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A Sumero-Babylonian Sign List

A Sumero-Babylonian Sign List

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preecntefc to

Gfoe Olibrars
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University of Toronto

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A SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGN LIST

G.COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS SALES AGENTS NEW YORK LEMCKE & BUECHNER 30-32 WEST 27TH STREET LONDON HUMPHREY MILFORD AMEN CORNER. EDWARD EVANS AND SON. 30 NORTH SZECHUEN ROAD . LTD. SHANGHAI E.

\ 5544 S COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY ORIENTAL STUDIES VOLUME XIV A SUMERO. Hebrew and Old Testament Professor of Western Theological Seminary Chicago J^teto COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS 1918 All rights reserved .BABYLONIAN SIGN LIST TO WHICH IS ADDED AN ASSYRIAN SIGN LIST AND A CATALOGUE OF THE NUMERALS. D.D. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES USED AT VARIOUS PERIODS COMPILED BY SAMUEL A.. MERCER.D. PH. B.

Copyright. June. 1918 UNIVERSITY PRINTING OFFICE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY . 1918 By COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS Printed from type and plates.

W.HUNC LIBRUM HUGHELL E. FOSBROKE MAGISTRO SUO ILLUSTRISSIMO DEDICAT AUCTOR .

.

225 229 244 . Sumero-Babylonian Numerals. .CONTENTS PAGE Preface Select Bibliography ix xi I A Guide to the Order of Signs Notes Sumero-Babylonian Signs Sumero-Babylonian lonian Period 2 Archaic 3 to Signs From Ur-Nina Neo-Baby13 . Weights and Measures Assyrian Signs Assyrian Numerals. Weights and Measures .

.

For example. usually syllabic. only independent signs. Their lists. is added. and Toscanne have done excellent Dangin. the Sumero-Babylonian signs are arranged with their Assyrian equivalents and transliterations. accordingly. the Archaic are classified. first.PREFACE a very practical one. Beginnings have been made in the classification of Sumero-Babylonian signs. however. 'A Guide to the Order of Signs'. a sign with parallel wedges may have two or more such parallel wedges. as set forth in a subsequent table entitled. His sign list is. and. because variations are necessarily almost endless. ThureauAmiaud and Mechineau. Assyrian signs have long ago been excellently classified. and not arranged with the practical needs of the translator primarily in object of this Sign List is The view. Barton. to arrange all Sumerian and Babylonian signs in such a manner as to enable the student to find them with comparative ease. The student of the script in dating his text. the Sumero-Babylonian numer- . Hence. followed by Arabic numerals indicating the period to which the sign belongs. and are to be read from top to bottom. whose chief object was to discuss the origin and development of Babylonian writing. Cuneiform writing is of such a nature as to have allowed much latitude in the writing of many signs. It should be noticed that Archaic signs are some- The classification times found on seals on late tablets. were not compiled with a view to pracThe most recent work on the subject is one by George ticability. in his 'Babylonian Writing' thus assisted by means of the nature Next. secondly. A. and all signs have been arranged in a definite order. work. sometimes idiographic. because of a desire to keep the List within reasonable bounds. Assyrian signs equivalents are given and a translation. incidental. Then. have been collected. In the present all work an attempt has been made to collect and arrange independent Cuneiform signs. No attempt has been made to record all such variants. namely. The periods outlined by Barton is have been adopted. and those signs whose variations would place them in a different order in the List. has been made as simple as possible. without being important. First. Scheil.

of the most important transliterations of the Sumero-Babylonian signs. Space has been left at the end of the 'Archaic' and 'SumeroBabylonian' sections for the addition of ing as the student finds them. have used. accord- In acknowledging obligations to my predecessors in this field. though not often. I take pleasure in acknowledging the kindness of my two friends. Finally. I shall content myself with giving. Finally. new and variant signs. despite the fact that the same sign sometimes.weights and measures are arranged in the same order (not in tabular form) with a view to facilitating the identification of individual signs. . Maynard. myself had begun to do in the year 1910. No English translations have been supplied. directly or indirectly. arranged in the same order. No cross references have been given. and the plates would be to glossaries. a practical arrangement. of The Sumero-Babylonian space has purcomparatively crowded. I should like to single out Professor Barton whose splendid book. and that is followed by the Assyrian numerals. It seemed that no purpose would be served by such references. with Assyrian equivalents and the most important transliterations. and else- where. been made wide to allow for the insertion of variants by the posely student. what I ally by my side. in a way. his work anticipated. for practical purposes. weights raison d'etre of this Sign List is in one great group. a list of Assyrian signs is given with als. a list of those works. for convenience. other than publications of texts. of all independent : The first. 'The Origin and Development of Babylonian Writing'. Stephen Langdon and Dr. is recorded in more places than one. Barton. to record the titles of all I the works which J. For many years I have felt the need of a Sumero-Babylonian sign list. Dr. I have had continuIn fact. which I have had as my continual companions in my work. an insertion on the same page. This is especially true of the numerous publications of texts. and secondly. all of which I have constantly used. as complete as possible. and measures. The more unusual equivalents can easily be found in Briinnow. in the preparation of this Sign List. as that belongs which there are several good ones. A. and I have now ventured to put forth this compilation with the feeling that It would be superfluous it will be useful to others as well as to myself. transliterations. in allowing me often to consult their expert knowledge. as a select bibliography. and to whose distinguished authors I render due homage. and irregular-variant SumeroBabylonian signs with their Assyrian equivalents.

