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Functions

• The Rectangular Coordinate System

• The Slope of a Line

• Linear Equations in two variables

• Introduction to Functions

The Rectangular Coordinate

System

Plotting ordered pairs.

An “ordered pair” of numbers

is a pair of numbers written

within parenthesis in which

the order of the numbers is

important.

The x-axis and the y-axis

make up a “rectangular or

Cartesian” coordinate

system.

Finding Intercepts:

In the equation of a line, let y = 0 to find the “x-intercept” and let x

= 0 to find the “y-intercept”.

Note: A linear equation with both x and y variables will have both

x- and y-intercepts.

Find the intercepts and draw the graph of 2x –y = 4

x-intercept: Let y = 0 : 2x –0 = 4 2x = 4 x = 2

y-intercept: Let x = 0 : 2(0) – y = 4 -y = 4 y = -4

x-intercept is (2,0)

y-intercept is (0,-4)

The Rectangular Coordinate System

Recognizing equations of vertical and

horizontal lines:

An equation with only the variable x will always intersect the x-axis

and thus will be vertical.

An equation with only the variable y will always intersect the y-axis

and thus will be horizontal.

A) Draw the graph of y = 3

B) Draw the graph of x + 2 = 0 ie x = -2

A) B)

The Rectangular Coordinate System

Finding the slope of a line given an equation of the line:

The slope can be found by solving the equation such that

y is solved for on the left side of the equal sign. This is

called the slope-intercept form of a line. The slope is

the coefficient of x and the other term is the y-intercept.

The slope-intercept form is y = mx + b

• Find the slope of the line given 3x – 4y = 12

3 4 12

4 3 12

3

3

4

x y

y x

y x

÷ =

÷ = ÷ +

= ÷

3

The slope is

4

**The Rectangular Coordinate System
**

The Slope of a Line

Using slope to determine whether two lines are parallel,

perpendicular, or neither:

Two non-vertical lines having the same slope are parallel.

Two non-vertical lines whose slopes are negative reciprocals are

perpendicular.

• Is the line through (-1,2) and (3,5) parallel to the line through (4,7) and (8,10)?

1 2

For line 1: For line 2:

5 2 3 10 7 3

Y

3 (

ES

1) 4 8 4 4

m m

÷ ÷

=

÷

= = =

÷ ÷

The Slope of a Line

Using slope to determine whether two lines are parallel,

perpendicular, or neither:

Two non-vertical lines having the same slope are parallel.

Two non-vertical lines whose slopes are negative reciprocals are perpendicular.

Are the lines 3x + 5y = 6 and 5x - 3y = 2 parallel, perpendicular, or neither?

For line 1: For line 2:

3 5 6 5 - 3 2

5 3 6 3 5 2

3 6 5 2

3 5

is the negative reciprocal of

5

3

5 5 3

3

x y x y

y x y x

y x

Perpendicula

y x

r

+ = =

= ÷ + ÷ = ÷ +

= ÷

+

÷

= ÷

Slope of a Line

x

y

x

1

x

2

y

2

y

1

x

2

÷ x

1

y

2

÷ y

1

m =

rise

run

=

y

2

÷ y

1

x

2

÷ x

1

x

1

, y

1

( )

x

2

, y

2

( )

Slope of a Line

m =

rise

run

=

y

2

÷ y

1

x

2

÷ x

1

Definition of Slope

• The slope of the line is it’s measure of

steepness. It measures the rate of

change of the line. In all lines the slope

is constant, it doesn’t change no matter

where you are at on the line.

Intercepts

• Where the graph crosses the x-axis is

the x-intercept. It has coordinates (a,0).

