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andmaintain the homely affairs like task of fetching water, cooking and rearingchildren. Since the turn of the century, the status of women in India has beenchanging due to growing industrialization, urbanisation, spatial mobility and sociallegislation. With the spread of education and awareness, women have shiftedfrom kitchen to higher level of professional activities.Entrepreneurship has been a male-dominated phenomenon from the very earlyage, but time has changed the situation and brought women as today's mostmemorable and inspirational entrepreneurs. In almost all the developed countriesin the world women are putting their steps at par with the men in the field of business. Except some Islamic countries of the world the law of the country hasbeen made in favour of the development of women entrepreneurship.This presentation is designed in four different sections. The first one which iscontinuing under the head 'introduction' depicts a general view of womenentrepreneurship and the organisation of the article. The next section deals withthe modern avenues of the women entrepreneurs. The third section involves thestudy of new Central Government scheme for the women entrepreneurs and thelast section contains the conclusion of the study. MODERN AVENUES OF THE WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS The efforts of Udyogini an NGO may be cited here as an example for developmentand training of women entrepreneurs. Udyogini was set up to co-ordinate andfacilitate management training for grassroots women's groups for the World BankInstitute-funded Women's Enterprise Management Training Outreach Program(WEMTOP). This was a three-year participatory action learning project aimed atstrengthening the capacity of intermediary NGOs to deliver management trainingto poor women micro entrepreneurs in 1992. The training program consisted of Grassroots Management Training (GMT) carried out for women producers and theTraining of Enterprise Support Teams (TEST) for the trainers of GMT. Thetrainings were carried out through NGOs who were responsible for groupformation and bringing together the women. NGO staff was trained as trainers orEnterprise Support Teams (ESTs).The project was based on a package completion approach. It was recognized thattraining alone would not be sufficient for promotion of enterprises. A number of other linkages - forward and backward - would be necessary. However it wasthought that the field based NGOs will provide these other linkages. During theWEMTOP phase, Udyogini worked with 21 Voluntary Organizations (NGOs) inthree states of Orissa, Bihar, and Rajasthan. A total of 130 trainers and 1,077producer women were trained.It was exciting that Udyogini was able to train so many women and NGOs thatworked with women. But more was needed— especially as the markets weregetting more complex. To remain strategic and inform its training programs forothers, Udyogini needed to work directly at the grassroots to understand what ittakes to take women all the way through from 'mobilization to market'. So, in2002, Udyogini began direct implementation at the grassroots. It selected sectorsof the economy in which women were concentrated and in which depth and scalewere required to be demonstrated to make a difference. It
In India the self-employed women account for only 5. Women are also willing to take up business andcontribute to the Nation's growth. It selected locations that werechallenging and where women were not being supported for micro enterprisework in any significant measure by government or NGOs. SmallIndustries Service Institutes (SISI).. handlooms and cottage basedindustries.The role of Women entrepreneur in economic development is inevitable. Majority of them are engaged inthe recognized sector like agriculture. . in Canada1/3rd of small business are owned by women and in France. women won 25 percent of all business. whichare also provided grants for capacity building. In UK thenumber of self-employed women has increased three fold as fast as the numberof self-employed men. It is to be implemented by Small Industries Development Organisation. by providing financialsupport in the form of Government of India grant. A revised scheme of TREAD was launched in May.(a) To provide assistance to women entrepreneurs through NGOs for non farmentrepreneurial activity. The main objective of the scheme is to empower women throughdevelopment of their entrepreneurial skills by eliminating constraints faced bythem in their sphere of trade. This assistance is to be providedfor self-employment ventures by women for pursuing any kind of non-farmactivity. State level EDIs.(c) To create entrepreneurship development training facility through NGOs byproviding financial support for conducting training programmes. Resurgence of entrepreneurship is the need of the hour. SCHEME FOR WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP In order to alleviate the problems faced by women entrepreneurs. In turn it also changes their personality and living standards. challenges global markets and also be competent enough to sustain andstrive for excellence in the entrepreneurial arena. There role is also being recognized and stepsare being taken to promote women entrepreneurship.selected regions thatoffered a resource base – skills or natural resources that were required to beharnessed for enterprise and to empower women.2004. Italso provides for market development and financial loans through NGOs. etc. Now-a-days women enter not only in selected professions but also in professions liketrade. handicrafts. industry and engineering. it is 1/5. In theadvanced countries like USA. Government of India launched the scheme Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance andDevelopment of Women (TREAD) in 1998. CONCLUSION The modern trend shows that women join hands in enhancing the income of thefamily.The scheme has three components. Women entrepreneurship must be moulded properly with entrepreneurial traits and skills to meet the changes intrends. The scheme envisagesdevelopment of micro/tiny women enterprises in the country both in the urbanand rural areas.Udyogini has come a considerable distance since its inception and has acquiredcritical knowledge of gender and micro enterprise promotion at the grassrootsboth through its support work with partner NGOs and its programs in the field.2%of the self-employment persons in the countries.(b) To build up capacity of Entrepreneurship Development Institutions likeNational Institute for Small Industry Extension & Training (NISIET).