Leipzig.N. Documents from the Temple Archives of Nippur. I-II. 1904 of Nippur. I et II. Philadelphia. 1905 MYHRMAN. 1911 HARPER. 1869-1873 MUSS-ARNOLT. Akkadische und Sumerische Keilschrifttexte. et MECHINEAU.. F. Paris. DELITZSCH. 1898-1899 UNGNAD. R. Leipzig. 1910 PRICE. H. Berlin.. R.. Sumerisches Glossar. T. 1905-1908 and Business Documents. F. Assyrisch-Babylonische Chrestomathie. A. 1896 te Assyrische Lesestiicke. Assyrisches Handworterbuch. P. Leiden.. R. 1906 LEGRAIN. W. Tempelurkunden aus Telloh. Kudurriu Inscriptions.. 1898 MENANT. Leipzig. W. T. RANKE. TOSCANNE. Leipzig. 1896 REISNER. vols. D. 5 Auflage. 1887 BARTON. Phila- DELITZSCH. I9o6ff. W. Philadelphia.. A. I-II. A.. L. G. Tom. Liste ausgewahlter Keilschriftzeichen. G. V.. Berlin. 1906 REISNER. H. T.. A. Sumerisch-babylonische Hymnen. Seltene assyrische Idiogramme. F. F.. Leipzig. S.. Sumerian Records from Drehem. Leipzig. i882ff. E. Le Temps des Rois d'Ur (Planches). Berlin. A. The Code of Hammurabi. A.AlphabetischesVerzeichnisder assyrischen und akkadischen Worter. Leiden. J.. F. Leiden. L.. J.. 1913 CLAY. 1902 BRUNNOW. F. 2 e id. B. 1898 STRASSMAIER.. Les Ideogrammes Cuneiformes. Leiden... A Classified List. Paris. Die Entstehung des altesten Schriftsystems. D.. 1908 THUREAU-DANGIN. J. 1901 SCHEIL. 1910 NESBIT. 1904 HAUPT. Leipzig. G. 1895 MEISSNER. The Great Cylinder Inscription of Gudea.. 1906 CLAY.. A Sumerian Grammar. B. W. G. Babylonian Writing. Paris.. I.SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY AMIAUD. Selected Business Documents.. Leiden. J.. 1911 LAU. Business Documents of Murashu Sons delphia.. M. 1893 . Chicago. Leipzig.. MEISSNER. 1899 PRINCE.. Old Babylonian Temple Records. P. London. 1897 DELITZSCH. New York.. 1881-1882 LANGDON.. Le syllabaire assyrien. Leipzig. Philadelphia. Paris. Sumerian Administrative Documents.. B.. Paris. New York. 1914 HINKE.. Recherches sur 1'origine de 1'Ecriture Cuneiforme.. Paris. 1912 DELITZSCH. A. Paris. 1914 PINCHES. M. An Outline of Assyrian Grammar. 1908 WINCKLER. 1912 MEISSNER. Signes Archai'ques. A Concise Dictionary of the Assyrian Language.. Leipzig. Tableau Compar6. Leipzig. Supplement zu den assyrischen Worterbiichern... Legal Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon.

.

A GUIDE TO THE ORDER OF SIGNS Y H 1 Mr >-rcr T IT jr m Hr H- Hf Nf .

