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**David Clark Group C:
**

David Clark Jacob Parton Zachary Tyler Andrew Smith

10/27/2006

the highest load a column can support without buckling. is correlated to the Young's modulus. The results within this experiment exhibited up to 44% error. 2 . The following procedure attempts to verify one of these equations. The maximum load. length of a beam. moment of inertia.Abstract Leonhard Euler first derived a series of equations that can successfully determine the buckling behavior of columns. and method of support. The practice of using a column buckling machine can be very accurate with proper testing materials and procedure.

............................................ Raw Notes.............. Theoretical Calulcations.........................................................................12 3 ........5 2...........................................................6 2........................................ Analysis & Calculations....1............. Introduction & Background...6 3..........................10 6...7 4....................................................................... Procedure.................. General Background..............................10 5........ Results...................................................... References.... Data....Table of Contents 1............................1.....................1.............................................................................. Conclusions......................3.....................................2..............6 3.............................. Equipment...............5 2...........................................4 1......................................... Experiment Setup............11 7.. Equipment and Procedure................................................4 2....

The following procedure attempts to verify one of these buckling equations for steel columns.General Background The physicist and mathematician Leonhard Euler first derived a series of equations to determine the deformation of columns under loads. 1. clamped-pinned. Pcr = π 2E I 2 Le Equation 1 • • • E is the elastic modulus of the specimen I is the second moment of area (moment of inertia) Le is the effective length. The figure below demonstrates what these effective lengths are. as well as provide a visual explanation why the effective length per setup is different. The developed method is then used to determine the load-deflection function and critical loads for a colum with various end conditions (pinned-pinned.1. Euler determined the following expression for determining the critical load. The method of support determines the effective length. and clamped-clamped).Objective: The objective of this experiment is to develop an experimental method utilizing the buckling of columns apparatus that will determine the load-deflection function and critical loads of a sample column. Figure 1 4 .

the two-dimensional radius of gyration is used to describe the distribution of cross-sectional area in a beam around its centroidal axis" (Wikipedia). The modulus of elasticity for the material tested was predefined. Equipment and Procedure 2. 5 . steel beams of known length were used. σ cr = Pcr π 2E = A ( L / r) 2 Equation 4 2. "In structural engineering.1.When a critical load is applied. The radius of gyration is given by the following formula r= I min A Equation 2 Combining Equation 1 and 2. the radius of gyration is introduced. To utilize this. the expression for critial loading becomes Pcr = π 2E A ( Le / r ) 2 Equation 3 The critical load can be used to find the stress in the beam being loaded.Equipment 1. Three Metal Beams: In this experiment. Column Buckling Machine 2. the buckling occurs in the plane perpendicular to the corresponding principal axis of inertia.

the scenarios are labeled as follows: o Case 1 : A beam fixed on both ends o Case 2: A beam fixed on one end with the second end acting as a pin support o Case 3: A beam with both ends acting as a pin support The following table categorizes known dimensional data of the test specimens. The effective length (the distance between supports) should be measured and recorded. 3. Data. The load is measured by reading the load gage after balancing the beam applying the force. A dial gage should be attached to the column buckling machine such that any deflection of the beam can be easily measured and recorded.3. record the force and deflection.2.Experiment Setup The specimen should be secured on the column buckling machine with each end of the specimen being supported per case requirements. After each applied load. 2. Analysis & Calculations In the following set of results. Beam Dimensions (mm) 6 . one specimen that models a pinning support at both ends. 2. The deflection should be recorded from the dial gage secured to the apparatus. Specimens to be Tested: The following procedure utilizes five speciments: one specimen prepared to be fixed at both ends. and a final specimen that has one fixed end and another end acting as a pin support and two speciments from Aluminum and Copper .3.Procedure A load is then induced onto the beam by the column buckling machine.

1. 3.The length. L. was the distance measured between supports.Theoretical Calulcations 7 . The area is the product of the width multiplied by the thickness.

8 .

9 .

10 . persistent and large error was still present. and the clamps were not aligned to place the force parallel along the beam and the force . The samples had experienced buckling many times previous to this test. Results Results Theoretical Actual Error 5. The main source of error was due to poor testing technique. Even with proper technique. which starts the samples twist increase with increaseing Length . The remaining error was due to ill conditioned test samples and poorly calibrated equipment. Conclusions Table 2 The error within this experiment was grossly inaccurate and exhibited unacceptable error. however.4.

Carmen." MAE/CE 370 – Mechanics of Materials Laboratory Manual. A and C. 11 . L.6. "Chapter 4 – Column Buckling Test. J. References Gilbert. June 2000.

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UsefulNot usefulMechanics of Materials Laboratory
Column Buckling Test

Mechanics of Materials Laboratory

Column Buckling Test

Column Buckling Test

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