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IEC Guide (English)

IEC Guide (English)

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A
A. contents B. general - installed power
1. methodology 2. rules and statutory regulations
2.1 definition of voltage ranges
table B1 standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V (IEC 38-1983) table B2 standard voltages above 1 kV and not exceeding 35 kV (IEC 38-1983) B1 B3 B3 B3 B3 B4 B4 B5 B6 B6 B6 B7 B8 B8 B9 B10 B10 B10 A1

2.2 regulations 2.3 standards 2.4 quality and safety of an electrical installation 2.5 initial testing of an installation 2.6 periodic check-testing of an installation
table B3 frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation

2.7 conformity (with standards and specifications) of equipment used in the installation

3. motor, heating and lighting loads
3.1 induction motors
table B4 power and current values for typical induction motors

3.2 direct-current motors
table B6 progressive starters with voltage ramp table B7 progressive starters with current limitation

3.3 resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen)

B11 table B8 current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or halogen) appliances B11 B11 B12 B12 B13 B13 B14 B14 B15 B15 B16 B16 B17 B17 B17 B17 table B10 current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent lighting tubes (at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz) table B11 current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (at 220 V/240 V - 50 Hz)

3.4 fluorescent lamps and related equipment

3.5 discharge lamps
table B12 current demands of discharge lamps

4. power loading of an installation
4.1 installed power (kW) 4.2 installed apparent power (kVA)
table B13 estimation of installed apparent power

4.3 estimation of actual maximum kVA demand
table B14 simultaneity factors in an apartment block table B16 factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 439) table B17 factor of simultaneity according to circuit function

4.4 example of application of factors ku and ks
table B18 an example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the factor values used are for demonstration purposes only)

contents - A1

contents (continued)

A
B. general - installed power (continued)
4. power loading of an installation (continued)
4.5 diversity factor 4.6 choice of transformer rating
table B19 IEC-standardized kVA ratings of HV/LV 3-phase distribution transformers and corresponding nominal full-load current values B18 B18 B18 B19

4.7 choice of power-supply sources

C. HV/LV distribution substations
1. supply of power at high voltage
1.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks
table C1 relating nominal system voltages with corresponding rated system voltages (r.m.s. values) table C2 switchgear rated insulation levels table C3A transformers rated insulation levels in series I (based on current practice other than in the United States of America and some other countries) table C3B transformers rated insulation levels in series II (based on current practice in the United States of America and some other countries) table C4 standard short-circuit current-breaking ratings extracted from table X IEC 56 C1 C1 C2 C3 C3 C4 C4 C11 C13 C15 C15 C17 C17 C22 C25 C26 C27 C31 C31 C34 C34 C36 C37 C38 C38 C41 C42 C44 C44 C46 C48 C49 C49 C49 C52

1.2 different HV service connections 1.3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks

2. consumers HV substations
2.1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation

3. substation protection schemes
3.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages 3.2 electrical protection
table C18 power limits of transformers with a maximum primary current not exceeding 45 A table C19 rated current (A) of HV fuses for transformer protection according to IEC 282-1 table C20 3-phase short-circuit currents of typical distribution transformers

3.3 protection against thermal effects 3.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres

4. the consumer substation with LV metering
4.1 general 4.2 choice of panels
table C27 standard short-circuit MVA and current ratings at different levels of nominal voltage

4.3 choice of HV switchgear panel for a transformer circuit 4.4 choice of HV/LV transformer
table C31 categories of dielectric fluids table C32 safety measures recommended in electrical installations using dielectric liquids of classes 01, K1, K2 or K3

5. a consumer substation with HV metering
5.1 general 5.2 choice of panels 5.3 parallel operation of transformers

6. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations
6.1 different types of substation 6.2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear 6.3 outdoor substations
A2 - contents

A
7. appendix 1 : example in coordination of the characteristics of an HV switch-fuse combination protecting an HV/LV transformer
7.1 transfert current and take-over current 7.2 types of faults involved in the transfer region
App C1-1 App C1-2 App C1-3

8. appendix 2 : ground-surface potential gradients due to earth-fault currents 9. appendix 3 : vector diagram of ferro-resonance at 50Hz (or 60 Hz)

App C2-1

App C3-1

D. low-voltage service connections
1. low-voltage public distribution networks
1.1 low-voltage consumers
table D1 survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world. table D2 D1 D1 D1 D6 D7 D10 D13 D14

1.2 LV distribution networks 1.3 the consumer-service connection 1.4 quality of supply voltage

2. tariffs and metering

E. power factor improvement and harmonic filtering
1. power factor improvement
1.1 the nature of reactive energy 1.2 plant and appliances requiring reactive current 1.3 the power factor 1.4 tan ϕ 1.5 practical measurement of power factor 1.6 practical values of power factor
table E5 example in the calculation of active and reactive power table E7 values of cos ϕ and tan ϕ for commonly-used plant and equipment E1 E1 E2 E2 E3 E4 E4 E4 E4 E5 E5 E5 E5 E6 E6 E7 E8 E9 E9 E9 E10

2. why improve the power factor?
2.1 reduction in the cost of electricity 2.2 technical/economic optimization
table E8 multiplying factor for cable size as a function of cos ϕ

3. how to improve the power factor
3.1 theoretical principles 3.2 by using what equipment? 3.3 the choice between a fixed or automatically-regulated bank of capacitors

4. where to install correction capacitors
4.1 global compensation 4.2 compensation by sector 4.3 individual compensation

contents - A3

contents (continued)

A
E. power factor improvement and harmonic filtering (continued)
5. how to decide the optimum level of compensation
5.1 general method 5.2 simplified method
table E17 kvar to be installed per kW of load, to improve the power factor of an installation E11 E11 E11 E12 E13 E13 E14 E14 E14 E15 E16

5.3 method based on the avoidance of tariff penalties 5.4 method based on reduction of declared maximum apparent power (kVA)

6. compensation at the terminals of a transformer
6.1 compensation to increase the available active power output
table E20 active-power capability of fully-loaded transformers, when supplying loads at different values of power factor

6.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer
table E24 reactive power consumption of distribution transformers with 20 kV primary windings

7. compensation at the terminals of an induction motor E17
7.1 connection of a capacitor bank and protection settings
table E26 reduction factor for overcurrent protection after compensation E17 E17 E18 E19

7.2 how self-excitation of an induction motor can be avoided
table E28 maximum kvar of P.F. correction applicable to motor terminals without risk of self-excitation

8. example of an installation before and after power-factor correction 9. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor bank
9.1 problems arising from power-system harmonics 9.2 possible solutions 9.3 choosing the optimum solution
table E30 choice of solutions for limiting harmonics associated with a LV capacitor bank

E20

E21 E21 E21 E22 E22 E23 E24 E24 E25

9.4 possible effects of power-factor-correction capacitors on the power-supply system

10. implementation of capacitor banks
10.1 capacitor elements 10.2 choice of protection, control devices, and connecting cables

11. appendix 1 : elementary harmonic filters 12. appendix 2 : harmonic suppression reactor for a single (power factor correction) capacitor bank

App E3-1

App E4-1

F. distribution within a low-voltage installation
1. general
1.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution 1.2 the main LV distribution board 1.3 transition from IT to TN
F1 F1 F4 F4

A4 - contents

A
2. essential services standby supplies
2.1 continuity of electric-power supply 2.2 quality of electric-power supply
table F10 assumed levels of transient overvoltage possible at different points of a typical installation table F12 typical levels of impulse withstand voltage of industrial circuit breakers labelled Uimp = 8 kV table F18 compatibility levels for installation materials F5 F5 F6 F8 F8 F13

3. safety and emergency-services installations, and standby power supplies
3.1 safety installations 3.2 standby reserve-power supplies 3.3 choice and characteristics of reserve-power supplies
table F21 table showing the choice of reserve-power supply types according to application requirements and acceptable supply-interruption times

F15 F15 F15 F16 F16 F17 F17 F18 F19 F19 F20 F21 F23 F29 F30 F31 F32 F33 F33 F36 F36 F37 F38 F38 F39 F39 F41 F41 F41 F43 F44 F45 F46

3.4 choice and characteristics of different sources
table F22 table of characteristics of different sources

3.5 local generating sets

4. earthing schemes
4.1 earthing connections
table F25 list of exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts

4.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes 4.3 earthing schemes characteristics 4.4.1 choice criteria 4.4.2 comparison for each criterion 4.5 choice of earthing method - implementation 4.6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes
table F47 resistivity (Ω-m) for different kinds of terrain table F48 mean values of resistivity (Ω-m) for an approximate estimation of an earth-electrode resistance with respect to zero-potential earth

5. distribution boards
5.1 types of distribution board 5.2 the technologies of functional distribution boards 5.3 standards 5.4 centralized control

6. distributors
6.1 description and choice 6.2 conduits, conductors and cables
table F60 selection of wiring systems table F61 erection of wiring systems table F62 some examples of installation methods table F63 designation code for conduits according to the most recent IEC publications table F64 designation of conductors and cables according to CENELEC code for harmonized cables table F66 commonly used conductors and cables

contents - A5

contents (continued)

A
F. distribution within a low-voltage installation (continued)
7. external influences
7.1 classification
table F67 concise list of important external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 364-3) F47 F47 F48 F49

7.2 protection by enclosures: IP code

G. protection against electric shocks
1. general
1.1 electric shock 1.2 direct and indirect contact
G1 G1 G1 G2 G2 G3 G4 G4 G4 G4 G5 G6 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 G13 G13

2. protection against direct contact
2.1 measures of protection against direct contact 2.2 additional measure of protection against direct contact

3. protection against indirect contact
3.1 measure of protection by automatic disconnection of the supply
table G8 maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 50 V table G9 maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 25 V

3.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation
table G11 maximum operating times of RCCBs (IEC 1008)

3.3 automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation
table G13 maximum disconnection times specified for TN earthing schemes (IEC 364-4-41)

3.4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed system
table G18 maximum disconnection times specified for an IT-earthed installation (IEC 364-4-41)

3.5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without circuit disconnection

4. implementation of the TT system
4.1 protective measures
table G26 the upper limit of resistance for an installation earthing electrode which must not be exceeded, for given sensitivity levels of RCDs at UL voltage limits of 50 V and 25 V

G13 G14 G15 G18 G18 G18 G20 G20 G20 G21 G21 G22 G22 G23

4.2 types of RCD 4.3 coordination of differential protective devices

5. implementation of the TN system
5.1 preliminary conditions 5.2 protection against indirect contact
table G42 correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46 for TN systems table G43 maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and instantaneous-tripping-current settings for general-purpose circuit breakers table G44 maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and rated currents for type B circuit breakers table G45 maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type C table G46 maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type D or MA Merlin Gerin

5.3 high-sensitivity RCDs 5.4 protection in high fire-risk locations 5.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high
A6 - contents

A
6. implementation of the IT system
6.1 preliminary conditions
table G53 essential functions in IT schemes G24 G24 G24 G25 G28 G29 G29 G30 G31 G31 G31 G32 G33 G34 G34

6.2 protection against indirect contact
table G59 correction factors, for IT-earthed systems, to apply to the circuit lengths given in tables G43 to G46

6.3 high-sensitivity RCDs 6.4 in areas of high fire-risk 6.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high

7. residual current differential devices (RCDs)
7.1 description 7.2 application of RCDs
table G70 electromagnetic compatibility withstand-level tests for RCDs table G72 means of reducing the ratio I∆n/lph (max.)

7.3 choice of characteristics of a residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB - IEC 1008)
table G74 typical manufacturers coordination table for RCCBs, circuit breakers, and fuses

H. the protection of circuits and the switchgear H1. the protection of circuits
1. general
1.1 methodology and definitions
table H1-1 logigram for the selection of cable size and protective-device rating for a given circuit H1-1 H1-1 H1-1 H1-3 H1-4 H1-5 H1-5 H1-5 H1-6 H1-8 H1-9

1.2 overcurrent protection principles 1.3 practical values for a protection scheme 1.4 location of protective devices
table H1-7 general rules and exceptions concerning the location of protective devices

1.5 cables in parallel 1.6 worked example of cable calculations
table H1-9 calculations carried out with ECODIAL software (Merlin Gerin) table H1-10 example of short-circuit current evaluation

2. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors
2.1 general
table H1-11 logigram for the determination of minimum conductor size for a circuit

H1-10 H1-10 H1-10 H1-10 H1-10 H1-11 H1-11 H1-12 H1-13

2.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits
table H1-12 code-letter reference, depending on type of conductor and method of installation table H1-13 factor K1 according to method of circuit installation (for further examples refer to IEC 364-5-52 table 52H) table H1-14 correction factor K2 for a group of conductors in a single layer table H1-15 correction factor K3 for ambient temperature other than 30 °C table H1-17 case of an unburied circuit: determination of the minimum cable size (c.s.a.), derived from the code letter; conductor material; insulation material and the fictitious current I'z

contents - A7

the protection of circuits (continued) 2. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) 2.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current table H1-49 maximum circuit lengths in metres for copper conductors (for aluminium.a. the protection of circuits and the switchgear (continued) H1.contents H1-28 H1-29 H1-29 H1-29 H1-30 .1 short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a HV/LV distribution transformer table H1-32 typical values of Usc for different kVA ratings of transformers with HV windings i 20 kV table H1-33 Isc at the LV terminals of 3-phase HV/LV transformers supplied from a HV system with a 3-phase fault level of 500 MVA. type of insulation. determination of voltage drop 3.62) table H1-50 maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by B-type circuit breakers table H1-51 maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by C-type circuit breakers table H1-52 maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by D-type circuit breakers table H1-53 correction factors to apply to lengths obtained from tables H1-49 to H1-52 A8 . short-circuit current calculations 4. in a 230/400 V 3-phase system H1-24 H1-25 H1-26 H1-26 4.1 maximum voltage-drop limit table H1-26 maximum voltage-drop limits H1-17 H1-17 H1-17 H1-18 H1-18 H1-18 H1-20 H1-20 H1-20 H1-20 H1-21 H1-21 H1-22 H1-23 H1-23 H1-23 3. reactance and impedance values for typical distribution transformers with HV windings i 20 kV table H1-38 recapitulation table of impedances for different parts of a power-supply system table H1-39 example of short-circuit current calculations for a LV installation supplied at 400 V (nominal) from a 1. in volts per ampere per km 4. or 250 MVA 4. of the intervening conductors. in terms of a known upstream fault-current value and the length and c.2 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation table H1-36 the impedance of the HV network referred to the LV side of the HV/LV transformer table H1-37 resistance. in terms of type of conductor.contents (continued) A H. and value of fictitious current I'z (I'z = Iz) K H1-14 H1-14 H1-14 H1-15 H1-15 H1-15 3. the lengths must be multiplied by 0.4 short-circuit current supplied by an alternator or an inverter 5.a. particular cases of short-circuit current 5.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits table H1-19 correction factor K4 related to the method of installation table H1-20 correction factor K5 for the grouping of several circuits in one layer table H1-21 correction factor K6 for the nature of the soil table H1-22 correction factor K7 for soil temperatures different than 20 °C table H1-24 case of a buried circuit: minimum c.3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc at its sending end table H1-40 Isc at a point downstream.s.000 kVA HV/LV transformer 4.2 calculation of voltage drops in steady load conditions table H1-28 voltage-drop formulae table H1-29 phase-to-phase voltage drop ∆U for a circuit.s.

2 verification of the withstand capabilities of cables under short-circuit conditions table H1-54 value of the constant k2 table H1-55 maximum allowable thermal stress for cables (expressed in amperes2 x seconds x 106) H1-31 H1-31 H1-31 H1-32 H1-32 H1-33 H1-33 6.1 elementary switching devices table H2-7 utilization categories of LV a. in terms of transformer ratings and fault-clearance times used in France H1-35 6.2 conductor dimensioning table H1-60 minimum c. the neutral conductor 7.2 switchgear selection contents . the basic functions of LV switchgear table H2-1 basic functions of LV switchgear H2-1 H2-1 H2-1 H2-1 H2-2 H2-2 H2-4 H2-4 H2-5 H2-5 H2-7 H2-9 H2-11 H2-11 H2-11 H2-11 1.'s for PE conductors and earthing conductors (to the installation earth electrode) table H1-61 k factor values for LV PE conductors. of PE conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the MGDB.c.a.3 protective conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the main general distribution board (MGDB) 6. the switchgear and fusegear 2.A 5. switches according to IEC 947-3 table H2-8 factor "n" used for peak-to-rms value (IEC 947-part 1) table H2-13 zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses (IEC 269-1 and 269-2-1) 2.1 connection and choice table H1-59 choice of protective conductors (PE) 6. commonly used in national standards and complying with IEC 724 H1-34 H1-34 H1-35 table H1-63 c.1 electrical protection 1.1 tabulated functional capabilities table H2-19 functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear 3.s.s.A9 .2 combined switchgear elements 3. the switchgear 1.1 dimensioning the neutral conductor 7.2 protection of the neutral conductor table H1-65 table of protection schemes for neutral conductors in different earthing systems H1-35 H1-36 H1-36 H1-36 H1-37 H2.4 equipotential conductor 7.a.2 isolation table H2-2 peak value of impulse voltage according to normal service voltage of test specimen 1.3 switchgear control 2. protective earthing conductors (PE) 6. choice of switchgear 3.

1 standards and descriptions 4.5 the protection of standby and mobile a. for several transformers in parallel H2-20 H2-21 H2-23 H2-25 H2-27 H2-28 H2-29 H2-32 4.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker table H2-28 tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices for LV circuit breakers table H2-31 Icu related to power factor (cos ϕ) of fault-current circuit (IEC 947-2) 4. the switchgear (continued) 4.2 protection of essential services circuits supplied in emergencies from an alternator 1.contents (continued) A H2.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker H2-18 table H2-34 relation between rated breaking capacity Icu and rated making capacity Icm at different power-factor values of short-circuit current. generating sets 2.1 what is an inverter? 2.7 earthing schemes A10 . as standardized in IEC 947-2 H2-19 4.2 types of UPS system J10 J10 J10 table J2-4 examples of different possibilities and applications of inverters.5 UPS systems and their environment 2.4 choice of a UPS system 2.4 methods of approximate calculation table J1-7 procedure for the calculation of 3-phase short-circuit current table J1-8 procedure for the calculation of 1-phase to neutral short-circuit current J1 J1 J4 J5 J6 J6 J7 J9 1.3 choice of tripping units 1.6 discrimination HV/LV in a consumer's substation J. in decontamination of supplies and in UPS schemes J11 J11 J12 J14 J15 J17 2.1 an alternator on short-circuit 1.contents . protection of circuits supplied by an alternator 1. particular supply sources and loads 1. according to temperature table H2-40 different tripping units.5 coordination between circuit breakers table H2-45 example of cascading possibilities on a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation table H2-49 summary of methods and components used in order to achieve discriminative tripping 4.3 standards 2.c. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) 2. instantaneous or short-time delayed table H2-43 maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal circuit breakers (CBM and CBP respectively).6 putting into service and technology of UPS systems 2. circuit breakers table H2-20 functions performed by a circuit breaker/disconnector H2-12 H2-12 H2-12 H2-15 H2-16 H2-17 4.4 selection of a circuit breaker table H2-38 examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to CBs with uncompensated thermal tripping units.

10 complementary equipments 3. and supplying the load for UPS system Maxipac (cable lengths < 100 m) table J2-23 currents and c.7 supply sources for emergency lighting 5.2 lamps and accessories (luminaires) table J4-1 analysis of disturbances in fluorescent-lighting circuits 4.1 transformer-energizing in-rush current 3.A 2. asynchronous motors 5. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier. protection of LV/LV transformers 3.c. for a copper-cored cable table J2-22 currents and c. lighting circuits 4. output and battery currents for UPS system EPS 5000 (Merlin Gerin) J20 J21 J21 J21 J22 J23 J24 J25 J25 J25 J26 J26 J26 J26 J27 J27 J28 J29 J29 J30 J30 J31 J31 2.4 preventive or limitative protection contents .3 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers table J3-5 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers 3.1 service continuity 4. for high-pressure discharge lamps table J4-4 current ratings of circuit breakers related to the number of fluorescent luminaires to be protected J31 J32 J32 J33 J33 J34 J35 J36 J36 J37 J38 J38 J39 J41 4.5 choice of control-switching devices table J4-5 types of remote control 4.a.A11 .9 choice of protection schemes 2.s.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker table J4-2 protective circuit breaker ratings for incandescent lamps and resistive-type heating circuits table J4-3 maximum limit of rated current per outgoing lighting circuit.8 choice of main-supply and circuit cables.6 protection of ELV lighting circuits 4. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier.1 protective and control functions required table J5-2 commonly-used types of LV motor-supply circuits 5.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay table J5-4 utilization categories for contactors (IEC 947-4) 5.3 the circuit and its protection 4.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer 3. Battery cable data are also included table J2-24 input.s.2 standards 5. and cables for the battery connection table J2-21 voltage drop in % of 324 V d. and supplying the load for UPS system EPS 2000 (cable lengths < 100 m).a. using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers table J3-6 protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings table J3-7 protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings table J3-8 protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings table J3-9 protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings 4.

3 protection of persons 1. Appendix : Short-circuit characteristics of an alternator App J1-1 L.contents (continued) A J.s.4 circuits table L1-9 recommended minimum number of lighting and power points in domestic premises table L1-11 c.3 choice of protective device table J6-5 choice of d. of aluminium conductors are shown in brackets) L1 L1 L2 L4 L6 L6 L7 L8 L8 L10 L10 2.6 reactive-energy compensation (power-factor correction) 6.a.4 examples 6.contents . circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin Gerin 6. and of protective switchgear table J6-4 characteristics of protective switchgear according to type of d.c.s. particular supply sources and loads (continued) 5.3 requirements prescribed for each zone 3. recommendations applicable to special installations and locations L11 A12 . system earthing 6.c. domestic and similar premises 1.1 short-circuit currents 6. protection of direct-current installations 6.2 equipotential bonding 2.1 classification of zones 2. bathrooms and showers 2.5 maximum rating of motors installed for consumers supplied at LV table J5-12 maximum permitted values of starting current for direct-on-line LV motors (230/400 V) table J5-13 maximum permitted power ratings for LV direct-on-line-starting motors J43 J43 J43 J43 J44 J44 J45 J45 J45 J46 J46 J47 5. asynchronous motors (continued) 5.a.2 distribution-board components 1.2 characteristics of faults due to insulation failure.5 protection of persons 7. of conductors and current rating of the protective devices in domestic installations (the c.1 general 1. domestic and similar premises and special locations 1.

at high voltage or low voltage. can affect their level of resistance to external influences. together with distribution boards and cableways.installed power service connection This connection can be made at: c High Voltage: a consumer-type substation will then have to be studied. and activities practised in them.) together with the location and magnitude of each load shown on a building plan. F .1. E . listing of power demands The study of a proposed electrical installation necessitates an adequate understanding of all governing rules and regulations. Metering at high-voltage or low-voltage is possible in this case c Low Voltage: the installation will be connected to the local power network and will (necessarily) be metered according to LV tariffs. Local information regarding tariff structures is also required to permit the best choice of connection arrangement to the power-supply network.distribution within a low-voltage installation protection against electric shock The system of earthing (TT. The list will include the total power of the loads installed as well as an estimation of the actual loads to be supplied. are readily obtained. A knowledge of the operating modes of power-consuming appliances. in order to achieve protection of persons against the hazards of direct and indirect contact. The number and characteristics of standby emergency-supply sources are defined.power factor improvement LV distribution The whole of the installation distribution network is studied as a complete system. are determined from building plans and from the location and grouping of loads. i. The kinds of location. allow a listing of power demands to be compiled. starting conditions.general .g. and is carried out locally. as deduced from the operating modes. globally or as a combination of both methods. corresponding chapter B . C . This substation may be an outdoor or indoor installation conforming to relevant standards and regulations (the low-voltage section may be studied separately if necessary).B1 .low-voltage service connections reactive energy The compensation of reactive energy within electrical installations normally concerns only power factor improvement. non-simultaneous operation. built and equipped.e. "loads" (steady-state demand.protection against electric shock general . constraints related to the power-supply. IT or TN) having been previously determined. it remains. to choose an appropriate scheme of protection. Earth-bonding connections and neutralearthing arrangements are chosen according to local regulations.HV/LV distribution substations D . The hardware components of distribution.installed power . methodology B the study of an electrical installation by means of this guide requires the reading of the entire text in the order in which the chapters are presented. and to the nature of the installation loads. From these data the power required from the supply source and (where appropriate) the number of sources necessary for an adequate supply to the installation. G . e. etc.

c calculation of voltage drops. the cross-sectional area of circuit conductors can be determined. Before adopting the conductor size indicated above. c verification of the protection of persons. in accordance with IEC standards and recommendations. c specific loads with special characteristics. c calculation of short-circuit currents. such as direct-current networks.installed power . c discrimination of protective devices.general . the following requirements must be satisfied: c the voltage drop complies with the relevant standard. or c specific systems. and the Isc thermal and electrodynamic withstand capability of the circuit is checked. From the rated currents of the loads.2 software Ecodial 2. and the type of protective device.1. The performance required by the switchgear will determine its type and characteristics. lighting circuits or LV/LV transformers. L .2 software* provides a complete conception and design package for LV installations.particular supply sources and loads domestic and similar premises and special locations Certain premises and locations are subject to particularly strict regulations: the most common example being domestic dwellings. The short-circuit current Isc is then determined. B2 . taking into account the nature of the cableways and their influence on the current rating of conductors. c recommendations for cascading schemes.2 is a Merlin Gerin product and is available in French and English versions. The following features are included: c construction of one-line diagrams. H1 . c protection against electric shock is assured. These calculations may indicate that a different conductor size than that originally chosen is necessary. c optimization of cable sizes.the switchgear particular supply sources and loads Particular items of plant and equipment are studied: c specific sources such as alternators or inverters. The use of cascading techniques and the discriminative operation of fuses and tripping of circuit breakers are examined. such as induction motors. the level of short-circuit current. c motor starting is satisfactory.the protection of circuits H2 . methodology (continued) B circuits and switchgear Each circuit is then studied in detail. c required ratings of switchgear and fusegear. c comprehensive print-out of the foregoing calculated design data. J . * Ecodial 2.domestic and similar premises and special locations Ecodial 2.

40(1) 4. At the end of this transition period the tolerance of 230/400 V ±10% should have been achieved. after this the reduction of this range will be considered.2(1) 6.6(1) 6(1) 12 11 10 (17.3(1) 3((1) 7.16(1) 13.8(1) 26.2.installed power . 1) The nominal voltage of existing 220/380 V and 240/415 V systems shall evolve towards the recommended value of 230/400 V.47(2) 13.5(3) 35(3) 60 Hz systems series II (North American practice) highest voltage nominal system for equipment (kV) voltage (kV) 4. factory acts. All the above considerations apply also to the present 380/660 V value with respect to the recommended value 400/690 V.6(1) 3.B3 .4(2) 24. regulations issued by professional institutions. and should not exceed 20 years after the issue of this IEC publication. c national and international standards for products. 2.97(2) 13. four wire or three wire systems nominal voltage (V) 230/400(1) 277/480(2) 400/690(1) 1000 single phase. It is recommended that these values should not be used for new systems to be constructed in future. rules and statutory regulations B Low-voltage installations are governed by a number of regulatory and advisory texts. 3) The unification of these values is under consideration.1 definition of voltage ranges IEC voltage standards and recommendations three phase. The values indicated are voltages between phases.52(1) 13. The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values. The transition period should be as short as possible. the electricity supply authorities of countries having 220/380 V systems should bring the voltage within the range 230/400 V +6% -10% and those of countries having 240/415 V systems should bring the voltage within the range 230/400 V +10% -6%. three wire systems nominal voltage (V) 120/240 - table B1: standard voltages between 100 V and 1000 V (IEC 38-1983).2(2) 12.5(2) 34. job specifications.5(2) - table B2: standard voltages above 1 kV and not exceeding 35 kV (IEC 38-1983). 50 Hz and 60 Hz systems series I highest voltage nominal system for equipment (kV) voltage (kV) 3. which may be classified as follows: c statutory regulations (decrees. etc.). 2) Not to be utilized together with 230/400 V or 400/690 V. During this period. general . c codes of practice. 1) These values should not be used for public distribution systems.94(2) 36.2(2) 14. 2) These systems are generally four-wire systems. as a first step.5) (15) 24 22 20 36(3) 33(3) 40. c national and international standards for installations. * These systems are generally three-wire systems unless otherwise indicated.

Part 4: Protection of safety .installed power .Part 2: Special aspects IEC .Part 1: Types-tested and partially type-tested assemblies IEC . IEC 364 has been established by medical and engineering experts of all countries in the world comparing their experience at an international level.3 standards This Guide is based on relevant IEC standards.Part 1: General requirements IEC .364-5-52 Electrical installations of buildings .364-5-51 Electrical installations of buildings .Part 3: Supplementary requirements for fuses for use by unskilled persons (fuses mainly for household and similar applications) IEC .Section 53: Switchgear and controlgear IEC .Part 2: Temperature rise Power transformer .287 Calculation of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor) IEC .644 Specification for high-voltage fuse-links for motor circuit applications B4 .Section 41: Protection against electrical shock IEC . 2.Section 52: Wiring systems IEC .Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment . in particular IEC 364.56 IEC .general .Part 1: Current limiting fuses IEC .Part 4: Protection of safety .Section 43: Protection against overcurrent IEC . electrical installations shall comply with more than one set of regulations. the safety principles of IEC 364 and 479-1 are the fundamentals of most electrical standards in the world.Section 706: Restrictive conductive locations IEC .364 Electrical installations of buildings IEC . stands and funfairs IEC .Part 1: General aspects IEC .146-4 Standard voltages High-voltage alternating-current circuit breakers Power transformer .364-4-47 Electrical installations of buildings .Part 4: Protection of safety .Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment .298 AC metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear for rated voltages above 1kV and up to and including 52 kV IEC .364-7-701 Electrical installations of buildings . issued by National Authorities or by recognised private bodies.439-2 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP code) IEC .Section 710: Installation in exhibitions.Part 2: Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways) IEC .Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations .2.146 IEC . Currently.Part 5: Selection and erection of electrical equipment . rules and statutory regulations (continued) B 2.364-4-42 Electrical installations of buildings .Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations .Section 701: Electrical installations in bathrooms IEC .Section 42: Protection against thermal effects IEC .76-2 IEC .Part 3: Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use Distribution boards IEC .Part 6: Verification IEC .269-1 Low-voltage fuses . shows.364-7-710 Electrical installations of buildings .364-6 Electrical installations of buildings .282-1 High-voltage fuses .76-3 IEC .Section 47: Measures of protection against electrical shock IEC .38 IEC . It is essential to take into account these local constraints before starting the design.265-1 High-voltage switches .439-1 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies .Part 7: Requirements for special installations or locations .Part 4: Application of protective measures for safety .Section 51: Common rules IEC .364-7-706 Electrical installations of buildings .Part 1: High-voltage switches for rated voltages above 1 kV and less than 52 kV IEC .439-3 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies . IEC .2 regulations In most countries.Part 3: Insulation levels and dielectric tests Alternating current disconnectors and earthing switches General requirements and line commutated converters General requirements and line commutated converters .Part 3: Assessment of general characteristics IEC .420 High-voltage alternating current switch-fuse combinations IEC .129 IEC .446 Identification of conductors by colours or numerals IEC .364-4-43 Electrical installations of buildings .364-5-53 Electrical installations of buildings .479-1 Effects of current on human beings and livestock .269-3 Low-voltage fuses .364-3 Electrical installations of buildings .Part 4: Method of specifying the performance and test requirements of uninterruptible power systems IEC .364-4-41 Electrical installations of buildings .479-2 Effects of current on human beings and livestock .

systems having a rated voltage up to and including 660 V.6/1. c and periodic checking can the permanent safety of persons and security of supply to equipment be achieved. general .B5 .742 IEC .0 kV Isolation transformer and safety isolation transformer.Part 1: General .installed power .Safety requirements . Requirements General requirements for residual current operated protective devices Application guide for selection for fuse-links of high-voltage fuses for transformer circuit application Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a. c the verification of the conformity of electrical equipment.831-1 Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems Common clauses for high-voltage switchgear and controlgear standards Guide to the short-circuit temperature limits of electrical cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 0.c.Performance.B IEC . .664 IEC .694 IEC .Guide for installation and operation 2.787 IEC .755 IEC . testing and rating .4 quality and safety of an electrical installation Only by c the initial checking of the conformity of the electrical installation.724 IEC .

Many industries however have additional regulations related to a particular product (petroleum. etc. where protection against the risks of fire and panic are required residential table B3: frequency of check-tests commonly recommended for an electrical installation. materials and installation conditions (in air. c resistance tests of earthing electrodes with respect to remote earth. These tests and checks are basic (but not exhaustive) to the majority of installations.).2.6 periodic check-testing of an installation In many countries. or by its appointed agent. equipotential and earth-bonding conductors. c continuity and conductivity tests of protective. strict pre-commissioning electrical tests and visual inspections by the authority. typically. commercial and (the majority of) industrial buildings. must be satisfied. and to indicate the essential rules to be observed in order to achieve a satisfactory level of quality. IEC 364 and related standards included in this guide are based on an international consensus for such tests. conduit. c verification that all exposed.and extraneous metallic parts are properly earthed (where appropriate).). modified if necessary to comply with any possible variation imposed by a local supply authority. must be re-tested periodically by authorized agents. c allowable number of socket-outlets per circuit check. B6 . SELV circuits. between phases and between phases and earth. are common. annually fire or explosion exists c temporary installations at worksites c locations at which HV installations exist c restrictive conducting locations where mobile equipment is used other cases every 3 years according to the type of establishment and its capacity for receiving the public. installations which require the protection of employees c locations at which a risk of degradation. while numerous other tests and rules are included in the regulations to cover particular cases. intended to cover all the safety measures and approved installation practices normally required for domestic. installations based on class 2 insulation. etc. the re-testing period will vary from one to three years according to local regulations installations in buildings used for public gatherings. The methods recommended in this guide. for example: TN-. The pre-commissioning electrical tests and visual-inspection checks for installations in buildings include. which may differ slightly from one country to another. TT. 2. and special locations. c check of clearance distances in bathrooms. etc. The aim of this guide is to draw attention to the particular features of different types of installation. taking account of the associated protective devices. etc.or IT-earthed installations.5 initial testing of an installation Before a power-supply authority will connect an installation to its supply network. which will ensure safe and trouble-free performance.installed power .general . coal. all of the following: c insulation tests of all cable and wiring conductors of the fixed installation. Table B3 shows the frequency of testing commonly prescribed according to the kind of installation concerned. together with installations in buildings used for public gatherings. rules and statutory regulations (continued) B 2. c cross-sectional-area check of all conductors for adequacy at the short-circuit levels prevailing. natural gas. These tests are made according to local (governmental and/or institutional) regulations. and are based on the observance of rigorous safety rules in the design and realization of the installation. are intended to satisfy all precommissioning test and inspection requirements. all industrial and commercial-building installations. Such additional requirements are beyond the scope of this guide. The principles of all such regulations however.

B 2. Quality assurance certification is intended to complete the initial declaration or certification of conformity. by the standardization authority. the equivalent European standard being EN 29000. general . These standards define three model systems of quality assurance control corresponding to different situations rather than to different levels of quality: c model 3 defines assurance of quality by inspection and checking of final products. the standards define several methods of quality assurance which correspond to different situations rather than to different levels of quality. the characteristics stated. of a mark of conformity (commonly referred to as a conformity mark). in addition to checking of the final product.7 conformity (with standards and specifications) of equipment used in the installation conformity of equipment with the relevant standards can be attested in several ways. declaration of conformity In cases where the equipment in question is to be used by qualified or experienced persons. c model 2 includes. the samples are destroyed (tests on fuses. verification of the manufacturing process.installed power . certification of Quality Assurance A laboratory for testing samples cannot certify the conformity of an entire production run: these tests are called type tests. These certificates are issued by organizations specializing in quality control. for example.B7 . Only the manufacturer can certify that the fabricated products have. mark of conformity Conformity marks are inscribed on appliances and equipment which are generally used by technically inexperienced persons (for example. to the manufacture of fuses where performance characteristics cannot be checked without destroying the fuse. c model 1 corresponds to model 2. the declaration of conformity provided by the manufacturer (included in the technical documentation) together with a conformity mark on the equipment concerned. This method applies. for example. Where the competence of the manufacturer is in doubt. are generally recognized as a valid attestation. and are based on the international standard ISO 9000. in fact. As proof that all the necessary measures have been taken for assuring the quality of production. or c by a declaration of conformity from the manufacturer. a certificate of conformity can be obtained from an independent accredited laboratory. domestic appliances) and for whom the standards have been established which permit the attribution. for example). where it is not intended to fabricate and test a prototype (case of a custom-built product made to specification). In some tests for conformity to standards. but with the additional requirement that the quality of the design process must be rigorously scrutinized. the manufacturer obtains certification of the quality control system which monitors the fabrication of the product concerned. or c by a certificate of conformity issued by a laboratory. attestation of conformity The conformity of equipment with the relevant standards can be attested: c by an official conformity mark granted by the standards organization concerned.

general .e. heating and lighting loads B an examination of the actual apparent-power demands of different loads: a necessary preliminary step in the design of a LV installation.000 3-phase motor: Ia = ex U x η x cos ϕ 1-phase motor: Ia = Pn x 1. and the same motors under the same conditions.95.2 to 9 In for 2-pole motors v Id = 4.1 induction motors the nominal power in kW (Pn) of a motor indicates its rated equivalent mechanical power output.C. but compensated to operate at a power factor of 0.93 (tan ϕ = 0. table of typical values Table B4 shows. The apparent power in kVA (Pa) supplied to the motor is a function of the output. output kW input kW cos ϕ: power factor. assume that the control device has the effect of increasing the power (kW) supplied to the circuit motor (i. it is generally advantageous for technical and financial reasons to reduce the current supplied to induction motors. These values are averages and will differ to some extent according to the type of motor and the manufacturer concerned.e. The examination of actual values of apparent-power required by each load enables the establishment of: c a declared power demand which determines the contract for the supply of energy. will be: c for direct-on-line starting of squirrel-cage motors: v Id = 4. Ia being the original current.5 In). 3. improve) the value of cos ϕ.5 to 3 In (mean value = 2.000 U x η x cos ϕ where Ia: current demand (in amps) Pn: nominal power (in kW of active power) U: voltage between phases for 3-phase motors and voltage between the terminals for single-phase motors (in volts). after power-factor correction. multiply by a factor of 0. and for D. according to motor type. As discussed in chapter E. the apparentpower (kVA) supplied to an induction motor can be significantly reduced by the use of shunt-connected capacitors. η: per-unit efficiency. A single-phase motor may be connected phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase. the motor efficiency and the power factor. compensation of reactive-power (kvar) supplied to induction motors The application of this principle to the operation of induction motors is generally referred to as "power-factor improvement" or "power-factor correction". . To convert the current values indicated for a given motor rating in the 220 V and 380 V columns to the currents taken by 230 V and 400 V motors of the same rating. B8 . This can be achieved by using capacitors without affecting the power output of the motors. i. motors: Id depends on the value of starting resistances in the rotor circuits: Id = 1. where applicable (allowing for expected increases in load). is given by: Ia x cos ϕ cos ϕ' where cos ϕ is the power factor before compensation and cos ϕ' is the power factor after compensation.2 to 7 In for motors with more than 2 poles (mean value = 6 In).4). c levels of load current at each distribution board.3. c the rating of the HV/LV transformer.e.e. The international standard is now (since 1983) 230/400 V. device plus) by 10%. Pa = Pn η cos ϕ current demand The full-load current Ia supplied to the motor is given by the following formulae: Pn x 1. c for wound-rotor motors (with slip-rings). kW input kVA input motor-starting current Starting current (Id) for 3-phase induction motors. the current supplied to them at different voltage levels under normal uncompensated conditions. where In = nominal full-load current of the motor.installed power Note: the rated voltages of certain loads listed in table B4 are still based on 220/380 V. As noted above cos ϕ = kW input so that a kVA input reduction in kVA input will increase (i. Compensation of reactive-power is particularly advised for motors that operate for long periods at reduced power. The current supplied to the motor. Reduction of input kVA means a corresponding reduction of input current (since the voltage remains constant). as a function of the rated nominal power of motors. i. motor. c for induction motors controlled by speedchanging variable-frequency devices (for example: Altivar Telemecanique).