4 S*w*fc>w^ euA. VCIS^ WtAi&nujm ckf+JMtu ~f- VJ. LS . Si^xA dju OAA4ul>i UrdkiM. . SuLtLJUes indicate* ~tkaX ~fh traJhu ttmi w^l St^ rt fh &*n.t. i/n. 5. J 7 T .ts .'~t*4tA.NOTES .dL Un. J jS^Ci. " ' if ' 1fTUU.\ -^ 4 ' T ' T iTru^S Uw-dvJLu*. 3. 1. "Ml A/lT(iS <IA &HMj&h. Trig SOMI. s- 7 jitMiOjuJi Hj^tnajutuiJlfj . Si^x. -Muni. ouwn^. TumHitn. jltuS St^ic tetutem. %tktfuunL a 4T)uj3* TSa = t tLu^tjttu ~f~J IS : . nu Woct ^. OaA^/uUntu/L ^cOwuS u /wiJUcaiti.*y . .> I . ciSS<i/A r i 9. ike.IJUM.

ARCHAIC o D .I.t . w ET fuOfM T r u U. SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS i. rr f' 5 Jt: Tf ..U V P- a \UL.tJL P* R e 81 yuJk.

HI ^n. "In 1 1 .SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS .>.145 cwr 4M V m /TT\\ W 7* u. U</1 ./iacfuuc a Cr Ob fl ^fcf a ySi 1 .. rm o^ ^. . ' Ctvfru.. * & StWfd MTF .

HTT it ^ 1 1 ? wur Cu.ARCHAIC V**'"* jar HIT* a*.N lOT fcair la.. *.. & SO. /V . . tfrf iy .

/* 'fT q*A. nwvrt tint . \ <$s *.SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS \ t O. ( if l < .I / J.' UMK V V if ft Se jfT-r TU^n.

. ( ( a ^ l/m.Half. ml . mf^ ff a.. kas .. fct's" .SWL UH 'hu\ ftlA.. A\ ^ ii j a A A Ai.ARCHAIC A i'sV .tl'.

ttl/m. I II It I if V ^ U.Su.tl frl*- >uc So. . . . 10 . J* .8 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS Jl/icluuc Jindu OS 0- U.

ui . So.0 a. A t . .ARCHAIC o o 9 ft irrr p id ft. . cc If / i <sr -utwt.W A i . N" ti t wcc if a.

| a no. 4X .IO SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS SWUMsn. ^' 4 & AM t.twt. b OMU I L h t WL . d I - TT u . luat. n (sfflbr / ^rrr oiun. a At ct ji j/ a/ OA. .

JL^ um.&fe. fi DD u f DO fctt+tli. JLL Ml* [U| IMI uJl 9. o 7-r fl.NC] KijtC^W*^ t -ii- ^>n T ( ^i frc' .tf .ARCHAIC II JT Jlichojui TT Ssyua/n TTT TTT ff TTT.H tt ^ IXI. i u* . tnst^t tl.

WL .12 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS TIT TTTf SWuaai P ra orw.

no/s b 5-6 5- . si.2.w*n 3-6 Set. FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-BABYLONIAN PERIOD OU/mc/ a-6 5. .

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS 6 ain. r ^. Mf & flL*na*nM*l/ 1 1 % t J* $4. -VLWx TT7 .

.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 15 So/M/cn-u *<n$cytuMc . . ODD w ' "Tii < ><#<. t> <44 >na^.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. .

V **. wv (T / . 5 nj} ' o &CSU/m/WV(X/tCL' . tf tf (o f TUfl.K&**'. StZtf. dJ . s. ( -Lim. \Ucum. / 1 ( 3 Ku.16 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SKINS Owtnwf- l wnssi/AMi/ T&uati ti. 5 3 ^nau.

B A B YLON AN PERIOD I 17 H- KJ w. 2-3 KuJrlk/ 1 /r- T* e r* 6 6 . Kem . <*/ ( w TtuS am.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.

18 SUM KRO. a. 3 3 5 a JL t .BABYLONIAN SIGNS St & A-3 K/ (Cu. 4-3 3 A .

(OSU/ 5 3 <Jt S Mfr-f 3 .B A B YLONI AN PERIOD At- . tf- TruM/ If -to 3 JL >+- 3 W. ny- \ OA.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.

3. i^ l* ptr-"T fff-1 ) ' ( aU um-cun.3. Ki! tafutx .20 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS Tvuurdi a MS-*" J.-3 Jr^-p. >N.

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. yum. 2-3 "* < b la 1 ft. .B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 21 O/m4/ur- ijJru/onuvrv -as Iff " 3 3 .

UKKl*t . ***' 'rr 1 <MUL MIC ( Ko^. .22 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS v/lS (f . fttt^i -frOA- .

