N 1 y1 y 1 mx0 Dr.M 32 .
For transfer of solute A from phase L to V (stripping).T.Solving (B). x0 ln xN yN 1 / m (1 A) A yN 1 / m ln(1/ A) x0 xN yN 1 / m Dr. xo xN xo ( y N 1 / m ) (1/ A)N 1 (1/ A) (1/ A)N 1 1 N When A =1.M 33 N xN .
If equilibrium line is not straight.M 34 . A A NA1 where AN LN mN VN 1 and A1 L0 m1V1 Dr.T.
The process is to operate isothermally at 300K and a total pressure of 101. and the total inlet pure water flow to be used to absorb the acetone is 90 kg mol H2O/h.T.0 mol% acetone in air in a countercurrent stage tower. The equilibrium relation for the acetone in the gas-liquid is yA = 1. Determine the number of theoretical stages required for this separation by graphical method and compare it with Kremser equation.Example: Number of stages by analytical equation It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1. If 2 times of minimum solvent is used estimate the number of theoretical stages required.0 kg mol/h.3 kPa.M 35 . Dr. Estimate the minimum solvent ratio for the process. The total inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.5 xA.
52x. If 90 % of CO2 is observed. 1. The inlet gas and liquid flow rate are 100 kg/h and 300 kg/h respectively.M 36 .T. Assume the equilibrium relation is y = 2.5 times of minimum solvent is required. Estimate the number of stages required for the absorption. The exit gas and liquid streams are in equilibrium. Dr. The entering gas contains 0.Problem . Calculate the composition of the leaving liquid and suggest the coordinates of the operating line.2 mole fraction of CO2..1& A gas mixture of air and CO2 is contacted in a multi stage mixer with pure water at atmospheric conditions. Estimate the number of stages required if.
1oC and at 1 atmospheric pressure.40 0.04 0.13 0. The equilibrium data are given below: X’ Y’ 0.08 0. Estimate the number of theoretical stages required for the stripping process.51 0.005 mol of benzene per mole of benzene free oil.An adsorption oil containing 0.10 0.58 Dr. The outlet concentration of oil should not exceed 0.30 0. For every 200 kgmol of benzene free oil.02 0.12 moles of benzene per mole of benzene free oil is to be stripped by using a superheated steam at 121.M 37 . 100 kgmol of pure steam was used.13 0.22 0.06 0.12 0.T.07 0.
N 0.04 stages 38 . A = (A1AN)1/2 = (1.53(0) 1.Solution: V1 = 29.0.73) = 1.27. LN = 90.19)1/2 = 1. yA1 = 0. Thus. L0 = 90.00101 2.195 5.27/(2.M 1 1. and xAN = 0.00300 AN = LN/mVN + 1 = 90.20x1.0 / (2.53 x 30.0) = 1.0 and xA0 = 0.73 kg mol/h.20 At stage N. yAN +1 = 0.19 The geometric average.00101.195) Dr.53(0) 1 ln 1 0.195 ln (1.195 For absorption and by using kremser equation.T. A1 = L/mV = L0/mV1 = 90. Thus.53 x 29.01. VN + 1 = 30.01 2.
Graphical Equilibrium-Stage Method for Trayed Towers • Consider the countercurrent-flow, trayed tower for absorption (or stripping) operating under isobaric, isothermal, continuous, steady-state flow conditions
• Phase equilibrium is assumed to be achieved at each tray between the vapor and liquid streams leaving the tray. ====> equilibrium stage • Assume that the only component transferred from one phase to the other is the solute, • For application to an absorber, let:
L’ = molar flow rate of solute-free absorbent G’ = molar flow rate of solute-free gas (carrier gas) X = mole fraction of solute to solute-free absorbent in the liquid Y = mole ratio of solute to solute-free gas in the vapor
Note that with these definitions, values of L’ and G’ remain constant through the tower, assuming no vaporization of absorbent into carrier gas or absorption of carrier gas by liquid. For the solute at any equilibrium stage, n,
Yn / 1 Yn Xn / 1 Xn
O.P: YN + 1 = Xn(L’/G’)+ Y1 - X0(L’/G’)
Yn = Xn + 1(L’/G’) + Y0 - X1(L’/G’)
XN + 1,L’ YN,G’
Y Y1 (gas out) Y1 N YN + 1 XN Operating line 1 Moles solute/mole solute-free liquid.Minimum Absorbent Flow Rate YN + 1 (gas in) X0 1 Moles solute/mole solute-free gas. X X0 Dr.T.M XN (for Lmin) 42 .
for n = N X0L’ + YN + 1G’ = XNL’ + Y1G’ or L' G' YN 1 Y1 XN X0 (C) For stage N.M 43 . for the minimum absorbent rate.Consider. KN YN 1 / 1 YN 1 XN / 1 XN (D) Solving for XN in (D) and substituting it into (C) gives Dr.T.