• Where the graph crosses the y-axis is

the y-intercept. It has coordinates (0,b).

y

x

x-intercept

y-intercept

(a,0)

(0,b)

The x and y intercepts of a line

Example

• Find the x and y intercepts of the line

given by:

y = 2x ÷ 6

Slope Intercept Form

y = mx + b

x

y

x ÷ 0

y ÷ b

x, y ( )

Any point on the line

m =

y ÷ b

x ÷ 0

m =

y ÷ b

x

mx = y ÷ b

0,b ( )

y-intercept

Point Slope Form

y ÷ y

1

= m x ÷ x

1

( )

x

y

x ÷ x

1

y ÷ y

1

x, y ( )

Any point on the line

m =

y ÷ y

1

x ÷ x

1

m x ÷ x

1

( ) = y ÷ y

1

x

1

, y

1

( )

Any fixed

point on the line

Linear Equations in Two Variables

Find an equation of a line with slope and a

given point (3,-4)

2

5

1 1

( )

2

( 4) ( 3)

5

2 6

4

5 5

2 6 20 2 26

5 5 5 5 5

5 2 26 or in standard form 2 5 26 y x

y y m x x

y x

y x

y x x

x y

÷ = ÷

÷ ÷ = ÷

+ = ÷

= ÷ ÷ =

= ÷ ÷ =

÷

Linear Equations in Two Variables

Suppose there is a flat rate of $.20 plus a

charge of $.10/minute to make a phone call.

Write an equation that gives the cost y for a

call of x minutes.

Note: The initial condition is the flat rate of

$.20 and the rate of change is $.10/minute.

Solution: y = .10x + .20

Linear Equations in Two Variables

Forms of Linear Equations

Equation Description When to Use

Y = mx + b

Slope-Intercept Form

slope is m

y-intercept is (0,b)

Given an equation, the slope

and y-intercept can be easily

identified and used to graph

y - y

1

= m(x-x

1

)

Point-Slope Form

slope is m

line passes through (x

1

,y

1

)

This form is ideal to use when

given the slope of a line and

one point on the line or given

two points on the line.

Ax + By = C

Standard Form

(A,B, and C are integers, A 0)

Slope is -(A/B)

x-intercept is (C/A,0)

y-intercept is (0,C/B)

X- and y-intercepts can be found

quickly

y = b

Horizontal line

slope is 0

y-intercept is (0,b)

Graph intersects only the y

axis, is parallel to the x-axis

x = a

Vertical line

slope is undefined

x-intercept is (a,0)

Graph intersects only the x

axis, is parallel to the y-axis

>

Other Dimensions

• Lines in three dimensions

– X,Y,Z planes

• Lines in N dimensions

Relations, Functions

Domain and Range

• The values that make up the set of

independent values are the domain

• The values that make up the set of

dependent values are the range.

Domain Range

Correspondence

or

Relation

Definition of a Relation

• A Relation maps a value from the

domain to the range. A Relation is a

set of ordered pairs.

• The most common types of relations in

algebra map subsets of real numbers to

other subsets of real numbers.

Example

Domain Range

3 π

11 - 2

1.618 2.718

Definition of a Function

• If a relation has the additional

characteristic that each element of the

domain is mapped to one and only one

element of the range then we call the

relation a Function.

Definition of a Function

• If we think of the domain as the set of

boys and the range the set of girls, then

a function is a monogamous

relationship from the domain to the

range. Each boy gets to go out with one

and only one girl.

• But… It does not say anything about the

girls.

• Each X has a single y, but each y can

have multiple x’s

Functions

• A function is a relation in which

the members of the domain (x-

values) DO NOT repeat.

• So, for every x-value there is only

one y-value that corresponds to

it.

• y-values can be repeated.

Functions

• Discrete functions consist of points

that are not connected.

• Continuous functions can be

graphed with a line or smooth curve

and contain an infinite number of

points.

Do the ordered pairs represent a

function?

{(3, 4), (7, 2), (0, -1), (-2, 2), (-5, 0), (3, 3)}

No, 3 is repeated in the domain.

{(4, 1), (5, 2), (8, 2), (9, 8)}

Yes, no x-coordinate is repeated.

x

DOMAIN

y

1

y

2

RANGE

R

NOT A FUNCTION

y

RANGE

f

FUNCTION

x

1

DOMAIN

x

2

Ways to Represent a Function

• Symbolic

x, y ( )y = 2x

{ }

or

y = 2x

X Y

1 2

5 10

-1 -2

3 6

• Graphical

• Numeric

• Verbal

The cost is twice

the original

amount.

Function Notation

The Symbolic Form

• A truly excellent notation. It is concise

and useful.

y = f x ( )

y = f x ( )

• Output Value

• Member of the Range

• Dependent Variable

These are all equivalent

names for the y.