B A B YLONI AN PERIOD Ou/mAto-- .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. Sat 4^ **>* * **'* *!*' HR 3 If- Hrr 3 .

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS - /3ofru/C7ua/v (7 an. \ffiuod. 3 Nf 3 S 3 1-S w Id. 3 OAJM. 5 5 5" l/ b a* .

it Si 5 UAULK 5" aJi F . ' K/as Kas IK b cum. l ~tun. fcaf hi "t/jun.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 25 T&iurrii (7 ..FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. ^rrr Sttn.

.OAA. Q . .26 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS ou/mc <f . tf /a K/ MI. N* 7 rLati.

BoXru/iTM-Ua/K. a Tluiod.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. cr A.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 27 Cm/Wie/cd".l^-to I] fcff .

.28 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS <f Nff TUJrt/ui. Lvn. ac*aAx MIT Hax- Down- s' W*. 6 .

B A B YLONI AN PERIOD 29 (7 -vtt- 5 5" 5" 5 b ST . i (T aa .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. . s if ?' tan.

. i*aa*jiu^ fo*w. -ut/ L . 5 3 Z. L> TWA.SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS (7 Hi NT e. I VIM.

B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 3! f 7*.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.* 4 If.* h*Jkw- . 5-6 .' L *.

/ci. fu. \iall -V&nsSun. UA- tn.. .SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS A*. .

1 *+* .a(/ il ..FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 33 Otwtu/ur- K- O2 i >vuun<.

S(S tHM. .34 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS its/ . TIU/ . fit.

5" 5 n.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 35 Gu/w &ur(7 ^ 4m* as. uA 5-6 TK-aA.m*. l rnj^h . ( RRf 3.

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m^ ^[ &L Xtt*u O2T .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. r THOL.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 43 3 ry.

fri/i . ( . null .44 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS ^~T TvuadL a H 1- 5-6 . . ( wa . ma? SiAtu. V .

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 45 Ou/w e/ura I- a fri/t . ft 5-6 -M k + 4 2-3 **% 2 5" iffe . ma. ./ 3 3 X.

46 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS Ha Tlu. + 4 Wt 4vL + . i) 6 1 5" 2. 4 VW. Kj .

->r Q a KLuWL. If- ntud/ r L . -ujtwdu.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-BAB YLONI AN PERIOD 47 .

48 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS r- fcoJnjJLtrniamj Is (a.tr.S ' tu r st^ZL 1 LJ ftu/ -*-S<^ tf. t/i .

. (<vnj S</m.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD Hf(7 49 HP- HMt . i nam. * K' 5-6 HS f f P* 3 t Stin.

4.u.SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS MFuruuianuun/ a Klim ^em. ~ quu/m. .di/ I i-3 a/Sia/L . UWWJiC 5-6 Hff . a/ i. .

t.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.&oJnJumjLa/n/ tf TiuW.i*4-.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 5! ^>wm. r OA. Kan. I u Iq HUT 'K J f-4 (o s. JL. . . H8T 3L -WM.

3 it- s' aJfflb tOz. 3 - T si tr D JL .SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS i/ tJL .

lf'ffl i!A KJ u. Ut >f ' /* "? ~^' K/ L ' t -nJJi nn TUtLvn.B AB VLONI AN PERIOD 53 >oJnJt<rrujamj tf r&ulotk U. i aLL t^.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.ul/ ^J: l ma. .

54 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS \J Q -unl felfer So/ (/U/W. . tu/nt.

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 55 Uc "nx/w. "m. ' Q f 1- H- aa. : NP- f//*'. l KJ./*' r-f . i ru>.. ( Ttu^n tu/m.e.

-3 li t t/ .SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS d * . Z SL S. ~'y< wa.

SL 3 U-S K/O jj 3. tU .B A B YLONI AN PERIOD 57 e/txr~ l^aJru^jcmjuJunj i 3.nuh > i *$* .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.

uJL t f-WL ! ^l 3. 4-s3 n. le . . 5- "f . Hfff Ttu/n. SO. Ki a l JU yna.SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS HT Swm V f KCMn.

. . juJu* 5 5-(a K. n . *<^.1: . t3-(o . vun.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD HTTT OU/m^ur</ 59 6*.

7* ^frf . n .6o SI MEKO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS tJ "7 ^frrf 4t &w^tuvuix S<w . .

f ru. &%. tuff UUn.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 6l 6 IM. <3tMV uc t m&t.*. . Ou^ ^ . /tec- ffK/tM.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. ~tu*SL la. .

nuzt/n 9 g/ls /U. ' SCOJ .62 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS a sO ^CJ KM. ' . 1 frfcff JH ik. . ( UUi.