80 2.81 252 0.2 0.93 39.2 3 2.3 4.3 1.81 713 0.5 2 2.93 67.2 1.88 1076 1610 1390 0.88 425 1150 636 549 0.1 424 0.1 0.3 3.87 226 595 342 295 0.80 6.5 3.93 136.93 0.33 679 0.88 311 826 475 412 0.93 85.93 57.6 47 27 15.80 4.8 10.7 17 21 26 31 36 42 46 51 55 60 69 74 80 83 98 105 121 134 146 172 175 187 194 196 206 238 246 266 293 341 345 378 394 397 421 447 473 499 511 543 563 575 610 643 681 719 785 804 861 908 965 1041 1154 1419 660 V A 0.6 8 10.4 3.5 7.26 172 0.4 11.8 1.88 377 990 584 505 0.31 4 0.95.5 5.6 25 13.93 1.15 183 0.2 1.5 8.2 3.7 35 20 17.7 10.3 32 18.9 8.2 64 37 32.5 9 12 13.80 3.6 39 42 44 49 57 61 66 69 82 86 98 107 118 135 140 145 152 159 170 190 200 215 235 274 280 305 320 325 337 365 370 395 410 445 455 460 485 515 545 575 630 645 690 725 770 830 925 1140 500 V A 0.59 4.93 13.75 1.5 10 9 12 10 13.25 39 0.93 114 849 0.5 7.93 80.85 13.88 401 1100 620 518 0.6 3.93 16.06 0.6 6.93 1.5 0.93 47.79 1.92 93 0.88 849 1260 1075 0.B 3.6 21 11.8 0.8 2.93 45.75 1.88 1.93 72.36 0.1 1.45 294 0.4 23 28.24 127 0.93 167.7 7.67 2.Pa at Pn citor rating kvar kVA 0.78 229 0.93 26.3 7.88 353 948 546 473 0.87 161 425 245 215 0.9 35 20 11.5 25 22 30 25 35 30 40 33 45 37 50 40 54 45 60 51 70 55 75 59 80 63 85 75 100 80 110 90 125 100 136 110 150 129 175 132 180 140 190 147 200 150 205 160 220 180 245 185 250 200 270 220 300 250 340 257 350 280 380 295 400 300 410 315 430 335 450 355 480 375 500 400 545 425 580 445 600 450 610 475 645 500 680 530 720 560 760 600 810 630 855 670 910 710 965 750 1020 800 1090 900 1220 1100 1500 η without compensation cos ϕ Pa current at different voltages at Pn 1-PH 3-PH 220 V 220 V 380 V 440 V kVA A A A A 0.1 4.7 13.55 0.53 1.7 7.77 0.5 0.6 8.1 22 12.93 1.6 2.93 107.93 0.87 94 240 138 125 0.1 5.7 2.93 1.B9 .79 3.44 9.6 1.93 4.9 0.37 0.8 5 5.7 5 4 5.5 10.71 1 1.93 11.93 2.8 31 17.37 18.98 356 0.9 5.8 3.12 44 0.1 1. Reminder: some columns refer to 220 and 380 V motors.5 4.3 9.26 566 0.57 30 0.2 3 3 4 3.installed power .93 2.93 64.6 11.6 12.3 0.50 13.85 12.1 26 14.87 180 472 273 236 0.91 1.21 1.31 0.93 6.88 568 1490 850 730 0.9 7. general .63 317 0.48 1.93 10.7 2.1 0.68 905 0.2 3.98 69 0.86 39 103 60 51.88 758 0.8 18 9.8 52 30 26.93 42.88 538 1410 800 690 0.72 47 0.93 27.5 2 1.86 43 113 68 58 0.99 0.88 670 1760 1000 870 0.9 15.93 25.72 0.88 754 1980 1100 965 0.80 105 0.88 634 1660 950 825 0.4 12 6.5 0.5 16.8 4.1 4.37 0.55 160 0.87 159 420 242 209 0.6 13.86 33 85 52 45.40 538 0.86 1019 0.60 481 0.3 42 24 13.7 2. The conversion factor for current values for 230 V and 400 V motors is 0.87 125 325 188 162 0.8 12.6 0.2 2 10.7 75 44 39 0.93 11.93 32.75 1.88 1316 1980 1700 with compensation cos ϕ capa.87 112 295 170 146 0.5 2 2.4 32 18 16.39 0.93 0.3 0.88 897 1350 1160 0.93 30.8 1.93 5.9 6.86 19.95 804 0.86 28.93 8.93 2.6 0.4 30.93 60.87 136 356 205 178 0.93 91.87 220 578 333 289 0.93 11.42 0.5 33 39.80 334 0.86 24.3 25.12 634 0.44 286 0.8 0.4 2.6 1.5 16 8.5 13 16 20 23 28 32 36 39 41 45 53 56 62 65 77 80 92 100 110 126 131 136 142 149 159 178 187 203 222 259 265 289 303 306 319 336 350 374 388 420 431 435 459 487 516 544 596 610 653 686 729 785 875 1079 table B4: power and current values for typical induction motors.6 6.9 6.93 14.88 266 700 408 353 0.93 8.88 335 900 510 450 0.93 33.87 196 520 300 256 0.93 54 402 0.2 29 16.89 26.5 11 15 15 20 18.9 15 18.77 3.93 70.88 957 1450 1250 0.88 242 626 370 321 0.88 718 1880 1090 920 0.6 0.1 0.5 1.7 5 22 11.8 1.50 509 0.88 532 1400 790 680 0.9 9.6 5. The international (IEC 38) standard of 230/400 V has been in force since 1983.93 121.71 53 0.89 88 0.12 22.75 168 0.3 0.4 36 20 19 48 28 25 59 34 30 69 41 36 79 48 42 95 55 48 104 63 54 117 67 59 124 73 62 139 79 70 157 91 77 168 97 83 182 105 91 190 109 102 225 129 117 243 138 123 276 159 137 304 176 152 333 192 167 393 226 196 398 229 201 421 243 212 442 255 221 452 262 230 486 281 239 541 312 270 557 320 276 592 350 304 662 386 334 757 435 379 782 449 390 852 483 426 897 517 448 927 535 455 937 553 478 1041 587 490 1088 602 519 1117 634 544 1183 672 578 1258 719 615 1325 748 643 1334 757 653 1410 804 691 1486 852 738 1571 899 781 1665 946 823 1779 1031 871 1874 1041 913 1987 1135 965 1192 1017 1277 1098 1372 1183 1523 1315 1874 1609 % 64 68 72 75 78 79 81 82 82 84 85 86 86 87 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 500 V A 0.64 600 0.86 70 182 105 90 0.88 478 1250 710 611 0.93 33.3 1.69 117 0.03 0.4 0.93 7.5 14 17.8 0.88 449 1180 670 575 0.4 0.5 2 2.9 0.84 149 0.87 171 450 260 227 0.93 20.7 2.86 57 150 85 76 0.99 3 0.6 0.7 12.87 0.68 0.88 801 2100 1200 1020 0.87 100 260 147 131 0.74 5.88 359 980 565 481 0.3 5.87 79 203 117 109 0.93 23.9 0.9 10.5 6.87 74 195 112 97 0.93 0.93 44.93 18.4 45 50 55 60 65 75 80 85 89 105 112 129 143 156 184 187 200 207 210 220 254 263 281 310 360 365 400 416 420 445 472 500 527 540 574 595 608 645 680 720 760 830 850 910 960 1020 1100 1220 1500 660 V A 0.86 51 134 79 67 0.66 339 0.3 3.63 504 0.76 206 0.47 0.83 10.80 7 0.93 51 379 0.93 38.1 3.5 4.93 2.93 9.8 2.93 101.93 4.3 34.5 7.79 212 0.4 6 3. as noted on the previous page.88 302 800 460 401 0.4 4.1 induction motors (continued) nominal power Pn kW HP 0.93 0.75 0.10 60 0.93 29.86 65 170 98 83 0.80 5.3 5.73 0.88 508 1330 760 650 0.7 5 4.84 453 0.86 14.3 6.88 598 1570 900 780 0.5 13.7 0.83 7.4 0.93 24 151 0.1 0.8 4.5 0.6 1.87 183 483 280 246 0.9 1.5 7.7 39 22 20.93 68.2 5.5 0.3 21.93 95.66 74 0.89 64 0.93 0.5 7.93 3.62 0.68 36 0.75 1 1.86 48 126 72 64 0.35 1245 current at different voltages 1-PH 3-PH 220 V 220 V 380 V 440 V A A A A 2.

5 8.10 5.40 5. The speed controller.5 6.30 5.90 5.10 3.g.5 7.C.3 4 5.30 5.30 5. etc.5 30 33 22 37 40 55 60 440 V (60 Hz) kW 3.5 20 18.00 45.50 5.00 45. for example.5 35 42 63 motor In A 7 7 12 12 16 16 37 37 60 60 72 72 105 105 GRADIVAR Ith A 10 10 20 20 30 30 60 60 100 100 130 130 200 200 catalogue number weight kg VR2-SA2121 VR2-SA2123 VR2-SA2171 VR2-SA2173 VR2-SA2211 VR2-SA2213 VR2-SA2281 VR2-SA2283 VR2-SA2361 VR2-SA2363 VR2-SA2401 VR2-SA2403 VR2-SA2441 VR2-SA2443 1. It is still used for gradual starters and/or retarders. this solution is progressively replaced with a speedchanging variable-frequency device and an asynchronous motor.00 10.30 3.10 5.30 5.).5 7.00 45.5 8 11 18. motors are mainly used for specific applications which require very high torques and/or variable speed control (for example machine tools and crushers. motor maximum power 220 V 380 V 415 V kW kW kW 1. heating and lighting loads (continued) B 3.5 35 42 63 90 147 motor In A 12 12 16 16 37 37 60 60 72 72 105 105 140 140 245 245 GRADIVAR Ith A 20 20 30 30 60 60 100 100 130 130 200 200 350 350 530 530 catalogue number weight kg VR2-SA3171 VR2-SA3173 VR2-SA3211 VR2-SA3213 VR2-SA3281 VR2-SA3283 VR2-SA3361 VR2-SA3363 VR2-SA3401 VR2-SA3403 VR2-SA3441 VR2-SA3443 VR2-SA3481 VR2-SA3483 VR2-SA3521 VR2-SA3523 3.60 5.30 5. motor.00 11. Im M V power-supply network In fig.5 20 18. For powers i 40 kW.5 21.3. sources.c. the supply line and the protection are therefore based on the duty cycle of the motor (e.95 3.60 11.50 5.00 45.50 5. B5: diagram of a low-power speed controller.40 10. motor maximum power 220 V 380 V 415 V kW kW kW 4 5.00 table B7: progressive starters with current limitation. B10 .90 4.5 8 11 18.00 table B6: progressive starters with voltage ramp.5 3 3. The operating principle of the converter does not allow heavy overloading.10 4. Rectivar 4 (Telemecanique).2.50 5.installed power .95 1. fed from 230/400 V 3-phase a.5 6 5.general . frequent starting-current peaks) rather than on the steady-state full-load current. Power to these motors is provided via speedcontrol converters.5 8. direct-current motors D.5 30 33 22 37 40 55 60 75 80 132 140 440 V (60 Hz) kW 6.5 6 5.5 21.

1 79 43.e. nominal power kW 0. standard tubular fluorescent lamps The power Pn (watts) indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast. general .3.66 10.8 6.5 3 3.52 15.2 31.9 23. If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast. Pn is in watts.5 13 14.14 0.17 7.4 19. cos ø = 1). c cos ø = 0.4 table B8: current demands of resistive heating and incandescent lighting (conventional or halogen) appliances.94 2.86 with PF correction* (single or twin tubes).29 0.3 12.43 1.B 3. resistive-type heating appliances and incandescent lamps (conventional or halogen) the power consumed by a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is equal to the nominal power Pn quoted by the manufacturer (i.6 15. then multiply the equation by 1.58 0.6 15. * Ia in amps.89 3.28 7. the cold filament gives rise to a very brief but intense peak of current.5 7.87 3.6 with no power factor (PF) correction* capacitor. Note: at the instant of switching on.6 39.8 8.1 55.70 19.4 35. the use of halogen gas allows a more concentrated light source.35 11.53 8.02 6.4 21.000.96 for electronic ballast.77 5. cos ø = 1).05 5. a figure of 25% of Pn may be used.e.50 1.25 0.5 17. c cos ø = 0.79 0. a figure of 25% of Pn may be used.72 10 11.7 47. the currents are given by: c 3-phase case: Ia = Pn* ex U c 1-phase case: Ia = Pn* U where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment.1 22.7 10.2 0.1 30.72 1.26 2.2 26.22 8.1 17.9 4.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 For an incandescent lamp.33 5.51 3.61 4.6 25.44 2.installed power . The power consumed by a heating appliance or an incandescent lamp is equal to the nominal power Pn quoted by the manufacturer (i. * "Power-factor correction" is often referred to as "compensation" in discharge-lighting-tube terminology.4 63 34.1 11.8 71 39.5 1 1. If Pn is in kW.5 4 4.1 3-phase 400 V 0. The currents are given by: c 3-phase case: Ia = Pn* ex U c 1-phase case: Ia = Pn* U where U is the voltage between the terminals of the equipment.1 0. The light output is superior and the life of the lamp is doubled.6 20. The current taken by the complete circuit is given by: Ia = Pballast + Pn U x cos ø where U = the voltage applied to the lamp.5 2 2.B11 . 3.77 6.17 2. Table B8 gives these values for different arrangements of ballast. U in volts. fluorescent lamps and related equipment the power in watts indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast. with (unless otherwise indicated): c cos ø = 0. complete with its related equipment. the current is given by: Pballast + Pn Ia = U x cos ø If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast.5 3-phase 230 V 0. current demand 1-phase 1-phase 127 V 230 V 0.6 13 27.4.

19 0.4. the peak of which occurs "late" in each half cycle.090 0. motor. They are commonly used in public places which are permanently illuminated (for example: corridors.190 0.185 0.115 0.80 0.) and can be mounted in situations otherwise illuminated by incandescent lamps.070 0. type of lamp lamp power 9 13 18 25 9 11 15 20 5 7 9 11 10 13 18 26 power consumed (W) 9 13 18 25 9 11 15 20 10 11 13 15 15 18 23 31 current at 220/240 V (A) 0.72 0.16 0.155 0.165 0.41 0.49 0.35 type double "U" form cos ø ≈ 0. table B11: current demands and power consumption of compact fluorescent lamps (at 220 V/240 V . table B10: current demands and power consumption of commonly-dimensioned fluorescent lighting tubes (at 220 V/240 V .175 0.220 0. starters and ballasts single tube with starter tube power (W) (1) 18 36 58 single tube without 20 starter (2) with 40 external starting strip 65 twin tubes with starter 2 x 18 2 x 36 2 x 58 twin tubes without starter 2 x 40 single tube with 32 high frequency ballast 50 cos ø = 0. heating and lighting loads (continued) B 3. fluorescent lamps and related equipment (continued) arrangement of lamps.315 globe lamps with integral ballast cos ø = 0.170 0.41 0.21 0.50 tube length (cm) 60 120 150 60 120 150 60 120 150 120 120 150 120 150 (1) Power in watts marked on tube.general . bars.090 0.25 0.135 0.installed power .5 due to the impulsive form of the current. hallways.37 0.33 0.24 0.160 0.50 Hz).5 (1) electronic lamps cos ø = 0.50 Hz).155 0.3.205 0. compact fluorescent tubes Compact fluorescent tubes have the same characteristics of economy and long life as classical tubes.45 (1) Cos ø is approximately 0. (2) Used exclusively during maintenance operations. etc.46 0.95 (1) lamps with starter only incorporated (no ballast) type single "U" form cos ø ≈ 0.67 0.43 0.96 power consumed (W) 27 45 69 33 54 81 55 90 138 108 36 56 72 112 current (A) at 220V/240 V PF not PF electronic corrected corrected ballast 0.26 0.95 (the zero values of V and I are almost in phase) but the power factor is 0. B12 .45 0.27 0.37 0.96 twin tubes with high2 x 32 frequency ballast 2 x 50 cos ø = 0.

5 0. However.installed power .50 8.6 70 80 1 0. The power in watts indicated on the tube of a discharge lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast.35 400 421 3.50 6 mercury vapour + fluorescent substance (fluorescent bulb) 50 57 0. type of power current In(A) starting lamp demand PF not PF Ia/In period (W) at corrected corrected (W) 230V 400V 230V 400V 230V 400V (mins) high-pressure sodium vapour lamps 50 60 0.1 luminous efficiency lumens (per watt) 80 to 120 average utilization life of lamp (h) 9000 .14 1.5 0.7 3 to 6 80 90 0.45 100 115 1. including all associated ancillary equipment. etc) 40 to 60 8000 to .65 150 168 1.8 0.15 0. Note: Sodium vapour low-pressure lamps have a light-output efficiency which is superior to that of all other sources. These lamps have a long start-up time.1 7 to 15 to 1.39 91 105.15 1.70 250 268 2. stockage areas 100 to 200 8000 to .40 1.outdoor spaces .7 3 to 5 150 172 1.49 131 154 0.5 0. They extinguish if the voltage falls to less than 50% of their nominal voltage. 100 to 200 8000 to .45 4.lighting of large halls .45 to 2 125 141 1.B13 .4 4 to 6 to 1.4 2.4 400 431 4.5 1 0.5 0.3 35 43. hangars) .15 700 731 5.outdoor lighting .8 0.2 1000 1055 10.50 135 159 0.security lighting.10 1. during which the current Ia is greater than the nominal current In.25 5.30 2000 2092 2052 16.6 0.workshops 12000 with very high ceilings (halls.5 0.98 economy lamps 26 34.34 90 112 0. use of these lamps is restricted by the fact that the yellow-orange colour emitted makes colour recognition practically impossible.17 1.85 1000 1046 8.4 3.85 250 274 3 1.40 2.30 2000 2140 2080 15 11 6.lighting of very large areas by projectors (for example:sports stadiums. Power and current demands are given for different types of lamp in table B12 (typical average values which may differ slightly from one manufacturer to another). discharge lamps the power in watts indicated on the tube of a discharge lamp does not include the power dissipated in the ballast. Note: these lamps are sensitive to voltage dips. which is contained in a hermetically-sealed transparent envelope at a pre-determined pressure.60 10.45 0.22 66 80. general .35 400 425 3.25 5.B 3.5.73 180 216 0.69 mercury vapour + metal halide (also called metaliodide) 70 80.low light output (1) (1) replaced by sodium vapour lamps.new types 12000 more efficient same utilization 70 to 90 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 2000 .9 low-pressure sodium vapour lamps standard lamp 18 26.62 0.5 0.1 7 to 15 to 1.15 1000 1046 8. These lamps depend on the luminous electrical discharge through a gas or vapour of a metallic compound.25 2.public lighting table B12 gives the current taken by a complete unit.76 0.88 250 276 2.24 55 72 0.3 1.30 1.84 0. table B12: current demands of discharge lamps. and will not re-ignite before cooling for approximately 4 minutes. station platform.80 0.lighting of 12000 autoroutes .3 36 46.2 0.

The magnitude of the load is adequately specified by two quantities. *power: the word "power" in the title has been used in a general sense. The power demand (kW) is necessary to choose the rated power of a generating set or battery.general . and where the requirements of a prime mover have to be considered. To base the design simply on the arithmetic sum of all the loads existing in the installation would be extravagantly uneconomical. Most electrical appliances and equipments are marked to indicate their nominal power rating (Pn). viz: c power. Where the word power is used without further qualification in the rest of the text. This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice. the actual maximum load demand likely to be imposed on the power-supply system must be assessed. the significant quantity is the apparent power in kVA. The input power consumption will evidently be greater (See 3. The values given are based on experience and on records taken from actual installations. In addition to providing basic installation-design data on individual circuits. covering active power (kW) apparent power (kVA) and reactive power (kvar). HV/LV transformer. power The ratio = power factor apparent power 4. or through a HV/LV transformer.installed power . where the power rating refers to the output power at its driving shaft. it means active power (kW). are other cases in which the nominal power indicated on the lamp is less than the power consumed by the lamp and its ballast (See 3. an electric motor is not generally operated at its full-load capability. B14 . and bad engineering practice. c apparent power. etc. Fluorescent and discharge lamps associated with stabilizing ballasts. Methods of assessing the actual power consumption of motors and lighting appliances are given in Section 3 of this Chapter.g. power* loading of an installation B In order to design an installation. This is the case for electric motors.4).). or generating set) can be specified.1 installed power (kW) the installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all powerconsuming devices in the installation. The installed power is the sum of the nominal powers of all power-consuming devices in the installation. The aim of this chapter is to show how all existing and projected loads can be assigned various factors to account for diversity (nonsimultaneous operation of all appliances of a given group) and utilization (e.4. This is not the power to be actually supplied in practice.1). the results will provide a global value for the installation. from which the requirements of a supply system (distribution network. For a power supply from a LV public-supply network.

The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal to the total installed kVA. The maximum estimated kVA to be supplied however is not equal to the total installed kVA.2 installed apparent power (kVA) the installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVA of individual loads. intermittent work heavy-duty works: fabrication and 14 assembly of very large work pieces day-to-day work: 24 office work fine work: 41 drawing offices high-precision assembly workshops power circuits type of application estimated (VA/m2) pumping station compressed air 3 to 6 ventilation of premises 23 electrical convection heaters: private houses 115 to 146 flats and apartments 90 offices 25 dispatching workshop 50 assembly workshop 70 machine shop 300 painting workshop 350 heat-treatment plant 700 average lighting level (lux = Im/m2) 150 300 500 800 (1) example: 65 W tube (ballast not included). * For greater precision.86) type of application estimated (VA/m2) fluorescent tube with industrial reflector (1) roads and highways 7 stockage areas. table B13: estimation of installed apparent power.installed power . The apparent-power demand of a load (which might be a single appliance) is obtained from its nominal power rating (corrected if necessary.100 lumens (lm).) and the application of the following coefficients: output kW η = the per-unit efficiency = input kW kW cos ø = the power factor = kVA The apparent-power kVA demand of the load Pn Pa = η x cos ø From this value. It is common practice however. account must be taken of the factor of maximum utilization as explained below in 4-3. fluorescent lighting (corrected to cos ø = 0. flux 5. the result of which will give a kVA value that exceeds the true value by an acceptable "design margin". to make a simple arithmetical summation. etc. the full-load current Ia (amps)* taken by the load will be: Pa 103 for single phase-to-neutral c Ia = V connected load Pa 103 c Ia = for three-phase balanced load ex U where: V = phase-to-neutral voltage (volts) U = phase-to-phase voltage (volts) It may be noted that. The installed apparent power is commonly assumed to be the arithmetical sum of the kVA of individual loads. general . When some or all of the load characteristics are not known. the values shown in table B13 may be used to give a very approximate estimate of VA demands (individual loads are generally too small to be expressed in kVA or kW). strictly speaking.B15 . The estimates for lighting loads are based on floor areas of 500 sq-metres.B 4. the total kVA of apparent power is not the arithmetical sum of the calculated kVA ratings of individual loads (unless all loads are at the same power factor). luminous efficiency of the tube = 78.5 lm/W. as noted above for motors.

40 table B14: simultaneity factors in an apartment block. The determination of these factors is the responsibility of the designer. B15: application of the factor of simultaneity (ks) to an apartment block of 5 storeys. These changes of conductor size are conventionally spaced by at least 3-floor intervals. factor of maximum utilization (ku) In normal operating conditions the power consumption of a load is sometimes less than that indicated as its nominal power rating. For vertical rising mains fed at ground level.53 0. The factor ks is applied to each group of loads (e.63 x 103 = 55 A 400 x e number of downstream consumers 2 to 4 5 to 9 10 to 14 15 to 19 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 49 50 and more factor of simultaneity (ks) 1 0. and are applicable to domestic consumers supplied at 230/400 V (3-phase 4-wires).44 0.e. For incandescent-lighting loads. it is not possible to give precise values for general application. the factors depend entirely on the type of appliances being supplied from the sockets concerned. each having 6 kVA of installed load. power* loading of an installation (continued) B 4. the current entering the rising main at ground level is 150 x 0.46 x 103 = 100 A 400 x e The current entering the third floor is: (36+24) x 0.3 estimation of actual maximum kVA demand all individual loads are not necessarily operating at full rated nominal power nor necessarily at the same time. the cross-sectional area of the conductors can evidently be progressively reduced from the lower floors towards the upper floors. This factor must be applied to each individual load.49 0.53 1st floor 6 consumers 36 kVA 0.installed power . it is possible to determine the magnitude of currents in different sections of the common main feeder supplying all floors. i. In the case of consumers using electrical heat-storage units for space heating. Factors ku and ks allow the determination of the maximum power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension the installation.75 for motors.8 is recommended.78 0.41 0.63 0.46 0. a fairly common occurrence that justifies the application of an utilization factor (ku) in the estimation of realistic values.46 = 69 kVA From table B 14. Factors ku and ks allow the determination of the maximum power and apparent-power demands actually required to dimension the installation. For this reason. factor of simultaneity (ks) It is a matter of common experience that the simultaneous operation of all installed loads of a given installation never occurs in practice. 4th floor 6 consumers 36 kVA 0.78 3rd floor 4 consumers 24 kVA 0.46 fig. with particular attention to electric motors. In the example. the factor always equals 1.63 2nd floor 5 consumers 30 kVA 0. regardless of the number of consumers.42 0. For socket-outlet circuits. Factor of simultaneity for an apartment block Some typical values for this case are given in table B14. All individual loads are not necessarily operating at full rated nominal power nor necessarily at the same time.g. In an industrial installation this factor may be estimated on an average at 0. B16 . being supplied from a distribution or sub-distribution board). there is always some degree of diversity and this fact is taken into account for estimating purposes by the use of a simultaneity factor (ks). Example: 5 storeys apartment building with 25 consumers.4. a factor of 0. since it requires a detailed knowledge of the installation and the conditions in which the individual circuits are to be exploited. which are very rarely operated at full load.49 ground floor 4 consumers 24 kVA 0. The total installed load for the building = 36 + 24 + 30 + 36 + 24 = 150 kVA The apparent-power supply required for the building = 150 x 0.general .

B
Factor of simultaneity for distribution boards Table B16 shows hypothetical values of ks for a distribution board supplying a number of circuits for which there is no indication of the manner in which the total load divides between them. If the circuits are mainly for lighting loads, it is prudent to adopt ks values close to unity. number of circuits assemblies entirely tested 2 and 3 4 and 5 6 to 9 10 and more assemblies partially tested in every case choose factor of simultaneity (ks) 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 1.0 Factor of simultaneity according to circuit function ks factors which may be used for circuits supplying commonly-occurring loads, are shown in table B17. circuit function lighting heating and air conditioning socket-outlets lifts and catering hoists (2) - for the most powerful motor - for the second most powerful motor - for all other motors factor of simultaneity (ks) 1 1 0.1 to 0.2 (1)

1 0.75 0.60

table B16: factor of simultaneity for distribution boards (IEC 439).

(1) In certain cases, notably in industrial installations, this factor can be higher. (2) The current to take into consideration is equal to the nominal current of the motor, increased by a third of its starting current.

table B17: factor of simultaneity according to circuit function.

4.4 example of application of factors ku and ks
an example in the estimation of actual maximum kVA demands at all levels of an installation, from each load position to the point of supply.
In this example, the total installed apparent power is 126.6 kVA, which corresponds to an actual (estimated) maximum value at the LV terminals of the HV/LV transformer of 65 kVA only. Note: in order to select cable sizes for the distribution circuits of an installation, the current I (in amps) through a circuit is determined from the equation level 1
utilization apparentpower (Pa) kVA utilization factor max. apparentsimultaneity power demand factor max. kVA apparentsimultaneity power demand factor kVA

kVA x 103 Ue where kVA is the actual maximum 3-phase apparent-power value shown on the diagram for the circuit concerned, and U is the phaseto-phase voltage (in volts). I=

level 2
apparentsimultaneity power demand factor kVA

level 3
apparentpower demand kVA

workshop A

lathe

n°1 n°2 n°3 n°4

5 5 5 5 2 2 18 3

0.8 0.8 0,8 0.8 0.8 0.8 1 1 0.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4 4 4 4 1.6 1.6 18 3 12 10.6 1 2.5 2.5 15 15 18 2

distribution box
power circuit

0.75

14.4

pedestaldrill

n°1

workshop A distribution board

n°2 5 socket10/16 A outlets 30 fluorescent lamps workshop B

0.2 1 1 0.4 1
distribution box

3,6 lighting 3
circuit power circuit

socketoutlets

0,9

18.9

main general distribution board MGDB

compressor 15 3 socket- 10/16 A 10.6 outlets 1 10 fluorescent lamps ventilation n°1 fan n°2 oven n°1 n°2 2,5 2,5 15 15

12 socketoutlets 4,3 lighting circuit

workshop B distribution board

LV/HV

15.6

0.9

65

1

0.9

workshop C

1

35

power circuit

workshop C distribution board

0.9 0.28 1 5 2
socketoutlets lighting circuit

37.8

5 socket10/16 A 18 outlets 20 fluorescent 2 lamps

table B18: an example in estimating the maximum predicted loading of an installation (the factor values used are for demonstration purposes only).
general - installed power - B17

4. power loading of an installation (continued)

B
4.5 diversity factor
The term DIVERSITY FACTOR, as defined in IEC standards, is identical to the factor of simultaneity (ks) used in this guide, as described in 4.3. In some English-speaking countries however (at the time of writing) DIVERSITY FACTOR is the inverse of ks i.e. it is always u 1.

4.6 choice of transformer rating
When an installation is to be supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer and the maximum apparent-power loading of the installation has been determined, a suitable rating for the transformer can be decided, taking due account of the following considerations: voltage (at no load) rated power (kVA) 50 100 160 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 In (A) 400 V 72 144 231 361 455 577 722 909 1155 1443 1804 2309 2887 3608 c the possibility of improving the power factor of the installation (see chapter E), c anticipated extensions to the installation, c installation constraints (temperature...) standard transformer ratings.

420 V 69 137 220 344 433 550 687 866 1100 1375 1718 2199 2749 3437

433 V 67 133 213 333 420 533 667 840 1067 1333 1667 2133 2667 3333

480 V 60 120 192 301 379 481 601 758 962 1203 1504 1925 2406 3007

table B19: IEC-standardized kVA ratings of HV/LV 3-phase distribution transformers and corresponding nominal full-load current values.

The nominal full-load current In on the LV side of a 3-phase transformer is given by: Pa 103 In = where Ue Pa = kVA rating of the transformer U = phase-to-phase voltage at no-load* (in volts) In is in amperes. For a single-phase transformer: 3 In = Pa 10 where V V = voltage between LV terminals at no-load* (in volts).

Simplified equation for 400 V (3-phase load) In = kVA x 1.4 The IEC standard for power transformers is IEC 76. * as given on the transformer-rating nameplate. For table B19 the no-load voltage used is 420 V for the nominal 400 V winding.

B18 - general - installed power

B
4.7 choice of power-supply sources
The study developed in F2 on the importance of maintaining a continuous supply raises the question of the use of standby-power plant. The choice and characteristics of these alternative sources are described in F3-3. For the main source of supply the choice is generally between a connection to the HV or the LV network of the public power-supply authority. In practice, connection to a HV source may be necessary where the load exceeds (or is planned eventually to exceed) a certain level - generally of the order of 250 kVA, or if the quality of service required is greater than that normally available from a LV network. Moreover, if the installation is likely to cause disturbance to neighbouring consumers, when connected to a LV network, the supply authorities may propose a HV service. Supplies at HV can have certain advantages: in fact, a HV consumer: c is not disturbed by other consumers, which could be the case at LV, c is free to choose any type of LV earthing system, c has a wider choice of economic tariffs, c can accept very large increases in load. It should be noted, however, that: c the consumer is the proprietor of the HV/LV substation and, in some countries, he must build and equip it at his own expense. The power authority can, in certain circumstances, participate in the investment, at the level of the HV line for example, c a part of the connection costs can, for instance, often be recovered if a second consumer is connected to the HV line within a certain time following the original consumer's own connection, c the consumer has access only to the LV part of the installation, access to the HV part being reserved to the supply-authority personnel (meter reading, operational manœuvres, etc.). However, in certain countries, the HV protective circuit breaker (or fused load-break switch) can be operated by the consumer, c the type and location of the substation are agreed between the consumer and the supply authority.

general - installed power - B19

1. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator

J
a major difficulty encountered when an installation may be supplied from alternative sources (e.g. a HV/LV transformer or a LV generator) is the provision of electrical protection which operates satisfactorily on either source. The crux of the problem is the great difference in the source impedances; that of the generator being much higher than that of the transformer, resulting in a corresponding difference in the magnitudes of fault currents.
Most industrial and large commercial electrical installations include certain important loads for which a power supply must be maintained, in the event that the public electricity supply fails: c either, because safety systems are involved (emergency lighting, automatic fire-protection equipment, smoke dispersal fans, alarms and signalization, and so on...) or: c because it concerns priority circuits, such
HV LV

as certain equipment, the stoppage of which would entail a loss of production, or the destruction of a machine tool, etc. One of the current means of maintaining a supply to the so-called “essential” loads, in the event that other sources fail, is to install a diesel-generator set connected, via a changeover switch, to an emergency-power standby switchboard, from which the essential services are fed (figure J1-1).

G

standby supply change-over switch

non essential loads

essential loads

fig. J1-1: example of circuits supplied from a transformer or from an alternator.

1.1 an alternator on short-circuit
the establishment of short-circuit current (fig. J1-2)
Apart from the limited magnitude of fault current from a standby alternator, a further difficulty (from the electrical-protection point of view) is that during the period in which LV circuit breakers are normally intended to operate, the value of short-circuit current changes drastically. For example, on the occurrence of a shortcircuit at the three phase terminals of an alternator, the r.m.s. value of current will immediately rise to a value of 3 In to 5 In*. An interval of 10 ms to 20 ms following the instant of short-circuit is referred to as the “sub-transient” period, in which the current decreases rapidly from its initial value. The current continues to decrease during the ensuing “transient” interval which may last for 80 ms to 280 ms depending on the machine type, size, etc. The overall phenomenon is referred to as the “a.c. decrement”. The current will finally stabilize in about
r.m.s. subtransient period transient period

0.5 seconds, or more, at a value which depends mainly on the type of excitation system, viz: c manual; c automatic (see figure J1-2). Almost all modern generator sets have automatic voltage regulators, compounded to maintain the terminal voltage sensibly constant, by overcoming the synchronous impedance of the machine as reactive current demand changes. This results in an increase in the level of fault current during the transient period to give a steady fault current in the order of 2.5 In to 4 In* (figure J1-2). In the (rare) case of manual control of the excitation, the synchronous impedance of the machine will reduce the short-circuit current to a value which can be as low as 0.3 In, but is often close to In*.

3 In

alternator with automatic voltage regulator

In 0.3 In instant of fault 10 to 20 ms 0.1 to 0.3 s

alternator with manual excitation control

t

fig. J1-2: establishment of short-circuit current for a three-phase short circuit at the terminals of an alternator.
* depending on the characteristics of the particular machine.

particular supply sources and loads - J1

1. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued)

J
1.1 an alternator on short-circuit (continued)
Figure J1-2 shows the r.m.s. values of current, on the assumption that no d.c. transient components exist. In practice, d.c. components of current are always present to some degree in at least two phases, being maximum when the short-circuit occurs at the alternator terminals. This feature would appear to complicate still further the matter of electrical protection, but, in fact, the d.c. component in each phase simply increases the r.m.s. values already mentioned, so that calculations and trippingcurrent settings for protective devices based only on the a.c. components, as indicated below, will be conservative, i.e. the actual currents will always be either equal to or higher than those calculated. The further the point of short-circuit from the generator the lower the fault current, and the more rapidly the transient d.c. components disappear. Furthermore, the a.c. decrement also becomes negligible when the network impedance to the fault position attains ohmic values which are high compared with the reactance values of the alternator (since the overall change in impedance is then relatively small).

alternator impedance data
Manufacturers furnish values of the several impedances mentioned below. Resistances are negligibly small compared to the reactances. It can be seen from the constantly-changing value of r.m.s. current that the effective reactance* changes constantly from a low value (sub-transient reactance) to a high value (synchronous reactance) in a smooth progression. The values discussed below are derived from test curves and correspond with current values measured at the instant of shortcircuit. * An explanation of the significance of the fixed reactance values and how they relate to a smooth variation of current is briefly described in Appendix J1. c the sub-transient reactance x”d is expressed in % by the manufacturer (analogous to the short-circuit impedance voltage of a transformer). The ohmic value X”d is therefore calculated as follows: x”d Un2 10-5 X”d (ohms) = Pn where: x”d is in % Un is in volts (phase/phase) Pn is in kVA c the % transient reactance x’d is given in ohms by: x'd Un2 10-5 X'd (ohms) = Pn c the % zero-phase-sequence reactance x’o is given in ohms by: x'o Un2 10-5 X'o (ohms) = Pn In the absence of more precise information, the following representative values may be used: x”d = 20% ; x’d = 30 % ; x’o = 6% Pn and Un being, respectively, the rated 3-phase power (kVA) and the rated phase/phase voltage of the alternator (volts). The sub-transient reactance is used when calculating the short-circuit current-breaking rating for LV circuit breakers which have opening times of 20 ms or less, and also for the electrodynamic stresses to be withstood by CBs and other components (such as busbars, cleated single-core cables, etc.). The transient reactance is used when considering the breaking capacity of LV circuit breakers with an opening time that exceeds 20 ms, and also for the thermal withstand capabilities of switchgear and other system components. Remark: from the instant at which the shortcircuit is established, the alternator reactance will rapidly increase. This means that the currents calculated from the defined fixed values x"d and x'd (for breaking capacity) will always exceed those that will actually occur at the instant of circuit breaker contact separation, i.e. there is an inherent safety factor incorporated in the current-level calculation. These calculations for the circuit breaker short-circuit breaking capacity are based on the symmetrical a.c. components of current only, i.e. no account is taken of the d.c. unidirectional components. For the circuit breaker short-circuit making capacity, the d.c. components are crucial, as discussed in Chapter C, Sub-clause 1.1 (figure C-5).

J2 - particular supply sources and loads

J
short-circuit current magnitude at the terminals of an alternator
c the transient 3-phase short-circuit current at the terminals of an alternator is given by: Ig Isc = 100* where: x’d Ig: rated full-load current of the alternator x’d = transient reactance per phase of the alternator in %; c when these values are compared with those for a short-circuit at the LV terminals of
630 kVA 20 kV/400 V Usc = 4%

a transformer of equal kVA rating, the current from the alternator will be found to be of the order of 5 or 6 times less than that from the transformer. The difference will be even greater where (as is generally the case) the alternator rating is lower than that of the transformer.
* for CBs with opening time exceeding 20 ms.

250 kVA 400 V X'd = 30%

A

non essential loads

essential loads

fig. J1-3: example of an essential services switchboard supplied (in an emergency) from a standby alternator. Example (figure J1 - 3) What is the value of 3-phase short-circuit current at point A according to the origin of supply? Circuit impedances are negligible compared with those of the sources. c transformer supply 3-phase Isc = 21.5 kA (see table C20 in Chapter C) c alternator supply 3-phase Isc = Ig x 100 = Pn x 100 x'd x'd eUn where: Pn is expressed in kVA Un is expressed in volts x’d is expressed in % Isc is expressed in kA 3-phase Isc = 250 x 100 = 1.2 kA ex 400 x 30

particular supply sources and loads - J3

1. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued)

J
1.2 protection of essential services circuits supplied in emergencies from an alternator
the difficulty is due to the small margin between the rated current and the short-circuit current of the alternator.
The characteristics (s.c. breaking capacity and range of adjustable magnetic tripping unit) of the CBs protecting the circuits of essential loads must be defined as described below: Choice of s.c. breaking capacity This parameter must always be calculated for the condition of supply from the transformer, or other “normal” source. Adjustment of magnetic tripping units In practice, the only circuit breakers concerned are those protecting the essential services circuits at the main general distribution board. The protection of circuits from local distribution or sub-distribution boards is always calibrated at a much lower level than those at the main general distribution board, so that, except in unusual cases, adequate fault currents are available from an alternator to ensure satisfactory protective-gear operation at these lower levels. Two difficulties have to be overcome: c the first is the need for discrimination of circuit protection with the protection scheme for the alternator. For the basic protection requirements of an alternator, viz: overload protection, the curve shown in figure J1-4 is representative (see Note 1). c the second concerns protection of persons against electric shock from indirect contact, when the protection depends on the operation of overcurrent relays (for example, in IT* or TN systems). The operation of these relays must be assured, whether the supply is from the alternator or from the transformer (see Note 2). Instantaneous or short-time delay magneticrelay trip settings of the circuit breakers concerned must therefore be set to operate at minimum fault levels occurring at the extremity of the circuits they protect, when being supplied from the alternator. Note 1. Sensitive high-speed protection of an alternator against internal faults (i.e. upstream of its CB) is always possible by using a pilot-wire and current-transformers differential scheme of protection, with the advantage that discrimination with circuit protection schemes is absolute. The problem of discriminative overload protection (as noted above) remains, however. A widely-used solution to this problem is provided by a voltage-controlled overcurrent relay, which depends on the following principle: short-circuit currents cause much lower system voltages than overload currents. An inverse-time/current overload relay is used having two operating curves, one of which corresponds to that of fig. J1-4, and is effective when system voltage levels are normal. If the system voltage falls below a pre-set value, the relay is automatically switched to operate much faster and at lower current levels than those shown in fig. J1-4. Modern low-setting magnetic tripping units, however, often provide a simpler solution as noted in 1.3 below. Note 2. Where the level of earth-fault current is not sufficient, in IT* and TN systems, to trip CBs on overcurrent, the protection against indirect-contact hazards can be provided by an appropriate use of RCDs, as indicated in Chapter G Sub-clause 6.5 Suggestion 2 (for IT circuits) and Sub-clause 5.5. Suggestion 2 (for TN circuits).
time (s)

1000

100 12 10 7 3 2 1

1.1 1.2 1.5

2

3

4

5 I/IG overload

fig. J1-4: overload protection of an alternator.
* Two concurrent earth faults on different phases or on one phase and on a neutral conductor, are necessary on IT systems, to create an indirect-contact hazard.