women are aware of theirown traits.awake-india.Entrepreneurship in the Decentralised Sector7. The family members and the society are reluctant to stand beside theirentrepreneurial growth. Taori . Skill. Other factors . of India2. Coughlin Jeanne Halladay & Thomas Andrew – The rise of WomenEntrepreneurs: People. publishers. knowledge andadaptability inbusiness are the main reasons for women to emerge into businessventures. interiordecorators. The glass ceilings are shattered and womenare found indulged in every line of business from pappad to power cables. A strong desire to do somethingpositive is an inbuilt quality of entrepreneurial women. With the advent of media. rights and also the work situations. the entrepreneurial world is still a male dominated one. Employment News Weekly – 2005Women Entrepreneurship for Self Employment. But the Indianwomen entrepreneurs are facing some major constraints like –a) Lack of confidence – In general. Govt. Women in advancednations are recognized and are more prominent in the business world. and Global trends(2002)5.c) Market-oriented risks – Stiff competition in the market and lack of mobility of womenmake the dependence of women entrepreneurs on middleman indispensable. They are flourishing as designers. The challengesand opportunities provided to the women of digital era are growing rapidly that the jobseekers are turning into job creators. Manybusiness women find it difficult to capture the market and make their products popular.In India. processes. Mahanty Sangram Keshari – Fundamentals of Entrepreneurship – Prentice Hallof India “Women” as Entrepreneurs in India: Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countries.‘Women Entrepreneur’ is a person who accepts challenging role to meet herpersonal needs and become economically independent. Association of Women entrepreneurs of Karnataka .The hidden entrepreneurial potentials of women have gradually been changing with thegrowing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society. this situation is changing among Indianwomen and yet to face a tremendous change to increase the rate of growth inentrepreneurship.They are not fully aware of the changing market conditions and hence can effectivelyutilize the services of media and internet.www. women lack confidence in their strength andcompetence. exporters. Kamal . Schemes and Programmes of Ministry of Small Scale Industries and Ministry of Agro & Rural Industries. devoting enough time to perform all their responsibilities inpriority.http://www. although women constitute the majority of the totalpopulation. attitude to take up risk and behavior towards the business societyby shouldering the social responsibilities.d) Motivational factors – Self motivation can be realized through a mind set fora successfulbusiness. 3.org4. To a certain extent.org6.REFERENCES 1. garmentmanufacturersand still exploring new avenuesof economic participation.b) Socio-cultural barriers – Women’s family and personal obligations are sometimes agreat barrier for succeeding in business career. Udyogini .Dr.udyogini. who is capable of contributingvalues in both family and social life. Only few women are able to manage bothhome and business efficiently.
In spite of the mushrooming growth of associations. tradefairs and exhibitions also can be a source for entrepreneurial development. Such programs are really useful to new.e) Knowledge in Business Administration – Women must be educated and trainedconstantly to acquire the skills and knowledge in all the functional areasof business management. The progress is more visible among upper class families inurban . Let us try to eliminate allforms of gender discrimination and thus allow ‘women’ to be an entrepreneur at par withmen. loans.especially in the rural areas. The unexplored talents of young women can be identified. based on duration. Women have become aware of their existence their rights and their worksituation.f) Awareness about the financial assistance – Various institutions in the financial sectorextend their maximum support in the form of incentives. women are notenterprising and dynamic to optimize the resources in the form of reserves. • Herbal & health care• Food. The development of women entrepreneurship is very low in India. thedesired outcomes of the business are quickly achieved and more of remunerative businessopportunities are found. Henceforth. However.rural and young entrepreneurs who want to set up a small and medium scale unit on theirown. A desirableenvironment is necessary for every woman to inculcate entrepreneurial values and involvegreatly in business dealings. and the schemes from the government side. rather than dependent on wage employmentoutlets. Newsletters. promoting entrepreneurship among women iscertainly a short-cut to rapid economic growth and development. Governmentpolicies.Training programs and workshops for every type of entrepreneur is available through the social and welfare associations. financial assistance from public and private institutions and also the environmentsuitable for women to establish business units. mentoring. assetsmankind or business volunteers. Entrepreneurship amongst women has been a recentconcern. Even thenevery woman entrepreneur may not be aware of all the assistance provided by theinstitutions.skill and the purpose of the training program.Highly educated. As a result. The additional business opportunities that are recentlyapproaching for women entrepreneurs are:• Eco-friendly technology• Bio-technology• IT enabled enterprises• Event Management• Tourism industry• Telecommunication• Plastic materials• Vermiculture• Mineral water• Sericulture• Floriculture. Apart from training programs. women of middle class are not too eager to alter their role infear of social backlash. institutions. trained and used forvarious types of industries to increase the productivity in the industrial sector. Women Enterpreneurship Development in India Abstract Women entrepreneurship development is an essential part of human resourcedevelopment. So the sincere efforts taken towards women entrepreneurs may not reach theentrepreneurs in rural and backward areas. This can facilitate women to excel in decision making processand develop a good business network.g) Exposed to the training programs .are family support. technically sound and professionally qualified women should beencouraged for managing their own business. fruits & vegetable processingEmpowering women entrepreneurs is essential for achieving the goals of sustainabledevelopment and the bottlenecks hindering their growth must be eradicated to entitle fullparticipation in the business.h) Identifying the available resources – Women are hesitant to find out the access to catertheir needs in the financial and marketing areas. schemes etc.