• Input Value

• Member of the Domain

• Independent Variable

These are all equivalent

names for the x.

Name of the

function

Examples of Function

Notation

• The f notation

• Find

f(2), g(-1), f(-0.983),

f x

( )

= 3x ÷ x

2

g x

( )

= x

2

÷ 4x +1

Graphical Representation

• Graphical representation of functions

have the advantage of conveying lots of

information in a compact form. There

are many types and styles of graphs but

in algebra we concentrate on graphs in

the rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate

system.

Graphs and Functions

Domain

Range

Vertical Line Test for

Functions

• If a vertical line intersects a graph once

and only once for each element of the

domain, then the graph is a function.

Functions and Relations

• Function: a set or ordered pairs

with the property that for (x, y) any x

value uniquely determines a single y

value, e.g., curves · or , e.g., mpp

or cost curves

• Relation: ordered pairs with the

property that for (x, y) any x value

determines more than one value of

y e.g., curves c or ,

39

General Functions

• Y = f (X)

• Y is value or dependent variable

(w/ range, vertical axis)

• f is the function or a rule for mapping X

into a unique Y

• X is argument or the independent

variable

(w/ domain, horizontal axis)

40

Specific Functions

• Algebraic functions

Y = a

0

(constant: fixed

costs)

Y = a

0

+ a

1

X (linear: S&D)

Y = a

0

+ a

1

X + a

2

X

2

(quadratic: prod.)

Y = a

0

+ a

1

X + a

2

X

2

+ a

3

X

3

(cubic: t. cost)

Y = a/X (hyperbolic: indiff.)

Y = aX

b

(power: prod. fn)

• Transcendental functions (Ch. 10)

Y = a

X

(exponential:

interest)

lnY = ln(a) + b ln(X) (logarithmic: easier)

(Chiang & Wainwright, p. 22, Fig. 2.8)

41

Digression on exponents

• Rules for exponents

• X

n

= (X*X*X*...*X) n times

• Rule I: X

m

* X

n

= X

m+n

• Rule II:

• Rule III: X

-n

=

• Rule IV: X

0

= 1

• Rule V: X

1/n

=

n

\x

• Rule VI: (X

m

)

n

= X

mn

• Rule VII: X

m

* Y

m

= (XY)

m

n m

n

m

X

X

X

÷

=

1

X

n

42

Levels of generality

• Specific function 1:

specific form and specific parameters

• Y = 10 - .5X

• Specific function 2:

specific form and general parameters

• Y = a – bX

• General function:

general form and no parameters

• Y = f(X)

• f maps X into a unique value of Y

43

Big Deal!

• A point is in the set of

ordered pairs that make up

the function if and only if

the point is on the graph of

the function.

Think

• What is the range for a function x = b?

• Is y = x

2

a function?

• What about y = √x

• What is the slope of a line that is parallel to

the x-axis, and one that is parallel to the y

axis

• Which of the two lines has a higher slope in

the diagram in the next slide

Line 1

Line 2

Y

X

0,0

Plotting ordered pairs. An “ordered pair” of numbers is a pair of numbers written within parenthesis in which the order of the numbers is important. The x-axis and the y-axis make up a “rectangular or Cartesian” coordinate system.

The Rectangular Coordinate System

**The Rectangular Coordinate System
**

Finding Intercepts:

In the equation of a line, let y = 0 to find the “x-intercept” and let x = 0 to find the “y-intercept”. Note: A linear equation with both x and y variables will have both x- and y-intercepts. Find the intercepts and draw the graph of 2x –y = 4 x-intercept: Let y = 0 : 2x –0 = 4 2x = 4 x=2 y-intercept: Let x = 0 : 2(0) – y = 4 -y = 4 y = -4 x-intercept is (2,0) y-intercept is (0,-4)

**The Rectangular Coordinate System
**

Recognizing equations of vertical and horizontal lines:

An equation with only the variable x will always intersect the x-axis and thus will be vertical. An equation with only the variable y will always intersect the y-axis and thus will be horizontal. A) Draw the graph of y = 3 B) Draw the graph of x + 2 = 0 ie x = -2

A) B)

This is called the slope-intercept form of a line. The slope is the coefficient of x and the other term is the y-intercept.The Rectangular Coordinate System Finding the slope of a line given an equation of the line: The slope can be found by solving the equation such that y is solved for on the left side of the equal sign. The slope-intercept form is y = mx + b • Find the slope of the line given 3x – 4y = 12 3 x 4 y 12 4 y 3 x 12 3 y x3 4 3 The slope is 4 .