J4 - particular supply sources and loads

3 choice of tripping units the calculation of the minimum fault current (in IT or TN schemes) is complex. J1-5: the protection of essential services circuits. types of suitable tripping units The choice of low-setting magnetic tripping units will generally be necessary. When conductor routes are known in sufficient detail. currently available commercially. of the accuracy of the zerophase-sequence impedances. particularly on IT and TN systems (see Note 2 in Sub-clause 1. obviate the need for voltage-controlled overload relays. Software packages for this purpose are available.2) Isc: 3-ph short-circuit current Im: magnetic-tripping-relay current setting loads fig. characteristics of protection for essential-services circuits type of circuit fault-breaking rating (FBR) dieselgenerator protection cabinet power-source changeover switch tripping unit adjustment main circuits FBR > Isc with supply from transformer Im or short-delay trip setting level < the minimum fault current at the far end of the circuit when supplied from the alternator (see Note 2 in Sub-clause 1. Approximate methods for 3-phase and 1-phase short circuits are presented in Sub-clause 1.4. these CBs (or their equivalents) will always be necessary when the current rating of the CB is greater than one third of the alternator current rating and will. in a practical installation.5 to 10 Ir) or circuit breakers Multi 9* curve B (tripping between 3 and 5 In). mainly because of the uncertainly. * Merlin Gerin products. from the calculation of the fault-loop impedance Zs (by the sum of impedances method) is difficult. In practice. in most cases. Switchgear manufacturers often furnish tables showing recommended combinations of circuit breakers for commonly-used standby-generator schemes. particular supply sources and loads . such as Compact NS* with STR (magnetic-trip short time delay is adjustable from 1.2) B suband final circuits FBR > Isc with supply from transformer check the protection of persons against indirect-contact hazards. calculation of the fault-current loop impedance (Zs) for IT and TN systems The determination of the minimum level of short-circuit current. impedances can then be determined by the use of software.J5 .J 1.

Sub-clause 4.5 L S R X mΩ X'd 0.4 methods of approximate calculation An installation on (normal) 630 kVA transformer supply (figure J1-6) includes an essential-services distribution board which can also be supplied from a standby 400 kVA diesel-alternator set.particular supply sources and loads .08 x L X Z mΩ Isc kA R2 + X 2 1. item of plant alternator circuit total R mΩ Ra 22. in mm2 L = length in metres For the calculation of cable impedance.2. J6 .05xVn R2 + X 2 table J1-7: procedure for the calculation of 3-phase short-circuit current.s. refer to Chapter H1. S = c. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1. calculation of the minimum level of 3-phase short-circuit current Table J1-7 shows the procedure for an alternator together with one or several circuits. J1-6: example. transformer 630 kVA 20 kV/400 V What circuit breakers should be installed on the out-going ways from the essentialservices board: c if the installation is TN-earthed? c if the installation is IT-earthed? alternator 400 kVA 400 V alternator and diesel protection equipment cabinet PE essential circuits main distribution board NS250N STR22SE 250 A IB = 220 A 100 m 120 mm2 PE : 70 mm2 non essential circuits NS160N TM400D IB = 92 A 70 m 35 mm2 PE : 35 mm2 sub-distribution board fig.1.a.

08 x 100 = 8 mΩ c application of the method of impedances as indicated in table J1-7. For the calculation of cable impedance.5 x 100 = 18.75 mΩ X = X’d + Xc = 120 + 8 = 128 mΩ total impedance per phase: Z = R2 + X 2 = (18.30 = 120 mΩ Pn 400 c circuit Rc = 22.89 = 50.c.4 mΩ Isc = 1.08 x L x 2 X Z mΩ Isc kA R2 + X 2 1.30 = 400 x 0. 115.129 Note: In practice there will always be some measure of d.J7 .s.87 kA (r.75 = 18.75 mΩ 120 Xc = 0. so that the above value will normally be exceeded during the period required to trip the CB.J Consider the 220 A circuit in figure J1-6 c alternator Ra = 0 2 2 X’d = Un x 0.75)2 + (128)2 = 129. R = Ra + Rc = 0 + 18.05xVn R2 + X 2 table J1-8: procedure for the calculation of 1-phase to neutral short-circuit current.08 x 100 x 2 = 16 mΩ c application of the method of impedances.05 x 230 = 2.2.05 Vn = 1. calculation of the minimum level of 1-phase to earth short-circuit fault current Table J1-8 shows the procedure for an alternator together with one or several circuits.) Z 0. item of plant alternator circuit total R mΩ Ra 22. transient current in at least two phases.89 mΩ 120 Xc = 0. Consider the 220 A circuit in figure J1-6 c alternator Ra = 0 2 Xa = (2 x 120 + 400 x 0.m. refer to Chapter H1.89 mΩ X = Xa + Xc = 88 + 16 = 104 mΩ The total impedance: Z = R2 + X 2 = 50.8 particular supply sources and loads .5 L (1 + m) Sph R X mΩ 2 X'd + Xo 3 0. Sub-clause 4.05 x 230 = 1.892 + 1042 = 115. as for the previous example: R = Ra + Rc = 0 + 50.8 mΩ and Isc1 (phase/neutral) = 1.5 x 100 x (1 + 120 / 70) = 50.09 kA.06) x 1 = 88 mΩ 400 3 c circuit Rc = 22.

is conventionally used to ensure positive relay operation.81 kA The tripping unit rated at 250 A will be set at 810 x 1 = 2.08 = 1.2 A tripping unit type TM250D* set at 6 In on a NS250N* circuit breaker (breaking capacity = 36 kA i. protection of circuits supplied by an alternator (continued) J 1. Note: The foregoing method is based on a simplified application of the following formulae: Œ Isc (3-phase) = V ph Z1  Isc (phase/phase) = eVph Z1+Z2 Ž Isc (phase/earth) = 3 Vph Z1+Z2+Z0 Where Z1 = positive phase-sequence impedance Z2 = negative phase-sequence impedance Z0 = zero phase-sequence impedance Simplifications: c Z1 is assumed to be equal to Z2 so that formula  becomes eVph = 0. J8 . as before) A STR22SE tripping unit. v when the neutral is distributed. the minimum s.e. current = 0.c.2 factor covering manufacturing tolerance. the maximum permissible setting would be 7.2 In 1.e. concurrent earth faults on two different phases) which is equal to 0. c IT scheme In this case the protection must operate for a second earth fault occurring before the first earth fault is cleared.2 = 3. so that in formula z the total reactance = (X1 + X2 + X0) 1/3 = (3 X1) 1/3 = X1 * Merlin Gerin product.04 kA The 250 A tripping unit will be set at 1.4 In. v for the case of a non-distributed neutral. This condition (only) produces indirect-contact hazards on an IT system. > 21.c. and a protective relay setting equal to 0.1.4 methods of approximate calculation (continued) maximum permissible setting of instantaneous or short-time delay tripping units c TN scheme Of the two fault conditions considered (3-phase and 1-phase/neutral) the 3-phase fault was found to give the lower short-circuit current. 1.5 x 2.5 x 0. If the neutral conductor is not distributed.2 (the factor 1. then the minimum short-circuit current for the system will be the phase-to-phase value (i. the minimum s.5 Isc (phase to neutral) i. The setting of the protective relay must therefore be selected to a current level below that calculated. current).5 In (the 1.2 accounting for the ± 20 % manufacturing tolerance for tripping units).0 In would be satisfactory.87 = 0. the minimum s.5 kA) would be appropriate.866 Isc (Isc = the 3-phase s.866 Isc (3-phase) 2 Z1 Z1 c In table J1-8 the calculated cable reactance assumes that X1 = X2 = X0 for the cable.5 In would be appropriate.4 = 6.870/250 = 7. A TM250D or a STR22SE tripping unit set at 2. half the value of a phase-to-neutral short-circuit current.particular supply sources and loads .866 Vph or 0.c. Owing to a ± 20 % manufacturing tolerance however. For the 220 A outgoing circuit the trip unit would be rated at 250 A and adjusted (in principle) to Isc/250. current relay setting = 0. i.7 In 250 1.c.866 x 1. current occurs when a phase-to-earth fault and a neutral-to-earth fault occur concurrently. set at 3. If the neutral is distributed.e.040 x 1 250 1.e.

J9 . 30 mA RCDs are required by most national standards.e.1 to 1. C60N 30 mA T fig.5 the protection of standby and mobile a. J1-9: mobile generating set. particular supply sources and loads . c portable power packs (figure J1-10). J1-10: portable power pack with RCD protection. viz: c permanent installations (as discussed in Sub-clauses 1.J 1.c. generating sets Practical guides in certain national standards classify generator sets according to three categories. portable power packs The use of hand-carried power packs by the general public is becoming more and more popular. double insulation). When the pack and associated appliances are not of Class II (i. non-metallic conduit prividing supplementary insulation PE C32N 30 mA T Vigicompact NS100 TM63G 30 mA PE load circuits fig. c mobile sets (figure J1-9). mobile sets These are used mainly to provide temporary supplies (on construction sites for example) where protection of persons against electric shock must be ensured by the use of RCDs with an operating threshold not exceeding 30 mA.4).

maintains the pollution-free a. transient currents such as those for motorstarting and switching on of (cold) resistive loads.c. A loss of a. the battery then recharges to its full capacity. the switching of large electric motors (lifts. continuous “noise” from fluorescent-lamp circuits and (normally undetectable. Its main purpose (when associated with a rectifier which provides its input) is to afford a high-quality power supply to equipment for which the interference and disturbances of a normal power-supply system cannot be tolerated (e. The total load passes through the system. By the addition of a storage battery at the input terminals of the inverter (and therefore across the output terminals of the associated rectifier).c.c. supply of high quality (i. but totally unacceptable to sensitive electronic systems) of miniinterruptions of several milli-seconds. changes over rapidly to the UPS unit (in less than 10 ms) the power then being supplied from the battery. supply network and the load. power supply network rectifier charger battery inverter sensitive load fig. source load sinusoidal a. the contactor changes back to its original condition. power supply. fluorescent lighting) are among the many causes of poor quality of supplies. The most common use for such units is the supply to multi-workstation ITE (information technology equipment) installations. and has an autonomous capability. d. to computer systems). c.c. within the capacity of its battery. supply to the load.2. the disturbances take the form of more-or-less severe voltage dips. J10 . These units are normally of low rating (i 3 kVA) but are capable of passing large An on-line type of UPS system (figure J2-3) is connected directly between the public a. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) J 2. industrial parasites. J2-1: inverter function. and without interruption. In normal circumstances.c. such as cash registers. free from interference) from a d. a. while. c on-line. and is autonomous. power supply network. Power systems are subjected to many kinds of perturbation which adversely affect the quality of supply: atmospheric phenomena (lightning. The two most commonlyused types are described below. On loss of the latter. J2-2: off-line UPS system.c. Apart from occasional loss of supply. In normal operation the filter improves the quality of the current while the voltage is maintained sensibly constant at its declared value by appropriate and automatic regulation within the filter unit. or not. the rectifier supplies the load through the inverter. freezing). source. and whether supply autonomy (automatic standby-supply on the loss of normal power supply) is specified. output inverter fig. power supply network F sensitive load rectifier/ charger battery inverter filter fig. at the same time. which carries the normal load.c. including a total loss of supply. an undistorted sine-wave.c. its function is the inverse of that of a rectifier (figure J2-1). a contactor. On the return of normal power supply. an elementary UPS system is formed.and low-frequency parasites.particular supply sources and loads . a.2 types of UPS system there are two main types of UPS system: c off-line.g. high.1 what is an inverter? An inverter produces an a. a trickle charge from the rectifier maintains the battery fully charged. regardless of the state of the a. which affords a supply of electrical energy within strict tolerance limits. the period of which depends on the battery capacity and load magnitude. as shown in figure J2-2. the battery automatically.c. on loss of the a. Several types of UPS system exist according to the degree of protection against powernetwork “pollution” required. This system is equally suitable for small loads (i 3 kVA) or large loads (up to several MVA). When the tolerance limits are exceeded. power supply from the distribution network would simply result in the battery automatically maintaining the output from the inverter with no discernable interruption. J2-3: on-line UPS system. An off-line type of UPS system (figure J2-2) is connected in parallel with a supply direct from the public distribution network. 2. accidental faults (shortcircuits).e.c.

supply the central processor and screen.c. which has built-in HF (high-frequency) filters. plug for connecting or interconnecting loads.J Other apparatus. but without autonomy. c the slim-line UPS has integral protection with autonomy for each micro-informatic stand-alone PC and its peripherals. no provision against loss of supply from the a.c.000 VA. and is installed immediately under the microprocessor. power network. Two further outputs.c. the printer). Its principal functions are to: v filter out HF parasites. v maintain a sensibly-constant voltage level.500 VA > 2.1.e. power systems and/or heavy loads c c c c all sensitive loads c c microinformatic stand-alone PC micro-informatic terminals table J2-4: examples of different possibilities and applications of inverters. i. Two outputs. each with back-up from the UPS unit. up to ratings of 5. but which protect sensitive loads from certain disturbances commonly occurring on power distribution network.2. supply other less-sensitive units (e.c. particular supply sources and loads . not assuring a no-break performance. types of UPS units. Its principal use is on micro-informatic stand-alone PCs rated at 250 to 1. in order to reduce HF parasitic interference to acceptable levels. conditioners and filters diagrams of principle filter plug mains-supply conditioner slim-line UPS off-line UPS F on-line UPS F disturbances considered type of network corrective disturbance measures HF parasites c variations of voltage regulation autonomy 10 to 30 mn (according to battery capacity) rated power i 250 VA c 300 . It is equally applicable to office or industrial systems which do not require a no-break standby supply. 2.g.3 standards The international standard presently covering semi-conductor converters is IEC 146-4.c.000 VA. power supply. distribution network. v isolate (galvanically) the load from the a. c the network (or mains) -supply conditioner is a complete system for providing an uncontaminated a.000 VA 1.J11 .500 VA applications minimal protection c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c highly disturbed a. The slim-line UPS belongs to the class of off-line UPS schemes.000 . in decontamination of supplies and in UPS schemes. for general office purposes. include the following: c the filter-plug which is simply an a. which are filtered.

but closes automatically if the UPS system becomes overloaded. for example. transformer for specific downstream-circuits voltage 8. if galvanic isolation from upstream circuits is necessary. within close tolerance limits of magnitude and phase difference) thereby minimizing the disturbance in the event of “instantaneous” changeover from circuit 1 to circuit 2 operation. it is an on-line system. 6. Conditions will automatically return to normal if the overload.5 In for 1 minute. of the possibility of future extensions to the installation. J2-5: classical arrangement of a UPS on-line installation. In such a case.several hours) 4. inverter 2. the CPU (central processing unit) and will amount to Pa. the voltage output of the inverter is always maintained in synchronism with the voltage of the powersupply network (i. etc. based on: v maximum value of actual estimated kVA demand.. static contactor (see “availability” below) 5. rectifier/charger 3. it may be necessary to adjust the power rating of the UPS system. c 1. isolating transformer. For example. transformer to match the upstream voltage to that of the consumer. the output voltage generally remains between + 10 % and . Instantaneous variations of load: these variations occur at times of energizing and de-energizing of one or more items of load. However. and of the overload capability of the inverter and other UPS-unit components. in order to avoid oversizing of the installation.e. This action is the converse of that of the off-line scheme. c level of availability required. c duration of autonomy required (i. energization of resistive loads. Note: in order to obtain satisfactory discrimination of protective devices for all types of load. c voltage levels upstream (input) and downstream (output) of the UPS unit. transformers.25 In for 10 minutes. the power rating of a UPS unit must take account of the peak motorstarting currents. however.30 mn . or fails for any reason. is corrected.15 . inverters manufactured by Merlin Gerin can safely withstand the following overloaded condition: c 1.). (9) (8) mains 2 (5) UPS (4) C/S distribution board (6) mains 1 (2) (1) (3) (7) fig.4 choice of a UPS system The choice of a UPS system is determined mainly by the following parameters: c rated power.e. v transitory current peaks (motor starting. supply from the battery). outgoing ways 7. In this arrangement. J12 . power (VA) The rated power of the UPS unit must be sufficient to satisfy the steady load demand as well as loads of a transitory nature.. using an inverter. in which the load is normally passing through circuit 1.2. In fact. Note: At first sight. batteries (usual periods of autonomy 10 . The static contactor is open in this situation. changeover switch 9. c frequencies upstream (input) and downstream (output) of the UPS unit.2 to 2) to allow for future extensions. account should be taken of the overload capacity of the UPS components. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. The demand will be the sum of the apparent (VA) loads of individual items. For an instantaneous change of load up to 100 % of the nominal rating of the UPS unit. UPS 1. the load will then be supplied from the (reserve) circuit 2. generally corrected by a factor (1. the circuit arrangement in figure J2-5 closely resembles that of the off-line UPS system (of figure J2-2).8 % of its rated value.particular supply sources and loads .

By way of example. load circuits no. J2-8: 3 UPS P/2 units providing a high level of availability of a power rated P. The peak kVA demand. This operation will be carried out at least once a day. depending on the availability of the second source. With allowance for extensions (of 20%) = 160 x 1. represents a supplement (over the steady-state 20 kVA demand) of 3 x 20 kVA = 60 kVA.J Example of a power calculation Choice of a UPS unit suitable for the loads shown in figure J2-6. Assumed operating constraints: circuit no.5 In overload capability of (a M.000 hours. see Sub-clause 2. In all cases the kVA values cited have taken the load power factors into account. includes the 60 kVA peak current which is easily absorbed by the 1. The total of 252 kVA however.9. relative to their own products and recommended layouts. For the choice of suitable protective devices.: 1 : 80 kVA 2 : 10 kVA 3 : 20 kVA 4 : 20 kVA 5 : 30 kVA fig. a UPS alone has a MTBF (mean time between failures) of 50. e. so that the rating of a suitable UPS unit would be 252 x 1/1. three UPS units each rated at P/2 to supply a load of P (figure J2-8) are also sometimes installed.000 to 200. Possible future extensions to the installation are estimated to amount to 20% of the existing load. where the supply is doubled as noted above (mains 1 and mains 2 in figure J2-5) the MTBF obtained is in the range 70. C/S P/2 P/2 P P/2 fig. With an additional 200 ms peak of (3 x 20) kVA the total amounts to 192 + 60 = 252 kVA.J13 . The calculation of their level of availability can be carried out by specialists. The remaining circuits require no such transitory peak currents.g. 4 will take a transitory current equal to 4 In for a period of 200 ms when initially energized. Configurations having a higher redundancy.5 = 168 kVA for the nearest standard rating available above the calculated value. and the manufacturers are able to quote availability levels. e. In the usual case.G) UPS system.g. 200 kVA. therefore. a situation which affords a relatively high level of availability.2 = 192 kVA. particular supply sources and loads . The maximum steady-state power demand presently considered is therefore: P = 80 + 10 + 20 + 20 + 30 = 160 kVA. Switching from one source to the other is achieved automatically by a static (solid state) contactor. availability A UPS system is generally provided with an alternative (unconditioned) emergency source. C/S 200 kVA fig. J2-6: example.000 hours. J2-7: solution to the example.

. fig. J2-10: software (e. These functions can be designed to ensure mechanical and electrical compatibility with other equipments: standard versions are now provided with dry contacts and current loops. J2-11: UPS units are readily integrated into centralized management systems. alarm for period of autonomy almost reached) to the computer it is supplying. Interconnection facilities according to the standards RS 232. This evolution towards a general compatibility between diverse systems and related hardware requires the incorporation of new functions in the UPS systems. certain advanced modules include modern cards with integral protocole (JBus for example). notably with IT (information technology) systems. supply being maintained by the battery. fig. transmits data (such as: condition normal. who is then able to carry out operational manœuvres through remote-control channels.2. fig. In fact. UPS units can communicate with other equipments. with anomalies indicated. c permit remote control: the UPS transmits data concerning the state of UPS components. RS 422 or RS 485 can be incorporated on request. and indicates accordingly. passing data concerning the state of the UPS components (static contactor open or closed. for example. and finally to exercise remote control of UPS functions (figures J2-9 to J2-11). J2-9: UPS units can communicate with centralized system management terminals.g..) and receiving orders controlling its function.e. Furthermore.g.5 UPS systems and their environment UPS system components include the means to communicate with other equipments. they can make use of specialized software for automatic checking and fault diagnosis (e. The computer deduces the appropriate corrective action. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. c supervise (manage) the installation: the consumer (i. Soft-Monitor) allows remote checking and automatic fault diagnosis of the UPS system. and the state of the UPS is presented on a mimic board or displayed on a screen. and so on. the “user”) has a centralized management technique facility which allows him to acquire data from the UPS unit(s) which are then stored and analysed. in order to: c optimize the protection scheme: the UPS. together with measured quantities. Soft-Monitor on PC) which may be integrated into other systems of overall supervision (figure J2-10). to the console of an operator. J14 .particular supply sources and loads .

particular supply sources and loads . UPS system installed in a computer room.J15 . J2-13: for large computer installations.6 putting into service and technology of UPS systems UPS unit for individual stand-alone PCs. the UPS cabinets are generally located in the computer room. location of UPS units fig. UPS cabinets installed in an electrical services room. fig. fig. J2-12: a UPS (slim-line) is easily accommodated under the computer of a stand-alone PC. J2-14: large UPS systems are frequently located in an electrical services room.J 2.

inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. the battery charger must be automatically switched off if the fan(s) of the system fail. Non-sealed batteries These batteries are generally lead-acid units and are used for all large installations.e. These constraints are defined in the national standards of some countries (e. or if the air-flow is stopped or reduced. complying with the relevant local standards and regulations. For certain installations. provided that the particular conditions of charging and regulation. which usually require forcedair ventilation. For certain applications. together with the characteristics of the battery. J16 . In the case of forced ventilation. Sub-clause 554 for France).2.particular supply sources and loads . open-type (i. for any other reason. so that consultation with the battery manufacturer may be advisable. the natural ventilation of its location is considered to be adequate. respect the necessary constraints. Maintenance-free sealed units These batteries are used for systems rated at 250 kVA or less. A recommended air-change rate in cubic metres per hour can be calculated from the formula 0. The batteries must be installed in dedicated battery rooms. forced or natural. J2-15: a typical battery room. For UPS systems of large rating. To date. which relates the renewal rate of air to the size and charging rate of the battery (or batteries). NF C 15-100. the batteries are generally located in specially designed battery rooms. there is no IEC equivalent recommendation. nonsealed) cadmium-nickel batteries are preferred.6 putting into service and technology of UPS systems (continued) types of battery Two types of battery are associated with UPS systems.g. most national standards impose a system of ventilation. battery location For any closed location housing batteries. and provide an autonomy of up to 30 minutes. fig.05 NI where: N = number of cells in the battery I = maximum charging-current capability of the battery charger (in amperes).

then the earthing scheme is evidently identical on both sides of the UPS system. Other outgoing ways should be protected by RCDs of suitable sensitivity (in general 300 mA) which must discriminate with the protection afforded by D1 and 2 (figure J2-16). Mains 1 is a 3-phase 3-wire circuit connected to the UPS rectifier/charger input terminals. The sensitivity of the RCDs is selected according to the value of earthing resistance (electrode plus earth-wires). sufficiently. circuits are in the same cabinet as the other components of the UPS system.J 2. c if there is complete separation between the upstream and downstream sides of the UPS system. It is recommended that the manufacturers of the UPS system be consulted concerning this aspect of their product. circuits of the UPS system c battery protection: most national standards and codes of practice. covering battery installations are based on stringent regulations. when D2 opens. TT/TT scheme The neutral of the inverter cannot be permanently connected to earth. an insulation monitoring scheme is strongly recommended.7 earthing schemes general In the general case the UPS system is fed from two circuits (as shown typically in figure J2-16) each of which is protected separately. of galvanic separation of the downstream circuits from the upstream circuits. components of current.c. circuits presents a risk.e. if: v the battery and all d.c. contactor C closes automatically to reconnect the neutral busbar of the LV distribution board to earth.c. while mains 2 is a 3-phase 4-wire circuit connected to the upstream terminals of the static contactor. The Technical Notes CT 129 of Merlin Gerin explain this subject in more detail.. Manufacturers should be ready to provide all the necessary information. Where other values of voltage are required. as described above. Such will be the case. as mentioned in Merlin Gerin Technical Notes CT 129. Note: Certain versions of RCD are designed to avoid malfunctioning under abnormal conditions (d. an equipotential location is created. * Merlin Gerin product. differential circuit breakers Multi 9 curve B 30 mA)*. c if there is no separation. but only temporarily.) that are sometimes generated by UPS systems. where an insulation fault on the d. The neutral conductor is earthed at the HV/LV transformer. which. General protection A RCD is installed at each outgoing way of the MGDB feeding the UPS system (D1 and D2 in figure J2-16) and discrimination between these RCDs and those on the outgoing ways of the DB downstream of the UPS system. they are referred to as mains 1 and mains 2.e. i.c. v in the case of a battery location remote from the UPS system. if properly observed. particular supply sources and loads . or not. D2 is a 4-pole circuit breaker which breaks the neutral conductor when it is open. Protection of pollution-free output circuits Circuits supplying socket-outlets will be protected by RCDs of 30 mA (or less) sensitivity (for example. adaptor transformers may be employed. Protection of the d. when D2 is open in figure J2-16. galvanic separation of the upstream and downstream circuits of the UPS system The measures taken to provide protection against electric shock depend on the earthing scheme. A suitable system of permanent surveillance injects a low-frequency test current (a XM 200* monitor.. c for the remainder of the installation: in particular.J17 . the earthing schemes upstream and downstream may be different (or identical). to consider that the circuit from the battery terminals to the controlling circuit breaker adequately assures the safety of persons. i. reduces the probability of a short-circuit fault or an accidental indirect contact occurring. and so. class II insulation standards are respected. is arranged to ensure the maximum possible continuity of supply. for example). The downstream distribution board is supplied at 230/400 V. the section from the downstream side of the battery circuit breaker and the junction of the rectifier output with the inverter input. and therefore on the existence.

and by circuit breakers of low short-circuit tripping settings.2. TN-C / TN-S scheme c the automatic cut-off of supply by indirectcontact hazard protection is achieved in this scheme by overcurrent relays. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. c the d. The basic rule to be observed. The calculation of the impedance loop Zs however. J18 . J2-16: TT/TT scheme.7 earthing schemes (continued) D1 D2 mains 2 UPS C/S LV distribution board RCD sockets 30mA outlet circuits RCD 30mA RCD mains 1 RCD C fig. c protection for the pollution-free output circuits will be by 30 mA RCDs for circuits supplying socket outlets. previously mentioned.particular supply sources and loads . is that the shortcircuit current from the inverter (which is the maximum it can pass before its internal protection operates) exceeds that of the tripping threshold of downstream overcurrent protection. For TN-S installations (only) RCDs of medium sensitivity may also be used.c. Circuit breakers with magnetic trip units of low-setting ranges are suitable for both TN-C and TN-S schemes. is not possible in this case. section of the UPS system is protected as previously described for the TT scheme. non essential circuits UPS mains 2 C/S RCD 30mA socket outlet circuits RCD 30mA LV distribution board mains 1 C fig. J2-17: TN-C/TN-S scheme.

Protection of the d. particular supply sources and loads . part of the system will be detected by CIC1 and CIC2 but these relays will not operate because the impedance measurement made by them is not correct.c. so that the type of earthing required for the downstream circuits can be created at the output transformer of the inverter. complete galvanic separation of the circuits upstream of the UPS system from those downstream Galvanic separation of the upstream and downstream circuits of the UPS system is sometimes required.J19 . the capacitances present in the network (cables and filters on appliances) must be taken into account.J IT/IT scheme c insulation monitoring The CIC1 continuous insulation check relay at the origin of the installation (between the isolated neutral point of the HV/LV transformer and earth) is automatically replaced by the CIC2 at the output of the inverter. a fault on the d.c. c the choice of CIC v on the d. section of the system. if required. current-injection relays of type TR 22A*.7 for the IT/IT scheme. and the insulation monitoring relays. In particular.c.c. CIC current-injection relays operating at very low frequency (type XM 200* for example) allow correct measurement of the impedance. type Vigilohm XM 200*. circuits of the UPS system The d. the CIC1. CIC1 mains 1 UPS C/S LV distribution board mains 2 CIC2 fig. In fact. and is effected by installing a 2-winding transformer upstream of the static contactor. and all items of load must be insulated to withstand phase-tophase voltage. the earthing schemes upstream and downstream of the separation can be different. circuits of the UPS system are protected as already described. c reminder of IT system constraints The design and operation of an IT system requires careful study and exploitation. v on the a.c. are selected as indicated in Sub-clause 2. The advantages of IT operation can only be realized if an in-depth study is completed by clear and concise operating instructions.c. when mains 2 is out of service. sections. and CIC2 relays are d. In this case. current injection relay. * a Merlin Gerin product. CIC3 uses a very low frequency a. J2-18: IT/IT scheme.c.

and in the case of an off-line arrangement the static contactor and filters (if installed) require interconnection.s. J2-20: currents to be considered for cable selection. as indicated in figure J2-20.c. Calculation of the currents I1 and Iu c current Iu is the maximum estimated utilization current of the load.a. circuit lengths of less than 100 m of copper cable. All internal wiring is factory-installed and adapted to the characteristics of the components.particular supply sources and loads . Choice of cables In this application the basis of cable selection is the maximum voltage drop allowable for satisfactory performance of the load. For larger UPS installations the battery is generally located at some distance from the inverter. J20 . circuits. fig.c. v the output from the inverter. The cable sizes selected depend on the current level at each interconnection. of conductors may be carried out as shown in Chapter H1 Clause 2. must be installed by the consumer’s contractor.s. as shown typically in figure J2-19. Preferable values are for this application: c 3% for a.c. for interconnection of the several elements of the UPS system. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. of conductor. cables can be calculated as described in Chapter H1 Clause 3. That for a. and described below. J2-19: ready-to-use UPS unit. circuits. c 1% for d. by plugging into their input and output sockets. These current magnitudes are obtained from the manufacturers of the UPS equipment. Each of these parameters imposes a minimum c. in other cases. Merlin Gerin recommends cable sizes to be used with Maxipac and EPS 2000 systems (tables J2-22 to J2-24) in normal conditions. v the characteristics of the charger.c. Iu static contactor CS mains 2 Iu rectifier/ charger load inverter I1 mains 1 Ib battery capacity C10 fig.2. c the current Ib is the current in the battery cable. wiring and cables.a. Table J2-21 shows the voltage drop for d.8 choice of main-supply and circuit cables. ready-to-use UPS units The UPS units for low-power applications such as individual PCs and micro-informatic installations are marketed as complete units in a metal enclosure. Calculation of the c. and cables for the battery connection self-contained UPS units of small power ratings are supplied for direct connection. for cable lengths of less than 100 m (voltage drop < 3 %). UPS systems requiring interconnection of constituent elements. c current I1 input to the rectifier/charger of the UPS system depends on: v the capacity of the battery (C10) and its charging rate.

4 45 60.3 1.s.7 3.2 5.7 0.6 2.7 3. voltage of 324 V.2 2.c. and supplying the load for UPS system EPS 2000 (cable lengths < 100 m).8 1.8 30.a.1 2.5 kVA 10 kVA 15 kVA 20 kVA 6 10 10 10 10 table J2-22: currents and c.1 2.J The voltage-drop values in % given in table J2-21 correspond to a nominal d. (mm2) of copper-cored cables of length < 100 m circuit 1 circuit 2 battery 3-phase or 400 V load 3-phase 400 V 10 10 16 25 35 50 70 10 10 10 16 25 35 50 10 10 16 25 35 70 95 circuit 2 or load 400 V Iu 15.6 2.5 26 28 15 19 20 24 30 38 40 48 c. In (A) mm2 100 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 600 800 1000 1250 25 5.2 2.a.s.2 1. and supplying the load for UPS system Maxipac (cable lengths < 100 m).8 1 1.9 3.2 22.6 2.7 2. For other voltage levels multiply the table values by a factor equal to the actual battery voltage divided by 324.6 3.6 2. particular supply sources and loads .4 4. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier.J21 .3 120 1 1.5 54 81 108 162 216 table J2-23: currents and c.7 3.8 1 1.3 300 0.3 1.1 1.3 1. for a copper-cored cable.5 kVA 5 kVA 7.4 4.5 10. c.3 1.3 2.3 240 0. nominal current (A) rated power circuit 1 with battery (1) I1 3-phase 400 V 1-phase 230 V I1 battery I1 battery I1 battery I1 battery floating on charge floating on charge 18 20 8.6 4.5 0.6 3.5 0.6 0.8 1 1.a.s.3 1.6 2.3 table J2-21: voltage drop in % of 324 V d. nominal current (A) rated power circuit 1 with battery 3-phase 400 V I1 floating recharging for standby period of: 10 mn 15 mn 30 mn 10 kVA 19 23 25 25 15 kVA 29 36 37 39 20 kVA 37 49 50 52 30 kVA 58 73 76 78 40 kVA 75 97 100 104 60 kVA 116 146 151 157 80 kVA 151 194 201 209 c. (mm2) of copper-cored cables of length < 100 m circuit 1 circuit 2 or load 3-phase 1-phase 1-phase 400 V 230 V 230 V 16 16 10 10 16 16 16 16 circuit 2 or load Iu 16 23 34 45.7 0.s.9 2.8 91.2 4.1 35 3.a.4 150 0.2 2.3 4.0 70 1.4 0.c.2 121.6 95 1. of copper-cored cables feeding the rectifier.1 2.8 3.a.2 5.5 68 91 3.5 50 2.7 3.4 185 0. Battery cable data are also included.s.6 battery Ib 27 40.

The c. Example: For a Maxipac UPS system rated at 7. J22 . output and battery currents for UPS system EPS 5000 (Merlin Gerin). 16 mm2 for the (1-phase) output cable to the load.a.e.I1 floating recharging for standby period of: 10 mn 15-30 mn 40 kVA 70 86 87.s. together with the c. fig.5 kVA 3-phase 400 V.8 choice of main-supply and circuit cables. due to the short duration of the recharging cycle. The recharging current has to be taken into account however. these tables indicate the value of input current I1 to the rectifier/charger when the battery is on trickle charge (i.particular supply sources and loads . J2-25: examples of interconnections. of corresponding input and output cables. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2. For a given power rating of a UPS system.a. of the corresponding cables are: 10 mm2 for the (3-phase) input cable to the rectifier/charger. to correctly determine the upstream protection requirements of circuit 1.5 91 121 151 182 243 304 360 456 608 760 912 1215 battery Ib 109 160 212 255 317 422 527 658 790 1050 1300 1561 2082 table J2-24: input. The value of I1 when the battery is recharging (following a period in which the load has been temporarily supplied entirely from the battery) has no influence on the sizing of the cable.s. I1 = 15 A with the battery floating and Iu = 34 A (see table J2-22). and cables for the battery connection (continued) nominal current (A) rated power circuit 1 with battery 3-phase 400 V . “floating”) as well as the load current Iu.2.6 60 kVA 100 123 127 80 kVA 133 158 164 100 kVA 164 198 200 120 kVA 197 240 244 160 kVA 261 317 322 200 kVA 325 395 402 250 kVA 405 493 500 300 kVA 485 590 599 400 kVA 646 793 806 500 kVA 814 990 1005 600 kVA 967 1180 1200 800 kVA 1290 1648 1548 circuit 2 or load 3-phase 400 V Iu 60.

previously covered in Chapter H2. for such transformers u 22 kA. D2.J23 . sometimes less than twice its rated current. Circuit breaker Ddc The short-circuit current breaking level for this CB is always low. Circuit breakers D3 The very low level of short-circuit current available from the UPS system. D3 and Ddc (figure J2-26) must be chosen such. Selection of circuit breakers D1 and D2 Table J2-24 shows the values of normal-load currents through D1 and D2 respectively.9 choice of protection schemes in the choice of protection schemes. * Merlin Gerin product. In fact. Sub-clauses 4.J 2. so that the choice of CBs to ensure correct discrimination is determined by classical methods. The currents I1 and Iu for UPS systems of Merlin Gerin manufacture. fault-current breaking capacity of the circuit breakers Circuit breakers D1 and D2 These CBs must have a fault-current breaking rating equal to or exceeding the value calculated for its location in the network. Manufacturers carry out tests to ensure a satisfactory coordination between the characteristics of the UPS system and the protection afforded by associated CBs.5. it is necessary to take account of the characteristics particular to UPS systems. are given in tables J2-22 to J2-24. The calculation is made conventionally. gives rise to particularities concerning the organization of discriminative tripping on the one hand. it is necessary to take account of the characteristics particular to UPS systems: the short-circuit current from a UPS system is always very limited. J2-26: example. In the choice of protection schemes. particular supply sources and loads . operated by the limited shortcircuit current available from the UPS unit.2. so that discrimination must be achieved by instantaneous or short time-delay overcurrent protection.36 kA) would be satisfactory.1 kA network D2 I1 EPS 5000 of 200 kVA D1 Ddc Ib autonomy 10 mn D3 fig. For Merlin Gerin UPS units EPS 5000 or 2000* and Merlin Gerin circuit breakers. the following conditions must be complied with: In of a type B circuit breaker i In of UPS unit 2 * In the case of a Maxipac In of a type B circuit breaker i In of UPS unit 3 example 20 kV / 400 V CS power 630 kVA system Isc 22.1 and 4. that: In u I1 for D1 (I1 including the battery recharging current) In u Iu for D2 In u Ide for Ddc The current rating (In) for each outgoing CB D3 depends on the current rating of the particular circuit. choice of circuit breaker ratings The current ratings (In) of CBs D1. viz: 395 A for I1 and 304 A for Iu. before its internal overcurrent protection operates. for example. The short-circuit current-breaking rating of D1 and D2 at their points of installation must be. The currents Ib are given in the Merlin Gerin low-voltage distribution catalogue. c case 2: circuit configuration without the static contactor or with delayed transfer to it. Sub-clause 4. on the other. and protection against indirect-contact hazards in TN systems. regulated for overload protection (by thermal tripping device) at Irth u 395A for D1 and u 304 A for D2. but without any particular requirement concerning autonomy: the short-circuit current is supplied from the power network. the maximum shortcircuit current from a battery is always less than 20 times its ampere-hour capacity (battery capacities are indicated in the Merlin Gerin low-voltage distribution catalogue). as previously indicated in Chapter H1. Circuit breakers type NS400N* (400 A at 40 °C . c case 1: circuit configuration in which the static contactor is closed.

etc. such a transformer: c reduces the short-circuit current level on the secondary. providing that the primary winding is connected in delta. communications equipment Communication with equipment associated with informatic systems (see Sub-clause 2. c prevents third harmonic currents (and multiples of them) which may be present on the secondary side from passing into the power-system network. inverters and UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply units) (continued) J 2.2. c the LV busbars supply loads which are particularly sensitive to harmonics. anti-harmonic filter The UPS system includes a battery charger which is controlled by commutated thyristors or transistors. or added to existing systems on request. c a different arrangement for the neutral on the load-side winding. J2-27: a UPS installation with incorporated communication systems.) driven alternator is provided as a standby power supply. notably in very large installations. c a diesel (or gas-turbine. fig. the manufacturers of the UPS system should be consulted.e. In such cases. Moreover.10 complementary equipments transformers A two-winding transformer included on the upstream side of the static contactor of circuit 2 (see figure J2-5) allows: c a change of voltage level when the power network voltage is different to that of the load. For example. from that of the power network. These indesirable components are filtered at the input of the rectifier and for most cases this reduces the harmonic current level sufficiently for all practical purposes. (i.particular supply sources and loads . an additional filter circuit may be necessary. J24 . load) side compared with that on the power network side.5) may entail the need for suitable facilities within the UPS systems. In certain specific cases however. when: c the power rating of the UPS system is large relative to the HV/LV transformer supplying it. Such facilities may be incorporated in an original design. The resulting regularlychopped current cycles “generate” harmonic components in the power-supply network.

etc. the first current peak can attain a value equal to 10 to 15 times the full-load r. value of the first peak instantaneous I trip fig. The magnitude of the current peak depends on: c the value of voltage at the instant of energization. according to circumstances. with a time constant θ (see figure J3-1) of the order of several milli-seconds to several tens of milli-seconds. value of the first peak 10In 20In I fig. J3-1: transformer-energizing in-rush current. an earthed metal screen between the primary and secondary windings is frequently required. industrial-heating processes. 3.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer The protective device on the supply circuit for a LV/LV transformer must avoid the possibility of incorrect operation due to the magnetizing in-rush current surge. LV/LV transformers are generally supplied with protective systems incorporated. c changing the method of earthing for certain loads having a relatively high capacitive current to earth (informatic equipment) or resistive leakage current (electric ovens. slightly time-delayed) circuit breakers of the type Compact NS STR* (figure J3-2) or c circuit breakers having a very high magnetic-trip setting.m. * Merlin Gerin. current. together with a number of points described below. component) occur. and as discussed in detail in Sub-clause 3. This transient current decreases rapidly.J25 . and must be taken into account when considering protection schemes. of the types Compact NS or Multi 9* curve D (figure J3-3). c characteristics of the load on the transformer.s. protection of LV/LV transformers J These transformers are generally in the range of several hundreds of VA to some hundreds of kVA and are frequently used for: c changing the (LV) voltage level for: v auxiliary supplies to control and indication circuits. J3-3: tripping characteristic of a circuit breaker according to standardized type D curve (for Merlin Gerin 10 to 14 In). particular supply sources and loads . mass-cooking installations. high values of transient current (which includes a significant d.1 transformer-energizing in-rush current At the moment of energizing a transformer.e.5 of Chapter G. Overcurrent protection must. In distribution-type transformers. in any case.3. J3-2: tripping characteristic of a Compact NS STR circuit breaker.1. I Î first 10 to 25 In In θ t fig. Note: In the particular cases of LV/LV safety isolating transformers at extra-low voltage. be provided on the primary side.s.). but for small transformers (< 50 kVA) may reach values of 20 to 25 times the nominal full-load current.c. and the manufacturers must be consulted for details.m. 3. t 50 to 70 ms r.m. t In r. noted above in 3. v lighting circuits (230 V created when the primary system is 400 V 3-phase 3-wires). c the magnitude and polarity of magnetic flux (if any) existing in the core of the transformer. The exploitation of these transformers requires a knowledge of their particular function. as recommended in European Standard EN 60742. It is necessary to use therefore: c selective (i.s.