&...B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 63 OWm.&.t/10-. I &. tu f StX .5^4 5 rw V- . | . fc . .Ku. dun.&. ( tu^/< ( 3 at*vnA/u*.&.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.I ff . .

3. <r Zu. . A a ..64 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS c r (7 It- %. 3 3 3 ( 3. f nutA.

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.UJl.5 3 t'/.B AB YLON AN PERIOD I 65 y Oo/wt e/urQ ^n a H Sc '* ko/ia/nu- i^ 3 UMUia. 3 6. X tlM. 3 a/ J j i .

. Ka 5 <u 3 3 3 H- IM. JW. 4</K^ IB KcJr rl.66 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS "- iMJuv/ianui/n/ ^nSSu/u Jtlf. ou/A ( &tif JHT . k .

.3-tf Jfcf S-lo CMH 3. ari. >uiA.. 3.5 JST tdf. < d c.5 t.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 67 Ou/nu/i/r- aJnjJjnua/n. -. .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. f 3 3 lu/.

68 S U M E R O .B A U Y L O N I A N SIGNS reiunjL YHJtn. GUM. Oun. Kus it <t HK <f . . 3 -uwn K<X<K. KA& . Oau I* 3 3 t f 3 . . axd. .

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t* . * ft <<: lawt. .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.B A B YLON AN PERIOD I 75 C Ow^ne if T&uJrtii u Sfe. (A.

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FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. l4-lo 5 5-6 fc . 1A. un.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD HPfeaJnJttmia 8l 9 l^ (U/l( \ tl/ tu.. n t#- KM.

( Arem^ ^/ im. . ' 6 Witt.It/n/ SMftL i*7 air Sown.82 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS OMTjMnu. %'' '/' *<* . kt KMJU. 6 r o r J o-<| | il ( 5-6 y *.

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84 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS OCWTUAXT- l . nt-u. tf 5-6 HMm tfff .

Sum fl uif^'4M> .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. .B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 85 Ou/ww/UT- &li/L >fT 111 -ftr 05 MW " r L cLu</ tax IIM.

1+ . 1.1 Ldi ft ft / Q 'frtwu. s.86 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS C Owntnxr- 1Ha SO/ T 7- fcfft k.1.

W/wt j^u/**-. THO. sj.rw. So- 5 t "WtA S.fi TOO-. .a&r. . y^ n .sf. 5 7*. 6o- . 1-2.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 87 jwmtn/r- /S&^w/urn/uj/n/ (vuiad.

atXa- .88 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS _n a TeuaaL t> riw. .

B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 89 /5a*vZmvn.' if Te/ujm. if . KM S-L. fuwr.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS / ? 6MA. 5 JWL. naJi . 3 3.5-6 3 . t l \u.

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92 SUMERO-BABY4. ' HAS . ttu \UJKl . ?**" / tfi .ONIAN SIGNS OuonT/rv Tiuunl 5- f/k f I : tu .

B A B YLON AN PERIOD I 93 aJtnjJunviaMj tf-. /LUO tOU<4 ( .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.S /' for .&.

. li. Win. . qa/na/m.94 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS Su/m/wr(f (JJL. n . d VOA. -uu.

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. tw.96 SUMERO-BAUYLONIAN SI(iN> - feoJniLsniafn/ Q Ina/ns&AeruitiJm. It. ai * . /e^unst * *1 lif. 3.^-5:6 5 l. : KJUJUMTI. <Au/i Htt7 .

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>" MM. . (a 5 5-6 ( .98 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS <Jrubrnjiam/ (f JL r \t-OJt.

B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 99 CXx/m^/ur<J ^n fenjuxL f a -TO^- 3. 3.0.6 .6 (Arin.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.

Lrad ( t Su.100 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS Ownwicr. wt Su-^- ma/ XrJ I. ..S . Jfc.It vt^L.IjaJrutonuVHs KM.

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FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. ( n xAiAu. .B AB YLONI AN PERIOD IO5 Su/m-wxrf V 7 V s wo/ <U1 dJ vaa. . m a o < Sfetft .

io6 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS f J(vrn>itr. - 51 < (3/H&.iSoJtnMrYlAA/YV 6 JL fT . f h'HU' wtr ZaJna. . ( .