X0 0 L’min = G’KN(fraction of solute absorbed) For Stripper. G'min L' fraction of solute stripped KN Dr.L ' min G' YN 1 Y1 YN 1 / YN 1 K N 1 K N (E) X0 For dilute solution.T. (E) becomes L'min G' yN 1 yN 1 KN y1 x0 If the entering liquid contains no solute. where Y y and X x.M 44 . that is.
1 X1. YN+1 YN + 1 XN YN Stage 1 (bottom) Y1 Stage 1 (top) Y0 xN Dr. YN.Number of Equilibrium Stages X0’ 1 Y1’ XN + 1.T. N N Y0.M x0 x1 45 xN + 1 .
Example: When molasses is fermented to produce a liqour containing ethyl alcohol. 2% ethyl alcohol. State your assumption.T. Entering liquid absorbent:100% water. 98% CO2.K-value=0. determine the number of equilibrium stages required countercurrent flow of liquid and gas.5(L/V)min . Given L/V=1. a CO2-rich vapour containing a small amount of ethyl alcohol is evolved.M 46 . Entering gas: 180 kmol/h.57. For the following conditions. The alcohol can be recovered by absorption with water in a sievetray tower. Required recovery of ethyl alcohol:97% Dr.
T. HETP Packed height ( z ) Number of equivalent equilibrium stages ( N t ) z Nt z H OG N OG where HOG is the overall Height Transfer Unit (HTU) and NOG is the overall Number of Transfer Unit (NTU) Dr.M 47 .Packed absorption tower design Packed-tower performance is often analysed on the basis of equivalent equilibrium stages using packing Height Equivalent to a Theoretical (equilibrium ) Plate (staged).
Overall transfer coefficient a: area for mass trasfer per unit volume of packed bed. absorption factor = L/KV Dr. average liquid flow rate Ky’.HOG . Number of Transfer Unit (NTU) ln N OG A 1 yin Kxin A yout Kxin A 1 A 1 A K . equilibrium ratio A.M 48 . cross sectional area of the tower NOG . Height Transfer Unit (HTU) H OG V Ky 'a S V. S.T.
determine the required packed height.0 ft. The alcohol can be recovered by absorption with water in a packed tower. a CO2-rich vapour containing a small amount of ethyl alcohol is evolved. Entering gas: 180 kmol/h. 2% ethyl alcohol.T. The tower is packed with 1. 98% CO2.5in metal Pall rings.5(L/V)min .Example: When molasses is fermented to produce a liqour containing ethyl alcohol. Required recovery of ethyl alcohol:97% Dr. K-value=0. If HOG = 2.M 49 .57. Entering liquid absorbent:100% water. Given L/V=1.
00000 Mole fraction of SO2 in vapour.00280 0.m2.00150 0.03420 0. The tower is designed to absorb 90% of SO2.00200 0.05140 0. Y 0.b. The flow rate of pure air is 150 kg/h. The entering water flow rate is 6000 kg water/h. X 0.m2.water Mole fraction of SO2 in water.M 50 .00420 0.12140 0. The entering gas contains 20 mole percent of SO2.07750 0.T. A tray tower is used to absorb SO2 from an air stream by using pure water at 25oC.00700 0.00000 0. The equilibrium data are on solute free basis are given below Equilibrium data for SO2 .21200 Dr.
T. Estimate the concentration of SO2 in the exit water leaving the tower. Estimate the number of theoretical stages required for the desired absorption. ii.i. If the overall efficiency of the tower is 40%. I Dr. how many number of actual stages are required.i.M 51 . iii.