F Drucker " he is one who always (1) searches for change (2)responds to it (3) exploits it as an opportunity. but during the 18 th century . INTRODUCTIONThe Indian economy has been witnessing a drastic change since mid -1991. and especially of their role taking and breaking new paths. theword 'entrepreneur' was used to refer to economic activities.cities. According to Cantillion "entrepreneuris the agent who buys means of production at certain prices.in the early 16 th Century it was applied topersons engaged in military expeditions." Concept of women Entrepreneur Enterprise" A small scale industrial unit orindustry –related service or business enterprise. Generally. The industrial performance of Asia-Pacific region propelledby Foreign Direct Investment.According to P. The paper talks about the statusof women entrepreneurs and the problems faced by them when they venturedout to carve their own niche in the competitive world of business environment. excessive concentration in the unorganized sector and employment in lessskilled jobs. technological innovations and manufacturedexports has brought a wide range of economic and social opportunities to womenentrepreneurs oncept of Entrepreneur . Womenentrepreneurship has gained momentum in the last three decades with theincrease in the number of women enterprises and their substantive contributionto economic growth. managed by one or more womenentrepreneurs in a concern. Evidence has unequivocallyestablished that entrepreneurial spirit is not a male prerogative. India has great entrepreneurial potential. withnew policies of economic liberalization.women involvement in economic activities is marked by a low work participationrate.of their identity. Many authors havedefined 'entrepreneur' differently. globalization and privatization initiated bythe Indian government. . in order to sell atprices that are certain at the moment at which he commits himself to his cost".Any strategy aimed at economic development will be lop-sided without involvingwomen who constitute half of the world population.This paper focuses on women entrepreneur.members of co-operative society". Any understanding of Indian women.The word ' entrepreneur' derives from the Frenchword "Entreprendre" (to undertake) . and extend to cover construction andcivil engineering activities in the 17 th century. an entrepreneur is a person whocombines capital and labour for production. willbe incomplete without a walk down the corridors of Indian history where womenhave lived and internalized various role models. At present. in which they will individually or jointly have a sharecapital of not less than 51% as shareholders of the private limited company.
Categories of Women Entrepreneurs in Practice in India • First Category – Established in big cities– Having higher level technical & professional qualifications– Non traditional Items– Sound financial positions• Second Category – Established in cities and towns– Having sufficient education– Both traditional and non traditional items– Undertaking women services-kindergarten. Power loom etc. Dairy. beauty parlors. healthclinic etc• Third Category – Illiterate women– Financially week– Involved in family business such as Agriculture.Categories of Women Entrepreneurs • Women in organized & unorganized sector• Women in traditional & modern industries• Women in urban & rural areas• Women in large scale and small scale industries. Agro Forestry. AnimalHusbandry. New Delhi . Fisheries. crèches.• Single women and joint venture. Supportive Measures for Women's Economic Activities andEntrepreneurship • Direct & indirect financial support• Yojna schemes and programmes• Technological training and awards• Federations and associations Direct & Indirect Financial Support • Nationalized banks• State finance corporation• State industrial development corporation• District industries centers• Differential rate schemes• Mahila Udyug Needhi scheme• Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)• State Small Industrial Development Corporations (SSIDCs) Yojna Schemes and Programme • Nehru Rojgar Yojna• Jacamar Rojgar Yojna• TRYSEM• DWACRA Technological Training and Awards • Stree Shakti Package by SBI• Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India• Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD)• National Institute of Small Business Extension Training (NSIBET)• Women's University of Mumbai Federations and Associations • National Alliance of Young Entrepreneurs (NAYE)• India Council of Women Entrepreneurs. Handloom. Horticulture.
84Kerala5487213538.84Madhya Pradesh296784228.71Total57.72Karnatka3822102626.2India (1980-1981)19.38Other States & UTS14576418528.84832.• Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA)• Association of Women Entrepreneurs of Karnataka (AWEK)• World Association of Women Entrepreneurs (WAWE)• Associated Country Women of the World (ACWW) Women Entrepreneurship in India StatesNo of UnitsRegisteredNo.12Gujrat38 72153839.91Punjab4791161833. of WomenEntrepreneursPercentageTamil Nadu9618293030.45218.3India (20002001)31.7India (1990-1991)22.36Uttar Pradesh7980318039.82 Women Work Participation CountryPercentageIndia (1970-1971)14.6USA45UK43Indonesia40Sri Lanka35Brazil35 .77Maharastra4339139432.
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