A Compact NS250 circuit breaker with Ir setting of 200 A would therefore be a suitable protective device. voltage (%) 5 100 250 4. voltage (%) 1-phase kVA rating no-load losses (W) full-load losses (W) s. using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers 3-phase transformers (400 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 5 10 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 250 315 400 500 630 7 14 23 28 35 44 56 70 89 113 141 176 225 352 444 563 704 887 4.5 5.5 5 5 5.5 6 6 5.c.5 125 680 3700 4. i.c. J26 . This practice has two disadvantages: c the fuses must be largely oversized (at least 4 times the nominal full-load rated current of the transformer).067 A.4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above.5 120 635 5 10 150 500 5. or alternatively a circuit breaker type MA* may be used.5 350 1240 5 50 265 1900 5 40 350 1530 5 63 305 2000 4.particular supply sources and loads .5 16 140 730 4. 17 x 180 A = 3.5 4.5 25 31.5 200 790 5900 5 250 950 6500 5 315 1160 7400 4. the short-circuit protective relay of which is immune to high transient-current peaks. 3.5 5 5 4.3 110 320 4.5 16 170 840 5.5 80 450 2450 5.5 25 310 1180 5.5 800 2160 11400 5. as shown in figure J5-3.5 175 200 1065 1200 4 4 125 160 525 635 3950 4335 5 table J3-5: typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers.5 160 680 5900 5.5 8 105 400 5 6.5 50 410 1650 4. A particular case: overload protection installed at the secondary side of the transformer An advantage of overload protection located on the secondary side.5 5 4.5 40 215 1400 5 31. either a load-break switch or a contactor must be associated with the fuses.5 5. c in order to provide isolating facilities on the primary side. The primary-side short-circuit protection setting must.5 10 115 530 5 8 130 390 4.5 20 270 800 5.5 20 150 865 4.5 400 1240 9300 6 500 1485 9400 6 630 1855 11400 5.3 typical electrical characteristics of LV/LV 50 Hz transformers 3-phase kVA rating no-load losses (W) full-load losses (W) s.3.e. is that the short-circuit protection on the primary side can be set at a high value. 20 32 63 63 80 80 80 100 MA100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-6: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.5 12. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued) J 3.5 5.5 5.5 12. be sufficiently sensitive to ensure its operation in the event of a short-circuit occurring on the secondary side of the transformer (upstream of secondary protective devices). * Motor-control circuit breaker.5 circuit breakers type C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NC100 D NC100 D NS100H/L NS160H/L NS160H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801NH/L C1001N/H/L C1001N/H/L C1251N/H trip-unit current rating (A)/type no. 3. however. J3-4: example. NS250N tripping unit STR22SE (Ir = 200) 3 x 70 mm2 400/230 V 125 kVA fig. type a M.5 5. Note: The primary protection is sometimes provided by fuses.2 protection for the supply circuit of a LV/LV transformer (continued) Example (figure J3-4) A 400 V 3-phase circuit is supplying a 125 kVA 400/230 V transformer (In = 180 A) for which the first in-rush current peak can reach 17 In.5 63 460 2150 5 100 450 3950 5 80 520 2540 5 100 570 3700 5.5 160 600 5.

44 3.5 7 5.5 6 circuit breakers type C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NS100H/L NS100H/L NS100H/L NS100H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS630N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C1001N/H/L C1001N/H/L C1251N/H C1251N/H trip-unit current rating (A)/type no.39 0.63 1 1. 40 63 80 100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-7: protection of 3-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.3 8 10 12.5 4 5 6.J27 .9 3 2.5 4.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 0.5 5 5 4.16 0.5 5 4.61 0.5 5 5 circuit breakers type C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NS160H/L NS160H/L NS160H/L NS160H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400 NS630 C801N/H/L C801N/H/L trip-unit current rating (A)/type no. 1-phase transformers (400 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 0.5 16 20 25 31.5 9.4 0.8 12.9 4.88 6.5 7.54 2.2 4 2. 1 1 1 2 3 6 10 10 16 20 32 40 50 63 63 80 100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-8: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 400 V primary windings.6 2 2.5 4.5 5.2 15. particular supply sources and loads .1 9.5 5.1 1.5 5.9 1.4 19.98 1.1 0.5 4.5 5 5 5.5 4 4 4 5 4.5 5.J 3-phase transformers (230 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 5 10 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 250 315 400 12 24 39 49 61 77 97 122 153 195 244 305 390 609 767 974 4.6 5 5 5 4.5 24 30 39 49 61 77 98 122 154 195 244 305 390 13 10.5 5.25 0.5 5.24 0.

4 protection of transformers with characteristics as tabled in J3-5 above.9 1.16 0.2 4 2.3 8 10 12.5 4.5 9.1 27 34 42 53 68 84 105 133 169 211 266 338 422 528 675 13 10.8 8.5 5 5 circuit breakers type C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K C60 / NC100 D or K NC100 D NC100 D NC100 D NS160H/L NS160H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS250N/H/L NS400N/H/L NS630N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C801N/H/L C1001N/H/L trip-unit current rating (A)/type no.5 40 50 63 80 100 125 160 0.particular supply sources and loads .4 10. J28 .7 1.5 4 5 6.5 7.7 4.6 5 5 5 4.5 5.6 2 2. using Merlin Gerin circuit breakers (continued) 1-phase transformers (230 V primary) P (kVA) In (A) Usc % 0.5 16. protection of LV/LV transformers (continued) J 3.5 4 4 5 5 4.9 21.4 0.5 4.7 2.3.1 1.4 0.25 0. 1 2 3 4 6 10 16 16 20 40 50 63 80 100 100 STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR22SE STR23SE STR22SE STR23SE STR23SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE STR35SE table J3-9: protection of 1-phase LV/LV transformers with 230 V primary windings.9 3 2.5 7 5.1 1.5 16 20 25 31.2 6.1 0.63 1 1.

v the installation must be an IT scheme. c general emergency lighting General lighting is obligatory when an area can accommodate 100 persons or more (50 persons or more in areas below ground level). lighting circuits J the presence of adequate lighting contributes to the satety of persons. Standby lighting permits everyday activities to continue more or less normally. 4. and on the extent of the normal lighting failure.1 service continuity continuity of normal lighting service must be sufficient.e. are as follows: c installations which illuminate areas accessible to the public must be controlled and protected independently from installations providing illumination to other areas. Furthermore. absolute discrimination between protective devices on the different circuits must be provided. Emergency lighting must ensure easy evacuation of persons from the premises concerned. in emergency lighting circuits.e. definitions Normal lighting refers to the installation designed for everyday use. more than one device must be used).J29 . i. The planning and realization of a lighting installation requires a sound understanding of the materials installed. depending on the original design specification. the provision of adequate illumination in the event of fire or other catastrophic circumstances is of great importance in reducing the likelihood of panic. A fault on a lighting distribution circuit must not affect any other circuit: v the discrimination of overcurrent-protection relays and of RCDs must be absolute. c loss of supply on a final lighting circuit (i. Standby lighting is intended to substitute normal lighting. emergency lighting must be adequate to allow any particular safety manœuvres provided in the premises to be carried out. particular supply sources and loads . as well as general lighting. and in permitting the necessary safety manœuvres to be carried out. emergency lighting These schemes include illuminated emergency exit signs and direction indications. fuse blown or CB tripped) must not result in total loss of illumination in an area which is capable of accommodating more than 50 persons.e.7 describes different kinds of suitable power supplies. luminous directional indications to the nearest emergency exits must be provided. so that only the faulty circuit will be cut off.4. c emergency exit indications In areas accommodating more than 50 persons. emergency lighting is intended to facilitate the evacuation of persons in case of fire or other panic-causing situations. or must be entirely class II. doubly-insulated. independent of other supplementary systems. Sub-clause 4. in the event that the normal lighting system fails. where the latter fails. c protection by RCDs (residual current differential devices) must be divided amongst several devices (i. In fact. when normal lighting systems may have failed. Failure of the standby lighting system must automatically switch on the emergency lighting system. normal lighting Regulations governing the minimum requirements for ERP (Establishments Receiving the Public) in most European countries. together with familiarity with the rules for safety against fire hazards in establishments receiving the public.

s. These disturbances are analysed in table J4-1 below. which.2 lamps and accessories (luminaires) fluorescent tubes For normal operation a fluorescent tube requires a ballast and a starter (device for initiating the luminous discharge). lighting circuits (continued) J 4. engender disturbances during the periods of starting. c moderate overload at the beginning of steady operating condition (1. the c. c can generate a current peak at start. In this case. causes a high-voltage transient pulse to appear across the tube. c the ballast is an iron-cored inductor.6) with the corresponding consumption of reactive energy. permanently connected in series with the tube. or the welding of contacts in a contactor. switching-off disturbances no particular problems steady-operating disturbances circulation of harmonic currents (sinusoidal currents at frequencies equal to whole-number multiples of 50 (or 60) Hz: c delta-connected lamps (see Appendix J2) (3-ph 3-wire 230 V system) 1 2 3 presence of 5th and 7th harmonics at very low level c star-connected lamps (3-ph 4-wire 400/230 V system) 1 2 3 N no particular problems presence of 3 rd harmonic currents in the neutral. The ballast.1-1. fluorescent lamp with HF ballast Advantages: Energy savings of the order of 25%. The two sets of equipment are connected in parallel. c no high current peak as noted above. For this reason each fluorescent lamp is normally provided with its own power-factor-correction capacitor. therefore.5 In for 1 sec) according to type of starter. v to stabilize the current through the luminous column (hence the term “ballast”). This can cause a CB to trip. A B starter ballast starter switching-on disturbances c high current peak to charge capacitor.f. which is generally metered. No flicker or stroboscopic effects. no particular problems table J4-1: analysis of disturbances in fluorescent-lighting circuits. Rapid one-shot start.particular supply sources and loads . single-phase twin-tube fluorescent lamp with each tube having its own starter and series ballast. order of magnitude 10 In for 1 sec. capacitor and the tube.4. to nullify the flicker effect. The presence of the ballast means that the power-factor (cos ø) of the circuit is low (of the order 0. The discharge is then self-sustaining at normal voltage. single-phase fluorescent lamp with its individual p. v to provide a pulse of high voltage at the end of the starting period to strike the initial arc.f. by breaking the (electrode-preheating) current passing through the ballast. The capacitor displaces the phase of the current through its tube. viz: v to limit the preheating current during the (brief) starting period. One of the tubes has a capacitor connected in series with its ballast. correction capacitor 1 2 3 c the starter is a switch. as well as correcting the overall p.a. steady operation and extinction. J30 . A number of lamps on one circuit can result in peaks of 300-400 A for 0.5 ms. its function is threefold. This causes an arc (in the form of a gaseous discharge) to be established through the tube. of the neutral conductor must equal that of the phase conductors. In practice. which can reach 70 to 80% of the nominal phase current. The arrangement is known internationally as a “duo”-circuit luminaire. This arrangement is recommended for difficult cases. c can cause leakage to earth of HF current (at 30 kHz) via the phase conductor capacitances to earth. c same order of moderate overload at beginning of steady operating condition as for the single tube noted above. limit each circuit to 8 tubes per contactor.

the cable size is chosen after the protective CB (with an instantaneous trip setting sufficient to remain closed during the current peaks) has been selected. Note: at room temperature the filament resistance of a 100 W 230 V incandescent lamp is approximately 34 ohms.J 4. Accordingly. account must be taken of: c the nominal power rating of the lamp and the ballast. even among a number of lighting circuits from a given distribution panel. The initial current peak at the instant of switch closure is therefore practically 15 times its normal operating current.J31 . there is no diversity. however.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 230 V 1-phase current rating In (A) 6 10 10 16 16 20 20 25 25 32 32 40 50 50 The following tables allow direct selection of circuit breaker ratings for certain particular cases. 230 V 3-phase current rating In (A) 3 4 6 10 10 10 16 16 16 20 20 25 25 32 400 V 3-phase current rating In (A) 2 3 4 4 6 10 10 10 10 10 16 16 16 20 table J4-2: protective circuit breaker ratings for incandescent lamps and resistive-type heating circuits (see Note below).5 3 3. The circuit conductor ratings are defined by the maximum steady load current of the circuit. power (kW) 1 1. factor of simultaneity ks (diversity) A particular feature of large (e. c the power factor.5 2 2. A similar (but generally less severe) transient current peak occurs when energizing any resistivetype heating appliance. In general tables are available from manufacturers to assist in making a choice. the filament resistance rises to 2302/100 = 529 ohms. The temperature within the distribution panel also influences the choice of the protective device (see Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.e.5 4 4. See the Note following table J4-2.3 the circuit and its protection dimensions and protection of the conductors The maximum currents in the circuits can be estimated using the methods discussed in Chapter B. 4. i. the factor ks is generally near unity.4).4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker The rated current of a circuit breaker is generally chosen according to the rating of the circuit conductors it is protecting (in the particular circumstances in the Note of 4.g.3 above. an important consideration to be taken into account when selecting protective devices. the reverse procedure was found to be necessary). Consequently. the interior of distribution panels supplying lighting schemes are frequently at an elevated temperature. Note: for circuits in which large peak currents occur (at times of switching on) and their magnitude is such that CB tripping is a possibility. factory) lighting circuits is that the whole load is “on” or “off”. particular supply sources and loads . Some milli-seconds after switching on. Furthermore.

pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 225 112 69 112 56 34 32 281 140 87 140 70 43 40 351 175 109 175 87 54 50 443 221 137 221 110 68 63 562 281 174 281 140 87 80 703 351 218 351 175 109 100 127 64 40 64 32 20 32 162 81 50 81 40 25 40 203 101 63 101 50 31 50 255 127 79 127 63 39 63 324 162 100 162 81 50 80 406 203 126 203 101 63 100 Calculation for tubes with p.3 -or 4. with or without individual power-factor correcting capacitors.particular supply sources and loads . capacitor.25 = factor for watts consumed by ballast.25 x e where: U = phase/phase voltage tables J4-4: current ratings of circuit breakers related to the number of fluorescent luminaires to be protected.pole CBs 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 Calculation for tubes with p. mercury vapour fluorescent lamps P i 700 W 6A P i 1000 W 10 A P i 2000 W 16 A metal-halogen mercury-vapour lamps P 275 W 6A P 1000 W 10 A P 2000 W 16 A high-pressure sodium discharge lamps P 400 W 6A P 1000 W 10 A table J4-3: maximum limit of rated current per outgoing lighting circuit.8 C x 0.25 where: C = current rating of C B. lighting circuits (continued) J 4. Pu = nominal power rating of tube (W).8 = derating factor for high temperature in CB housing.4. capacitor. connected in star number of tubes per phase = 0. 1.86 U Pu x 1. 0.f. single-phase distribution 230 V three-phase distribution + N : 400 V phase/phase types de tube number of luminaires per phase luminaires rating (W) single-phase 18 7 14 21 42 70 112 140 175 with capacitor 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 58 2 4 6 13 21 34 43 54 duo circuit 2x18= 36 3 7 10 21 35 56 70 87 with 2x36= 72 1 3 5 10 17 28 35 43 capacitor 2x58= 116 1 2 3 6 10 17 21 27 current rating of 1-.or 3. three-phase 3 wire system(230 V) phase/phase types de tube number of luminaires per phase luminaires rating (W) single-phase 18 4 8 12 24 40 64 81 101 with capacitor 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 58 1 2 3 7 12 20 25 31 duo circuit 2x18= 36 2 4 6 12 20 32 40 50 with 2x36= 72 1 2 3 6 10 16 20 25 capacitor 2x58= 116 0 1 1 3 6 10 12 15 current rating of 2.86 = cos ø of circuit. V = phase/neutral voltage.2-. for high-pressure discharge lamps.f.4 determination of the rated current of the circuit breaker (continued) The following table (J4-3) is valid for 230 V and 400 V installations.8 C x 0. J32 . 0. connected in delta number of tubes per phase = 0.86 V Pu x 1.

J 4.000 V with respect to the power circuits. < 50 V or < 25 V according to requirements). particular supply sources and loads .5 choice of control-switching devices The advent of switching devices which combine the functions of remote control and protection. point-to-point remote control centralized remote control point-to-point and centralized remote control control signals over communications bus control signals over timemultiplexing channels bistable switch contactor “pilot” bistable switch remote controlled switch remotely controlled switch push-button switch push button stairway time-switch with automatic switch-off automatic photo-electric lighting-control switches movement detectors. i. simplifies lighting-control circuits considerably. of which the remotely-controllable residual-current circuit breaker is the prototype.e.J33 . The situation at the time of writing is summarized below in table J4-5. these control circuits being insulated for 4. central clock relaying remotely controlled circuit breaker over communications bus remotely controlled static contactor/ circuit breaker combination residual current circuit breaker controlled over communications bus according to type table J4-5: types of remote control. remote-control mode function of corresponding switchgear and controlled equipment remote control remote control + overcurrent protection circuit breaker controlled by hard-wire system remote control + overcurrent protection + insulation monitoring and protection residual current circuit breaker controlled by hard-wire system local control devices centralized control devices Certain switching devices include control circuitry for operation at ELV (extra-lowvoltage. thereby enlarging the scope and diversity of control schemes.

5 for a 6 mm2 copper cable = 1.7 milli-ohms.mm) 2 x 22. greater than 9. so that protection installed on the secondary side would be equally difficult to reach.0. The protective device is therefore chosen: c to provide switching control (Multi 9 type C CB.12 = 0. the minimum value of short-circuit current exceeds by a suitable margin the short-circuit magnetic relay setting Im of the CB concerned. overload protection must be provided. currents. a conductor of 10 mm2 would allow 1.3 m It is then necessary to check that this length is sufficient to reach the 12 V distribution board. If the length is insufficient. Example: The s. as (implied) in the example. current Isc2 at the secondary terminals of a single-phase LV/ELV transformer is equal to Us where Zs = Us2 x Usc % Zs Pn 100 Pn x 100 = 400 x 100 so that Isc2 = Us x Usc% 12 x 6 = 555 A which gives Isc1 = 29 A in the primary circuit. is recommended. in principle. will satisfy the constraint for maximum Rc. U2/555. where the outgoing ways are protected with other devices.a. or type aM fuses). which corresponds to a secondary current of 20 x 230 = 383 A 12 The maximum resistance of the ELV (i.c.0216 Im2 Isc2 383 555 = 9. J4-6: example.particular supply sources and loads . J34 . v in the case of fuses it is also necessary to ensure that the I2t energy let-through of the fuse(s) at minimum short-circuit current is well below the level of the thermal withstand capacity of the circuit conductors. Circuit breaker type C trips if the primary current u Im1 = 10 In = 20 A.s. secondary) circuit* may be deduced from these two secondary s. and to automatically provide a safety margin under all circumstances.3 x 10/6 = 2.e. will be mainly reactive. c to ensure protection against short-circuits. because the source impedance (i. then an increase in the c.e. an arithmetic subtraction. If the number of lamps on the circuit has been correctly chosen. For this reason the protection is commonly provided on the primary circuit. viz: 555 A and 383 A as follows: Rc = U2 .4. not resistive. lighting circuits (continued) J 4. c if necessary. overload protection is not necessary. for simplicity. proportional to the increased length required.7 x 6 2 x 22. however. of the conductors. The maximum length of the 12 V circuit based on 9. as shown. Note: The true value of Rc permitted is.6 protection of ELV lighting circuits A LV/ELV transformer is often located in an inaccessible position. for example. 2A LV ELV 230/12 V 400 VA Usc = 6% secondary circuit fig.2 m of circuit length in the above case.V2 = 12 .5 (µΩ. However.c.0313 .7 mΩ * from the transformer terminals to the ELV distribution board.7 mΩ will therefore be: Rc (mΩ) x S (mm2) in metres = 9. It must therefore be verified that: v in the case of a CB.

The circuits for all emergency lamps must be independent of any other circuits (1). c autonomous units may be of the permanently-lit type or non-permanently-lit type. failure of standby lighting must automatically bring the emergency lighting system into operation. that ensure a minimum of capacity equal to the full emergency-lighting load for one hour. junction sleeves and so on must satisfy national standard heat tests. or a heat-engine-driven generator). and for a period judged necessary to ensure the total evacuation of the premises concerned. These circuits must be independent of any other circuits (1). or. Standby lighting systems operate to maintain illumination. Central sources for emergency supplies may also be used to provide standby supplies. However. Type B The lamps are permanently supplied during the presence of the public. (1) Circuits for types A and B. authorized for use in emergency-lighting schemes in the different areas. and which remain alight (for at least one hour). the failure of one source must leave sufficient capacity in service to maintain supply to all safety systems.7 supply sources for emergency lighting Supply sources for emergency-lighting systems must be capable of maintaining the supply to all lamps in the most unfavourable circumstances likely to occur. Classification of such locations leads to the determination of suitable types of solutions. The engine start-up power is provided by a battery which is capable of six starting attempts.J 4. classification of emergencylighting schemes Many countries have statutory regulations concerning safety in buildings and areas intended for public gatherings. Type C The lamps may. Minimum reserves of energy in the two systems of start-up must be maintained automatically. may be fed from the normal lighting system. and which is on permanent trickle charge from a normal lighting source. in the case of a central emergency power source. or from the emergency-lighting supply. if supplied. with (in any case) a minimum of one hour. The circuits for all emergency lamps must be independent of any other circuits (2). must leave all other sources and safety equipments unaffected. The following four classifications are typical. particular supply sources and loads . Type D This type of emergency lighting comprises hand-carried battery-powered (primary or secondary cells) at the disposal of service personnel or the public. Type A The lamps are supplied permanently and totally during the presence of the public by a single central source (battery of storage cells. c any safety equipment must be arranged to receive supply from any source. or may not. either: c by a battery to which the lamps are permanently connected. c failures in the central emergency supply source must be detected at a sufficient number of points and adequately signalled to supervisory/maintenance personnel. with automatic load shedding of non-essential loads (if necessary). by virtue of a self-contained battery. c the heat-engine-driven generator sets must be capable of automatically picking-up the full emergency lighting load from a standby (stationary) condition. on failure of normal lighting circuits (generally in non-emergency circumstances). c by a heat-engine-driven generator. or. These units have fluorescent lamps for general emergency lighting. etc. on the loss of normal supply. or the circuits must be installed in protective cable chases. or by a system of compressed air. (2) Cable circuits of type C are not required to comply with the conditions of (1). be supplied in normal conditions and. capable of assuring satisfactory performance for at least one hour in the event of fire.J35 . in less than 15 seconds. trunking. compatibility between emergency lighting sources and other parts of the installation Emergency-lighting sources must supply exclusively the circuits installed only for operation in emergency situations. The battery is trickle-charged in normal circumstances. following the failure of normal supply. and fluorescent or incandescent lamps for exit and directionindicating signs. or one equipment concerned with safety. provided that the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled: c where there are several sources. c the failure of one source. Conduit boxes. the characteristics of which also assure supplies to essential loads within one second (since the set is already running and supplying the emergency lighting) in the event of failure of the normal power supply. c the emergency-lighting batteries must be maintained on charge from the normal source by automatically regulated systems. c by autonomous units which are normally supplied and permanently alight from the normal lighting supply. must also be fire-resistant.

c preventive or limitative protection equipment. c the heavy start-up current means that motor overload protective devices must have operating characteristics which avoid tripping during the starting period. asynchronous motors J the asynchronous (i. the safety of persons and goods. such as: c heavy start-up current (see figure J5-1) which is highly reactive. therefore. specific to motors. v cost of repairs to the motor. shows diverse motor-circuit configurations commonly used in LV distribution boards. Functions generally provided are: c basic protection. The protection of these motors is consequently a matter of great importance in numerous applications. c number and frequency of start-up operations are generally high. Loss of production is a further. including: v isolating facility. and reliability and availability levels which must influence the choice of protective equipment. 5. and can therefore be the cause of an important voltage drop. v accident due to sticking (contact welding) of the controlling contactor. and very widely used. owing to the particular characteristics. v manufacturing time delayed. and difficulties of access to it increase. c for the driven machine and the process: v shaft couplings and axles. c electronic controls consisting of: v progressive “soft-start” motor starter. v manual local and/or remote control. etc. or. t I" = 8 to 12 In Id = 5 to 8 In In = nominal motor current td 1 to 10s 20 to 30 ms In Id I" I fig. J36 . J5-1: direct-on-line starting-current characteristics of an induction motor. v protection against overload. v multi-function relays. A motor power-supply circuit presents certain constraints not normally encountered in other (common) distribution circuits. Table J5-2 below. v cost of dismantling and reinstating or replacement of motor. It is. c electronic control equipment. c for the motor: v motor windings burnt out due to stalled rotor. 95% of motors installed around the world are asynchronous. c preventive or limitative protection by means of: v temperature sensors. it is the overall cost of failure which must be considered. The consequences of an incorrectly protected motor can include the following: c for persons: v asphyxiation due to the blockage of motor ventilation.1 protective and control functions required functions to be provided generally include: c basic protective devices.5. In economic terms.e. v loss of production. v protection against short-circuits. v permanent insulation-resistance monitor or RCD (residual-current differential device). a penalty which is increasingly severe as the size of the motor. specific features of motor performance influence the powersupply circuits required for satisfactory operation.particular supply sources and loads . v electrocution due to insulation failure in the motor. damaged due to a stalled rotor. induction) motor is robust and reliable. and evidently important factor. v speed controller.

motor blocked during start-up c pre-alarm overheating indication permanent insulation-to-earth monitor and RCD (residual-current differential relay) Protection against earth-leakage current and short-circuits to earth.e.J37 . absence or inversion of phase voltages c earth fault or excessive earth-leakage current c motor running on no-load. particular supply sources and loads . short circuit or overload c low installation costs c no maintenance c high degree of safety and reliability c suitable for systems having high fault levels c long electrical life progressive “soft-start” starter device c limitation v current peaks I v voltage drops U v mechanical constraints during start-up period c thermal protection is incorporated thermal sensors Protection against abnormal heating of the motor by thermistance-type sensors in the motor windings. speed controller c from 2 to 130 % of nominal speed c thermal protection is incorporated c possibility of communication facilities preventive or limitative protection devices table J5-2: commonly-used types of LV motor-supply circuits. or stalled-rotor condition c imbalance. multi-function relays Direct and indirect thermal protection against: c the starting period excessively long.J basic protection fuse-disconnector + discontactor (using thermal relay) circuit breaker* motor circuit + discontactor breaker* + contactor (using thermal relay) contactor circuit breaker* ACPA standards disconnection (or isolation) manual control remote control short-circuit protection * circuit breaker includes disconnector capability overload protection c large power range c allow all types of starting schemes c a well-proven method c suitable for systems having high fault levels refer also to Chapter H2. connected to associated relays. Signalled indication of need for motor maintenance or replacement. Sub-clause 2-2 electronic controls c large power range c method is simple c avoids need to stock and compact for fuse cartridges low-power motors c disconnection is visible in certain cases c identification of the reason for tripping i.

installation work. and 947-6-2.1 Where several different devices are used to provide protection. cable thermal-withstand limit limit of thermalrelay constraint short-circuit tripping characteristic of the circuit breaker (type MA) In Is I" Imagn. J38 . J5-3: tripping characteristics of a circuit breaker (type MA)** and thermal-relay / contactor (1) combination. c short-circuit protection. When these functions are performed by several devices. by: circuit currents up to about 30 In (see c the reduction of the maintenance work load: figure J5-3). following the elimination of a fault. which share the required functions of: c control (start/stop).. c full-load current switching possibility (by c etc. Advantages c interlocking. etc. the association of a circuit breaker incorporating an instantaneous magnetic trip for shortcircuit protection and a contactor with a thermal overload relay* provides many advantages. none of the devices involved must be damaged. v protection against destruction of the motor c tripping of all three phases is assured (short-circuiting of laminations) by the early (thereby avoiding the possibility of “singledetection of earth-fault currents (300 mA to phasing”). c possibility of adding RCD: c additional complementary devices v an RCD of 500 mA sensitivity practically sometimes required on a motor circuit are eliminates fire risk due to leakage current. as well as operation and c better protection for the starter for shortmaintenance.05 . easily accommodated.2 standards The international standards covering materials discussed in this Sub-clause are: IEC 947-2. ** Merlin Gerin.g.20 In characteristics of thermal relay among the many possible methods of protecting a motor. so that the current is stock (of different sizes). e. The control and protection of a motor can be provided by one.particular supply sources and loads . replaceable arcing contacts in certain contactors. The kind of co-ordination required depends on the necessary degree of service continuity and on safety levels. c specific protection as noted in Sub-clause 5. 947-3. after a given number of service operations. 30 A). limited by the cable and the wiring of the c better continuity performance: a motor starter (e. t circuit breaker magnetic relay contactor thermal relay câble motor (nominal current In) ts 1 to 10 s end of start-up period range 1. These standards are being adopted (often without any changes) by a number of countries. co-ordination between them is essential.5. circuit breaker only l CB plus contactor (see Note) short-circuit-current breaking capacities 20 to 30 ms fig. and so on. c protection against short-circuits. as national standards. CB) in the event of contactor failure. 5. c isolation (safety during maintenance).. e. the CB avoids the need to replace blown In the majority of cases short-circuit faults fuses and the necessity of maintaining a occur at the motor. In the case of an electrical fault of any kind.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay functions to be implemented are: c control (start/stop). coordination between them is necessary. contact welding.1.g. asynchronous motors (continued) J 5. 947-4-1. except items for which minor damage is normal in the particular circumstances.g. c protection specific to the particular motor (but at least thermal relay overcurrent protection). This combination of devices facilitates c diverse remote indications. the direct-acting trip coil of the circuit can be re-energized immediately CB). c disconnection (isolation) for safety of personnel during maintenance work. two or three devices. * The association of an overload relay and a contactor is referred to as a “discontactor” in some countries.

J39 . v volume and cost of switchgear reduced. utilization category AC-1 AC-2 AC-3 AC-4 application characteristics Non-inductive (or slightly inductive) loads: cos ø u 0. The following table gives some typical examples of the utilization categories covered. Conclusion The association circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay(1) for the control and protection of motor circuits is eminently appropriate where: c the maintenance service for an installation is reduced. current-breaking capacity above that of the CB alone. those of the CB and those of the contactor) are acting in series. The utilization categories advise on: c a range of functions for which the contactor may be adapted. which set maximum allowable limits of deterioration of switchgear. type 1 and type 2. which is generally the case in tertiary and small-and medium-sized industrial enterprises. and the risk of welding of the contacts of the contactor are the only risks allowed. and switching off motors during running Cage motors: starting. The combination effectively increases the s. according to the state of the constituant parts following a circuit breaker trip out on fault. so that two sets of contacts (i. Types of co-ordination For each association of devices. c type 1: v qualified maintenance service. IEC 947-4-1 defines two types of coordination. inching table J5-4: utilization categories for contactors (IEC 947-4). v no maintenance service. v continuity of service not demanded. standardization of the association of circuit breakers/ discontactors Categories of contactor The standard IEC 947-4 gives utilization categories which considerably facilitate the choice of a suitable contactor for a given service duty. a type of coordination is given. plugging. c there is an operational requirement for a load-breaking facility in the event of contact welding of the contactor. c the job specification calls for complementary functions. c its current breaking and making capabilities.e. particular supply sources and loads . v all elements other than the contactor and its relay must remain undamaged. c type 2: burning. c type 2: v continuity of service imperative. which must never present a danger to personnel. (1) a contactor in association with a thermal relay is commonly referred to as a discontactor.95 (heating. or provided by replacement of motor-starter drawer. Which type to choose? The type of co-ordination to adopt depends on the parameters of exploitation. and must be chosen to satisfy (optimally) the needs of the user and the cost of installation. according to its utilization. the contacts of some contactors may be momentarily forced open by electro-magnetic repulsion. or the opening of a contactor on overload. distribution) Starting and switching off of slip-ring motors Cage motors: starting. v specifications stipulating this type of coordination.J Note: When short-circuit currents are very high.c. c standard test values for expected life duration on load. c type 1: deterioration of the contactor and/or of its relay is acceptable under 2 conditions: v no risk for the operator.

A short-circuit downstream of the combination will be limited to some extent by the impedances of the contactor (see previous Note) and the thermal relay. J40 . Tables are published by Merlin Gerin giving this information in their “LV Distribution” catalogue. co-ordination is provided in the design. since it (the contactor) must be capable of breaking a current which has a value equal to. the setting of the magnetic relay (as seen from figure J5-5). The combination can therefore be used on a circuit for which the prospective short-circuit current level exceeds the rated s. J5-5: the thermal-withstand limit of the thermal relay must be to the right of the CB magnetic-trip characteristic. This feature very often presents a significant economic advantage. M fig. it is not possible to predict the s. IEC 947-4-1 requires the rating of the circuit breaker to be equal to or greater than the prospective short-circuit current at its point of installation. short-circuit current-breaking capacity of a combination circuit breaker + contactor In the studies. * Motor Control Centre. I fig.c. asynchronous motors (continued) J 5. J5-6: circuit breaker and contactor mounted in juxtaposition. breaking capacity of the combination. if these devices are physically close together (e. c a reliable performance of the contactor and its thermal relay when passing short-circuit current. c the short-circuit current breaking rating of the contactor must be greater than the regulated threshold of the CB magnetic trip relay. c or. Standards define precisely all the elements which must be taken into account to realize a correct co-ordination of type 2: c absolute compatibility between the thermal relay of the discontactor and the magnetic trip of the circuit breaker. the s.g. current-breaking capability of a CB + contactor combination. no excessive deterioration of either device and no welding of contactor contacts. For such a case. or slightly less than. that of the CB only. for the case where the contactor is separated from the CB (so that a short-circuit is possible on the intervening circuit).5.particular supply sources and loads .c.c. in the same drawer or compartment of a MCC*). In the case of a motor-control circuit breaker incorporating both magnetic and thermal devices.c. and to establish the s. i.e. Laboratory tests and calculations by manufacturers are necessary to determine which type of CB to associate with which contactor. J5-7: circuit breaker and contactor separately mounted. current-breaking capacity which must be compared to the prospective short-circuit current is: c either. current-breaking capacity of the circuit breaker. that of the CB + contactor combination. M fig.3 basic protection schemes: circuit breaker / contactor / thermal relay (continued) key points in the successful association of a circuit breaker and a discontactor t Compact NS type MA 2 1 CB magnetic-trip performance curve 2 thermal-relay characteristic 3 thermal-withstand limit of the thermal relay 1 3 Isc ext. with intervening circuit conductors. In figure J5-5 the thermal relay is protected if its limit boundary for thermal withstand is placed to the right of the CB magnetic trip characteristic curve.

so that action can be taken (automatically or by operator intervention) to avoid or limit the otherwise inevitable consequences. loss of one phase.J choice of instantaneous magnetic-trip relay for the circuit breaker The operating threshold must never be less than 12 In for this relay. c multifunction protections. cooling-air ducts. c running on no-load. 5. c efficient surveillance of all motor-operating schedules. J5-9: multi-function protection. c alarm and control indications. typified by the Telemecanique relay. high-performance and permanent monitoring/control function. provides protection for motors. particular supply sources and loads . c overheating. providing a reliable. such as: c thermal overload. the signal being processed by an associated control device acting to trip the circuit breaker (figure J5-8). or starting-up period too long. The thermal sensors are generally embedded in the stator windings (for LV motors). This current peak can vary from 8 In to 11 or 12 In. associated with a number of sensors and indication modules. in order to avoid possible tripping due to the first current peak during start-up. c rotor stalled. c possibility of communication via communication buses. fig. The advantages of this relay are essentially: c a comprehensive protection. The main protection devices of this type for motor are: c thermal sensors in the motor (windings. bearings. blocked rotor on start-up. thermal sensors Thermal sensors are used to detect abnormal temperature rise in the motor by direct measurement.J41 . etc. c phase current imbalance. inverse rotation. type LT8 above. J5-8: overheating protection by thermal sensors.4 preventive or limitative protection preventive or limitative protection devices detect signs of impending failure. multi-function motor-protection relay The multi-function relay. fig. c earth fault (by RCD). or stationary motor.). c insulation-failure detection devices on running.

5. c in manufacturing: loss of production. Such protection avoids the destruction of a motor by short-circuit to earth during start-up (one of the most frequently-occurring incidents) by giving a warning in advance that maintenance work is necessary to restore the motor to a satisfactory operational condition. provide the following possibilities: c to avoid the destruction of a motor (by perforation and short-circuiting of the laminations of the stator) caused by an eventual arcing fault to earth. Instantaneous tripping by the RCD will greatly limit the extent of damage at the fault location. excessive humidity. Some versions of RCDs. circuit components: class A. Irrigation pumps for seasonal operation. according to the size of the motor (approx. c insulation of d. This protection can detect incipient fault conditions by operating at leakage currents in the range of 300 mA to 30 A. sensitivity: 5 % In).03 to 250 A). thereby avoiding the undesirable consequences of insulation failure during operation. A typical RCD for such duties is type RH328A relay (Merlin Gerin) which provides: c 32 sensitivities (0. SM20 MERLIN GERIN SM20 IN OUT fig. limitative protection Residual current differential protective devices (RCDs) can be very sensitive and detect low values of leakage current which occur when the insulation to earth of an installation deteriorates (by physical damage. J5-11: example using relay RH328A.c. c protected against false operation. c possibility of discriminative tripping or to take account of particular operational requirements.). etc. Example: a vigilohm SM 20 (Merlin Gerin) relay monitors the insulation of a motor. if necessary. Furthermore. and signals audibly and visually any abnormal reduction of the insulation resistance level. especially when installed in humid and/or dusty locations. specially designed for such applications. asynchronous motors (continued) J 5. and so on).4 preventive or limitative protection (continued) preventive protection of stationary motors This protection concerns the monitoring of the level of insulation resistance of a stationary motor. by virtue of 8 possible timedelays (instantaneous to 1 s. c to reduce considerably the risk of fire due to earth-leakage currents (sensitivity i 500 mA). Examples of application (figure J5-10) Fire-protection system “sprinkler” pumps. This type of protection is indispensable for essential-services and emergency-systems motors. such as: c for motors used on emergency systems for example: failure to start or to perform correctly. RH328A MERLIN GERIN fig. J5-10: preventive protection of stationary motors. c automatic operation if the circuit from the current transformer to the relay is broken. contamination. J42 . this relay can prevent any attempt to start the motor.particular supply sources and loads .