6 fia+Ko^ 4 JU.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.a .. . ko. KO^ .B AB YLONI AN PERIOD t> IO7 >-f- - Qo-fru-iawx. 3.

t* t. . fcff- 3. / I/ a. UA.io8 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS J: (7 I L. So/m/ 3 n--S hr tCT .-S 3 5.

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD IOQ oXruum/iaov atr at al 3-5" <al\ SiU< CAuA/LU/UX' ~njhs StcS-fro/L . *=$$! 0/4. & BT .

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a/m.u4.ttun ' . .. + MP 14--S .i Q K-tff i e. tarn.112 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS Su/me/ur- JM. o tffi -T* um.

5-6 if Lt ' /c . .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. (f (7 a la.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 113 Q (f toLun. f 3.

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B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 115 s&oultmia/n' (/ ( fcAtf f s. T .cc .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.

5 Qwn. ti un. J 5-6 a. Qu/n.. <jki.~tiM.5 ff . f . vi-Uu. .SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS OwmtAir- r&uatiL Ilk/ t 5-t.

SrtiMMJJ* / UL .B AB YLONI AN PERIOD IIJ - i3oMwLcmjuim/ ^/i t> l&uad. ( 7 -O5-SO.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.

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FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.t UA. fcf- . # ^%" I / <MUb la.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD Su/m*iwrif Titled. -.

120 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS r&uavC U. aaL.5-4 Ki. l i P U4l 7l* * T 3. OuA. . x/ fef 1 .

/ UA.5 .B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 121 TenjuidL Ka. 54. & F daJ<.fiu .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. stc. ( . Sewn- 3. NIT .

3. wi/ 1. il.. lam. o.1+ A3 f yuSaarnjAnu.122 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS a (L . ( ' /vut I-3. .

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124 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS Owm/tO"- tsr Jf mil r-a 3.5-4 2-3 .

B A B YLONI AN PERIOD 125 ^H (7 XuAiJ.? .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. S&MM* Kf Is IS u AC. fu-atJ .

3 . ar. Tfw/t . "bUt. *F (ran.Mtf. 3 OMK.126 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS - ea*t^umuwt/ Tiuiad.

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. -out. .128 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS a*utffvula/n/ KIT ^ITT /-a. i a NT Nff .

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO./ OA.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD I2Q Sumwiff- T&uatL d ar AOua ( 3 3 3 AM.dj /t 2-3 . 1 ' ftl . d. S T OAJtU. It .

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FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. \rr Tna. \ aU uJr. rar * '" .B AB YLONI AN PERIOD a QvJL -Cu.

i 3. V l-i X \ to Z 6. .5" .132 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS - feaJniMrnJuOJn.3 V K .

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Sto- 2. .136 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS \ OU/wu/ur. r CM t f* d /.faaAuLnuwn/ ^iSsyw.a <f leriiaoi. t tf dJ am. J Tnu-s . lnul / sin. .

. . ^n i&uatii HWf 3-1 >W*.HJA .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 137 T- feaJruwrnuvn. AOA. f "Uc . XX ." .

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FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. r *HT <#r qt '9 Omuif /C/c S-6 A . dwut.-1--1. S-to AT W - u fr r c^r ai/n. a 3.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 14! \ - i3oJnMrmui/n^ te/uovL tc . Sc .

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Ku. | Ciao/Hii .B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 145 / Se OMA . . 1 .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. j Ml (f .

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COO 7 &.2O6 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS t/wn. tJL. tt . .

B A B YLONI AN PERIOD 2O7 Su/vnet/T.K rp IF 2-S.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. .r .K.rr. rrrrr.tff &^ Kat: DD T.II. f < IT II ttf. /(/ AM.feoJruianui/YL' J m WIT Kam.

lu.0 O/ l-J. 5.(it/ .208 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS T* Sunn-Cut. "' .6 . . . D.5 b if . fc [-*- 3. fc.KTL .' . i-s- S/a/ '' 1-5 7' . Cw.So/uttfHxa/n/ Ld.7.4.

qtme 4. 3't [ a. r ft 3-4 [t-v atn fitmt.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. f IM L tC*cvmfL hu. 3 UW. aanat fyjn. . U l-u- u^x*x .5 K-t .B A B YLONI AN PERIOD 2OQ Swtnvur- ^1 'f&iiaci i f* >-*.

r / e/i i. M . .a. a=~ .2IO SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS - QaJruJunua/n.