5) parallel to the line through (4.The Slope of a Line Using slope to determine whether two lines are parallel.7) and (8. perpendicular. or neither: Two non-vertical lines having the same slope are parallel. Two non-vertical lines whose slopes are negative reciprocals are perpendicular.10)? For line 1: 52 3 m1 3 (1) 4 YES For line 2: 10 7 3 m2 84 4 .2) and (3. • Is the line through (-1.

or neither: Two non-vertical lines having the same slope are parallel. Two non-vertical lines whose slopes are negative reciprocals are perpendicular.The Slope of a Line Using slope to determine whether two lines are parallel. or neither? For line 1: 3x 5 y 6 5 y 3 x 6 y 3 6 x 5 5 For line 2: 5x .3y = 2 parallel. perpendicular. Are the lines 3x + 5y = 6 and 5x . perpendicular.3 y 2 3 y 5 x 2 y 5 2 x 3 3 3 5 is the negative reciprocal of 5 3 Perpendicular .

y2 y2 y1 x1 .y1 y2 y1 x2 x1 x x1 x2 .Slope of a Line y rise y2 y1 m run x2 x1 x2 .

Slope of a Line rise y2 y1 m run x2 x1 .

In all lines the slope is constant. it doesn’t change no matter where you are at on the line. . It measures the rate of change of the line.Definition of Slope • The slope of the line is it’s measure of steepness.

• Where the graph crosses the y-axis is the y-intercept.0). It has coordinates (0. It has coordinates (a.Intercepts • Where the graph crosses the x-axis is the x-intercept.b). .

0) x .b) x-intercept (a.The x and y intercepts of a line y y-intercept (0.

Example • Find the x and y intercepts of the line given by: y 2x 6 .

b x0 x .y y-intercept yb 0.Slope Intercept Form yb yb mx y b y mx b m m x0 x y Any point on the line x.

Point Slope Form y y1 m mx x1 y y1 y y1 mx x1 x x1 y Any point on the line Any fixed point on the line x.y1 y y1 x x1 x .y x1 .

-4) y y1 m( x x1 ) 2 ( x 3) 5 2 6 y4 x 5 5 2 6 20 2 26 y x x 5 5 5 5 5 5 y 2 x 26 or in standard form 2 x 5 y 26 y (4) 2 5 and a .Linear Equations in Two Variables Find an equation of a line with slope given point (3.

Linear Equations in Two Variables Suppose there is a flat rate of $.10/minute.10/minute to make a phone call. Note: The initial condition is the flat rate of $.20 . Solution: y = .20 and the rate of change is $.20 plus a charge of $. Write an equation that gives the cost y for a call of x minutes.10x + .

0) When to Use Y = mx + b Given an equation. is parallel to the x-axis Graph intersects only the x axis.y1 = m(x-x 1) Ax + By = C X.C/B) Horizontal line slope is 0 y-intercept is (0. the slope and y-intercept can be easily identified and used to graph This form is ideal to use when given the slope of a line and one point on the line or given two points on the line.b) Vertical line slope is undefined x-intercept is (a. and C are integers.and y-intercepts can be found quickly y=b Graph intersects only the y axis.0) y-intercept is (0.y1) Standard Form (A. is parallel to the y-axis x=a . A 0) Slope is -(A/B) x-intercept is (C/A.Linear Equations in Two Variables Forms of Linear Equations Equation Description Slope-Intercept Form slope is m y-intercept is (0. y .B.b) Point-Slope Form slope is m line passes through (x 1.

Z planes • Lines in N dimensions .Other Dimensions • Lines in three dimensions – X.Y.

Relations. Functions .

Domain and Range • The values that make up the set of independent values are the domain • The values that make up the set of dependent values are the range. .

Domain Correspondence or Relation Range .

• The most common types of relations in algebra map subsets of real numbers to other subsets of real numbers. .Definition of a Relation • A Relation maps a value from the domain to the range. A Relation is a set of ordered pairs.