5 table J5-13: maximum permitted power ratings for LV direct-on-line-starting motors. it is always advisable to secure the agreement of the power supplier before acquiring the motors for a new project. The higher the fault level. slip-ring motors. and the motor would accelerate to its rated speed normally. In general.c.852 = 1. in failure to start. “weak” areas of the network exist as well as “strong” areas. 5. star-delta starters.1 x 0. etc. Since. The importance of limiting voltage drop at the motor during start-up In order that a motor starts and accelerates to its normal speed in the appropriate time. c for a voltage drop of 15% during start-up.5 maximum rating of motors installed for consumers supplied at LV The disturbances caused on LV distribution networks during the start-up of large DOL (direct-on-line) a. for extreme cases. the motor torque would be 2.5 times the load torque. even in areas supplied by one power authority only. it is largely inductive. the motor torque would be 2.1 times that of the load torque.4 3 5. c for a voltage drop of 10% during start-up. for example. the starting current is much greater than the full-load current of the motor. motors can occasion considerable nuisance to neighbouring consumers. particular supply sources and loads . typical values of maximum allowable starting type of motor single. 5. so that the motorstarting time would be longer than normal.J43 . Corresponding maximum power ratings of the same motors are shown in table J5-13.92 = 1.1 x 0.7 times the load torque. and the method of correction in Chapter E Clause 7.location or three-phase single phase three phase dwellings others dwellings others currents for DOL motors are shown below in table J5-12. i.5 11 22 other methods of starting (kW) 11 22 45 dwellings others overhead line network underground cable network 1. the torque of the motor must exceed the load torque by at least 70%.J voltage drop at the terminals of a motor during starting must never exceed 10% of rated voltage Un. These two factors are both very unfavourable to the maintenance of voltage at the motor. The amount of disturbance created by a given motor depends on the “strength” of the network. so that most power-supply authorities have strict rules intended to limit such disturbances to tolerable levels. or. on the short-circuit fault level at the point concerned. maximum starting current (A) overheadundergroundline network cable network 45 45 100 200 60 60 125 250 table J5-12: maximum permitted values of starting current for direct-on-line LV motors (230/400 V). For distribution networks in many countries. its torque would be 2. which reduce the large starting currents of DOL motors to acceptable levels. However. moreover. “soft start” electronic devices.e. Failure to provide sufficient voltage will reduce the motor torque significantly (motor torque is proportional to U2) and will result either in an excessively long starting time. a maximum allowable voltage drop of 10% Un is recommended during the start-up of a motor. Example: c with 400 V maintained at the terminals of a motor. Other (but generally more costly) alternative starting arrangements exist. the “stronger” the system and the lower the disturbance (principally volt-drop) experienced by neighbouring consumers. type of motor singleor three-phase location single-phase 230 V (kW) three-phase 400 V direct-on-line starting at full load (kW) 5.6 reactive-energy compensation (power-factor correction) The effect of power factor correction on the amount of current supplied to a motor is indicated in table B4 in Chapter B Sub-clause 3-1.

protection of direct-current installations J differences between a. Where motors are included in the system. generator rated at 200 kW. six times the nominal full-load current of the motor) so that: V Isc = + 6 (In mot) Ri + Rl where In mot is the sum of the full-load currents of all running motors at the instant of short-circuit.1 = 7. c the choice of protective equipment.c. Isc fig. and d. installations Although the basic design principles in each case are similar.c. In this case Isc = + - fig. Example: A d. V is either Vb or Vg as previously defined. c discharge rate 300 A. 3 and Isc = 240 x 10 = 4.032 G = Icc fig.1 short-circuit currents in order to calculate the maximum short-circuit current from a battery of storage cells. there are differences in: c the calculations for short-circuit currents. and k is a coefficent close to 10 (and in any case is less than 20). and. a battery will pass a current according to Ohm’s law equal to Isc = Vb/Ri where: Vb = open circuit voltage of the fullycharged battery Ri = the internal resistance of the battery (this value is normally obtained from the manufacturer of the battery. as a function of its ampere-hour capacity) When Ri is not known.particular supply sources and loads . the following approximate formula may be used: Isc = kC where C = the rated ampere-hour capacity of the battery. Rl is the sum of the resistances of the faultcurrent loop conductors. an approximate formula may be used.5 = 55 mΩ for the battery. system of voltage Un. 230 V.032 ohm.e. and in any case is always less than 20.9 kA 0. 6. when the internal resistance of the battery is unknown. J6-2: direct-current generator. c autonomy 1/2 hour.6. then: Isc = Vg / Ri.c.c. will give a terminal short-circuit current of 230 x 1. J6-3: short-circuit at any point of an installation. and for a d. since the techniques employed for the interruption of direct current differ in practice from those used for alternating current. and having an internal resistance of 0. they will each (initially) contribute a current of approximately 6 In (i. namely: Isc = kC where C is the ampere-hour rating of the battery and k is a coefficient close to 10. Vg may be taken as 1. J44 . Isc at any point in an installation V Ri + Rl Where Ri is as previously defined. J6-1: battery of storage cells.5 milli-ohm/cell so that Ri = 110 x 0. c fully-charged open-circuit voltage 240 V (110 cells at 2. battery of storage cells (or accumulators) For a short-circuit at its output terminals. Example: What is the short-circuit current level at the terminals of a battery with the following characteristics: c 500 Ah capacity. In the absence of precise data. c internal resistance is 0. direct-current generator If Vg is the open-circuit voltage of the generator and Ri its internal resistance.2 V/cell).4 kA 55 The short-circuit currents are seen to be (relatively) low.1 Un.

and the number of series-connected contacts per pole required for a given system voltage) for circuit breakers made by Merlin Gerin. current-breaking capacity.c. to permit circuit isolation (figure J6-6). for example: the positive pole or the negative pole of a battery or generator. c the short-circuit current level at its point of installation (in order to specify its s. each of which contains a contact.c. Provide an additional pole for inserting in the earthed polarity conductor. The table below provides the means for determining these voltages. Note: each pole is equally stressed for faults at A. In the case of circuit breakers. Referring to a switch or circuit breaker. voltage at their terminals when breaking short-circuit currents. c the rated current required. this voltage dictates the number of circuit-breaking contacts that must be connected in series for each pole of a circuit breaker. and in the following text. 6. and of protective switchgear Devices for circuit interruption are sensitive to the level of d. Voltage stresses across opening contacts are reduced by the technique of connecting a number of contacts in series per pole. particular supply sources and loads .) at the voltage U/2. fault B fault C case 2 pole (a) must break maximum Isc* at U/2 volts poles (a) and (b) must break the maximum Isc at U volts as for fault A but concerning pole (b)* * U/2 divided by Ri/2 = Isc (max. currentbreaking capacity).J45 . which depend on the source voltage and on the method of earthing the source. system earthing. A pole of a circuit breaker may be made up of modules. B or C. Note: In the following text the word “pole” has two meanings. to attain the levels indicated in table J6-4. for example: a pole of a circuit breaker makes or breaks the current in one conductor. the protective devices against short-circuits must be adequately rated for the voltage levels noted in table J6-4 above. types of network system earthing one pole earthed at the source i + source with mid-point earthing i + unearthed system source is not earthed i + earthing schemes and various fault conditions a R B b C A – a R B b C A – a R B b C A U – U/2 + U/2 U analysis of each fault fault A case 1 pole (a) must break maximum Isc at U volts poles (a) and (b) must break the maximum Isc at U volts there is no short-circuit current in this case fault A all the contacts participating in current interruption are series connected in the positiveconductor (or the negative conductor if the positive pole of the source is earthed). The pole may therefore consist of one module or (particularly in d. as mentioned in the table below.c. table J6-4: characteristics of protective switchgear according to type of d. Table J6-5 below gives characteristics (current ratings.c.c. 2. Referring to a d.) case 3 there is no short-circuit in this case poles (a) and (b) must break the maximum Isc at U volts as for fault A the most unfavourable case case of a circuit breaker A=B=C see Note below the table provide in the CB pole for each conductor the number of contacts necessary to break Isc (max.2 characteristics of faults due to insulation failure. since maximum Isc must be broken with U/2 across the CB pole(s) in each case. viz: 1.3 choice of protective device for each type of possible insulation failure.c.J 6. s. The choice of protective device depends on: c the voltage appearing across the currentbreaking element. circuits) several seriesconnected modules. fault B (or faults A and C simultaneously) provide the number of contacts necessary for breaking the current indicated in the CB pole of each conductor. c the time constant of the fault current (L/R in milli-seconds) at the point of installation of the CB. source.

42 1. J6-6: example. Table J6-4 shows that the full system voltage will appear across the contacts of the positive pole. It will be seen in the 250 V column that 4 contacts will break 20 kA at that voltage (case B of table J6-4).42 1.38 1.c.42 50 (3p) 50 (2p) 85 (2p) 100 (2p) 50 (2p) 85 (2p) 100 (2p) 50 (2p) 85 (2p) 100 (2p) 85 (2p) 85 (2p) 50 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 25 (3p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p50 (4p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p) 50 (4p) tripping units MP1/MP2/MP3 special for direct current table J6-5: choice of d.particular supply sources and loads . protection of direct-current installations (continued) J 6. Example 2 Choice of protection for a 100 A outgoing d.6. values.e. of which the negative pole is earthed. if it is required that the d. a. which open in unison. then the setting required will be 800 x 1.3 choice of protective device (continued) type sc current-breaking capacity kA for L/R i 0.015 seconds (the number of series-connected contacts per pole is shown in brackets) 24/48 V 125 V 250 V C32HDC 1 to 40 20 (1p) 10 (1p) 20 (2p) 10 (2p) C60a 10 to 40 10 (1p) 10 (2p) 20 (3p) 25 (4p) C60N 6 to 63 15 (1p) 20 (2p) 30 (3p) 40 (4p) C60H 1 to 63 20 (1p) 25 (2p) 40 (3p) 50 (4p) C60L 1 to 63 25 (1p) 30 (2p) 50 (3p) 60 (4p) NC100H 50 to 100 20 (1p) 30 (2p) 40 (3p) 20 (4p) NC100LH 10 to 63 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1 p) NS100N 16 to 100 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) NC100H 16 to 100 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS100L 16 to 100 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) NS160N 40 to 160 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) NS160H 40 to 160 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS160L 40 to 160 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) NS250N 40 to 250 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (1p) NS250H 40 to 250 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS250L 40 to 250 100 (1p) 100 (1p) 100 (1p) NS400H MP1/MP2-400 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) NS630H MP1/MP2/MP3-630 85 (1p) 85 (1p) 85 (1p) C1251N-DC P21/P41-1250 50 (1p) 50 (1p) 50 (2p) M10-DC 1000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) M20-DC 2000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) M40-DC 4000 100 (3p) 100 (3p) 100 (3p) M60-DC 6000 100 (4p) 100 (4p) 100 (4p) M80-DC 8000 100 (4p) 100 (4p) 100 (4p) ratings (A) thermal overload protection 500 V 750 V 1000 V special DC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC ditto AC no thermal relay. Table J6-5 indicates that circuit breaker NC100H (30 kA 2 contacts/pole 125 V) is an appropriate choice.m. Table J6-5 indicates that circuit breaker NC100H (30 kA 2 contacts/pole 125 V) is suitable for cases A and C. circuit of a 250 V system.c. * These tripping units may be used on a. 125 V for all types of s.42. 6.38 1. The Isc = 15 kA. This technique is often necessary for successfully breaking d.42 = 1. of which the midpoint is earthed. circuit breakers. i.4 examples Example 1 Choice of protection for an 80 A outgoing d. provide an external relay (if necessary) coefficient for uprating the instantaneous magnetic tripping units* special DC 1. 2 contacts in the positive and 2 contacts in the negative pole of the CB. circuit breaker the setting must be changed according to the co-efficient in table J6-5. effectively triple the speed of contact separation.c.136 A.e.38 1. current. circuit breakers manufactured by Merlin Gerin.c.c.s.38 1. J6-7: example.c.c.c. Note: three contacts in series. i. When used on a d. For example. Table J6-4 shows that each pole will be subject to a recovery voltage of U/2. + 250 V = - NC100 H 4-pole 100 A load fig. or d. Preferred practice is to (also) include a contact in the negative conductor of the outgoing circuit. circuit breaker should trip at 800 A or more the coefficient given in table J6-5 is 1. to provide isolation (for maintenance work on the load circuit for example).c.c. circuit of a 125 V system. but the operating levels marked on each unit correspond to r. Isc = 15 kA. J46 . + 125 V = - NC100 H 3-pole 80 A load fig. fault. as shown in figure J6-6.42 1.

5 protection of persons The rules for protection are the same as those already covered for a.J 6. the current magnitudes will be sufficient to trip the instantaneous magnetic relays. As for the a. systems. the conventional voltage limits and the automatic disconnection times for safety of persons are different (see tables G8 and G9 of Chapter G.2. v the insulation level of the installation must be under permanent surveillance and any failure must be immediately indicated and alarmed: this can be achieved by the installation of a suitable monitoring relay as shown in Chapter G.1): c all exposed conductive parts are interconnected and earthed. RCDs are not applicable to d. However. in the case of a shortcircuit. It is then sufficient to check that. it is sufficient to verify that the current magnitude exceeds that necessary to operate the magnetic (or short-time delay) circuit breaker tripping units.4.J47 . network. v the presence of two concurrent faults to earth (one on each polarity) constitutes a short-circuit. J6-8: insulation (to earth) monitors for an IT direct-current installation. The checking methods are identical to those recommended for an a. c automatic tripping is achieved in the timeperiod specified. c principles of the IT scheme for case 3 in Sub-clause 6.c. particular supply sources and loads . systems. so that in practice: c the principles of the TN scheme are used for cases 1 and 2 of Sub-clause 6.c. Sub-clause 3.c.c.2. + - U fixed + - U variable ou fixed TR5A XM200 fig. Sub-clause 3. circuits. which will be cleared by overcurrent protection.

or in damper windings (see note 1) of salient-pole alternators. mentioned above however.f. which is defined later. * unless. in which the (greatly reduced) rotor flux produces just enough voltage to maintain the stator current at the level of equilibrium between the three quantities.m. by chance. The reduction of current magnitude from its initial value occurs in the following way. i. by an increase in impedance of the machine (that is why the term "effective reactance" was used in Chapter J Sub-clause 1. i" Vo/x"d Vo/x'd i' i t Vo/xd substransient period transient period steady state ia enveloppe of the current. Note 1: Damper windings are made up of heavy gauge copper bars embedded in the pole faces of salient-pole rotors. the so-called transient-current envelope. due to armature reaction. then currents induced in the damper windings will be in a direction that produces a torque which acts to slow (an overspeeding rotor) or to accelerate (an underspeeding rotor). Appendix J1 . The reduction of fault current therefore is caused by a diminution of the generated e. in fact. viz. increases the excitation current. as the rotor flux begins to diminish. With the rotor turning at the same speed as that of the m.f. in a short-circuited alternator (no d. The large stator currents are (practically) entirely inductive. component eliminated. and the reduced fault current. but much smaller effect occurs due to eddy currents in the surface of solid unlaminated rotors of turbo-alternators.c. i. A similar. from which the d. the induced currents oppose the change). shown in figure AJ1-2. and not.m.c.f. of a recording made during the testing of a 3-phase 230 V 50 kVA machine. The effect is analogous to that of the closed circuit of the rotor-excitation winding described above (i. component of armature current versus time.c. c b i 0 a t fig. ** the sub-transient reactance. which reduces exponentially to zero after (commonly) some tens of cycles. If. are derived for each component system. to form a squirrel-cage "winding" similar to that of an induction motor. the direct-axis component system only is required. current decrement" shown in figure AJ1-1. ia x''d = the sub-transient reactance Vo/i'' x'd = the transient reactance Vo/i' xd = the synchronous reactance Vo/i Vo = peak rated voltage of the alternator fig.c. the flux follows the exponential law of natural decay. and subtransient and transient reactances. during a short-circuit. transient in the phase concerned. due to loss of synchronism.c. AJ1-2: a. a stable state is reached. In that case. For advanced analytical studies of alternators. At the instant of short-circuit. is very nearly equal to the leakage reactance. transient is shown).f. stator) windings. etc.c. The curve shown below in figure AJ1-1 is the current trace. current decrement would be similar to that of curve b in figure AJ1-1. two component axes "direct" and "quadrature" are defined. gives rise to the sub-transient component of current (curve C).c. no currents will be induced in the damper windings.m.m. short-circuit characteristics of an alternator J The characteristics of a 3-phase alternator under short-circuit conditions are obtained from oscillogram traces recorded during tests.e. In the simple studies needed for 3-phase symmetrical fault levels and for circuitbreaker performance based on such faults. its reduction rate at any instant depending on the magnitude of the quantity causing the phenomenon. thereby reducing the e. but having a very much shorter time constant.e. in turn.m. excited (at a fixed level) to produce nominal rated voltage. the current reduction requires a certain time. the result of which is the principal factor in the "a. component has been eliminated.e. The result is that the rotor flux starts to reduce. the voltage of a phase happens to be maximum at the instant of short-circuit. in effect. now reduces the rotor flux at a slower rate.c. current decrement is therefore composed of the sum of two exponentially-decaying quantities. flux and voltage.1). The gradual predominance of the stator m.7. and so on. as shown in figure AJ1-2. the only impedance limiting the magnitude of current is principally** the inherent leakage reactance of the armature (i.c. AJ1-1: short-circuit current of one phase of a 3-phase alternator with the d.f. due to the stator currents. and consequently reducing the magnitude of the fault current.1 . Suffix "q" is used for quadrature quantities. component.e. The definitions of alternator reactance values are based on such "symmetrical" curves. Eventually. there were no eddy currents induced in the unlaminated face of round-rotor alternators. in which a short-circuit is applied instantaneously to all three terminals of a machine at no load. current. the change of flux induces a current in the closed rotor circuit in the direction which. the envelope of the a. generated in the stator windings. The overall a. opposes the establishment of a reduced level of magnetic flux. depends on the overall effect of rotor and stator time constants. The resulting currents in all three phases will normally* include a d. produced by them acts in direct opposition to that of the excitation current in the rotor winding. and the reason for this is that. Their purpose is to help to maintain synchronous stability of the alternator. generally of the order of 10%-15%. the sub-transient and the transient components. As shown in figure AJ1-1. if a difference in the speed of rotation occurs. this accounts for the suffix "d" of reactance values. The presence of either of the two features. there will be no d. viz.e. so that the synchronously rotating m. i. The effect is cumulative.

component. however. instead of Vo. transient curve. In the current trace of figure AJ1-2. component is the maximum possible. so that Vo must be the rated peak voltage of the machine. voltages divided by r.s. currents. all 3-phases of short-circuit current will include a d.c. in general.c. and in circuitbreakers protecting a faulted circuit.m. AJ1-3: a fully-offset asymmetrical transient fault-current trace.c. 2 . stator phase current d.Appendix J1 . i. Note 2: in the definition of "i" some authors use the actual voltage measured during the test.1 of Chapter C. and are illustrated in figure C5. asymmetrical currents As previously noted.e. The consequence of asymmetrical transient fault currents and the standardized relationship between the symmetrical and asymmetrical quantities for circuit breaker performance ratings are given in Sub-clause 1.s. A typical test trace of this condition is shown in figure AJ1-3. xd is generally denoted by Xs and is referred to as "synchronous reactance".c. The worst condition is that of a phase in which the d. as the symmetrical envelope has about the current zero axis. it is simpler to use the projected peak values of current. transient value at zero time (the instant of fault) is equal to the peak value of current given by Vo/xd''. These components give rise to additional electro-dynamic and thermal stresses in the machine itself.m.c. as defined in figure AJ1-2.J The reactances are generally defined as r. Moreover. the d. component time instant of short circuit The current envelope of an asymmetrical transient has the same dimensions about the d. fig.

is however. c the protection of circuits (see chapter H1): v against overload. Shortcircuit protection is provided either by type aM fuses or by a circuit breaker from which the thermal (overload) protective element has been removed.emergency switching . The aim is to avoid or to limit the destructive or dangerous consequences of excessive (short-circuit) currents. In practice. The neutral contact opens after the phase contacts.) from the remainder of a system which is energized. The aim of isolation is to separate a circuit or apparatus. Protection in these cases is provided either by fuses or circuit breaker. and/or permanent monitoring of the insulation resistance of the installation to earth. creepage distances.the switchgear . in order that personnel may carry out work on the isolated part in perfect safety.g. or an item of plant (such as a motor.1. IEC 947-3) concerning clearance between contacts. 1.switching off for mechanical maintenance table H2-1: basic functions of LV switchgear. The main functions of switchgear are: c electrical protection. c safe isolation from live parts.isolation clearly indicated by an authorized fail-proof mechanical indicator . in order to maintain an optimum continuity of service.functional switching . TT or IT) the protection will be provided by fuses or circuit breakers.H2-1 . c protection of appliances and apparatus being supplied (e. other functions. wires. c equipment and appliances supplied from the installation. to long term overloading. A distinction is made between the protection of: c the elements of the installation (cables. namely: c over-voltage protection. relays associated with: contactors. also protect the motor-circuit cable against overload. Electrical protection at low voltage is (apart from fuses) normally incorporated in circuit electrical protection against overload currents short-circuit currents insulation failure isolation . residual current devices.4. c electrical isolation of sections of an installation. remotelycontrolled circuit breakers. c under-voltage protection are provided by specific devices (lightning and various other types of voltage-surge arrester. Certain derogations to this rule are authorized in some national standards. or otherwise made inoperative. stalled rotor. strongly recommended (for reasons of greater safety and facility of operation). c protection of persons in the event of insulation failure. Thermal relays. overvoltage withstand capability. the protection of circuits .1 electrical protection electrical protection assures: c protection of circuit elements against the thermal and mechanical stresses of short-circuit currents. etc. National and international standards define the manner in which electric circuits of LV installations must be realized. breakers.emergency stopping . 1. in the form of thermal-magnetic devices and/or residual-current-operated tripping devices (less-commonly. it is preferred to provide a means of isolation at the origin of each circuit. control . c the protection of electric motors (see chapter J clause 5) against overheating. due.). Such relays may.a gap or interposed insulating barrier between the open contacts. are both deemed to satisfy the national standards of many countries. c the protection of persons against insulation failures (see chapter G).acceptable to. for example. In principle. while not always obligatory. and with combined circuit breaker/isolators… and so on).e. In addition to those functions shown in table H2-1. etc. at the distribution board from which the final circuit (i. switchgear…). the circuit to which the load is connected) originates. or the visible separation of contacts. c it must conform to a recognized national or international standard (e.g. and the capabilities and limitations of the various switching devices which are collectively referred to as switchgear. all circuits of an LV installation shall have means to be isolated. etc.2 isolation a state of isolation clearly indicated by an approved "fail-proof" indicator. These functions are summarized below in table H2-1. According to the system of earthing for the installation (TN. c local or remote switching.g motors. An isolating device must fulfil the following requirements: c all poles of a circuit. specially designed to match the particular characteristics of motors are used. if required. residualvoltage-operated devices . the basic functions of LV switchgear H2 the role of switchgear is that of: c electrical protection. c it must be provided with a means of locking open with a key (e. etc. as noted in chapter H1 sub-clause 1. including the neutral (except where the neutral is a PEN conductor) must be open (1). clearly visible. single-phasing. a condition of excessive current being drawn from a healthy (unfaulted) installation. c local or remote switching. and closes before them (IEC 947-1). and also: (1) the concurrent opening of all live conductors. but not recommended by IEC). c persons and animals. or those due to overloading and insulation failure. by means of a padlock) in order to avoid an unauthorized reclosure by inadvertence. v against short-circuit currents due to complete failure of insulation between conductors of different phases or (in TN systems) between a phase and neutral (or PE) conductor. and to separate the defective circuit from the rest of the installation.

switch-disconnector*. H2-4: symbols for circuit isolation capability incorporated in other switching devices. according to requirements. * IEC 617-7 and 947-3. In this guide the terms "disconnector" and "isolator" have the same meaning.000 impulse withstand peak voltage (kV) 5 kV 8 kV 10 kV Industrial LV switchgear which affords isolation when open is marked on the front face by the symbol . In broad terms "control" signifies any facility for safely modifying a load-carrying power system at all levels of an installation. The isolating device. with no deliberate delay). 1.or mechanical. See standard IEC 947 and the Note immediately preceding table F-10. or an individual piece of equipment. fig. across open contacts. c electric. In order to provide the maximum flexibility and continuity of operation. . and include: c functional control (routine switching.5 mA for a new device. * one break in each phase and (where appropriate) one break in the neutral (see table H1-65). table H2-2: peak value of impulse voltage according to normal service voltage of test specimen.).0 mA at the end of its useful life.1. in the eventuality that the contacts become welded together in the closed position. The operation of switchgear is an important part of power-system control.g. the test values must be increased by 23% to take into account the effect of altitude.e. in fact. The device must satisfy these conditions for altitudes up to 2.the protection of circuits . H2-2 . Note. the basic functions of LV switchgear (continued) H2 1. Marking (of the circuits being controlled) must be clear and unambiguous. on each outgoing way of all distribution and subdistribution boards. item of plant. v leakage currents. v voltage-surge withstand capability. . The manœuvre may be: c either manual (by means of an operating lever on the switch) or. if tests are carried out at sea level. when open must withstand a 1. where the device is suitably designed to allow the contacts to be seen (some national standards impose this condition for an isolating device located at the origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer). c maintenance operations on the power system. i. also referred to as a load-break isolating switch circuit breaker suitable for circuit isolation fig.e. leakage currents between the open contacts of each phase must not exceed: . 8 or 10 kV according to its service voltage. a circuit breaker or switch-fuse) it is preferable to include a switch at each level of distribution.2 isolation (continued) v verification that the contacts of the isolating device are. functional control This control relates to all switching operations in normal service conditions for energizing or de-energizing a part of a system or installation. open. having a peak value of 5. by push-button on the switch or at a remote location (load-shedding and reconnection. H2-3: symbol for a disconnector* also commonly referred to as an isolator. by means of an indicator solidly welded to the operating shaft of the device. In this case the construction of the device must be such that. The verification may be: . Switchgear intended for such duty must be installed at least: c at the origin of any installation. for example). and those that provide protection are invariably omni-polar*. as shown in table H2-2. This symbol may be combined with those indicating other features where a device also performs other functions as shown in figure H2-4. the indicator cannot possibly indicate that it is in the open position.6.the switchgear . etc. With the isolating device open.000 metres. as well as any circuit breakers used for change-over (from one source to another) must be omni-polar units. Consequently. etc.0. These switches operate instantaneously (i. particularly where the switching device also constitutes the protection (e. The main circuit breaker for the entire installation. c at the final load circuit or circuits (one switch may control several loads).2/50 µs impulse. service (nominal) voltage (V) 230/400 400/690 1. c emergency switching.either visual.3 switchgear control switchgear-control functions allow system operating personnel to modify a loaded system at any moment.

may require that the auxiliary supply to the braking-system circuits be maintained until final stoppage of the machinery. dangerous (electric shock or fire). in proximity to any position at which danger could arise or be seen. An emergency stop is intended to arrest a movement which has become dangerous. since it functions as a protective earthing wire as well as the system neutral conductor. or could become.the switchgear . c a single action must result in a complete switching-off of all live conductors (1) (2).H2-3 . The shutdown is generally carried out at the functional switching device. but in unmanned installations the re-energizing of the circuit can only be achieved by means of a key held by an authorized person. (2) In a TN schema the PEN conductor must never be opened. with the use of a suitable safety lock and warning notice at the switch mechanism. switching-off for mechanical maintenance work This operation assures the stopping of a machine and its impossibility to be inadvertently restarted while mechanical maintenance work is being carried out on the driven machinery.H2 emergency switching emergency stop An emergency switching is intended to de-energize a live circuit which is. c a "break glass" emergency switching initiation device is authorized. (1) Taking into account stalled motors. It should be noted that in certain cases. In the two cases: c the emergency control device or its means of operation (local or at remote location(s)) such as a large red mushroom-headed emergency-stop pushbutton must be recognizable and readily accessible. the protection of circuits . an emergency system of braking.

Upstream protective devices are relied upon to clear the short-circuit fault. Such switches are commonly referred to as "fault-make load-break" switches. It is used to close and open loaded circuits under normal unfaulted circuit conditions. i.1 elementary switching devices disconnector (or isolator) This switch is a manually-operated. When closing a switch to energize a circuit there is always the possibility that an (unsuspected) short circuit exists on the circuit. IEC 947-3 also recognizes 3 categories of load-breaking switch.e. as shown in table H2-7. H2-6: symbol for a load-breaking switch. Standardized mechanical-endurance. c current making and breaking ratings for normal and infrequent situations.2. however. each of which is suitable for a different range of load power factors. successful closure against the electrodynamic forces of short-circuit current is assured. Its characteristics are defined in IEC 947-3. particularly when closing. such as those of motor-starting. a LV disconnector is essentially a deadsystem switching device to be operated with no voltage on either side of it. the switchgear and fusegear H2 2. It does not consequently.the protection of circuits . overvoltage. For this reason.e. fig. IEC standard 947-3 defines: c the frequency of switch operation (600 close/open cycles per hour maximum). provide any protection for the circuit it controls. unless otherwise agreed between user and manufacturer. * i. be capable of withstanding the passage of short-circuit currents and is assigned a rated short-time withstand capability. fig. load-break switches are assigned a fault-current making rating. It must. Interlocking with an upstream switch or circuit breaker is frequently used. load-breaking switch This control switch is generally operated manually (but is sometimes provided with electrical tripping for operator convenience) and is a non-automatic two-position device (open/closed). c mechanical and electrical endurance (generally less than that of a contactor). two-position device (open/closed) which provides safe isolation of a circuit when locked in the open position. H2-5: symbol for a disconnector (or isolator).the switchgear . This capability is normally more than adequate for longer periods of (lower-valued) operational overcurrents. generally for 1 second. and leakage-current tests. because of the possibility of an unsuspected short-circuit on the downstream side. A disconnector is not designed to make or to break current* and no rated values for these functions are given in standards. H2-4 . must also be satisfied. lockable.

000 A) at a power factor of 0.7 0. reproduced below for reader convenience (table H2-8).2 time-constant 5 5 5 5 5 10 15 15 n 1.H2 nature of current alternating current utilization category frequent infrequent operation operation AC-20A AC-20B AC-21A AC-22A AC-21B AC-22B typical applications connecting and disconnecting under no-load conditions switching of resistive loads including moderate overloads switching of mixed resistive and inductive loads. bistable switch (télérupteur) This device is extensively used in the control of lighting circuits where the depression of a pushbutton (at a remote control position) will open an already-closed switch or close an open switch in a bistable sequence. c time-delay functions.2 table H2-8: factor "n" used for peak-to-rms value (IEC 947-part1). etc.35 lagging. c stage-lighting schemes. fig. while the peak value (expressed in kA) is given by a factor "n" in table XVI of IEC 947. The switching of capacitors or of tungsten filament lamps shall be subject to agreement between manufacturer and user. Typical applications are: c two-way switching on stairways of large buildings.c. accelerate and/or stop individual motors.5 0. where 12 In equals the r.42 1. c to break a current of 8 In (= 800 A) at a power factor of 0.m.H2-5 .s.Part 1.the switchgear . the protection of circuits . Example: A 100 A load-break switch of category AC-23 (inductive load) must be able: c to make a current of 10 In (= 1. Auxiliary devices are available to provide: c remote indication of its state at any instant.7 2.8 0.25 0. test current I (A) I i 01 500 1 500 < I i 3 000 3 000 < I i 4 500 4 500 < I i 6 000 6 000 < I i 10 000 10 000 < I i 20 000 20 000 < I i 50 000 50 000 < I power-factor (ms) 0. c maintained-contact features.c.1 2. H2-9: symbol for a bistable remotelyoperated switch (télérupteur).3 0.47 1. switches according to IEC 947-3. c factory illumination.0 2. including moderate overloads switching of motor loads or other highly inductive loads AC-23A AC-23B table H2-7: utilization categories of LV a. value of the a.9 0.41 1.35 lagging. The utilization categories referred to in table H2-7 do not apply to an equipment normally used to start.53 1. table J5-4. The utilization categories for such an equipment are dealt with in chapter J.95 0. c to withstand short-circuit currents (not less than 12 In) passing through it for 1 second. Category AC-23 includes occasional switching of individual motors. component.

2. the switchgear and fusegear (continued)

H2
2.1 elementary switching devices (continued)
contactor
The contactor is a solenoid-operated switching device which is generally held closed by (a reduced) current through the closing solenoid (although various mechanically-latched types exist for specific duties). Contactors are designed to carry out numerous close/open cycles and are commonly controlled remotely by on-off pushbuttons. The large number of repetitive operating cycles is standardized in table VIII of IEC 947-4-1 by: c the operating duration: 8 hours; uninterrupted; intermittent; temporary of 3, 10, 30, 60 and 90 minutes; c utilization category: (for definition see table J5-4) for example, a contactor of category AC3 can be used for the starting and stopping of a cage motor; c the start-stop cycles (1 to 1,200 cyles per hour); c mechanical endurance (number of off-load manœuvres); c electrical endurance (number of on-load manœuvres); c a rated current making and breaking performance according to the category of utilization concerned. Example: A 150 A contactor of category AC3 must have a minimum current-breaking capability of 8 In (= 1,200 A) and a minimum current-making rating of 10 In (= 1,500 A) at a power factor (lagging) of 0.35.

control circuit

power circuit

fig. H2-10: symbol for a contactor.

discontactor*
A contactor equipped with a thermal-type relay for protection against overloading defines a "discontactor". Discontactors are used extensively for remote push-button control of lighting circuits, etc., and may also be considered as an essential element in a motor controller, as noted in sub-clause 2.2. "combined switchgear elements". The discontactor is not the equivalent of a circuit breaker, since its short-circuit currentbreaking capability is limited to 8 or 10 In. For short-circuit protection therefore, it is necessary to include either fuses or a circuit breaker in series with, and upstream of, the discontactor contacts. *This term is not defined in IEC publications but is commonly used in some countries.

two classes of LV cartridge fuse are very widely used: c for domestic and similar installations type gG c for industrial installations type gG, gM or aM.

fuses
Fuses exist with and without "fuse-blown" mechanical indicators. Fuses break a circuit by controlled melting of the fuse element when a current exceeds a given value for a corresponding period of time; the current/time relationship being presented in the form of a performance curve for each type of fuse. Standards define two classes of fuse: c those intended for domestic installations, manufactured in the form of a cartridge for rated currents up to 100 A and designated type gG in IEC 269-3; c those for industrial use, with cartridge types designated gG (general use); and gM and aM (for motor-circuits) in IEC 269-1 and 2. The main differences between domestic and industrial fuses are the nominal voltage and current levels (which require much larger physical dimensions) and their fault-current breaking capabilities. Type gG fuse-links are often used for the protection of motor circuits, which is possible when their characteristics are capable of withstanding the motor-starting current without deterioration. A more recent development has been the adoption by the IEC of a fuse-type gM for motor protection, designed to cover starting, and short-circuit conditions. This type of fuse is more popular in some countries than in others, but at the present time the aM fuse in combination with a thermal overload relay is more-widely used. A gM fuse-link, which has a dual rating is characterized by two current values. The first value In denotes both the rated current of the fuse-link and the rated current of the fuseholder; the second value Ich denotes the time-current characteristic of the fuse-link as defined by the gates in Tables II, III and VI of IEC 269-1. These two ratings are separated by a letter which defines the applications. For example: In M Ich denotes a fuse intended to be used for protection of motor circuits and having the characteristic G. The first value In corresponds to the maximum continuous current for the whole fuse and the second value Ich corresponds to the G characteristic of the fuse link. For further details see note at the end of sub-clause 2.1. An aM fuse-link is characterized by one current value In and time-current characteristic as shown in figure H2-14. Important: Some national standards use a gI (industrial) type fuse, similar in all main essentails to type gG fuses. Type gI fuses should never be used, however, in domestic and similar installations.

fig. H2-11: symbol for fuses.

H2-6 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

H2
fusing zones conventional currents
The conditions of fusing (melting) of a fuse are defined by standards, according to their class. c class gG fuses These fuses provide protection against overloads and short-circuits. Conventional non-fusing and fusing currents are standardized, as shown in figure H2-12 and in table H2-13. v the conventional non-fusing current Inf is the value of current that the fusible element can carry for a specified time without melting. Example: a 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1.25 In (i.e. 40 A) must not melt in less than one hour (table H2-13) v the conventional fusing current If (=I2 in fig.H2-12) is the value of current which will cause melting of the fusible element before the expiration of the specified time. Example: a 32 A fuse carrying a current of 1.6 In (i.e. 52.1 A) must melt in one hour or less (table H2-13). IEC 269-1 standardized tests require that a fuse-operating characteristic lies between the two limiting curves (shown in figure H2-12) for the particular fuse under test. This means that two fuses which satisfy the test can have significantly different operating times at low levels of overloading. v the two examples given above for a 32 A fuse, together with the foregoing notes on standard test requirements, explain why class rated current* In (A) In i 4 A 4 < In < 16 A 16 < In i 63 A 63 < In i 160 A 160 < In i 400 A 400 < In conventional nonfusing current Inf 1.5 In 1.5 In 1.25 In 1.25 In 1.25 In 1.25 In these fuses have a poor performance in the low overload range. v it is therefore necessary to install a cable larger in ampacity than that normally required for a circuit, in order to avoid the consequences of possible long term overloading (60% overload for up to one hour in the worst case). By way of comparison, a circuit breaker of similar current rating: v which passes 1.05 In must not trip in less than one hour; and v when passing 1.25 In it must trip in one hour, or less (25% overload for up to one hour in the worst case).
t minimum pre-arcing time curve

gM fuses require a separate overload relay, as described in the note at the end of sub-clause 2.1.

1h.

fuse-blown curve

Inf I2

I

fig. H2-12: zones of fusing and non-fusing for gG and gM fuses. conventional fusing current If I2 2.1 In 1.9 In 1.6 In 1.6 In 1.6 In 1.6 In conventional time h 1 1 1 2 3 4

gG gM

table H2-13: zones of fusing and non-fusing for LV types gG and gM class fuses (IEC 269-1 and 269-2-1).
* Ich for gM fuses

class aM fuses protect against short-circuit currents only, and must always be associated with another device which protects against overload.

c class aM (motor) fuses These fuses afford protection against shortcircuit currents only and must necessarily be associated with other switchgear (such as discontactors or circuit breakers) in order to ensure overload protection < 4 In. They are not therefore autonomous. Since aM fuses are not intended to protect against low values of overload current, no levels of conventional non-fusing and fusing currents are fixed. The characteristic curves for testing these fuses are given for values of fault current exceeding approximately 4 In (see figure H2-14), and fuses tested to IEC 269 must give operating curves which fall within the shaded area. Note: the small "arrowheads" in the diagram indicate the current/time "gate" values for the different fuses to be tested (IEC 269).

t

minimum pre-arcing time curve fuse-blown curve

4In

x In

fig. H2-14: standardized zones of fusing for type aM fuses (all current ratings).

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-7

2. the switchgear and fusegear (continued)

H2
2.1 elementary switching devices (continued)
rated short-circuit breaking currents
A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is that, owing to the rapidity of fusion in the case of high short-circuit current levels*, a current cut-off begins before the occurrence of the first major peak, so that the fault current never reaches its prospective peak value (fig. H2-15). This limitation of current reduces significantly the thermal and dynamic stresses which would otherwise occur, thereby minimizing danger and damage at the fault position. The rated short-circuit breaking current of the fuse is therefore based on the r.m.s. value of the a.c. component of the prospective fault current. No short-circuit current-making rating is assigned to fuses.
*for currents exceeding a certain level, depending on the fuse nominal current rating, as shown below in figure H2-15A.

I prospective fault-current peak rms value of the a.c. component of the prospective fault current current peak limited by the fuse 0.01s Tf Ta Ttc 0.005s t

0.02s

Tf: fuse pre-arc fusing time Ta: arcing time Ttc: total fault-clearance time

fig. H2-15: current limitation by a fuse.
prospective fault current (kA) peak
100 (c) 50

Reminder Short-circuit currents initially contain d.c. components, the magnitude and duration of which depend on the XL/R ratio of the faultcurrent loop. Close to the source (HV/LV transformer) the relationship I peak / Irms (of a.c. component) immediately following the instant of fault, can be as high as 2.5 (standardized by IEC, and shown in figure H2-15A). At lower levels of distribution in an installation, as previously noted, XL is small compared with R and so for final circuits I peak / I rms ~ 1.41, a condition which corresponds with figure H2-15 above and with the "n" value corresponding to a power factor of 0.95 in table H2-8. The peak-current-limitation effect occurs only when the prospective r.m.s. a.c. component of fault current attains a certain level. For example, in the above graph the 100 A fuse will begin to cut off the peak at a prospective fault current (r.m.s.) of 2 kA (a). The same fuse for a condition of 20 kA r.m.s. prospective current will limit the peak current to 10 kA (b). Without a current-limiting fuse the peak current could attain 50 kA (c) in this particular case. As already mentioned, at lower distribution levels in an installation, R greatly predominates XL, and fault levels are generally low. This means that the level of fault current may not attain values high enough to cause peakcurrent limitation. On the other hand, the d.c. transients (in this case) have an insignificant effect on the magnitude of the current peak, as previously mentioned. Note on gM fuse ratings. A gM type fuse is essentially a gG fuse, the fusible element of which corresponds to the current value Ich (ch = characteristic) which may be, for example, 63 A. This is the IEC testing value, so that its time/ current characteristic is identical to that of a 63 A gG fuse. This value (63 A) is selected to withstand the high starting currents of a motor, the steadystate operating current (In) of which may be in the 10-20 A range.

maximum possible current peak characteristic i.e. 2.5Ir.m.s. (IEC)

160A 20 100A (b) 10 (a) 5 50A

nominal fuse ratings

2

peak current cut-off characteristic curves

1 1

2

5

10

20

50

100

a.c. component of prospective fault current (kA) r.m.s.

fig. H2-15A: limited peak current versus prospective r.m.s. values of the a.c. component of fault current for LV fuses.

H2-8 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

H2
This means that a physically smaller fuse barrel and metallic parts can be used, since the heat dissipation required in normal service is related to the lower figures (10-20 A). A standard gM fuse, suitable for this situation would be designated 32M63 (i.e. In M Ich). The first current rating In concerns the steady-load thermal performance of the fuselink, while the second current rating (Ich) relates to its (short-time) starting-current performance. It is evident that, although suitable for shortcircuit protection, overload protection for the motor is not provided by the fuse, and so a separate thermal-type relay is always necessary when using gM fuses. The only advantage offered by gM fuses, therefore, when compared with aM fuses, are reduced physical dimensions and slightly lower cost.