3 . f SI ftt 3 a 3 2. PS WO raw? r>r A/ A 53 . .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD T Sowu/urif 211 Touod. Stn.

a i. M. Kvm. (LhSJb dJ am : Aft d /t^ / 3 r>r- . I i f a Tun.y.. nt .212 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS Jts suuam. . Tttn. "3 Cfey 7 " ' '""?/ . ? R Saa.

?l V ?<.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.B AB YLON AN PERIOD I 213 T aJruCffntAm.. . f r mi cm [Mrr Ic 5" ifff O r ' p ( .

1U. f rr Jfc ? GK.-1& a .214 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS oJnwrntjam.* . ' TUt .

rfrr If a.4 rr 1 r-Hg ff* .B A B YLONI AN PERIOD 215 'v A S' Fff-P wc^tn. (.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. IT l!Krc.Fr.rr.

Nff li. . 'Mt. an . tr Cbf JET. i. a..W** /-3 Run..Oux. * of ft > 3 . a FW rnx HK ^KJ.216 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS TT Q a OLtS&n KJUMVH. i an '* no.

rrcr U^4. /A . ' . no/m . Ku. (Wflif . .B AB YLONI AN PERIOD TT 2IJ - isaJnwrnuvn' . / Sfl- .. &M JtsWnuMU. ^*r? THcviu.. t*n. . V* .^ /r >n.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. .

rrr rrr rcr If . i at. us + &. 13 [p. t fe+SC TTT*fc-. t 1 .218 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS TT Stt/WU/UT- .

. f UJLJ Hlt~l tf .1+ A. ' 8 m -wnurruu^ \ at S<L Z.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO.. %"* aJU OAu.B AB YLON AN PERIOD I TTT f t".

Nff ivn.feaJmwnuam* f p* Sdd 4A5vm/ma/w. ruwA. tiu< han.Ns irrr Su/m^/ur.22O SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SKi. . f'O att&4*n*uvuj. IMI . HUT daxl l*.

r !!ff FF Pf oon.a f 0.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD T - 221 rrrr idaJjutcrniM/n. i/ (CcSt TT* i t [ ( Kt /.FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. .

5- 2. ( 7 5.. 6. | -7 i^nx/n.6 w L* 5. 3-6 r w 1/nU/H ( Y itnum. A-04. KJU. 5" W 1. .222 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS W ff W CO.6 fliu.5 . .

D.1 /. (LuA. : DDD . ~UV\.B AB YLONI AN PERIOD 223 I FWq 53 . t (LvHW. 4.a DDD DDDD DDD ( 7 DDDD DDDD DDDDD DDDD . J.a DDD DD .3 DO DD DDDD r \tlJL.P > * .FROM UR-NINA TO NEO. iwl . /.

224 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS J\ .

fe t 2. NUMERALS. S.t .K(. I J-f 3 S(M 1 3 \ 10 t Sf i f t i V bo km t O O UM T /o Jfooo '- /a i-fc 1 T T 3-fe to j-fc D D P 1 loo 3-t 100 J-6 fcffo 5-fc 3-G !/fc<nro R (0 a. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES Jtumvio-- s&HuiifaJU'HJL I Nfr t z-t- S.3.

Ho KO.- Ka. W 5.f- f Ka " ^ Ka. a Ka. 944 To Ka a a / Xa.0*0.t 5-41-4I *r-.t 34. .226 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS - Qo/-wiu* CD too boo a 3 3. s-. 1 30"O Kfl l <T 5. I Ka. 3o 5o 3o aufl. o fco 2 la (O Ka 8 8 lie Ma Ka. 5b I Ka. a 10% = \1o Ka.t 11 Ka s-t Jo Ka 3o Ka if o Ka 14-0 Ka. 3<f -JUA.

3. F F a I/OA. . M .st A. i. " 73. -yj_ VUfl.a a / (offt> UUJ(.f i. ' WM. 4 10 OWL..fc fe* /a . 56 I WltA. *<t /. ^^l few. -. /. . 3-^ FT 3-v 10* K4 S. a 3too 10 <- /a i. /O WA- 3. a a 6<3 fruA. >0 Cru/i (J U1W. t tT> 3A. tf Ka.fc 5&<TO VOA. (f j-fc pu>\~ O T 10 4"*- i a S.a 'f* Iff *4 a.. 227 f *1&irr<**UTljK&yCt~ (SO KA 1% -vu/1 trfM/nd. * |ft(?O VOA. .4- I-* /. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES .NUMERALS. 88 "T" > 3 W4/1. 73Loo -&IAA. / T T T l^^v 5t> do 4***- 3 if S( Ou/i fco K<X I Ata.

a Aivtu.G T^ j-f OUA.228 SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS /.t ' I* S. = 54 Sec idtinu.f i-a / a = 60 l-fc M f (/ -- o& JO f *r . ft ' J. 5 fe y.