718 .Example Domain 3 11 1.618 Range π -2 2.

Definition of a Function • If a relation has the additional characteristic that each element of the domain is mapped to one and only one element of the range then we call the relation a Function. .

Each boy gets to go out with one and only one girl. • But… It does not say anything about the girls. then a function is a monogamous relationship from the domain to the range. • Each X has a single y.Definition of a Function • If we think of the domain as the set of boys and the range the set of girls. but each y can have multiple x’s .

Functions • A function is a relation in which the members of the domain (xvalues) DO NOT repeat. • So. • y-values can be repeated. for every x-value there is only one y-value that corresponds to it. .

Functions • Discrete functions consist of points that are not connected. • Continuous functions can be graphed with a line or smooth curve and contain an infinite number of points. .

(9. (-5.Do the ordered pairs represent a function? {(3. (5. (7. 2). 2). (3. 8)} Yes. 3 is repeated in the domain. (8. no x-coordinate is repeated. {(4. (0. 3)} No. 2). . 2). -1). (-2. 0). 1). 4).

NOT A FUNCTION R x y1 y2 DOMAIN RANGE .

FUNCTION f x1 y x2 DOMAIN RANGE .

y y 2x or y 2x • Numeric X Y 1 2 5 10 -1 -2 3 6 • Graphical • Verbal The cost is twice the original amount. .Ways to Represent a Function • Symbolic x.

Function Notation The Symbolic Form • A truly excellent notation. y f x . It is concise and useful.

.y f x Name of the function • Output Value • Member of the Range • Dependent Variable These are all equivalent names for the y. • Input Value • Member of the Domain • Independent Variable These are all equivalent names for the x.

. f(-0.983). g(-1).Examples of Function Notation • The f notation f x 3x x 2 2 gx x 4 x 1 • Find f(2).

There are many types and styles of graphs but in algebra we concentrate on graphs in the rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system.Graphical Representation • Graphical representation of functions have the advantage of conveying lots of information in a compact form. .

Graphs and Functions Range Domain .

then the graph is a function.• If a vertical line intersects a graph once and only once for each element of the domain. Vertical Line Test for Functions .

g.g.• Function: a set or ordered pairs with the property that for (x. e. curves or . y) any x value uniquely determines a single y value. mpp or cost curves • Relation: ordered pairs with the property that for (x.g.. 39 Functions and Relations . e. y) any x value determines more than one value of y e. curves or ...

vertical axis) • f is the function or a rule for mapping X into a unique Y • X is argument or the independent variable (w/ domain.General Functions • Y = f (X) • Y is value or dependent variable (w/ range. horizontal axis) 40 .

) (power: prod.Specific Functions • Algebraic functions Y = a0 costs) Y = a0+ a 1 X Y = a0 + a1X + a2X2 Y = a0 + a1X + a2X2 + a3X3 Y = a/X Y = aXb (constant: fixed (linear: S&D) (quadratic: prod. cost) (hyperbolic: indiff. fn) • Transcendental functions (Ch. 10) Y = aX interest) lnY = ln(a) + b ln(X) (exponential: (logarithmic: easier) 41 .) (cubic: t.

Digression on exponents • Rules for exponents • Xn = (X*X*X*..*X) n times • Rule I: • Rule II: • Rule III: • Rule IV: Xm * Xn = Xm+n Xm Xn X mn 1 X-n = X n X0 = 1 • Rule V: • Rule VI: • Rule VII: X1/n =nx (Xm)n = Xmn Xm * Ym = (XY)m 42 ..

Levels of generality • Specific function 1: specific form and specific parameters • Y = 10 ..5X • Specific function 2: specific form and general parameters • Y = a – bX • General function: general form and no parameters • Y = f(X) • f maps X into a unique value of Y 43 .

.Big Deal! • A point is in the set of ordered pairs that make up the function if and only if the point is on the graph of the function.

Think • • • • What is the range for a function x = b? Is y = x2 a function? What about y = √x What is the slope of a line that is parallel to the x-axis. and one that is parallel to the y axis • Which of the two lines has a higher slope in the diagram in the next slide .

Y Line 1 Line 2 0.0 X .

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