2.2 combined switchgear elements
Single units of switchgear do not, in general, fulfil all the requirements of the three basic functions, viz: protection, control and isolation. Where the installation of a circuit breaker is not appropriate (notably where the switching rate is high, over extended periods) combinations of units specifically designed for such a performance are employed. The most commonly-used combinations are described below:

switch and fuse combinations
Two cases are distinguished: c the type in which the operation of one (or more) fuse(s) causes the switch to open. This is achieved by the use of fuses fitted with striker pins, and a system of switch tripping springs and toggle mechanisms. This type of combination is generally used for current levels exceeding 100 A, and is commonly associated with a thermal-type overcurrent relay for overload protection (for which the fuses alone may not be suitable). If the switch is classified as AC22 or AC23, and associated with a motor-overload type of thermal relay, the ensemble, i.e. switch, striker-pin fuses and overload relay, is suitable for the control and protection of a motor circuit, and: c the type in which a non-automatic switch is associated with a set of fuses in a common enclosure. In some countries, and in IEC 947-3, the terms "switch-fuse" and "fuse-switch" have specific meanings, viz: v a switch-fuse comprises a switch (generally 2 breaks per pole) on the upstream side of three fixed fuse-bases, into which the fuse carriers are inserted (figure H2-17(a)), v a fuse-switch consists of three switch blades each constituting a double-break per phase. These blades are not continuous throughout their length, but each has a gap in the centre which is bridged by the fuse cartridge. Some designs have only a single break per phase, as shown in figures H2-17(a) and (b).

fig. H2-16: symbol for an automatictripping switch-fuse, with a thermal overload relay.

fig. H2-17 (a): symbol for a non-automatic switch-fuse.

fig. H2-17 (b): symbol for a non-automatic fuse-switch.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-9

2. the switchgear and fusegear (continued)

H2
2.2 combined switchgear elements (continued)
The current range for these devices is limited to 100 A maximum at 400 V 3-phase, while their principal use is in domestic and similar installations. To avoid confusion between the first group (i.e. automatic tripping) and the second group, the term "switch-fuse" should be qualified by the adjectives "automatic" or "non-automatic".

fuse - disconnector + discontactor fuse - switch-disconnector + discontactor
As previously mentioned, a discontactor does not provide protection against short-circuit faults. It is necessary, therefore, to add fuses (generally of type aM) to perform this function. The combination is used mainly for motorcontrol circuits, where the disconnector or switch-disconnector allows safe operations such as: c the changing of fuse links (with the circuit isolated); c work on the circuit downstream of the discontactor (risk of remote closure of the discontactor). The fuse-disconnector must be interlocked with the discontactor such that no opening or closing manœuvre of the fuse-disconnector is possible unless the discontactor is open (figure H2-18 (a)), since the fusedisconnector has no load-switching capability. A fuse-switch-disconnector (evidently) requires no interlocking (figure H2-18 (b)). The switch must be of class AC22 or AC23 if the circuit supplies a motor.

fig. H2-18 (a): symbol for a fusedisconnector + discontactor.

fig. H2-18 (b): symbol for a fuse-switchdisconnector + discontactor.

circuit-breaker + contactor circuit-breaker + discontactor
These combinations are used in remotelycontrolled distribution systems in which the rate of switching is high, or for control and protection of a circuit supplying motors. The protection of induction motors is considered in chapter J, clause J5.

H2-10 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

3. choice of switchgear

H2
3.1 tabulated functional capabilities
After having studied the basic functions of LV switchgear (clause 1, table H2-1) and the different components of switchgear (clause 2), table H2-19 summarizes the capabilities of the various components to perform the basic functions. switchgear item isolator (or disconnector) (4) switch (5) residual device (RCCB) (5) switchdisconnector contactor bistable-switch (telerupteur) fuse circuit breaker (5) circuit breaker disconnector (5) residual and overcurrent circuit breaker (RCBO) (5) point of installation (general principle) isolation control functional emergency switching emergency stop switching for (mechanical) mechanical maintenance electrical protection overload short-circuit differential

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c c c c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c (1) (2) c c c c c c (3)

c

c c c c

c c c c c

origin of each circuit

all points where, for operational reasons it may be necessary to stop the process

in general at the incoming circuit to every distribution board

at the supply point to each machine and/or on the machine concerned

at the supply point to each machine

origin of each circuit

origin of each circuit

origin of circuits where the earthing system is appropriate TN-S, IT, TT

table H2-19: functions fulfilled by different items of switchgear.
(1) Where cut-off of all active conductors is provided (2) It may be necessary to maintain supply to a braking system (3) If it is associated with a thermal relay (the combination is commonly referred to as a "discontactor") (4) In certain countries a disconnector with visible contacts is mandatory at the origin of a LV installation supplied directly from a HV/LV transformer (5) Certain items of switchgear are suitable for isolation duties (e.g. RCCBs according to IEC 1008) without being explicitly marked as such.

3.2 switchgear selection
Software is being used more and more in the field of optimal selection of switchgear. Each circuit is considered one at a time, and a list is drawn up of the required protection functions and exploitation of the installation, among those mentioned in table H2-19 and summarized in table H2-1. A number of switchgear combinations are studied and compared with each other against relevant criteria, with the aim of achieving: c satisfactory performance; c compatibility among the individual items; from the rated current In to the fault-level rating Icu; c compatibility with upstream switchgear or taking into account its contribution; c conformity with all regulations and specifications concerning safe and reliable circuit performance. In order to determine the number of poles for an item of switchgear, reference is made to chapter H1, clause 7, table H1-65. Multifunction switchgear, initially more costly, reduces installation costs and problems of installation or exploitation. It is often found that such switchgear provides the best solution.

the protection of circuits - the switchgear - H2-11

4. circuit breakers

H2
the circuit breaker/disconnector fulfills all of the basic switchgear functions, while, by means of accessories, numerous other possibilities exist.
As shown in table H2-19 the circuit breaker/ disconnector is the only item of switchgear capable of simultaneously satisfying all the basic functions necessary in an electrical installation. Moreover, it can, by means of auxiliary units, provide a wide range of other functions, for example: indication (on-off - tripped on fault); undervoltage tripping; remote control… etc. These features make a circuit-breaker/ disconnector the basic unit of switchgear for any electrical installation. functions isolation control possible conditions c c c (with the possibility of a tripping coil for remote control) c c c c (with differential-current relay) c (with undervoltage-trip coil) c added or incorporated c (generally optional with an electronic tripping device)

functional emergency switching switching-off for mechanical maintenance overload short-circuit insulation faulty undervoltage

protection

remote control indication and measurement

table H2.20: functions performed by a circuit-breaker/disconnector.

4.1 standards and descriptions
industrial circuit breakers must conform with IEC 947-1 and 947-2 or other equivalent standards. Corresponding European standards are presently being developed. Domestic-type circuit breakers should conform to IEC standard 898, or an equivalent national standard.

standards
For industrial LV installations the relevant IEC standards are, or are due to be: c 947-1: general rules; c 947-2: part 2: circuit breakers; c 947-3: part 3: switches, disconnectors, switch-disconnectors and fuse combination units; c 947-4: part 4: contactors and motorstarters; c 947-5: part 5: control-circuit devices and switching elements; c 947-6: part 6: multiple function switching devices; c 947-7: part 7: ancillary equipment. Corresponding European and many national standards are presently in the course of harmonization with the IEC standards, with which they will be in very close agreement. For domestic and similar LV installations, the appropriate standard is IEC 898, or an equivalent national standard.

H2-12 - the protection of circuits - the switchgear

power circuit terminals contacts and arc-dividing chamber fool-proof mechanical indicator latching mechanism trip mechanism and protective devices fig. the protection of circuits .H2-13 . comprising the fixed and moving contacts and the arc-dividing chamber. fig. fig. some models can be adapted to provide sensitive detection (30 mA) of earth-leakage current with CB tripping.a trip-mechanism actuating device: c either: a thermal-magnetic device. one of which is installed on each phase.the switchgear . viz.H2 description Figure H2-21 shows schematically the principal parts of a LV circuit breaker and its four essential functions: 1 . H2-22: domestic-type circuit breaker providing overcurrent protection and circuit isolation features.. domestic circuit breakers conforming to IEC 898 and similar national standards perform the basic functions of: c isolation c protection against overcurrent. by the addition of a modular block. or: c an electronic relay operated from current transformers. while other models (complying with IEC 1009) have this residual-current feature incorporated. while an electromagnetic striker pin operates at current levels reached in short-circuit conditions. H2-23: domestic-type circuit breaker as above (H2-22) plus protection against electric shocks by the addition of a modular block. IEC 947-2 (appendix B) CBRs. 4 . as shown in figure H2-23. 2 . H2-21: principal parts of a circuit breaker. and. This mechanism is also linked to the operation handle of the breaker.a space allocated to the several types of terminal currently used for the main powercircuit conductors.the circuit-breaking components. RCBOs.the latching mechanism which becomes unlatched by the tripping device on detection of abnormal current conditions. 3 . in which a thermally-operated bi-metal strip detects an overload condition. more recently.

H2-24: "Multi 9" system* of LV modular switchgear components.the protection of circuits .the switchgear . H2-14 . by means of associated adaptable blocks provide a similar range of auxiliary functions to those described above (figure H2-25).1 standards and descriptions (continued) apart from the above-mentioned functions further features can be associated with the basic circuit breaker by means of additional modules. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4.4. H2-25: example of a modular (Compact NS*) industrial type of circuit breaker capable of numerous auxiliary functions. as shown in figure H2-24. 1 2 3 4 5 O-OFF O-OFF O-OFF O-OFF fig. SDE SD OF1 OF2 OF2 SDE SD OF1 fig. notably remote control and indication (on-off-fault). which. * Merlin Gerin product. moulded-case type industrial circuit breakers conforming to IEC 947-2 are now available.

if suitably "derated". without exceeding the specified temperature limits of the currentcarrying parts. fitted with a specified overcurrent tripping relay.H2-15 . conforming to IEC 947-2. 4.3. the circuit breaker in an ambient temperature of 50 °C could carry only 117 A indefinitely. Derating a circuit breaker is achieved therefore. ** Current-level setting values which refer to the current-operated thermal and "instantaneous" magnetic tripping devices for over-load and short-circuit protection. Icn for domestic-type CBs). can carry indefinitely at an ambient temperature stated by the manufacturer. * Merlin Gerin products. have numerous built-in communication and electronic functions (figure H2-26). frame-size rating A circuit breaker which can be fitted with overcurrent tripping units of different currentlevel-setting ranges. Note: In for circuit breakers (in IEC 947-2) is equal to Iu for switchgear generally. c remote indication contacts. designed to withstand high temperatures. while complying with the specified temperature limit. and marking the CB accordingly. rated operational voltage (Ue) This is the voltage at which the circuit breaker has been designed to operate. The use of an electronic-type of tripping unit. is assigned a rating which corresponds with that of the highest current-level-setting tripping unit that can be fitted. The same circuit breaker can be used at higher values of ambient temperature however.the switchgear . by reducing the trip-current setting of its overload relay. fig. Iu being rated uninterrupted current. Example: A circuit breaker rated at In = 125 A for an ambient temperature of 40 °C will be equipped with a suitably calibrated overcurrent tripping relay (set at 125 A). corresponding to disturbed conditions. c load indication at the CB. Other values of voltage are also assigned to the circuit breaker. H2-26: examples of heavy-duty industrial circuit breakers. as noted in sub-clause 4. rated current (In) This is the maximum value of current that a circuit breaker. allows circuit breakers (derated as described) to operate at 60 °C (or even at 70 °C) ambient. the protection of circuits . These circuit breakers are provided with means to adjust protective-device settings over a wide range. The "Masterpact"* provides many automation features in its tripping module.H2 heavy-duty industrial circuit breakers of large current ratings.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker the fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker are: c its rated voltage Ue c its rated current In c its tripping-current-level adjustment ranges for overload protection (Ir** or Irth**) and for short-circuit protection (Im)** c its short-circuit current breaking rating (Icu for industrial CBs. or again. Thus. and also with: c a 20 mA output loop. in normal (undisturbed) conditions. only 109 A at 60 °C.

the adjustment range is greater.g.low setting : 2 to 5 In . H2-27: example of a 400 A circuit breaker equipped with a 320 A overload trip unit adjusted to 0.28: tripping-current ranges of overload and short-circuit protective devices for LV circuit breakers.2 fundamental characteristics of a circuit breaker (continued) overload relay trip-current setting (Irth or Ir) Apart from small circuit breakers which are very easily replaced. IEC standards do not specify values.7 In That value must be greater than the maximum load current IB. exchangeable. The above values are given only as being those in common use. Moreover. in order to adapt a circuit breaker to the requirements of the circuit it controls. to give Ir = 288 A.4 In i Ir < In electronic short-circuit protection low setting standard setting type B type C 3 In i Im < 5 In 5 In i Im < 10 In low setting standard setting type B or Z type C 3. Example (figure H2-27): a circuit breaker equipped with a 320 A overcurrent trip relay. overcurrent-trip relays. c indicated by the manufacturer for industrialtype CBs according to related standards. 0.9 = 288 A Note: for circuit breakers equipped with non-adjustable overcurrent-trip relays.9. e. Ir = In. or. type of protective relay thermalmagnetic thermalmagnetic thermalmagnetic overload protection Ir = In For the latter circuit breakers there exists a wide variety of tripping devices which allow a user to adapt the protective performance of the circuit breaker to the particular requirements of a load.e. and to avoid the need to install over-sized cables.3).4 to 1 times In. (2) For industrial use. typically 0. sub-clause 1.standard setting: 5 to 10 In short-delay.the protection of circuits .4. but when electronic devices are used for this duty.8 In 7 In < fixed < 10 In fixed: Im ≈ 7 to 10 In adjustable: . will have a trip-current setting: Ir = 320 x 0. H2-16 . notably IEC 947-2. It also represents the maximum current that the circuit breaker can carry without tripping.0 times In. set at 0. but less than the maximum current permitted in the circuit Iz (see chapter H1.5 Ir i Im < 10Ir instantaneous (I) fixed I ≈ 12 to 15 In high setting circuit type D 10 In i Im < 20 In (1) high setting type D or K 10 In < fixed < 14 In table H2.7 to 1. The thermal-trip relays are generally adjustable from 0.7 In i Ir < In long delay 0. short-circuit relay trip-current setting (Im) Short-circuit tripping relays (instantaneous or slightly time-delayed) are intended to trip the circuit breaker rapidly on the occurrence of high values of fault current. adjustable 1.2 In < fixed < 4.the switchgear . the trip relays are generally adjustable. Their tripping threshold Im is: c either fixed by standards for domestic type CBs. domestic breakers IEC 898 modular industrial (2) circuit breakers industrial (2) circuit breakers IEC 947-2 Ir = In fixed Ir = In fixed adjustable: 0. which is considered to be unrealistically high by most European manufacturers (M-G = 10 to 14 In). (1) 50 In in IEC 898. i.9. industrial circuit breakers are equipped with removable. The trip-current setting Ir or Irth (both designations are in common use) is the current above which the circuit breaker will trip. rated current of the tripping unit to suit the circumstances In adjustment range overload trip current setting to suit the circuit Ir circuit-breaker frame-size rating 224 A 288 A 320 A 400 A I fig. IEC 898. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4.

2 table H2-31: Icu related to power factor (cos ϕ) of fault-current circuit. the lower the power factor of the fault-current loop.H2 t (s) t (s) I(A) Ir Im PdC Ir Im I PdC I(A) fig. close to generators or large transformers. for example. breaking capacities of CBs are governed by standards. When the current is in phase with the supply voltage (cos ϕ for the circuit = 1). c following an open . PdC: breaking capacity.s. Icu (rated ultimate s. i. closing and opening on short-circuit. I: short-circuit instantaneous relay trip-current setting. the d. Im: short-circuit (magnetic or long-delay) relay trip-current setting.e. value of the a. Icu 6 kA < Icu i 10 kA 10 kA < Icu i 20 kA 20 kA < Icu i 50 kA 50 kA i Icu cos ϕ 0. isolating feature A circuit breaker is suitable for isolating a circuit if it fulfills all the conditions prescribed for a disconnector (at its rated voltage) in the relevant standard (see sub-clause 1. transient component (which is always present in the worst possible case of short-circuit) is assumed to be zero for calculating the standardized value. In practice. rated short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu or Icn) The short-circuit current-breaking rating of a CB is the highest (prospective) value of current that the CB is capable of breaking without being damaged. (IEC 947-2). and standards are based on values commonly considered to be representative of the majority of power systems. have not been impaired by the test.c.3.5 0.m.c. This rated value (Icu) for industrial CBs and (Icn) for domestic-type CBs is normally given in kA r. In such a case it is referred to as a circuit breaker-disconnector and marked on its front face with the symbol All Multi 9. the greater the level of fault current (at a given voltage). further tests are made to ensure that v the dielectric withstand capability.s. and include: c operating sequences. all power-system short-circuit fault currents are (more-or-less) at lagging power factors. Standard values for this relationship have been established in some standards. Tests for proving the rated s. H2-30 : performance curve of a circuit breaker electronic protective scheme.close/open sequence to test the Icu capacity of a CB.25 0. c current and voltage phase displacement.the switchgear .e. component of the fault current.H2-17 .2). i. H2-29: performance curve of a circuit breaker thermal-magnetic protective scheme.time delay .c. Breaking a current at low lagging* values of cos ϕ is considerably more difficult to achieve.3 0. In general. comprising a succession of manœuvres. Table H2-31 below extracted from IEC 947-2 relates standardized values of cos ϕ to industrial circuit breakers according to their rated Icu. Ir: overload (thermal or short-delay) relay trip-current setting. breaking capacity) are defined in IEC 947-2 together with a table relating Ics with Icu for different categories of utilization A (instantaneous tripping) and B (time-delayed tripping) as discussed in subclause 4. fig.m. the short-circuit current-breaking performance of a LV circuit breaker is related (approximately) to the cos ϕ of the fault-current loop. breaking capacity) and Ics (rated service s. The value of current quoted in the standards is the r.c. interruption of the current is easier than that at any other power factor.c. the protection of circuits . Compact NS and Masterpact LV switchgear of Merlin Gerin manufacture is in this category. v the disconnection (isolation) performance and v the correct operation of the overload protection. a zero power-factor circuit being (theoretically) the most onerous case.

in order to discriminate with other circuit breakers on a time basis. thermally and electrodynamically. for a period of time given by the manufacturer. however. For further details see chapter F. A and B. under test conditions. category (A or B) and rated short-time withstand current (Icw) As already briefly mentioned (sub-clause 4. Icw is the maximum current that the B category CB can withstand. Ue i Ui.the switchgear . H2-33: category B circuit breaker. it is possible to delay the tripping of the CB. This is generally applied to large open-type circuit breakers and to certain heavy-duty moulded-case types. t (s) I(A) Im fig. are generally moulded-case type circuit breakers. according to IEC 947-2: c those of category A. H2-32: category A circuit breaker. rated insulation voltage (Ui) This is the value of voltage to which the dielectric tests voltage (generally greater than 2 Ui) and creepage distances are referred. c those of category B for which. rated impulse-withstand voltage (Uimp) This characteristic expresses. i. The maximum value of rated operational voltage must never exceed that of the rated insulation voltage. where the fault-current level is lower than that of the short-time withstand current rating (Icw) of the CB (figure H2-23). and. H2-18 .4.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker Familiarity with the following less-important characteristics of LV circuit breakers is. without sustaining damage. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4.2) there are two categories of LV industrial switchgear. in kV peak (of a prescribed form and polarity) the value of voltage which the equipment is capable of withstanding without failure. for which there is no deliberate delay in the operation of the "instantaneous" short-circuit magnetictripping device (figure H2-32).e.the protection of circuits . often necessary when making a final choice. t (s) I(A) Im I Icw PdC fig. clause 2.

LV circuit breakers for domestic and similar installations are classified in certain standards (notably European Standard EN 60 898). expressed as a percentage of Icu. many designs of LV circuit breakers feature a short-circuit current limitation capability. 100%). to the rated breaking current) by the factor k. c limitation of the current greatly reduces the thermal stresses (proportional I2t) and this is shown by the curve of diagram (b) of figure H2-36.H2-19 . component of the prospective fault current ("prospective" fault-current refers to the fault-current which would flow if the CB had no current-limiting capability). fault-current limitation The fault-current limitation capacity of a CB concerns its ability. H2-35: prospective and actual currents. Its rated making capacity Icm will be 100 x 2. 75.c.s. so that the CB is immediately available for reclosure. The probability of such a current occurring is extremely low. component (r.s. in preventing the passage of the maximum prospective fault-current.) 150 (b) prospective a. 50. in a correctly designed installation.3 0.m. rated service short-circuit breaking capacity (Ics) The rated breaking capacity (Icu) or (Icn) is the maximum fault-current a circuit breaker can successfully interrupt without being damaged.s. Note: O represents an opening operation. and in normal circumstances the fault-currents are considerably less than the rated breaking capacity (Icu) of the CB.c. In Europe it is the industrial practice to use a k factor of 100% so that Ics = Icu.5 0.105 22 2. CO represents a closing operation followed by an opening operation. In these cases.m.s. c tests carried out following this sequence are intended to verify that the CB is in a good state and available for normal service. H2-36: performance curves of a typical LV current-limiting circuit breaker. The current-limitation performance is given by the CB manufacturer in the form of curves (figure H2-36 diagrams (a) and (b)).rac no ha c t current limiters) have standardized limiting I2t let-through characteristics defined by that class. The factor k values are given in IEC 898 table XIV.2 = 220 kA peak. whereby the current is reduced and prevented from reaching its (otherwise) maximum peak value (figure H2-35). component of the prospective fault current.c.m.105 (a) prospective a. For this reason a new characteristic Ics has been introduced. more or less effective. again. diagram (a). Ics = k Icn. For domestic CBs.) 150 kA fig.m. systems this instantaneous peak value is related to Icu (i. Icc prospectice fault-current peak prospectice fault-current limited current peak limited current tc t fig. 100% for industrial circuit breakers.CO . a circuit breaker is never required to operate at its maximum breaking current Icu.25 0.1 x Icu 2.5. permitting only a limited amount of current to flow. It is for these reasons that a new characteristic (Ics) has been created.CO* (at Ics). typified by that shown in figure H2-36. 50.7 x Icu 2 x Icu 2. component (r.c. The standard test sequence is as follows: c O . after the faulty circuit has been repaired. value of the a. Example: a LV circuit breaker has a rated breaking capacity Icu of 100 kA r. value of the a.34: relation between rated breaking capacity Icu and rated making capacity Icm at different power-factor values of short-circuit current.the switchgear . CBs belonging to a class (of limited peak current (kA) n rre cu d tics ite ris lim te n. limited peak current (A2 x s) 4.e.s. 75. manufacturers do not normally provide characteristic performance curves. viz: 25. c diagram (a) shows the limited peak value of current plotted against the r. It is expressed in IEC 947-2 as a percentage of Icu (25. On the other hand it is important that high currents (of low probability) be interrupted under good conditions. the protection of circuits .2 Icm = kIcu 1. which depends on the power factor (cos ϕ) of the short-circuit current loop (as shown in table H2-34). Icu 6 kA < Icu i 10 kA 10 kA < Icu i 20 kA 20 kA < Icu i 50 kA 50 kA i Icu cos ϕ 0. versus the r. as shown in figure H2-35.c.H2 rated making capacity (Icm) Icm is the highest instantaneous value of current that the circuit breaker can establish at rated voltage in specified conditions.m. as standardized in IEC 947-2. In a. The current-limitation performance of these CBs is presented in the form of graphs.2 x Icu table H2.

the advantages of current limitation The use of current-limiting CBs affords numerous advantages: c better conservation of installation networks: current-limiting CBs strongly attenuate all harmful effects associated with short-circuit currents.. substantial savings on switchgear (lower performance permissible downstream of the limiting CB(s)) enclosures. described in sub-clause 4. c reduction of mechanical effects: forces due to electromagnetic repulsion are lower. c its eventual environment: ambient temperature. the limitation feature allows "cascading" techniques to be used (see 4. in general: c 30 °C for domestic-type CBs. The technique of cascading. The following notes relate to the choice of a LV circuit breaker for use in distribution systems. c reduction of thermal effects: conductors (and therefore insulation) heating is significantly reduced. 4. thereby reducing the ageing of the installation. will also result in important economies.5) thereby significantly reducing design and installation costs. Discriminative protection schemes and cascading are compatible. downstream of a limiting CB.the protection of circuits . and the thermal effects to less than 1% of those calculated. c load characteristics.s. telecommunication systems. up to the full short-circuit breaking capacity of the switchgear. in the range Compact NS*. climatic conditions. These circuit breakers therefore contribute towards an improved exploitation of: c cables and wiring. such as motors.the switchgear . so that the life of cables is correspondingly increased. Problems concerning specific loads are examined in chapter J. connection into a local network (communication or control and indication) etc.4. Example: On a system having a prospective shortcircuit current of 150 kA r. etc. Cascading of the several levels of distribution in an installation. auxiliary tripping coils. with less risk of deformation and possible rupture.5 allows. in particular: protection of persons. c prefabricated cable-trunking systems. thereby prolonging the useful life of these elements. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. c reduction of electromagnetic-interference effects: less influence on measuring instruments and associated circuits. of up to 20% (overall). ambient temperature temperature of air surrounding the circuit breakers ambient temperature single CB in free air circuit breakers installed in an enclosure fig. requirements (or not) for remote control and indication and related auxiliary contacts. * A Merlin Gerin product. Furthermore. etc. c installation regulations. choice of a circuit breaker The choice of a CB is made in terms of: c electrical characteristics of the installation for which the CB is destined. H2-20 .. LV/LV transformers. together with the type of telecommunications system envisaged. c switchgear.3 other characteristics of a circuit breaker (continued) current limitation reduces both thermal and electrodynamic stresses on all circuit elements through which the current passes.m. Performance of these CBs in a different ambient temperature depends principally on the technology of their tripping units.. c short-circuit current breaking and making requirements. in a kiosk or switchboard enclosure. the loads and a need for remote control. etc. and design studies. a circuit breaker limits the peak current to less than 10% of the calculated prospective peak value. fluorescent lighting. etc. H2-37: ambient temperature. choice of rated current in terms of ambient temperature The rated current of a circuit breaker is defined for operation at a given ambient temperature. excessive burning of contacts..4 selection of a circuit breaker the choice of a range of circuit breakers is determined by: the electrical characteristics of the installation. in fact. c 40 °C for industrial-type CBs. c operational specifications: discriminative tripping. the environment.

8 = 28. Moreover.7 14.0 42. A circuit breaker rated at 40 A would be derated to 35. generally requires them to be derated by a factor of 0.12 6.24 6.0 48.7 25. C60a. C60H: curve C.2 40.5 50.the switchgear .61 2.4 45. When the temperature in which the CB is located exceeds its reference temperature.1 58.6 34.2 23.85 1.4 28. however.49 4 4.8 35. This CB.70 2.5 63 66.5 32 33. Example What rating (In) should be selected for a CB c protecting a circuit. c installed side-by-side with other CBs in a closed distribution box.24 5.90 0.96 1. etc.2 14.4 30. It may be noted from typical examples of such tables (tables H2-38) that a lower temperature than the reference value produces an up-rating of the CB.7 27. the protection of circuits . To allow for mutual heating in the enclosed space.30 9.0 24.52 5.5 A. 35.00 8.84 1. For example: c in certain countries.95 0.6 x 0.92 1. when passing normal load currents.2 A.4 17.5 51. For this reason.2 21.0 36.88 3. CB manufacturers provide tables which indicate factors to apply at temperatures different to the CB reference temperature.24 4.30 7.08 2.00 5.5 15.00 1. A 50 A circuit breaker would therefore be selected.70 9.80 13.6 10.4 50 52.2 51.91 2. C60N: curves B and C (reference temperature: 30 °C) rating (A) 20 °C 25 °C 30 °C 35 °C 40 °C 45 °C 50 °C 55 °C 1 1. The circuit breaker (i 60 A) is compensated for a temperature range of .09 3.0 38.5 16.0 20. if the consumer exceeds the current level stated in his supply contract with the power authority.0 61.12 4.76 5.7 54. are usually mounted in a small closed metal case.88 1.2 25.36 6 6.18 3. so that.0 18.5 16.40 10 10.9 63.88 2 2.00 0. the current required to trip the CB on overload will be sensibly reduced.2 64. besides affording protection against indirect-contact hazard.3 10.2 40.05 1.9 32.H2 circuit breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping units have a tripcurrent level that depends on the surrounding temperature.04 2. irrespective of the ambient temperature.4 25 26.2 13. within a specified range. in this case.8 20 21. as shown typically in figure H2-24. uncompensated thermalmagnetic tripping units Circuit breakers with uncompensated thermal tripping elements have a tripping-current level that depends on the surrounding temperature.6 20.64 3.4 29.8 20. and domestic (and similar) installations are protected at the service position by a circuit breaker provided by the supply authority.80 3 3.64 5.93 0. giving a (derated) current rating of 44 x 0.88 5.7 NS250N/H/L (reference temperature: 40 °C) rating (A) 40 °C 45 °C TM160D 160 156 TM200D 200 195 TM250D 250 244 50 °C 152 190 238 55 °C 147 185 231 60 °C 0.0 19. or in a hot location (boiler room.8 28.2 40 42.20 16 16. c in an ambient temperature of 50 °C.5 49.0 41.5 °C to + 40 °C.00 2. small modular-type CBs mounted in juxtaposition.7 23.98 0.H2-21 .76 3.5 °C to + 40 °C).2 60 °C 144 180 225 tables H2-38: examples of tables for the determination of derating/uprating factors to apply to CBs with uncompensated thermal tripping units.5 47.8 16.0 56. mutual heating.8 = 35.5 44.4 19.0 9.8.8 38.60 8. c LV circuit breakers at ratings i 630 A are commonly equipped with compensated tripping units for this range (.02 1.37 3.). it will therefore be "derated".52 3.0 31. according to temperature. the maximum load current of which is estimated to be 34 A.6 A in ambient air at 50 °C (see table H2-38). which is not suitable for the 34 A load. the TT system is standard on LV distribution systems.00 3. compensated thermal-magnetic tripping units These tripping units include a bi-metal compensating strip which allows the overload trip-current setting (Ir or Irth) to be adjusted. If the CB is installed in an enclosure.8 17. the 0.82 2. In this situation.74 2.5 32.0 22.0 15.5 33. will trip on overload.8 factor noted above must be employed.

at + 50 °C and + 60 °C. manufacturers' catalogues generally also give derated values of In for ambient temperatures above the compensated range.e.the switchgear . circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. the CB is automatically derated by the overload tripping device.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued) general note concerning derating of circuit breakers It is evident that a CB rated to carry a current In at its reference ambient temperature (30 °C) would overheat when carrying the same current at (say) 50 °C.7 to 1 x In in the ambient temperature range of . typically. the tripping current level may be set at any value between 0.5 °C to + 40 °C. H2-22 . 95 A at + 50 °C and 90 A at + 60 °C. on which the rating In is based). for a 100 A circuit breaker.g. as shown in the tables H2-38. e.the protection of circuits . Since LV CBs are provided with overcurrent protective devices which (if not compensated) will operate for lower levels of current in higher ambient temperatures.4. Where the thermal tripping units are temperature-compensated. The reference ambient temperature in this case is 40 °C (i. For these compensated units.

88 2200 θ °C 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 fig.98 2350 0. i 40 °C 2500 1 2500 1 45 °C 2500 1 2500 1 50 °C 2500 1 2500 1 55 °C 2450 0. resistive loads) I t 12 In type MA c protection of motors in association with discontactors (contactors with overload protection) I table H2-40: different tripping units. selection of an instantaneous. 1 2500 as mentioned in the general note above.g.H2 electronic tripping units are highly stable in changing temperature levels.94 2350 circuit breaker B 0. or short-time-delay. Type classification according to IEC 898. transformers. tripping threshold Principal charasteristics of magnetic or shorttime-delay tripping units.94 60 °C 2400 0. electronic tripping units An important advantage with electronic tripping units is their stable performance in changing temperature conditions.96 2200 0. M25N/H/L circuit breaker A circuit breaker B coeff. motors. the switchgear itself often imposes operational limits in elevated temperatures.H2-23 .88 In (A) maximum adjustment Ir In (A) maximum adjustement Ir In (A) circuit breaker A 0. However.96 2400 0. instantaneous or short-time-delayed. H2-39: derating of two circuit breakers having different characteristics. so that manufacturers generally provide an operating chart relating the maximum values of permissible trip-current levels to the ambient temperature (figure H2-39).the switchgear . the protection of circuits . according to the temperature. type t tripping unit low setting type B applications c sources producing low-short-circuit-current levels (standby generators) c long lengths of line or cable I t standard setting type C c protection of circuits: general case I t high setting type D or K c protection of circuits having high initial transient current levels (e. See also table H2-28.

The technique is known as "cascading" (see sub-clause 4. a 750 kVA transformer with a Zsc = 6% will H2-24 . H2-42). the short-circuit impedance voltage (Zsc%) must be the same for all units. H2-42: transformers in parallel. From these considerations. primary to secondary.000 kVA transformer having a Zsc of 6%. primary to secondary.9 kA. the open-circuit voltage ratios. c several transformers in parallel (figure H2-42) v the circuit breakers CBP outgoing from the LV distribution board must each be capable of breaking the total fault current from all transformers connected to the busbars. In the second case. 3. the transformers will be loaded automatically in proportion to their kVA ratings. This technique is profitably employed in: c associations of fuses and circuit breakers. Note: the essential conditions for the successful operation of 3-phase transformers in parallel may be summarized as follows: 1.the protection of circuits . the circuit breaker at the output of the smallest transformer must have a short-circuit capacity adequate for a fault current which is higher than that through any of the other transformer LV circuit breakers (fig. 250 kVA 20 kV/400 V Visucompact NS400N fig. 2. c associations of current-limiting circuit breakers and standard circuit breakers.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued) the installation of a LV circuit breaker requires that its short-circuit breaking capacity (or that of the CB together with an associated device) be equal to or exceeds the calculated prospective short-circuit current at its point of installation. . must be the same in all units to be paralleled. selection of a circuit breaker according to the short-circuit breaking capacity requirements The installation of a circuit breaker in a LV installation must fulfil one of the two following conditions: c either have a rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icu (or Icn) which is equal to or exceeds the prospective short-circuit current calculated for its point of installation. certain national standards require a LV circuit breaker in which the open contacts are clearly visible*. or c if this is not the case.5 of this chapter). v the ratings of CBMs must be chosen according to the kVA ratings of the associated transformers. while the circuit breaker of the largest transformer will pass the lowest level of short-circuit current. must be the same in all units.4. A 400 A CB with an adjustable tripping-unit range of 250 A-400 A and a short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu) of 35 kA* would be a suitable choice for this duty. share the load correctly with a 1. The selection of main and principal circuit breakers c a single transformer Table C-13 (in chapter C) gives the shortcircuit current level on the downstream side of a commonly-used type of HV/LV distribution transformer. If the transformer is located in a consumer's substation. without being damaged in any way. and which has the required short-circuit breaking capacity.the switchgear HV Tr1 LV A1 B1 CBM A2 B2 CBP E HV Tr2 LV CBM A3 B3 CBP HV Tr3 LV CBM fig. v the circuit breakers CBM. parallel operation is not recommended. each controlling the output of a transformer. i. For transformers having a ratio of kVA ratings exceeding 2. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. for a short-circuit located on the upstream side of CBM1. since the resistance/ reactance ratios of each transformer will generally be different to the extent that the resulting circulating currrent may overload the smaller transformer. * A type Visucompact NS400N of Merlin Gerin manufacture is recommended for the case investigated. it will be seen that the circuit breaker of the smallest transformer will be subjected to the highest level of fault current in these circumstances. the phase shift of the voltages. Example (figure H2-41): What type of circuit breaker is suitable for the main circuit breaker of an installation supplied through a 250 kVA HV/LV (400 V) 3-phase transformer in a consumer's substation? In transformer = 360 A Isc (3-phase) = 8. the characteristics of the two devices must be co-ordinated such that the energy permitted to pass through the upstream device must not exceed that which the downstream device and all associated cables.e. be associated with another device which is located upstream. H2-41: example of a transformer in a consumer's substation. must be capable of dealing with a maximum short-circuit current of (for example) Isc2 + Isc3 only. viz: Isc1 + Isc2 + Isc3. wires and other components can withstand. For example.

e. A recommended choice for the three outgoing circuits 1. for several transformers in parallel.C. c circuit breaker selection for CBP duty: The s. Example: (figure H2-44) c circuit breaker selection for CBM duty: In for an 800 kVA transformer = 1. 2 and 3 would be current-limiting circuit breakers types NS 400 L. breaking capacity of main CBs (Icu)* kA 14 27 22 43 24 48 27 54 31 62 36 72 39 77 main circuit breakers (CBM) total discrimination with out going-circuit breakers (CBP) M08 N1/C 801 N ST M08 N1/C 801 N ST M10N1/CM1250/C 1001 N M10H1/CM1250/C 1001 N M12N1/CM1250/C 1251 N M12H1/CM1250/C 1251 N M16N1/CM1600 M16H2/CM1600 M20N1/CM2000 M20H1/CM2000 M25N1/CM2500 M20H2/CM2500H M32H1/CM3200 M32H2/CM3200H minimum S. * or Ics in countries where this alternative is practised. for the most usual arrangement (2 or 3 transformers of equal kVA ratings) the maximum short-circuit currents to which main and principal CBs (CBM and CBP respectively. breaking capacity (Icu) required for these circuit breakers is given in the table (H2-43) as 71 kA. c between each incoming-circuit CBM and each outgoing-circuit CBP there is 1 metre of busbar. this table shows selected circuit breakers of M-G manufacture recommended for main and principal circuit breakers in each case. in figure H2-42) are subjected. Moreover. i. no-load voltage) Icu (minimum) = 48 kA (from table H2-43). of principal CBs (Icu)* kA 27 40 42 64 48 71 54 80 60 91 70 105 75 112 rated current In of principal circuit breaker (CPB) 250 A NS 250 N NS 250 H NS 250 H NS 250 H NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 H NS 250 L NS 250 L NS 250 L table H2-43: maximum values of short-circuit current to be interrupted by main and principal circuit breakers (CBM and CBP respectively).the switchgear . v exploitation of the "cascading" technique. with its attendant economy for all downstream components.4 kV distribution-type units rated as listed. NS 100 L and NS 250 L respectively (by MG) or their equivalents.C. breaking cap. number and kVA ratings of 20/0.H2 Table H2-43 indicates. c the cables from each transformer to its LV circuit breaker comprise 5 metres of singlecore conductors. 3 Tr 800 kVA 20 kV/400V CBM CBP1 CBP2 CBP3 400 A 100 A 200 A fig H2-44: transformers in parallel. the CBM indicated in the table is a Compact C1251 N (Icu = 50 kA) (by Merlin Gerin) or its equivalent. The Icu rating in each case = 150 kA. in an ambient-air temperature of 30 °C.c. c the transformers are standard 20/0.H2-25 . The table is based on the following hypotheses: c the short-circuit 3-phase power on the HV side of the transformer is 500 MVA.4 kV transformers 2 x 400 3 x 400 2 x 630 3 x 630 2 x 800 3 x 800 2 x 1000 3 x 1000 2 x 1250 3 x 1250 2 x 1600 3 x 1600 2 x 2000 3 x 2000 minimum S.126 A (at 410 V. These circuit breakers provide the advantages of: v absolute discrimination with the upstream (CBM) breakers. the protection of circuits . c the switchgear is installed in a floormounted enclosed switchboard.