II. ^ &. Oa. . . no. r ar . uu. ASSYRIAN SIGNS Q r>unt JubMnu. l .

Uft/uj. (7 . . k^5 _ v<!^-S au.230 ASSYRIAN SIGNS f <la_ Su.

(/ . | Ju. Jt. . 1*1.ASSYRIAN SIGNS 231 f M. tru/m.*V ^Trrf <J* - -^ tfF OuJUu. . flJi-ftu. wamu. Tnu.

OwnuL.. KOAU. 7il^ . KUxS/ /S ' tuX t VUx fA S<jtfc. . Wl. vulu. M . So.4LW. t>-<j4 .232 ASSYRIAN SIGNS <J a t ~ OUMIM- OJuJrtj- so.

f Cafc.ASSYRIAN SIGNS 233 ss<Wat/ f wnu.UA. "tSJ&u. IT 6n. (Mm. HH . |c lei . . r j ifc. Ktr V ? St. JSM fie . < &mui V . .Mrtf KM HL Kut . *w. T .

mxx+vfvu. ut/fc. 7 t&KI ~^a. M1TF . Sum.k . >-* f A. Ka r <v* . QfneJL.234 ASSYRIAN SIGNS ss^/tuwt. (7 "V K<ta. OuAlKM. .

.) . -t-a/r OMA. V ^i . fit KauS.. U/O/uJ.M Si. O/m. V . / - fl/m. (^M. .K4M.ASSYRIAN SIGNS 235 Si. r iitt r <J So^m.

nyy ^ * j wnu-a <> <fr Jl -^ WTUJLOi .3'^ 1C?. eoiSt -tWt /LO.S i-c .-. . I Hift . "^l 1* "tix . . o/mas iW- ^ to 'f ^.236 ASSYRIAN SIGNS <f . 'i.0^u~ O^frOA^ tvJoL So. <l&mjjunn." u/u" T : '* (T .

Kile r T MIT V KoA-Su. "->- . Sa j.ASSYRIAN SIGNS 237 f 6 nan. ( HIH p WFP . w /assco K " 7 MT . .

S*s/ .LjU.&lJ . . Sts . tf . ( -v< *fT Hfr WIA.tiA. > 7 1 v* J^-. .238 ASSYRIAN SIGNS t Lt-.Jj ( MM Sa^u.

. V .WZL/ . .UL. fcgff ^fef SHirT r TUlvru.ASSYRIAN SIGNS 239 UJti&aajj.A l ^ia .

/o m**//L <v sa. .< KA . A*"-'" u.KuA .IF li^. 4e- . f HeMjLeJi ' <} ** . . Stc .240 ASSYRIAN SIGNS trc-r nu/nuY .fU/L ( A. .

no... t.ASSYRIAN SIGNS 24 I --^ (7 4ov f L&Utu. . COW. ' Q f'"*- ff Ku. s tdKt ^'" u. Wjm. OA. VUXU. <hteir Kun. t. <. Si 4^r. HO*. ^. 30 .

Kx' I . 9 444. 444 44 4 444 r*-r 4>0 . iy t nw. [H 44OC11 ^1 -fr4*n.242 ASSYRIAN SK. 1ST X let 7U/L HQWUL WXS. |~~" ^L . .1 44 Jj 44J4.4 T ' A&lJul 7ui**v>n*<. .50 " OO/UIS I .NS T J '>uu/v . 4il I V on. tf o Stt Sana- r 44 444 44 . .

St&uwvcc. .. a uwi .4 ( . ? . ? sew. 243 T l/Uunsfijte/LouCum. 6 fc-w CC5SW. [^ n k. 'T r -no/jOA/tn KC^ ia. Ottiwi .5 OS. rr fff^p. TT ff IT VWwV Six TT iJhui. [^ f"* r rrr T .r^f .. . [7<(4<1 rr ?. kuvt. Sumvwxi^tu.utu. 7 ( ( ^um.* ^&m^*tu.&L*. .ASSYRIAN SIGNS T isso/ud/n.

> 60 . i M < I f (0 o T T T 3t< 1 to (* / mjy>ut 60 *Wt = I r< too 4W ITO S /at .ka.244 ASSYRIAN SIGNS I V " t ktt *rrr 1 Ka. I fca. man.citu.?fe ^ <"^ Ca.

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