???? yN + 1 xN Dr.18 0.Since the equilibrium data are given in molar units.0 = 333 Kg mol inert water/ m2 h Y N+1 = 0.20 1 0.18 Kg mol inert air/m2 h y1 1 y2 x1 2 x0 L’ = 6000/18.02 x5 N=4 XN = ----------.T.02 XN = ???? substituting into the material balance equation y3 3 y4 x2 333 0 1 0 5. calculate the molar flow rates V’ = 150/29 = 5.20.20 333 xN 1 xN 5.18 0.M 52 . Y1 = 0. X0 = 0.02 1 0.
T.Operating line yN + 1 4 Equilibrium line y3 y2 y1 1 x0 x1 x2 x3 xN 2 y4 3 Number of theoretical trays = 2.4 Dr.M 53 .
M 54 . The equilibrium relation is given by y = 1.T. The gas flow is 13.36 kgmol/h.65 kgmol air/h.78x10-2 kgmol/s.m3.5 mol%.mol frac and k’xa = 6. Dr. The inlet air contains 2. Film coefficients for the given flows in the tower are k’ya = 3.32 kPa.Packed Tower Design Acetone is being absorbed by water in a packed tower having a cross-sectional area of 0.186x.6 mol% acetone and outlet 0. The pure water flow is 45. Calculate packing height.16x10-2. z.186m2 at 293 K and 101.
Packed Tower Design Solution: First calc HOG V1 V' 1 y1 13.T.852 x 10-3 kg mol/s Dr.005 3.M 55 .892 x 10 -3 kgmol/s V2 V' 1 y2 13.026 H OG V Ky 'a S 3.65/3600 1 0.65/3600 1 0.811 x 10 -3 kgmol/s Vav = (V1 + V2)/2 = 3.
186) = 0.19 x 10-2 x 0.16 x 10 -2 m is from y = mx = 1.78 x 10 -2 V Ky 'a S 45. HOG = 3.T.947 m Dr.m3.19 x 10-2 kgmol/s.mol frac So.852 x 10-3/(2.Packed Tower Design Solution: First calc HOG H OG 1 K' y a 1 k' y a m k' x a 1 3.7 1.M 56 .186 6.186x relation established K’ya = 2.
758 N OG 1 1 ln 1 ln 2.852x10-3) = 2.758 2.36/3600)/(1.758 NOG = 1.186)(3.186 x0 0.026 1.758 0.Packed Tower Design Solution: Next calc NOG : NOG 1 1 ln 1 ln A A yin mxin yout mxin 1 A A = L/mV = (45.T.28 transfer units Dr.M 57 .186 x0 1 2.005 1.
935 m Dr.043 = 1.28 transfer units HOG = 0.T.M 58 . z = 0.Packed Tower Design Solution: z H OG NOG NOG = 1.947 m So.947 x 2.
T. The concentration of ethanol vapors in the gas stream is 2.5 times of the minimum water flow rate is used.2 mol %.M 59 . Calculate the number of stages using kremser’s equation.68 X. If 1.Problem .Kg mol/h. estimate the number of theoretical stages required for the absorption. Dr.1 (Assignment) A tray tower is used to absorb the ethanol vapors from an inert gas stream using pure water at 30oC and atmospheric pressure. It is desired to recover 90% of the alcohol. The equilibrium relation is Y* = 0. The gas stream flow rate is 100.
A total of 11.0 mol % propane is being stripped by direct superheated steam in a tower to reduce the propane content to 0.Problem . An equilibrium relation of Y = 25x may be assumed. Find out the number of theoretical stages needed for the operation Dr. Steam can be considered as an inert gas and will not condense.42 kg mol of direct steam is used for 300 kgmol of entering liquid.M 60 .2 (Assignment) A hydrocarbon oil containing 4.T.2 mol %.
State your assumption. Entering liquid absorbent:100% water.3 When molasses is fermented to produce a liqour containing ethyl alcohol. Required recovery of ethyl alcohol:97% Dr.M 61 . For the following conditions.T. Given L/V=1. Entering gas: 180 kmol/h.Problem. determine the number of equilibrium stages required countercurrent flow of liquid and gas.5(L/V)min . The alcohol can be recovered by absorption with water in a sievetray tower. 2% ethyl alcohol. a CO2-rich vapour containing a small amount of ethyl alcohol is evolved.57.K-value=0. 98% CO2.
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