H2-26 . associating fuses with CBs avoids the need for a fuse in the neutral. c. c insufficient short-circuit currentbreaking rating In low-voltage distribution systems it sometimes happens. A circuit breaker rated for a short-circuit breaking capacity exceeding the tabulated value may then be selected. and may be used in TT. it is necessary to use the method indicated in chapter H1 clause 4.a. the value of 3-phase shortcircuit current can be determined rapidly for any point in the installation. except in certain IT installations where a double fault produces a current in the neutral which exceeds the short-circuit breaking rating of the CB. allowing the principle of cascading (described in sub-clause 4.4 selection of a circuit breaker (continued) short-circuit fault-current levels at any point in an installation may be obtained from tables..5) to be applied. except in particular circumstances on some IT systems.s. v protection against indirect contact: this protection is provided according to the rules for IT schemes. especially in heavy-duty networks. v the length.2. by convention. however. the following conditions must be respected: v condition (c) of table H1-65 for the protection of the neutral conductor against overcurrent in the case of a double fault. the blowing of the neutral fuse must cause the CB to trip on all phases. cascading: a particular solution to problems of CBs insufficiently rated for S.the fuse rating must be appropriate .no fuse in the neutral conductor.C. breaking duty. c detailed calculation of the short-circuit current level In order to calculate more precisely the shortcircuit current. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. or system changes upstream result in lowerlevel CB ratings being exceeded. and the composition of the conductors between the two points. v solution 2: install a range of CBs having a higher rating. respect the following rules: . This solution is economically interesting only where one or two CBs are affected. This arrangement must. TN-S and IT schemes. be capable of breaking on one pole (at the phase-to-phase voltage) the current of a double fault equal to 15% of the 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of its installation. as described in chapter G sub-clause 6. however. c two-pole circuit breakers (for phase and neutral) with one protected pole only These CBs are generally provided with an overcurrent protective device on the phase pole only. Choice of outgoing-circuit CBs and final-circuit CBs c use of table H1-40 From this table. In an IT scheme. knowing: v the value of short-circuit current at a point upstream of that intended for the CB concerned. In this case. when the short-circuit current-breaking capacity of a CB is slightly less than that derived from the table.the protection of circuits . or 25% of the 3-phase short-circuit current if it exceeds 10 kA. v solution 3: associate current-limiting fuses (gG or aM) with the CBs concerned.the switchgear . on the upstream side. v solution 1: check whether or not appropriate CBs upstream of the CBs affected are of the current-limiting type. if that current is i 10 kA. notably. that the Isc calculated exceeds the Icu rating of the CBs available for installation.4. v short-circuit current-breaking rating: A 2-pole phase-neutral CB must.

in all circuits downstream of its location.e. By way of an example. while a current-limiting circuit breaker has the effect on downstream circuits of (apparently) increasing the source impedance during short-circuit conditions. cascading Definition of the cascading technique By limiting the peak value of short-circuit current passing through it. i. it has no such effect at any other time. so that users can confidently design a cascading scheme based on the combination of circuit breaker types recommended. so that the current is correspondingly restricted. Other rigidly-fixed conductors are arranged in series with.H2 4. on condition that the amount of energy "let through" by the limiting CB is less than that which all downstream CBs and components are able to withstand without damage. cables and other circuit components of significantly lower performance than would otherwise be necessary. during the starting of a large motor (where a low source impedance is highly desirable). i. the currentlimiter CB remains closed. the current magnitude is (to some extent) self-regulating. thereby simplifying and reducing the cost of an installation. Reduced physical size and lower performance requirements lead to substantial economies and to the simplification of installation work. the protection of circuits . after its brief time delay. to allow downstream high-speed circuit breakers to clear the (limited) current. the tripping of the limiting CB main contacts is briefly delayed. the contact pressure of which is accurately maintained by springs. the electromagnetic force tends to move the contact bar to open its contacts.e. particularly since the power factor of the fault-current loop is increased by the resistive impedance of the arcs. the more the repulsive force on the bar and the greater the arc resistance as its path lengthens. Failure of downstream CBs to trip will result in the tripping of the current-limiting CB. Furthermore.H2-27 . and close to the contact bar.the switchgear . When used in a cascading scheme as described below. The contact bar in the limiter module resets under the influence of its pressure springs when the flow of short-circuit current ceases. The resistance of the arcs is comparable with system impedances at low voltage. A contact bar (per phase) in the module bridges two (specially-designed heavy-duty) contacts. H or L for a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation. the technique of "cascading" uses the properties of current-limiting circuit breakers to permit the installation of all downstream switchgear. In practice this can only be verified for CBs by tests performed in a laboratory. laboratory tests are necessary to ensure that the conditions of exploitation required by national standards are met and compatible switchgear combinations must be provided by the manufacturer. such that when current is passed through the ensemble. the higher the current. a current-limiting CB permits the use. which then passes through the arcs formed at each contact. * Merlin Gerin products in general. The circuit breaker is easily able to break the resulting low value of current.5 coordination between circuit breakers Preliminary note on the essential function of current limiting circuit breakers Low-voltage current-limiting CBs exploit the resistance of the short-circuit current arc in the CB to limit the value of current. of switchgear and circuit components having much lower short-circuit breaking capacities. It may be noted that. This occurs at relatively low values of shortcircuit current. A new range of Compact* current-limiting circuit breakers with powerful limiting performances (namely: NS 100. Such tests are carried out by manufacturers who provide the information in the form of tables. Conditions of exploitation Most national standards permit use of the cascading technique. An improved method of achieving currentlevel limitation is to associate a separate current-limiting module (in series) with a standard CB. and thermal and electromechanical withstand capabilities than would otherwise be the case. NS 250 and NS 400) is particularly interesting. for example. table H2-45 indicates the possibilities of cascading circuit breaker types* C 60 and NC 100 when installed downstream of current-limiting CBs NS 250 N. NS 160.

is cleared by the protective device located immediately upstream of the fault. H2-28 .4. Short-circuit breaking capacity of the upstream (limiter) CBs kA r. Discrimination between circuit breakers A and B is absolute if the maximum value of shortcircuit-current on circuit B does not exceed the short-circuit trip setting of circuit breaker A.s.s. c simplification. or time-delays. discrimination may be absolute or partial. A (patented) system by Merlin Gerin exploits the advantages of both current-limitation and discrimination. For this maximum condition.e. i. both A and B will trip (figure H2-48).the switchgear . 150 NS250L 100 70 NS250H 36 NS250N 25 22 Short-circuit breaking capacity of the downstream CBs (benefiting from the cascading technique) kA r. while all other protective devices remain unaffected (figure H2-46). since light-duty equipment is generally less voluminous. occurring at any point in the installation. Discrimination is partial if the maximum possible short-circuit current on circuit B exceeds the short-circuit trip-current setting of circuit breaker A. IscA A IscB B absolute discrimination IrB IccB Icc partial discrimination B only open A and B opens IrB Ic IccB Icc fig. i. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. The principle is not restrictive.the protection of circuits .5 coordination between circuit breakers (continued) Advantages of cascading The limitation of current benefits all downstream circuits that are controlled by the current-limiting CB concerned. with consequently lower cost.m. c the use of lighter-duty switchgear and appliances. c economy of space requirements. B only will trip (figure H2-47). H2-46: absolute and partial discrimination. For this condition. discriminative tripping (selectivity) Discrimination is achieved by automatic protective devices if a fault condition. The result is: c simplified short-circuit current calculations.e. 150 NC100LH NC100LMA 100 NC100LS 70 NC100LS NC100L NC100LH NC100LMA 50 NC100L 40 C60L i 40 C60L i 40 30 C60H C60N C60N C60L C60H C60H C60L C60L (50 to 63) (50 to 63) NC100H NC100H 25 C60N NC100H 20 C60a C60a 15 C60a tables H2-45: example of cascading possibilities on a 230/400 V or 240/415 V 3-phase installation. a wider choice of downstream switchgear and appliances. A more recent development is based on the principles of logic.m. or a combination of both. and based on the principles of current levels. currentlimiting CBs can be installed at any point in an installation where the downstream circuits would otherwise be inadequately rated.

H2-29 . The heated-air pressure level depends on the energy level of the arc. discrimination based on a combination of methods 1 and 2. This is achieved by using current-limiting CBs and initiating CB tripping by pressure-sensitive detectors in the arcing chambers of the CBs.Irm A (delayed) or a SD* electronic timer .the switchgear . This method is implemented by adjusting the time-delayed tripping units. fig. Discrimination is absolute if Isc B < Irm A (instantaneous).H2 t t B A B A Isc downstream of B Ir B Ir A Icc B Irm A I Ir B Ir A B only opens Irm A Isc B A and B open IscA I fig. with progressively longer delays towards the source. The upstream CB has two high-speed magnetic tripping thresholds: . t B A Isc B Irm A delayed Irm A instantaneo us I 4. the protection of circuits . In the two-level arrangement shown. discrimination based on arc-energy levels (Merlin Gerin patent) In the range of short-circuit currents. H2-47: absolute discrimination between CBs A and B.Irm A (instantaneous) standard (Compact type SA) * short-delay. discrimination based on stepped time delays. such that downstream relays have the shortest operating times. from downstream relays (lower settings) towards the source (higher settings). according to the particular conditions. as noted in the above examples. discrimination based on current levels. upstream circuit breaker A is delayed sufficiently to ensure absolute discrimination with B (for example: Masterpact electronic). 1. this system provides absolute discrimination between two circuit breakers passing the same fault current. t B A Irm B Irm A Isc B I 2. t conventional instantaneous magnetic-trip characteristic pressure operated magnetic-trip characteristic Irm B Irm A Isc table H2-49: summary of methods and components used in order to achieve discriminative tripping. A mechanical time-delay added to a currentlevel scheme can improve the overall discrimination performance. H2-48: partial discrimination between CBs A and B. A t B A ∆t B Isc B I 3. This method is realized by setting successive relay tripping thresholds at stepped levels. as described in the following pages (figures H2-54 and H2-55). Discrimination is absolute or partial.

The delay is sufficient to ensure absolute discrimination with any downstream high-speed CB at any value of s. so that both circuit breakers will generally trip in unison.the switchgear . Time-based discrimination This technique requires: c the introduction of "timers" into the tripping mechanisms of CBs. for circuit breaker B.g. but would be insufficient to cause circuit breaker A to trip. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. H2-51: use of a "selective" circuit breaker upstream.5 coordination between circuit breakers (continued) current-level discrimination is achieved with stepped current-level settings of the instantaneous magnetic-trip elements. magnetic trip set at 2. For a short-circuit downstream of B. H2-30 . preferably limiters. Application of these CBs is relatively simple and consists in delaying the instant of tripping of the several series-connected circuit breakers in a stepped time sequence. Ir = 250 A. Careful calculation and testing is necessary. In this case discrimination is partial. c the downstream circuit breaker is a current limiter. and stepped current-level settings of the instantaneous magnetic-trip elements. Absolute discrimination in this situation is practically impossible because Isc A z Isc B. passing the same current) are discriminative if the current-breaking period of downstream breaker B is less than the non-tripping time of circuit breaker A. the limited level of peak current IB would operate the (suitably adjusted) magnetic trip unit of B. as previously noted in 1. This accounts for the curved characteristic shown for the standard circuit breaker A in figure H2-50. These circuit breakers are fitted with trip units which include a non-adjustable mechanical short-time-delay feature. Discrimination at several levels An example of a practical scheme with (MG) circuit breakers Masterpact (electronic protection devices). Note: All LV breakers (considered here) have some inherent degree of current limitation. The discrimination may be absolute or partial for a short-circuit fault downstream of B. t A (compact S) B only B opens A and B open Irm A Irm S delayed instantaneous I fig. Example: circuit breaker A: Compact NS250 N fitted with a trip unit which includes a SD feature. however. c the delay corresponding to the first step is greater than the total current-breaking time of a high-speed CB (type Compact for example) or of fuses (figure H2-52).4. H2-52: discrimination by time delay.000 A (an improvement over the limit of 2. Current-level discrimination Current-level discrimination is achieved with circuits breakers. current up to Irms (figure H2-51). c the upstream circuit breaker is highspeed with a short-delay (SD) feature. discrimination based on time-delayed tripping uses CBs referred to as "selective" (in certain countries). and limited to the Irm of the upstream circuit breaker.the protection of circuits . above. These CBs can be equipped with adjustable timers which allow 4 time-step selections.000 A circuit breaker B: Compact NS100N Ir = 100 A The Merlin Gerin distribution catalogue indicates a discrimination limit of 3. such as: c the delay corresponding to a given step is greater than the total current breaking time of the next lower step. H2-50: downstream limiting circuit breaker B. even those that are not classified as currentlimiters. c the downstream circuit breaker is not a current-limiter.c. t A B non tripping time of A current-breaking time for B only B open Ir B Isc B Isc I fig. Two circuit breakers A and B in series (i. Improvement in discriminative tripping can be obtained by using a current limiter in a downstream location.500 A obtained when using a standard tripping unit).e. to ensure satisfactory performance of this arrangement. e. c CBs with adequate thermal and mechanical withstand capabilities at the elevated current levels and time delays envisaged. I peak A fault upstream of B fault downstream of B current limitation curve for circuit breaker (see note) B Isc I Isc prospective (rms) fig.

the conventional protection schemes are employed. With 2 levels A and B (figure H2-53). using CBs equipped with electronic tripping units designed for the purpose (Compact. The fault current will be very strongly limited by the resistance of the two series arcs. Limitation and discrimination by exploitation of arc energy The technique of "arc-energy discrimination" (Merlin Gerin patent) is applied on circuits having a short-circuit current level u 25 In and ensures absolute selectivity between two CBs carrying the same short-circuit current. thereby producing a correspondingly rapid pressure rise. Discrimination is assured with this particular switchgear if: c the ratio of rated currents of the two CBs u 2.H2-31 A pilot wires B fig. as shown (typically) in figure H2-55. CB (A) Compact NS (a) CB (B) Compact NS Isc = 50 kA I Isc (prospective) CB (A) only CB (A) and CB (B) in series Isc (limited) t Pressure in arcing chamber CB (A) setting (b) (c) CB (B) setting t fig. Operation principle Both CBs are current limiters. The larger current through CB (A) will produce a correspondingly greater pressure.H2 discrimination schemes based on logic techniques are possible. then absolute discrimination between two CBs of different current ratings can be achieved by setting CB (B) to trip at a lower pressure level than that of CB (A) (fig. Discrimination logic This discrimination system requires CBs equipped with electronic tripping units. must comply with limits stated in the text.the switchgear . which will be sufficient to operate its pressure-sensitive tripping unit (diagrams (b) and (c) of fig. the protection of circuits . This signal causes the tripping unit of A to be delayed. circuit breaker A is set to trip instantaneously. the pressure rise can be reliably detected and used to initiate instantaneous tripping. as previously described in this chapter. Masterpact by MG) and interconnected with pilot wires. For overcurrent conditions less than those of short-circuits i 25 In. as previously mentioned). unless the relay of circuit breaker B sends a signal to confirm that the fault is downstream of B. H2-53: discrimination logic. use the principle of arc-energy levels to obtain discrimination. c the ratio of the two trip-unit current ratings is > 1. H2-55: ratio of rated currents of CBs and of tripping units. NS250N TM260D CB (A) CB (B) NS100N TM100D fig. H2-54 (a)). the faster the CB will trip. The resulting current will therefore be significantly greater than that occurring for a short-circuit downstream of CB (B) (where the two arcs in series cause a very strong limitation. The intense heat of the current arc in each CB causes a rapid expansion of the air in the confined space of the arcing chambers.6.5. so that the electromagnetic forces due to a short-circuit downstream of CB (B) will cause the currentlimiting arcing contacts of both CBs to open simultaneously. Above a certain level of current. designed for this application. . H2-54). recently-introduced circuit breakers such as Merlin Gerin type NS. to ensure discrimination. As can be seen from figure H2-49 (4). If a short-circuit occurs downstream of CB (A) but upstream of CB (B). H2-54: arc-energy discrimination principles. the larger the short-circuit current. Discrimination principle If both CBs include a pressure tripping device suitably regulated. then the arc resistance of CB (A) only will limit the current. Discrimination requires that the energy allowed to pass by the downstream CB (B) is less than that which will cause the upstream CB (A) to trip (fig. H2-54). thereby ensuring back-up protection in the event that B fails to clear the fault. and so on… This system (patented by Merlin Gerin) also allows rapid localization of the fault. together with interconnecting pilot wires for data exchange between the CBs.

This requirement generally fixes the maximum settings for the LV circuit breaker protection: c maximum short-circuit current-level setting of the magnetic tripping element. c LV circuit breaker: Visucompact CM 2000 set at 1. c short-circuit level at HV terminals of transformer: 250 MVA.7. so that the tripping characteristic curve of the latter must be to the left of that of the HV fuse pre-arcing curve.4 kA I fig. 63 A full-load current 1760 A 3-phase short-circuit current level 31. circuit breakers (continued) H2 4. What is the maximum short-circuit trip current setting and its maximum time delay allowable? The curves of figure H2-57 show that discrimination is assured if the short-time delay tripping unit of the CB is set at: c a level i 6 Ir = 10.LV circuit breaker: 10 metres single-core cables. for further details. Where a transformer is controlled and protected on the high-voltage side by a circuit breaker. c HV fuses: 63 A (table C 11). adopted in some countries.2.01 step C step B step A step 0 1800 A Ir 10 kA Isc maxi 31.6 discrimination HV/LV in a consumer's substation In general the transformer in a consumer's substation is protected by HV fuses. suitably rated to match the transformer. it is usual to install separate CT.and/ or VT.4 kV. t (ms) 1000 200 100 CM 2000 set at 1800 A minimum pre-arcing curve for 63 A HV fuses (current referred to the secondary side of the transformer) 6 Ir 8 Ir 10 1 Ir 4 Ir 220 1 50 0.operated relays. in accordance with the principles laid down in IEC 787 and IEC 420.2. by using the methods described in chapter C sub-clause 3. c a time-delay setting of step O or A. and illustrated in figure C-21. H2-56: example. c maximum time-delay allowable for the short-circuit current tripping element. A general policy for HV fuse/LV circuit breaker discrimination. c cabling.4 kA 1250 kVA 20 kV / 400 V Visucompact CM 2000 set at 1800 A fig.800 A (Ir).the switchgear . c transformer HL/LV: 1. Discrimination can be achieved.4. is mentioned in chapter C sub-clause 3.7. The basic requirement is that a HV fuse will not operate for LV faults occurring downstream of the transformer LV circuit breaker. H2-57: curves of HV fuses and LV circuit breaker. which is based on standardized manufacturing tolerance limits. H2-32 . together with high-speed tripping for faults on the transformer. See also Chapter C sub-clause 3.the protection of circuits .8 kA. and Appendix C1. which energize a shunt-trip coil of the circuit breaker.250 kVA 20/0.2. by following the advice of the fuse manufacturer. transformer .

The cabling and its protection at each level must satisfy several conditions at the same time. or fuses) In choice of protective device short-circuit MVA at the origin of the circuit short-circuit current Isc short-circuit current-breaking rating of C. generally rated at 500 mA).earthed installations are obligatorily protected at the origin by a RCD. particularly in TN. it must: c carry the permanent full load current. or fuses conditions of installation cross-sectional area of conductors of the circuit verification of the maximum voltage drop verification of thermal withstand requirements IT or TN scheme verification of the maximum length of the circuit TT scheme determination of the cross-sectional area of the conductors confirmation of the cross-sectional area of the cabling. etc.B. * the term "cabling" in this chapter.1 methodology and definitions component parts of an electric circuit and its protection are determined such.B. Particular loads (as noted in Chapter J) require that the cable supplying them be oversized. for example: an excessively long acceleration period when starting a motor. up to and including short-circuit currents.B. and normal short-time overcurrents.the switchgear . Apart from this method some national standards may prescribe a minimum cross-sectional area to be observed for reasons of mechanical endurance. Moreover. methodology Following a preliminary analysis of the power requirements of the installation. where the length of circuits may limit the magnitude of short-circuit currents. general H1 1.1. etc. starting at the origin of the installation. covers all insulated conductors. as decribed in Chapter B Clause 4.earthed systems. through the intermediate stages to the final circuits.2 of this Chapter. the protection of circuits . the protective devices (circuit breakers or fuses) must: c protect the cabling and busbars for all levels of overcurrent. c not cause voltage drops likely to result in an inferior performance of certain loads. in order to ensure a safe and reliable installation. thereby delaying automatic disconnection (it may be remembered that TT. and that the protection of the circuit be likewise modified. including multi-core and single-core cables and insulated wires drawn into conduits. and the choice of its electrical protection table H1-1: logigram for the selection of cable size and protective-device rating for a given circuit.and IT. that all normal and abnormal operating constraints are satisfied. c ensure protection of persons against indirect contact hazards.g. kVA to be supplied upstream or downstream network maximum load current IB rated current of protective device (C. The cross-sectional areas of conductors are determined by the general method described in Sub-clause 1. or fuses I scb choice of C. a study of cabling* and its electrical protection is undertaken. e.H1-1 .

without reducing its normal life expectancy. insulation. which takes account of the factors of simultaneity (diversity) and utilization.the protection of circuits .1. c 2 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth. viz: c 3 phases short-circuited (and to neutral and/or earth. as shown in figure H1-2. general (continued) H1 1. H1-2 .1 methodology and definitions (continued) definitions Maximum load current: IB c at the final circuits level.g. H1-2: calculation of maximum load current IB. PVC or EPR etc. if permanent damage to the cabling (and appliance if the overcurrent is due to a defective load component) is to be avoided. c 1 phase short-circuited to neutral (and/or to earth). This current must be cut off with a rapidity that depends upon its magnitude. c method of installation. lift motors. number of active conductors). or not). and so on) the cumulative thermal effects of the overcurrents must be taken into account. for a given crosssectional area of conductors. c at all upstream circuit levels this current corresponds to the kVA to be supplied. The current depends. particularly where frequent starting is concerned (e. Maximum permissible current: IZ This is the maximum value of current that the cabling for the circuit can carry indefinitely. Short-circuit currents These currents result from the failure of insulation between live conductors or/and between live conductors and earth (on systems having low-impedance-earthed neutrals) in any combination. Both cables and thermaltype relays are affected. c ambient temperature. occur in normal operation. or other loads which take an initially-high current.69 IB = 290 x 0. or not). In the case of motor-starting. Overcurrents of relatively short duration can however. on several parameters: c constitution of the cable and cable-way (Cu or Alu conductors. two types of overcurrent are distinguished: Overloads These overcurrents can occur in healthy electric circuits. ks and ku respectively. this current corresponds to the rated kVA of the load.the switchgear . resistance-type spot welding. due to a number of small short-duration loads which occasionally occur co-incidentally. main distribution board combined factors of simultaneity (or diversity) and utilization ks x ku = 0. motorstarting loads. and so on.69 = 200 A sub-distribution board 80 A 60 A 100 A IB = 50 A normal load motor current 50 A M fig. for example. If either of these conditions persists however beyond a given period (depending on protective-relay settings or fuse ratings) the circuit will be automatically cut off. overcurrents An overcurrent occurs each time the value of current exceeds the maximum load current IB for the load concerned. c influence of neighbouring circuits.

For a given insulated conductor. of insulated conductor (mm2). H1-5). e. be determined approximately by the formula: Is2 x t = k2 x S2 which shows that the allowable heat generated is proportional to the cross-sectional-area of the condutor squared. H1-4: circuit protection by fuses. θa1 > θa2 5s I2t = k2S2 Iz1 < Iz2 I fig.g. a 50 A nominal circuit breaker can be regulated to have a protective range. S: c. for a high ambient temperature (θa1 > θa2). IscB means rated 3-ph.m. the maximum permissible current varies according to the environment. IZ1 is less than IZ2 (fig. H1-3: circuit protection by circuit breaker. Ir (or Irth)* means regulated "nominal" current level. t maximum load current I2t cable characteristic temporary overload circuit-breaker tripping curve IB Ir Iz ISCB PdC I fig. k: insulated conductor constant (values of k2 are given in table H1-54).s. The characteristics of insulated conductors when carrying short-circuit currents can. for periods up to 5 seconds following short-circuit initiation. θ means "temperature".H1 1.).a. t I2t cable characteristic temporary overload fuse curve IB t Ir cIz Iz 1 2 I fig.2 overcurrent protection principles A protective device is provided at the origin of the circuit concerned.the switchgear . Note: Isc means 3-phase short-circuit current. For instance. H1-5: I2t characteristic of an insulated conductor at two different ambient temperatures. * both designations are commonly used in different standards. the protection of circuits . i.s. c acting to cut-off the current in a time shorter than that given by the I2t characteristic of the circuit cabling. Where: t: duration of short-circuit current (seconds). Is: short-circuit current (A r. a conventional overcurrent tripping level (see figure H1-6) similar to that of a 30 A circuit breaker.H1-3 .e. c but allowing the maximum load current IB to flow indefinitely. short-circuit breaking current of the circuit breaker.

it is necessary to ensure that. c its tripping current I2 "conventional" setting is less than 1. associated cabling and appliances can withstand without damage. Protection by fuses The condition I2 i 1.3 practical values for a protection scheme The following methods are based on rules laid down in the IEC standards. short-circuit current level at the point of fuse installation.45 Ir) so that the condition.45 IZ (as noted in the "general rules" above) will always be respected. This particular case is examined in Sub-clause 5. Association of different protective devices The use of protective devices which have fault-current ratings lower than the fault level existing at their point of installation are permitted by IEC and many national standards in the following conditions: c there exists upstream. the rated short-circuit current breaking capacity of the fuse ISCF u ISC the 3-ph. H1-6: current levels for determining circuit breaker or fuse characteristics. Possible combinations which have been tested in laboratories are indicated in certain manufacturers catalogues. A further factor k3 has been introduced (in the national standards from which these notes have been abstracted) such that I2 i 1. circuit cabling m u cu m rre pe nt rm Iz iss i bl e m ax i 1. IB i In i Iz I2 i 1.9) according to the particular fuse concerned. applications Protection by circuit breaker By virtue of its high level of precision the current I2 is always less than 1. short-circuit current level at the point of CB installation. c the technique known as "cascading" in which the strong current-limiting performance of certain circuit breakers effectively reduces the severity of downstream short-circuits.31 10 A < In i 25 A k3 = 1. that I2 i 1. 45 x Iz n its om re in gu al la cu te rr d en cu t rre In nt or Ir co nv en tri tio p na cu l o rre ve nt rc I2 urr en t fig.10 Moreover.1.21 In > 25 A k3 = 1.urre -c ult protective device For fuses type gl: In i 10 A k3 = 1.e.45 Iz ISCB u ISC zone a zone b zone c general rules A protective device (circuit breaker or fuse) functions correctly if: c its nominal current or its setting current In is greater than the maximum load current IB but less than the maximum permissible current IZ for the circuit. I2 is the current (denoted If) which will operate the fuse in the conventional time. the short-circuit current breaking capacity of the fuse ISCF must exceed the level of 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of installation of the fuse(s).45 Iz ISC ISCB zone c zone b fa g t ui atin irc r -c king t or a sh bre h nt p 3.1. i. c its 3-phase short-circuit fault-current breaking rating is greater than the 3-phase short-circuit current existing at its point of installation.45 IZ which corresponds to zone "b" in figure H1-6. and c the amount of energy allowed to pass through the upstream device is less than that which the downstream device and all m ax um im a lo d cu n rre t IB IB In zone a Iz I2 1. criteria for fuses: IB i In i IZ k3 and. This corresponds to zone "c" in figure H1-6. at a time of lowest value of short-circuit current.the switchgear . The "conventional" setting tripping time may be 1 hour or 2 hours according to local standards and the actual value selected for I2. equal to k2 x In (k2 ranges from 1.the protection of circuits . where I2 is the fusing (meltinglevel) current. For fuses. general (continued) H1 1. rated short-circuit breaking current ISCB u ISC the 3-ph. criteria for a circuit breaker: IB i In (or Ir) i Iz and. In pratice this arrangement is generally exploited in: c the association of circuit breakers/fuses.6 to 1. and are loads representative of the practices in many countries. IB i In i IZ corresponding to zone "a" in figure H1-6.45 IZ must also be taken into account. Particular case: if the circuit breaker itself does not protect against overloads.45 IZ will be valid if In i IZ/k3. H1-4 . another protective device which has the necessary short-circuit rating. the overcurrent device protecting the circuit will operate correctly.45 In (or 1.

5 mm2 table H1-7: general rules and exceptions concerning the location of protective devices. The maximum permissible current is the sum of the individual-core maximum currents. No circuit interruption can be tolerated. required at the origin of each circuit. c the short-circuit protection (SC) located at the origin of the circuit conforms with the principles of Sub-clause H1-5. e. This arrangement is convenient for motor circuits.5 mm2 S2: 1. c the cable route should be chosen so as to avoid close proximity to combustible materials. general rule A protective device is necessary at the origin of each circuit where a reduction of permissible maximum current level occurs. taking into account the mutual heating effects. The device (S) constitutes the control (start/stop) and overload protection of the motor while (SC) is: either a circuit breaker (designed for motor protection) or fuses type aM. method of installation. Protection against overload and short-circuits is identical to that for a single-cable circuit. and the protection of the cabling is of secondary importance. P2 50 mm2 P P3 10 mm2 P4 25 mm2 possible alternative locations in certain circumstances The protective device may be placed part way along the circuit: c if AB is not in proximity to combustible material.1.H1-5 . Consider case (3) c the overload device (S) is located adjacent to the load.1. The following precautions should be taken to avoid the risk of short-circuits on the paralleled cables: c additional protection against mechanical damage and against humidity.the switchgear . v circuits of large lifting electromagnets. Or c where the breaking of a circuit constitutes a risk. can be connected in parallel. and c if no socket-outlets or branch connections are taken from AB. and of the same material.5 cables in parallel Conductors of the same cross-sectional-area.g. by the introduction of supplementary protection. Three cases may be useful in practice.H1 1. the same length. and c AB has been installed to reduce to a practical minimum the risk of a short-circuit (wires in heavy steel conduit for example). P1: C60 calibre 15 A 2. 1. etc. A <3m P1 short-circuit sc protective device B s overload protective device3 B P2 B P3 case (1) case (2) case (3) circuits with no protection Either c the protective device P1 is calibrated to protect the cable S2 against overloads and short-circuits. Consider case (1) in the diagram c AB i 3 metres. v excitation circuits of rotating machines.4 location of protective devices a protective device is. v the secondary circuits of current transformers. Consider case (2) c the upstream device P1 protects the length AB against short-circuits in accordance with Sub-clause H1-5. the protection of circuits . in general.

The remainder of the installation is isolated by a 315 kVA 400/400V transformer: the isolated network is a TT-earthed 3-phase 4-wire system.18% 3x (3 x 240) Following the one-line diagram of the system shown in figure H1-8 below. TR1 1000 kVA 5% 400 V 26. These studies were carried out with ECODIAL 2. a reproduction of the results of a computer study for the circuit C1 and its circuit breaker Q1. The process requires a high degree of supply continuity and this is provided by the installation of a 500 kVA 400 V standby generator. and C2 with associated circuit breaker Q2 are presented. and by the adoption of a 3-phase 3-wire IT-system at the main general distribution board from which the processing plant is supplied.the protection of circuits . general (continued) H1 1.the switchgear .6 worked example of cable calculations installation scheme The installation is supplied through a 1. H1-6 . H1-8: one-line diagram of the installation.1. 44 kA C1 8m .000 kVA transformer.2 software (a Merlin Gerin product). Q1 M16 N1 STR 38 1600 A B1 G1 500 kVA 721 A Q2 C801N STR35SE 800 A C2 15m . This is followed by the same calculations carried out by the methods described in this guide.7% Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 C3 C4 3x (1 x 240) T1 315 kVA 400 V Q7 NS630N STR35SE 630 A B2 Q8 Q9 Q10 I1 I2 Q11 NS250N TMD 250 A Q12 NS160N TMD 160 A Q13 NS100N TMD 80 A fig.

55 .H1 calculations using software Ecodial 2.23 output 3 3 x 240 1 x 240 8 .the switchgear .2 General network characteristics earthing system neutral distributed voltage (V) frequency (Hz) Transformer TR 1 number of transformers upstream fault level (MVA) rating (kVA) short-circuit impedance voltage (%) remarks nominal current (A) resistance of transformer (mΩ) reactance of transformer (mΩ) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) 3-phase short-circuit current (kA) short-circuit power factor Cable C 1 maximum load current (A) type of insulation conductor material ambient temperature (°C) single-core or multi-core cable installation method number of circuits in close proximity (table H1-14) other coefficient number of phases selected cross-sectional area (mm2) protective conductor neutral conductor length (m) voltage drop ∆U (%) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U total (%) 3-phase short-circuit current (kA) 1-phase-to-earth fault current (A) resistance of protective conductor RPE (mΩ) touch voltage (V) Circuit breaker Q 1 voltage (V) 3-ph short-circuit current upstream of the circuit breaker (kA) maximum load current (A) ambient temperature (°C) number of poles circuit breaker type tripping unit type rated current (A) Busbars B 1 maximum load current (A) number of phases number of bars per phase width (mm) thickness (mm) length (m) remarks impedance of busbars R (mΩ) impedance of busbars X (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U(%) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U total (%) 3-ph short-circuit current (kA) IT N 400 50 input data 1 500 1000 5 output input data 1374 PRC Cu 30 UNI 13 1 1 1374 2.16 2.1 .18 25.53 the protection of circuits .18 8.53 9.45 .55 2.34 24.11 .18 2.75 15 output input data 400 25.44 .13 8.43 9.7 20334 .7 1374 40 3 M 16 N1 STR 38 1600 1374 3 1 125 5 3 .H1-7 .9 26.

one might choose: Iz = 1. the same calculations using the methods recommended in this guide Dimensioning circuit C 1 The HV/LV 1.12 x 8 X= = 0. these cables will be laid on cable trays corresponding with reference F (see tables in Clause H1 2. Table H1-17 indicates that the c.1 Iz I’z = = 1.the switchgear . Plug-in type CBs are generally moulded-case units. The resistances and the inductive reactances for the three conductors in parallel are.374 A applying H1.2): 22.82 ( 3 three-phase groups in a single layer) K 3 = 1 (temperature 30 °C). Iz = 433 A The method of installation is characterized by the reference letter E.67 21.08 x 15 = 1.a. Dimensioning circuit C 2 Circuit C 2 supplies a 315 kVA 3-phase 400/400 V isolating transformer Ib = 315 = 433 A. The "K" correction factors are as follows: K1=1 K 2 = 0. The resistance and inductive reactance are respectively: 22.25 mΩ per phase 240 x 3 0.42 Three single-core XLPE-insulated copper cables in parallel will be used for each phase.57 73 output output table H1-9: calculations carried out with ECODIAL software (M. K1xK2xK3 Each conductor will therefore carry 558 A. is 240 mm2. Circuit C 1 must be suitable for a current of In = 1. The circuit breaker is regulated to 433 A. which can be regulated. * Withdrawable.2).a.32 mΩ per phase 3 (0. If the circuit breaker is a withdrawable or unpluggable* type.93 10. 433 I’z = = 528 A so that 1 x 0.53 433 40 3 NS630 N STR23SE 630 13221 M16 N1 STR38 input data 433 PRC Cu 30 UNI 13 1 1 3 1 x 240 1 x 70 15 .42 x e A multi-core XLPE cable laid on a cable tray (together with two other cables) in an ambient air temperature of 30 °C is proposed.676 A.2 mΩ per phase. which may be completely removed from the fixed-base sockets.s.s.82 K 3 = 1.374 A per phase ex 0. CBs are generally mounted in drawers for maintenance purposes.12 mΩ/metre was advised by the cable maker).G). for a length of 8 metres (see H1-4. H1-8 .33 3. and the "K" correcting factors are: K1=1 K 2 = 0.5 x 8 R= = 0. of 240 mm2 is appropriate.75 .000 kVA transformer has a rated no-load voltage of 420 V.6 worked example of cable calculations (continued) Circuit breaker Q 2 voltage (V) 3-ph short-circuit current upstream of the circuit breaker (kA) maximum load current (A) ambient temperature (°C) number of poles circuit breaker type tripping unit type rated current (A) 3-phase fault current (A) protection against indirect contact assured upstream circuit breaker absolute discrimination Cable C 2 maximum load current (A) type of insulation conductor material ambient temperature (°C) single-core or multi-core cable installation method number of circuits in close proximity (table H1-14) other coefficient number of phases selected cross-sectional area (mm2) protective conductor neutral conductor length (m) voltage drop ∆U (%) running total of impedance RT (mΩ) running total of impedance XT (mΩ) voltage drop ∆U total (%) 3-phase short-circuit current (kA) 1-phase-to-earth fault current (A) resistance of protective conductor RPE (mΩ) touch voltage (V) input data 400 24.82 x 1 a c.18 13221 5. 0.5 x 15 R= = 1.4 mΩ per phase 240 X = 0. general (continued) H1 1.the protection of circuits .2.1.000 = In = 1.

94 10.75 mΩ . in accordance with Chapter G Sub-clause 5.e.530 The factor 1.77 V ∆U % = 100 x 0.13 busbars B1 0. This value is equal to 10 In + 15 % (the highest positive manufacturing tolerance for the tripping device).34 %.21 V/A/km x 1. withdrawal or unplugging facility and general ease of maintenance. For the circuit C2.2. and found to be 21 kA.2 may be used for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit. features such as selectivity.54 8. Isc* kA 26.32 sub-total for Q1 2.6 21. Tables H1.1 u = 37. but the protection on the second faulty LV circuit must do so infallibly to ensure protection against the indirect contact danger.2. the protection of circuits .77 9.772 3 = 26.5.7 mm2 176 In this case a 70 mm2 conductor may be adequate if the indirect-contact protection conditions are also satisfied.5 x (1. where the resistance of P. of its PE conductor should be: 21. Dimensioning considerations for this conductor are given in Sub-clause 6. isolating capability. In order to make the final choice. conductor mentioned above. the c.s.050 0.H1 Calculation of short-circuit currents for the selection of circuit breakers Q 1 and Q2 *all values are to a 420 voltage base e circuits R* X* Z* components parts mΩ mΩ mΩ 500 kVA at the HV source network 0. when using the adiabatic method (IEC 724 (1984) Clause 2) the c.6 mm2 176 a single 240 mm2 conductor dimensioned for other reasons mentioned later is therefore largely sufficient.77 = 0. (The value in the denominator 630 x 11. conductors is too high.2 Sub-clause H1-4.s.5 = Im i.15 x 5 = 0. The inductive reactance of busbars B1 is estimated to be 0. the current level at which the instantaneous short-circuit magnetic trip of the 630 A circuit breaker operates). provided that it also satisfies the requirements for indirect-contact protection (i.3. is invariably selected for this section of the installation. or the formula given in Sub-clause G.2 sub-total for Q2 3.36 V ∆U % = 100 x 1. For circuit C2.35 HV/LV transformer 2. the HV overcurrent protection for the transformer is unlikely to operate. The only indirect-contact requirement for this circuit.e. 1.a.75 9. as described. 400 At the circuit terminals of the LV/LV transformer the percentage volt-drop ∆U % = 0.H1-9 .6. must be considered. The protective conductor Thermal requirements. The 240 mm2 P. an indirect contact danger will exist at the transformer tank.E.72 11.e.5 24. tables G.E.59.487 = 50 metres. Circuit C 1 will be of class 2 insulation i.42 table H1-10: example of short-circuit current evaluation. that its impedance is sufficiently low).8 x 230 x 240 x ex 103 Lmax = 2 x 22.a. and so on.E. The length of 15 metres is therefore fully protected by "instantaneous" overcurrent devices. double insulation and no earthed exposed conductive parts.5 = 76. therefore.19 %.36 = 0.25 + 240/70) x 630 x 11. conductor in question. This means that if one (of the two) concurrent LV phase-to-earth faults should occur in the transformer. for the protective earth (PE) conductor for circuit C1 will be: 26500 x √0.the switchgear .60 and H1.1 u = 47. and very often HV lightning arresters on the transformer are connected to earth through the P. as noted in Chapter G Sub-clauses 6. The maximum permitted length of the circuit is given by: 0. with the aid of manufacturers catalogues.61 show that. Voltage drop From table H1. generally connects the tank of the HV/LV transformer to the earth electrode for the installation at a common earthing busbar in the main general distribution board. except in particular circumstances i.542 + 8.25 in the denominator is a 25% increase in resistance for a 240 mm2 conductor. is at the transformer tank.40 1.10 cable C 1 0. Overcurrent protective devices must then be relied upon to cut-off the faulty circuits.374 A x 0.2 shows the formula for calculating the short-circuit current Isc at a given point in the system.a. each on a different phase (or on one phase and a neutral conductor).000 x √0.e. In such a case. If the rated no-load voltage of the transformer is 420 V: 420 Isc = 2.85 cable C 2 1. RCDs are often employed in such cases. The Isc at the location of Q 2 is computed as for Q 1.s.24 8. 400 for C2 ∆U = 0. or is earthed through a high resistance (1-2 kΩ) so that an indirect-contact hazard can only exist if two earth faults occur concurrently. Since a HV fault to earth at the transformer is also always possible.43 and G. For further details of magnetic tripping devices.53 %.its resistance being negligibly small.29 it can be seen that: for C1 (3 x 240 mm2 per phase) 0. please refer to Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. a conductor of large c.21 V/A/km x 433 A x 0.008 km ∆U = 3 = 0.015 km = 1.3 to 6.5 kA at Q 1. Protection against indirect-contact hazards Reminder: the LV neutral point of an IT-scheme transformer is isolated from earth.25 0.

) of the conductors of the circuit capable of carrying IZ1 or IZ2. moulding or wainscoting c surface-mounted in contact with wall or ceiling c on non-perforated cable trays c cable ladders. depending on type of conductor and method of installation. or on supporting brackets c surface-mounted clear of the surface (e.1 * or slightly greater table H1-11: logigram for the determination of minimum conductor size for a circuit.31 In if In 10 A* IZ = 1. The tables in this clause permit the determination of the size of phase conductors for a circuit of given current magnitude. H1-10 .g.s. c buried conductors. on cleats) c catenary cables B C E single-core cables F table H1-12: code-letter reference. and c the factor of influence K. by use of an equivalent current I'Z. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors H1 2. determination of the code-letter reference The letter of reference (B to F) depends on the type of conductor used and its method of installation. as shown below in table H1-12. and of the insulating sheath of the conductors (refer to tables H1-17 or H1-24) I 'Z S1 I 'Z S2 verification of other conditions that may be required-see figure H1.the switchgear .2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits the size of a phase conductor is given in tables which relate: c the code letter symbolizing the method of installation. In this clause the following cases are considered: c unburied conductors. The procedure is as follows: c determine an appropriate code-letter reference which takes into account: v the type of circuit (single-phase. etc. perforated trays. threephase.2. surface or flush-mounting. which takes into account the influences of factor K (I'Z = IZ/K). but the most common of them have been grouped according to four classes of similar environmental conditions. These tables distinguish unburied circuits from buried circuits. which covers the following influences: v installation method.21 In if In 10 A* and In 25 A* IZ = 1. corresponding to a conductor size that the protective device is capable of protecting fuse IZ = 1. or under plaster c in underfloor cavity or behind false ceiling c in a trench. v circuit grouping. The dimensioning of the neutral and protective conductors is explained in H1-6 and H1-7. The first step is to determine the size of the phase conductors. The possible methods of types of conductor single-core wires and multi-core cables installation are numerous. of the letter code.10 In if In 25 A* I Z1 circuit breaker I Z = I n* I Z2 Determination of the size (c.a.the protection of circuits . 2.) and v the kind of installation: and then c determine the factor K of the circuit considered. letter code multi-core cables method of installation c under decorative moulding with or without a removable cover.1 general installation conditions for the conductors maximum load current IB IB rated current In of the protective device must be equal to or greater than the maximum load current IB determination of K factors and of the appropriate letter code In choice of maximum permissible current IZ for the circuit. v ambient temperature.

73 0.90 .52 0.73 0.72 0.80 0.the switchgear .79 0.63 0.79 0.79 0. etc table H1-14: correction factor K2 for a group of conductors in a single layer the protection of circuits .95 0.75 0.80 0.00 0.61 0.45 0. code letter B installation details .00 0.66 0. Correction factor K2 Factor K2 is a measure of the mutual influence of two circuits side-by-side in close proximity. code letter location of correction factor K2 cables in close number of circuits or multicore cables proximity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20 B.61 on ceiling E.77 0.surface mounted on ceiling . The values of these factors are given in tables H1.82 0.64 0. brackets.72 0.80 0.41 0.54 0.cables installed directly in thermal-insulation materials example K1 0.78 0.70 0. K2 and K3.15 below.57 0.78 on cable ladders.conduits installed in thermalinsulation materials 0.77 .38 or buried in the walls C single layer 1.C embedded 1.H1-11 .50 0.95 0. F . and is given by: K = K1 x K2 x K3 the three component factors depending on different features of the installation. is less than double the diameter of the larger of the two cables. correction factor K1 Factor K1 is a measure of the influence of the method of installation. Two circuits are considered to be in close proximity when L. or on vertical trays single layer 1.70 .72 0.13 to H1.F single layer 1.70 0.95 1 table H1-13: factor K1 according to method of circuit installation (for further examples refer to IEC 364-5-52 table 52H). or on unperforated cables trays single layer 0. C. E.multi-core cables 0. the distance between two cables.other cases 0.00 0.72 0.72 on horizontal perforated trays.72 0.H1 for circuits which are not buried.88 0. factor K1 is a measure of the influence of the method of installation.construction cavities and closed cables trenches C B.82 0.85 0.65 0.81 0.70 on walls or floors.71 0. factor K2 is a measure of the mutual influence of two circuits side-by-side in close proximity.00 0.60 0.75 0. determination of the factor K The factor k summarizes the several features which characterize the conditions of installation.73 0. factor k characteristizes the conditions of installation.68 0.87 0.62 0. It is obtained by multiplying three correction factors K1.78 0.

K = K1 x K2 x K3 = 1 x 0. 1 2 3 insulation elastomer (rubber) polyvinylchloride (PVC) θa = 40°C XLPE fig. There are.87 0. H1-12 .75. K2 and K3. ethylenepropylene-rubber (EPR) 10 1. 2 and no. ambient temperatures cross-linkedpolyethylene (XLPE) butyl. The ambient temperature is 40 °C. H1-16: example in the determination of factors K1.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits (continued) When cables are installed in more than one layer a further factor. therefore. Example: A 3-phase 3-core XLPE cable is laid on a perforated cable-tray in close proximity to three other circuits. c six single-core cables (circuit no.68.00 1.17 1.22 1.00 1.07 1.70.07 1.12 1. c three single-core cables (circuit no.the protection of circuits .80 3 layers : 0. Correction factor K3 Factor K3 is a measure of the influence of the temperature. by which K2 must be multiplied.71 0.91.76 60 0. factor K3 is a measure of the influence of the temperature according to the type of insulation. 3). effectively 5 3-phase circuits to be considered.15 1.2.71 0.79 0. consisting of: c a 3-phase 3-core cable (circuit no.29 1.58 75 80 table H1-15: correction factor K3 for ambient temperatures other than 30 °C. circuit no. K1 given by table H1-13 = 1. 3 are 3-phase circuits.93 0. will have the following values : 2 layers : 0.15 15 1. the latter comprising 2 cables per phase.93 0.58 0.82 0.65 70 0. as shown in figure H1-16.71 65 0. 1).96 40 0. The code letter indicated in table H1-12 is E.08 25 1.91 = 0. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) H1 2.91 45 0.00 35 0.04 30 1.82 55 0. 2).50 0. according to the type of insulation.61 0. K2 given by table H1-14 = 0.87 50 0.75 x 0.73 4 or 5 layers : 0.12 20 1.22 1. K3 given by table H1-15 = 0.the switchgear .

5 c.5 15.s.5 16.a.5 18. conductor material.).5 21 23 25 26 28 2. insulation material and the fictitious current I'z.5 19.5 22 23 24 26 1.s.5 19.5 18.a. copper 2. aluminium 4 22 25 26 28 31 33 35 38 4 alu (mm2) 6 28 32 33 36 39 43 45 49 6 (mm2) 10 39 44 46 49 54 59 62 67 10 16 53 59 61 66 73 79 84 91 16 25 70 73 78 83 90 98 101 108 121 25 35 86 90 96 103 112 122 126 135 150 35 50 104 110 117 125 136 149 154 164 184 50 70 133 140 150 160 174 192 198 211 237 70 95 161 170 183 195 211 235 241 257 289 95 120 186 197 212 226 245 273 280 300 337 120 150 227 245 261 283 316 324 346 389 150 185 259 280 298 323 363 371 397 447 185 240 305 330 352 382 430 439 470 530 240 300 351 381 406 440 497 508 543 613 300 400 526 600 663 740 400 500 610 694 770 856 500 630 711 808 899 996 630 table H1-17: case of an unburied circuit: determination of the minimum cable size (c.s.H1 determination of the minimum cross-sectional area of a conductor The current Iz when divided by K gives a fictitious current I'z. derived from the code letter.H1-13 . 2. 1.s.5 17.a. Values of I'z are given in table H1-17 below.5 21 24 25 27 30 31 33 36 2. the protection of circuits .5 copper 4 28 32 34 36 40 42 45 49 4 (mm2) (mm2) 6 36 41 43 48 51 54 58 63 6 10 50 57 60 63 70 75 80 86 10 16 68 76 80 85 94 100 107 115 16 25 89 96 101 112 119 127 138 149 161 25 35 110 119 126 138 147 158 169 185 200 35 50 134 144 153 168 179 192 207 225 242 50 70 171 184 196 213 229 246 268 289 310 70 95 207 223 238 258 278 298 328 352 377 95 120 239 259 276 299 322 346 382 410 437 120 150 299 319 344 371 395 441 473 504 150 185 341 364 392 424 450 506 542 575 185 240 403 430 461 500 538 599 641 679 240 300 464 497 530 576 621 693 741 783 300 400 656 754 825 940 400 500 749 868 946 1083 500 630 855 1005 1088 1254 630 c.5 c. together with corresponding cable sizes for different types of insulation and core material (copper or aluminium).a.s.a.the switchgear . insulation and number of conductors (2 or 3) rubber butyl or XLPE or EPR or PVC code B PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 B code letter C PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 C letter E PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 E F PVC3 PVC2 PR3 PR2 F c.

Two solutions are possible. K6 and K7.2. of copper or aluminium conductors are (in this case) found to be the same as those noted above for a circuit-breaker-protected circuit. 0. A code letter corresponding to a method of installation is not necessary.the protection of circuits .80 0.the switchgear .00 0.68. but higher than 23 A is required. for buried circuits the value of factor K characteristizes the conditions of installation. will also be used to illustrate the way in which the minimum cross-sectional-area (c.57 0.41 0.a.7 for 4 layers or 5 layers. H1-14 . c circuit breaker: In = 25 A v permissible current Iz = 25 A v fictitious current I'z = 25 = 36.65 0. 2.8 A 0. and is obtained from the following factors: K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 = K each of which depends on a particular feature of installation. or in decorative mouldings other cases 1 table H1-19: correction factor K4 related to the method of installation. K5. of 4 mm2.54 0. necessitates the establishement of a factor K. Correction factor K5 Factor K5 is a measure of the mutual influence of circuits placed side-by-side in close proximity. and is obtained by multiplying together correction factors K4.3 = 40. Correction factor K4 Factor K4 is a measure of the influence of the method of installation. method of installation K4 placed in earthenware ducts. 1 2 3 θa = 40°C XLPE fig.8 for 2 layers.50 0.68 v cross-sectional-area of conductors is found as follows: In the column PR3 corresponding to code letter E the value of 42 A (the nearest value greater than 36. c the factor K = 0. determination of factor K Factor K summarizes the global influence of different conditions of installation. in 0.8 A) is shown to require a copper conductor c.6 A 0.8 conduits.68 v the cross-sectional-areas. The values of these several factors are given in tables H1-19 to H1-22. 0. H1-18: example for the determination of minimum cable sizes. factor K5 measures the mutual influence of circuits placed side-byside in close proximity.38 table H1-20: correction factor K5 for the grouping of several circuits in one layer.a.21 x 25 = Iz = 30.45 0.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits In the case of buried circuits the determination of minimum conductor sizes. c fuses: In = 25 A v permissible current Iz = K3 In = 1.70 0. Cables are in close proximity when the distance L separating them is less than double the diameter of the larger of the two cables concerned. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) H1 2. by using the table H1-17. When cables are laid in several layers. location of correction factor K5 cables side-by-side number of circuits or of multicore cables in close proximity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 16 20 buried 1. one based on protection by a circuit breaker and the second on protection by fuses.s.s. factor K4 measures the influence of the method of installation. Determination of the cross-sectional areas A standard value of In nearest to. Previous examples show that: c the appropriate code letter is E.2 determination of conductor size for unburied circuits (continued) Example The example shown in figure H1-16 for determining the value of K.52 0.) of conductors may be found. For an aluminium conductor the corresponding values are 43 A and 6 mm2.73 for 3 layers. multiply K5 by 0. The XLPE cable to be installed will carry 23 amps per phase.60 0.3 A v the fictitious current I'z = 30.

H1-23: example for the determination of K4.21 = 1.89 40 0.H1-15 .76 55 0.05 1.00 very dry soil (sunbaked) 0.04 20 1.96 30 0. notably its thermal conductivity. factor K7 is a measure of the influence of the soil temperature.10 1.95 0.77 0.55 0. Example A single-phase 230 V circuit is included with four other loaded circuits in a buried conduit.H1 factor K6 is a measure of the influence of the earth in which the cable is buried. K5.71 0.05 dry soil 1.13 damp soil 1. soil temperature °C cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) 10 1. The soil temperature is 20 °C.6.80 50 0.85 45 0.48. the protection of circuits .45 0. θa = 20°C 5 kW 230 V insulation polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) fig. The circuit is protected by a circuit breaker. Correction factor K7 This factor takes into account the influence of soil temperature if it differs from 20 °C. K6 and K7.8.07 15 1.93 35 0. Correction factor K6 This factor takes into account the nature and condition of the soil in which a cable (or cables) is (are) buried. K7 from table H1.0. K4 from table H1-19 = 0.22 = 1.21 wet soil 1.63 0.the switchgear .0.00 25 0.84 0.86 table H1-21: correction factor K6 for the nature of the soil.20 = 0.89 0. The conductors are PVC insulated and supply a 5 kW lighting load. K6 from table H1.00 1. K = K4 x K5 x K6 x K7 = 0. K5 from table H1. nature of soil K6 very wet soil (saturated) 1.71 60 0.65 table H1-22: correction factor K7 for soil temperatures different than 20 °C.

a. K6 and K7 were determined.000 IB = = 22 A 230 Selection of protection A circuit-breaker rated at 25 A would be appropriate.the protection of circuits .a.5 26 32 31 37 copper 2.3 determination of conductor size for buried circuits (continued) determination of the smallest c.5 34 42 41 48 (mm2) 4 44 54 53 63 6 56 67 66 80 10 74 90 87 104 16 96 116 113 136 25 123 148 144 173 35 147 178 174 208 50 174 211 206 247 70 216 261 254 304 95 256 308 301 360 120 290 351 343 410 150 328 397 387 463 185 367 445 434 518 240 424 514 501 598 300 480 581 565 677 c. of circuit conductors In the column PVC. θa = 20°C 5 kW 230 V fig.2. 2 conductors. for which the factors K4.s.1 A K 0.a. 10 57 68 67 80 aluminium 16 74 88 87 104 2 (mm ) 25 94 114 111 133 35 114 137 134 160 50 134 161 160 188 70 167 200 197 233 95 197 237 234 275 120 224 270 266 314 150 254 304 300 359 185 285 343 337 398 240 328 396 388 458 300 371 447 440 520 table H1-24: case of a buried circuit: minimum c.a. (cross-sectional-area) of a conductor. 1. Maximum permanent current permitted Iz = 25 A (i.48. a current of 54 A corresponds to a 4 mm2 copper conductor. the corresponding crosssectional-areas are given in table H1-24 below. practical method for determining the smallest allowable cross-sectional-area of circuit conductors (continued) H1 2. K5. the same fictitious current (52 A) would require the choice of 10 mm2 corresponding to a fictitious current value (for aluminium) of 68 A. In the case where the circuit conductors are in aluminium. H1-25: example for determination of the minimum c.48 C.s.s.e.s. or ethylene-propylene rubber EPR 3 conductors 2 conductors 3 conductors 2 conductors c. Full load current 5. or cross-linked polyethylene XLPE.s.the switchgear . insulation and number of loaded conductors rubber or PVC Butyl. H1-16 . K Example This is a continuation of the previous example. for buried circuits Knowing Iz and K. and the factor K was found to be 0.a. of the circuit conductors. type of insulation.s. the circuit-breaker rating In) Fictitious current Iz 25 I'z = = = 52. in terms of type of conductor. and value of fictitious current I'z (I'z = Iz ).a.

lighting circuit. which. HV consumer LV consumer 8%(1) 5%(1) load (1) between the LV supply point and the load fig. etc. distribution transformers will be manufactured with no-load ratios of 242/420 V. to 237/410 V. The correct operation of an item of load (a motor. Important: In a number of countries the existing 220/380 V 3-phase systems are being uprated to operate eventually at nominal 230/400 V (the recommended IEC standard). the protection of circuits . simultaneous switching (by chance) of several loads.H1-17 . in order to check that: c they conform to the particular standards and regulations in force. c finally an 8% voltage drop represents a continuous (E2/R watts) of power loss. These voltage-drop limits refer to normal steady-state operating conditions and do not apply at times of motor starting. satisfactory motor performance requires a voltage within ± 5% of its rated nominal value in steady-state operation. as mentioned in Chapter B Sub-clause 4. Similar (but inverse) problems will arise in countries which presently operate 240/415 V systems. that at full-load current. Typical values for LV installations are given below in table H1-26. so that the heavy current loading (with possibly undesirable low-voltage effects on other equipment) will continue beyond the normal start-up period.1 maximum voltage-drop limit Maximum allowable voltage-drop limits vary from one country to another.3 (factor of simultaneity. while permitted. Transformer manufacturers in these countries have recently increased the no-load secondary voltage of their distribution transformers accordingly. c they can be tolerated by the load. therefore. if the IEC 230/400 V standard is adopted by them. for example: c in general. c a fully-loaded "old" transformer and a "new" motor: risk of undervoltage at the motor.the switchgear . It is necessary therefore to dimension the circuit conductors such. After several years of transition in the appliances industry. For these reasons it is recommended that the maximum value of 8% in steady operating conditions should not be reached on circuits which are sensitive to under-voltage problems. The value of 8%. c starting current of a motor can be 5 to 7 times its full-load value (or even higher).). If 8% voltage drop occurs at full-load current. When voltage drops exceed the values shown in table H1-26 larger cables (wires) must be used to correct the condition. etc. can lead to problems for motor loads. c they satisfy the essential operational requirements. the load terminal voltage is maintained within the limits required for correct performance. In such conditions the motor will either: v stall (i. for continuous loads will be a significant waste of (metered) energy. then a drop of 40% or more will occur during start-up. 3. remain stationary due to insufficient torque to overcome the load torque) with consequent over-heating and eventual trip-out. Dangerous possible consequences for motors are: c a lightly-loaded "new" transformer and an "old" motor: risk of overvoltage on the motor.e. v or accelerate very slowly. maximum voltage-drop between the service-connection point and the point of utilization lighting other uses (heating and power) a low-voltage service connection from a LV 3% 5% public power distribution network consumers HV/LV substation supplied from 6% 8% a public distribution HV system table H1-26: maximum voltage-drop limits. voltage-drop calculations must take account of these changes. The rated voltage of consumer appliances will evolve in the same time-scale. H1-27: maximum voltage drop. determination of voltage drop H1 The impedance of circuit conductors is low but not negligible: when carrying load current there is a fall in voltage between the origin of the circuit and the load terminals. This section deals with methods of determining voltage drops. From now on.) depends on the voltage at its terminals being maintained at a value close to its rated value. etc.3.

21 lighting start-up cos ϕ = 0.2 0.25 0.15 K is given by the table.42 0.34 0.the protection of circuits .a.75 0.8 1.13 table H1-29: phase-to-phase voltage drop ∆U for a circuit.35" of table H1-29 may be used to compute the voltage drop occurring during the start-up period of a motor (see example (1) after the table H1-29).2 0.47 0.24 0.1 0.48 0.30 0.95 0.64 0.24 0.21 0.s.5 6. c of the type of cable.22 0.1 2. If: IB: the full load current in amps L: length of the cable in kilometres R: resistance of the cable conductor in Ω/km 22.31 0.24 0. single-phase or 3-phase. H1-18 .1 3.65 1 0. X: inductive reactance of a conductor in Ω/km Note: X is negligible for conductors of c.30 0. in terms of: c kinds of circuit use: motor circuits with cos ϕ close to 0. resistance and inductive reactance values are given by the manufacturer.52 0. Cu 1.16 0.6 0.s.8.55 0.8 cos ϕ = 0. determination of voltage drop (continued) H1 3.4 4.35 10.5 2.a. in mm2) Note: R is negligible above a c.15 0. generally: c lighting: cos ϕ = 1 c motor power: v at start-up: cos ϕ = 0.08 Ω/km.77 0.6 6.a. voltage drop (∆ U) in volts ∆U = 2 IB (R cos ϕ + X sin ϕ) L ∆U = 2 IB (R cos ϕ + X sin ϕ) L ∆U = eIB (R cos ϕ + X sin ϕ) L in % 100 ∆U Un 100 ∆U Vn 100 ∆U Un simplified table Calculations may be avoided by using the table H1-29 below. The column motor power cos ϕ = 0.29 0.17 0.26 0.7 1.56 0.2 7.39 0.6 5. the phase-to-phase voltage drop per km of cable per ampere.a.36 1. Voltage drop in a cable is then given by: K x IB x L c. in mm2 single-phase circuit motor power normal service cos ϕ = 0. with an adequate approximation.16 lighting cos ϕ = 1 25 15 9. ϕ: phase angle between voltage and current in the circuit considered.2 calculation of voltage drops in steady load conditions use of formulae The table below gives formulae commonly used to calculate voltage drop in a given circuit per kilometre of length.23 0.33 0.6 2.18 0.8 Un: phase-to-phase voltage.3 0. in mm2) 2 36 Ω.05 1 1.19 cos ϕ = 1 30 18 11.21 0.7 8 3.5 Ω. of 500 mm2.s.mm /km R= for aluminium S (c.47 0.5 2.4 9. In the absence of any other information.4 0. or lighting with a cos ϕ in the neighbourhood of unity.41 0.32 0.37 0.4 12 5.35 v in normal service: cos ϕ = 0.3 2.37 0. which gives.1 6. IB is the full-load current in amps.5 1.26 0.75 0.5 3.mm2/km R= for copper S (c.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 300 Al 10 16 25 35 50 70 120 150 185 240 300 400 500 balanced three-phase circuit motor power normal service start-up cos ϕ = 0.5 1.27 0.8 1. For prefabricated pre-wired ducts and bustrunking. less than 50 mm2. take X as being equal to 0.s.4 1. in volts per ampere per km.64 0.8 24 14.19 0.the switchgear .7 2.2 1.29 0.5 4.5 2. Vn: phase-to-neutral voltage.19 0.2 3. circuit single phase: phase/phase single phase: phase/neutral balanced 3-phase: 3 phases (with or without neutral) table H1-28: voltage-drop formulae. L is the length of cable in km.9 1.s.86 0.15 0.29 0.a.3.35 20 9.

s.the switchgear .75 % 400 This value is less than that authorized (8%) and is satisfactory. Supposing that the infeed to the distribution board during motor starting is 900 + 500 = 1.H1 examples: Example 1 (figure H1-30) A three-phase 35 mm2 copper cable 50 metres long supplies a 400 V motor taking: c 100 A at a cos ϕ = 0.8 on normal permanent load. 10 x 1400 = 14 V 1000 ∆U distribution board = 14 V ∆U for the motor cable = 13 V ∆U total = 13 + 14 = 27 V i. 50 m / 70 mm2 Cu IB = 150 A 20 m / 2. Example 2 A 3-phase 4-wire copper line of 70 mm2 c. e c voltage drop in any one of the lighting single-phase circuits: ∆U for a single-phase circuit = 18 x 20 x 0. 15 x 100 = 3.05 = 13 V Owing to the additional current taken by the motor when starting.35 during start-up.a. What is the voltage drop at the end of the lighting circuits? Solution: c voltage drop in the 4-wire line: ∆U % = 100 ∆U/Un Table H1-29 shows 0.125 V phase-to-phase which: 4. H1-31: example 2.e. the protection of circuits .2 + 2.05 = 5 V ∆U total = 10 + 5 = 15 V = i.38 = 9.000 A) is 10 V phase-to-phase.75 % 400 a value which is satisfactory during motor starting.52 x 500 x 0.55 x 150 x 0.02 = 7. The line supplies. c voltage drop during motor start-up: ∆U cable = 0. copper 20 m long. The voltage drop at the origin of the motor cable in normal circumstances (i. being less than the maximum permitted voltage drop of 6%. each of 2.s.e.e. i.e. ∆U line = 0.H1-19 . and a length of 50 m passes a current of 150 A.05 = 4.a.400 A then the volt-drop at the distribution board will increase approximately pro rata.5 mm2 c. 27 x 100 = 6.2 V The total volt-drop is therefore 7.38 V phase to neutral. H1-30: example 1. 1000 A 400 V 50 m / 35 mm2 Cu IB = 100 A (500 A during start-up) fig. the volt drop at the distribution board will exceed 10 Volts.6 V x 100 = 4. 3 single-phase lighting circuits. It is assumed that the currents in the 70 mm2 line are balanced and that the three lighting circuits are all connected to it at the same point. c 500 A (5 In) at a cos ϕ = 0.6 V 9. among other loads.2 % 230 V This value is satisfactory.55 V/A/km.125 V = 2. and each passing 20 A. with the distribution board of figure H1-30 distributing a total of 1.5 mm2 Cu IB = 20 A fig. What is the volt drop at the motor terminals: c in normal service? c during start-up? Solution: c voltage drop in normal service conditions: ∆U % = 100 ∆U/Un Table H1-29 shows 1 V/A/km so that: ∆U for the cable = 1 x 100 x 0.

this type of fault is the most severe.4 17.the switchgear .the protection of circuits .71 1.4 16.63 3.4 43.38 8. in the large majority of cases. 242/420 V at no load Usc = 4% In = 400 x 103 = 550 A ÷ ex 420 550 x 100 Isc = = 13. 4.75 kA 4 c in practice Isc is slightly less than that calculated by this method.5 22. Other factors which have not been taken into account are the impedance of the busbars and of the circuit breakers. H1-20 .8 11.4.93 9. Except in very unusual circumstances.4 21.c. in which case the values obtained from table H1-33 when added together will give a slightly higher fault-level value than would actually occur. Short-circuit currents occurring in a network supplied from an alternator and also in d.07 7. is sufficiently accurate for basic installation design purposes.5 10.63 5. U20 = phase-to-phase secondary volts on open circuit.. cables (thermal withstand rating).4 27. Isc1 Isc2 Isc3 Isc1 + Isc2 + Isc3 fig.5 26. the case of several transformers in parallel feeding a busbar The value of fault current on an outgoing circuit immediately downstream of the busbars (figure H1-34) can be estimated as the sum of the Isc from each transformer calculated separately.9 17.65 250 344 8.4.42 2.7 7.1 11.0 2500 3437 49.0 13. The simplified calculations and practical rules which follow give conservative results of sufficient accuracy.2 1250 1718 26.1 52. In = nominal current in amps Isc = short-circuit fault current in amps.45 3. or less.9 1000 1375 21.9 tables H1-33: Isc at the LV terminals of 3-phase HV/LV transformers supplied from a HV system with a 3-phase fault level of 500 MVA. A level of 250 MVA. A knowledge of 3-phase symmetrical shortcircuit current values (Isc) at strategic points of an installation is necessary in order to dimension switchgear (fault current rating).4 17. or 250 MVA.8 2000 2749 40.1 52. The choice of circuit breakers and incorporated protective devices against short-circuit fault currents is described in Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.49 5. Example: 400 kVA transformer. protective devices (discriminative trip settings) and so on. Usc = short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer in %. Typical values of Usc for distribution transformers are given in the table H1-32.1 34. is more common.5 1600 2199 33.9 14.3 transformer rating 50 to 630 800 to 2500 Usc in % type of transformer oil-immersed cast-resin 4% 6% 6% 6% table H1-32: typical values of Usc for different kVA ratings of transformers with HV windings i 20 kV. Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA 630 866 20.1 34.4 27.1 and 6.1 short-circuit current at the secondary terminals of a HV/LV distribution transformer the case of one transformer c as a first approximation the impedance of the HV system is assumed to be negligibly small.9 49.2 21.28 2.0 40.5 22.5 8.14 1.14 400 550 13.68 315 433 10.40 3. as shown in the following table (H1-33) since the HV system impedance is such that its fault level at the HV terminals of the transformer rarely exceeds 500 MVA. so that: In x 100 Isc = where Usc P x 103 and: In = eU20 P = kVA rating of the transformer. It is assumed that all transformers are supplied from the same HV network.04 500 687 16. for installation design purposes.4 43.2 13.1 800 1100 17.. systems are dealt with in Chapter J Sub-clauses 1. short-circuit current calculations H1 knowing the levels of 3-phase symmetrical short-circuit currents (Isc) at different points in an installation is an essential feature of its design.14 100 137 3.71 1. The conservative fault-current value obtained however.8 33. H1-34. In the following notes a 3-phase short-circuit of zero impedance (the so-called bolted short-circuit) fed through a typical HV/LV distribution transformer will be examined. transformer rated power (kVA) transformer current Ir (A) oil-immersed transformer Isc (kA) cast-resin transformer Isc (kA) 50 69 1.28 160 220 5.1. and is certainly the simplest to calculate.41 5.

H1-35: impedance diagram. from which an equivalent impedance can be deduced. The parameters R. ZT = total impedance per phase of the installation upstream of the fault location (in ohms). can. General methods for reducing impedances to a single equivalent impedance are given. The impedance (Z) for the combined sections concerned is then calculated from ZT = RT 2 + XT 2 Any two sections of the network which are connected in parallel. in Appendix H1. Where sections are connected in series in the network all the resistive elements in the section are added arithmetically. namely. the latter then being taken as the ohmic value for Za.s.m. cable. The method consists in dividing the network into convenient sections. Table H1-36 gives values for Ra and Xa corresponding to the most common HV* short-circuit levels in public power-supply networks. Ra may be taken to be equal to 0.the switchgear . Uo = phase-to-phase no-load LV voltage. expressed in kVA.H1-21 .15 Xa. and so on. however. expessed in milli-ohms.2 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation In a 3-phase installation Isc at any point is given by: Isc = U20 (amps) eZT U20 = phase-to-phase voltage of the opencircuited secondary windings of the powersupply transformer(s). expressed in volts. comprising an element of resistance (R) and an inductive reactance (X). 250 MVA and 500 MVA. predominantly both resistive (or both inductive) be combined to give a single equivalent resistance (or reactance) as follows: Let R1 and R2 be the two resistances connected in parallel. It may be noted that capacitive reactances are not important in short-circuit current calculations.). busbar.H1 4. circuit breaker.. method of calculating ZT Each component of an installation (HV network. Isc = 3-phase short-circuit current expressed in kA (r.053 Xa (mΩ) 0. if. A formula which makes this deduction and at the same time converts the impedance to an equivalent value at LV is given. * up to 36 kV Ra (mΩ) 0. transformer.s. R1 R2 X1 X2 or for reactances X3 = R1 + R2 X1 + X2 Combining two or more dissimilar circuits in parallel is (fortunately) seldom required in normal radial-type installation networks and will not be demonstrated in the main text. as follows Uo2 Zs = where: Psc Zs = impedance of the HV voltage network.. The upstream (HV) resistance Ra is generally found to be negligible compared with the corresponding Xa. and are related by the sides of a rightangled triangle.) is characterized by its impedance Z.106 0. R3 = determination of the impedance of the HV network c network upstream of the HV/LV transformer (table H1-36) The 3-phase short-circuit fault level in kA or in MVA* is given by the power supply authority concerned.m. then the equivalent resistance R3 wil be given by: Z X ϕ R fig.353 table H1-36: the impedance of the HV network referred to the LV side of the HV/LV transformer. X and Z are expressed in ohms. likewise for the reactances.). and to calculate the R and X values for each. the protection of circuits .71 0. to give RT and XT. Psc 250 MVA 500 MVA Uo (V) 420 420 Psc = HV 3-phase short-circuit fault level. as shown in the impedance diagram of figure H1-35. *Short-circuit MVA: eEL Isc where: EL = phase-to-phase nominal system voltage expressed in kV (r. If more accurate calculations are necessary.

2 6 0. c circuit conductors The resistance of a conductor is given by the formula: ρx L Rc = where S ρ = the resistivity constant of the conductor material at the normal operating temperature being: 22.9 10.8 table H1-37: resistance.1 141.2 41.6 14. The motors concerned will be the 3-phase motors only.4 105.3 2500 6 0. this fault-current contribution may be ignored.3 6 0.2 4. * and fuses c fault-arc resistance Short-circuit faults generally form an arc which has the properties of resistance. and each running motor will initially feed current into the fault at a level approaching its own starting current.9 13.5 mΩ. In the absence of other information. reactance and impedance values for typical distribution transformers with HV windings i 20 kV.096 mΩ/metre (for 60 Hz systems). Note: for circuit breaker fault-current makingduty however. * for 50 Hz systems. In = nominal full-load current in amps.6 20. The transformer windings resistance Rtr can be derived from the total losses as follows: Pcu = 3 In2 Rtr so that Rtr = Pcu x 103 3 In2 in milli-ohms where Pcu = total losses in watts. the contribution from motors is often reduced to very low values at the instant of contact separation.15 mΩ per CB. no account can be taken of diminution of fault current contribution. i. a running motor will act (for a brief period) as a generator.2 32. Pn = rating of the transformer (in kVA).3 1000 6 2.3 10.1 5. and amounts to approximately 0. This phenomenon will effectively ease the current-breaking duty of a CB. particularly in the case of large motors and/or numerous smaller motors.6 1250 6 1.0 44.4 1600 6 1.2 6 10. 3. but at low voltage this resistance is sufficient to reduce the fault-current to some extent. 4 or 5 In. but 0. S = c.4 16.7 21.9 10.9 59.a.9 4. Usc = the short-circuit impedance voltage of the transformer expressed in %.6 63.4. of conductor in mm2. the total contribution can be estimated from the formula: Iscm = 3.8 26.5 6.6 400 4 5.18 mΩ/metre length at 60 Hz. c busbars The resistance of busbars is generally negligible. Xtr = Ztr 2 − Rtr 2 For an approximate calculation Rtr may be ignored since X ≈ Z in standard distributiontype transformers. For prefabricated bus-trunking and similar pre-wired ducting systems.2 250 4 9. but affords no relief for its fault-current making duty.7 28. In general.2. H1-22 .2 5.s. so that the impedance is practically all reactive.2 transformer rated power oil-immersed transformer Usc Rtr Xtr Ztr cast-resin transformer Usc Rtr Xtr Ztr kVA % mΩ mΩ mΩ % mΩ mΩ mΩ 50 4 95.7 6 6.2 630 4 2.3 104.2 26.a.2 5.6 4.08 mΩ/metre may be used (for 50 Hz systems) or 0.1 6 4. c circuit breakers In LV circuits.0 42. a value of 0. for more precise calculation.1 100 4 37.1 4.9 13. However.5 100. but with lowinertia high-speed LV CBs* the value given in the above formula is recommended. For HV circuit breakers. and for that reason is frequently ignored.4 6 8. 800 6 2.3 10.mm2/m for aluminium. The resistance is not stable and its average value is low. of less than 50 mm2 reactance may be ignored.e.s.the protection of circuits .5 6 33.6 2000 6 1.0 13.5 6.9 21.6 33. is given by the formula: U22O Usc Ztr = x milli-ohms where: Pn 100 U2 o = open-circuit secondary phase-tophase voltage expressed in volts.mm2/m for copper. c motors At the instant of short-circuit. and feed current into the fault. the manufacturer should be consulted.8 160 4 16.3 22. Cable reactance values can be obtained from the manufacturers.5 500 4 3. single-phase-motor contribution being insignificant. while the resistance is neglected.8 5.the switchgear .6 13.5 In from each motor i.4 315 4 6.5 66.1 6 18.5 6 1. viewed from the LV terminals.2 6 2. The reactance value conventionally assumed is 0.15 mΩ/metre* length for LV busbars (doubling the spacing between the bars increases the reactance by about 10% only).3 8.1 16. short-circuit current calculations (continued) H1 4.5 70. the impedance of circuit breakers upstream of the fault location must be taken into account.7 41.6 6 1. For c.2 6 3.5 m In for m similar motors operating concurrently.e.8 8. Rtr = resistance of one phase of the transformer in milli-ohms (the LV and corresponding HV winding for one LV phase are included in this resistance value).4 6.1 6.9 12.8 11.4 10. Experience has shown that a reduction of the order of 20% may be expected.1 25. 36 mΩ.9 17.5 8.5 16.6 6 1.3 8. 3-phase short-circuit current (Isc) at any point within a LV installation (continued) c transformers (table H1-37) The impedance Ztr of a transformer.

U20: phase-to-phase no-load secondary voltage of HV/LV transformer (in volts).000 kVA HV/LV transformer. then divide the resistance of one conductor by the number of conductors.2 "motors" (often negligible at LV)) U2o Isc = 2 2 3 RT + XT Xa ≈ Za = reactance X in milli-ohms U22 0 Psc circuit breaker busbars Ztr 2 − Rtr 2 U2 Usc avec Ztr = 2 0 x Pn 100 XD = 0.H1-23 .08 Rc = 22.5 milli-ohms x mm2/metre for copper ρ = 36 milli-ohms x mm2/metre for aluminium.35 10.3 kA main RD = 0 XD = 0. Methodology).08 x 5 2.5).H1 recapitulation table system elements considered supply network table H1-33 transformer table H1-34 resistance R in milli-ohms Ra ≈ 0.5 x 100 100 m 95 95 mm2 copper = 23.2 20.68 =8 26. it is possible to make a detailled calculation (see Sub-Clause 4. Pcu: 3-phase total losses of the HV/LV transformer (in watts).5 2. * a Merlin Gerin product (see Chapter B.24 kA three-core cable Xc = 20 x 0. It is then sufficient to select a circuit breaker with an appropriate short-circuit fault rating immediately above that indicated in the tables. Pn: rating of the HV/LV transformer (in kVA). XT (mΩ) Isc = 3 420 2 2 RT + XT HV network 0. the protection of circuits .6 kA 10 m three-core cable Xc = 100 x 0.75 Isc2 = 18. R (mΩ) X (mΩ) RT (mΩ) RT : total resistance. moreover. The reactance remains practically unchanged.3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc at its sending end The following tables. 4. in which the use of a currentlimiting circuit breaker at the upstream position would allow all circuit breakers downstream of the limiter to have a shortcircuit-current rating much lower than would otherwise be necessary (see Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. the possibility of using the cascading technique should be considered.523 11.34 20 kV/420 V Pn = 1000 kVA Usc = 6% Pcu = 13.1 Rc = 22.12 = 0.15 circuit breaker busbars RB = 0 XB = 1.the switchgear .3 x 103 watts single-core cables Xc = 0.35 Isc4 = 3. (2) If there are several conductors in parallel per phase.08 mΩ/m table H1-38: recapitulation table of impedances for different parts of a power-supply system.2 above) or to use a software package.053 0.5 x 5 5 m copper 4 240 4 x 240 mm2/phase = 0.40 Isc1 = 21. In such a case. derived by the "method of composition" (mentioned in Chapter G Sub-clause 5.5 x 20 20 m 10 10 mm2 copper = 45 = 1.523 12. and the point at which the level is to be determined. Psc: 3-phase short-circuit power at HV terminals of the HV/LV transformers (in kVA).15 Xa R can therefore be neglected in comparison with X 3 Rtr = Pcu x 10 3In2 Rtr = is often negligible compared to Xtr for transformers > 100 kVA negligible negligible for S > 200 mm2 in the formula below: R = ρ L (1) S R = ρ L (1) S see Sub-clause 4. such as Ecodial*.75 Isc3 = 7. knowing: c the value of short-circuit current upstream of the point considered c the length and composition of the circuit between the point at which the short-circuit current level is known.08 Rc = 22.353 Psc = 500 MVA transformer 2. Usc: short-circuit impedance voltage of the HV/LV transfomer (in %). XT: total reactance (1) ρ = resistivity at normal temperature of conductors in service ρ = 22.2 22.6 71.24 kA final circuits table H1-39: example of short-circuit current calculations for a LV installation supplied at 400 V (nominal) from a 1. Clause 1.15 mΩ/m circuit conductors (2) motors three-phase short-circuit current in kA M cables : Xc = 0. If more precise values are required.15 mΩ/pole XB = 0.2) give a rapid and sufficiently accurate value of short-circuit current at a point in a network.

3 2.9 1.5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3.8 2.6 5 10 13 15 21 26 50 100 130 150 210 260 3 x 185 1.7 1.5 8 17 32 40 47 65 80 160 150 0.5 10 14 17 34 25 1 1.4 1.9 3.5 4.2 2.7 3.9 2.5 7 4 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 14 11 10 9 7.5 1.7 3.6 3 6.5 8 9.5 15 19 23 30 38 75 150 190 230 300 380 table H1-40: Isc at a point downstream.5 1.5 2.5 11 14 17 22 28 55 110 140 170 220 280 2 x 185 2 2.8 2 2.8 1.8 5.1 1.9 1 1.5 5.5 9.4 1.5 13 25 32 38 50 65 130 120 0.1 8 10 12 16 20 41 80 100 120 160 200 2 x 240 1. of the intervening conductors.5 6.5 1.7 1.5 4.5 2.8 2.5 13 16 0.2 1.4 3 4 8 10 1.2 1.3 1.the protection of circuits .3 2.1 2.5 7 9 10 14 17 35 70 85 100 140 170 2 x 185 1.8 1 1.1 2.732 copper 230 V / 400 V H1-24 .5 1 1.5 4 7.5 10 13 25 50 65 75 100 130 250 300 0.5 9 18 23 28 37 46 90 95 1.6 3 4 1 1.5 4 8.5 70 67 67 66 66 65 61 55 52 49 45 41 29 18 16 14 11 5 4.5 8 4.2 3 3.9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.5 3 3.6 5 4 0.5 15 30 37 44 60 75 150 95 0.5 13 16 32 65 80 95 130 160 320 240 1.7 2.3 2.5 8.8 1 1.2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2. in terms of a known upstream fault-current value and the length and c.5 6 5.7 2.3 1.1 2.5 30 30 29 29 29 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 19 14 12 11 9 7.9 1 2 4 5 6 8 10 20 40 50 60 80 100 200 120 0.9 1 2 4 5 6 8 10 20 40 50 60 80 100 240 240 0.7 3.1 4 5.7 1.3 1.5 6.1 1.5 3.8 2 2.5 40 39 39 39 39 39 37 35 33 32 30 29 22 15 13 12 9.9 2.9 1 1.5 15 19 22 30 37 75 50 1.9 2.5 4 2.a.9 3.5 3.5 6.5 20 24 29 39 49 95 190 240 290 390 Isc upstream Isc downstream (in kA) (in Ka) 100 94 94 93 92 91 83 71 67 63 56 50 33 20 17 14 11 9 5 90 85 85 84 83 83 76 66 62 58 52 47 32 20 16 14 11 9 4.5 4.3 1.1 2.3 1.7 1.4 4.5 3 3 2.6 3 2.1 2.9 1.5 11 21 16 0.6 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.5 8 9.8 1 1.7 3 3.5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6.5 1.8 1.5 5 3.6 3.5 8.9 0.9 1.5 5.9 1.4 2.8 2 4.5 5 10 13 15 20 25 50 100 130 150 200 250 3 x 120 1.5 13 16 32 65 80 95 130 160 320 2 x 150 1 1.3 4.8 aluminium c.5 3.6 2 2.5 9.8 1 1.8 1.5 3 4 5 6.5 4 7.3 2.5 6.5 5 9.4.5 5 5 4.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 0.3 2.7 3 4 4.1 2.4 2.9 0.1 1.5 13 10 0.6 2.3 2.5 9 12 15 30 60 75 90 120 150 300 2 x 120 0.6 1.3 Isc at the receiving end of a feeder in terms of the Isc at its sending end (continued) c.7 5.6 3 6.5 3.5 4 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 14 14 13 13 12 9.5 9.5 7.9 1.5 35 34 34 34 34 34 33 31 30 29 27 26 21 15 13 11 9 8 4.5 10 13 17 33 35 0.4 1.6 3.7 1.5 6.5 9 8.5 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 23 22 22 21 20 17 13 11 10 8.9 0.a.1 2.7 2 2.6 5 6 0.3 1. of length of circuit (in metres) phase conductors (in mm2) 1.5 6.5 60 58 58 57 57 57 54 48 46 44 41 38 27 18 15 13 10 8.5 4 5.5 6. Note: for a 3-phase system having 230 V between phases.5 6 1.5 7.4 2.6 2.4 5 9.s.5 11 21 25 0. in a 230/400 V 3-phase system.5 0.3 2.5 3 6 7.5 11 21 27 32 40 55 110 70 1.5 9 12 14 18 23 46 50 1.1 1.4 1.9 2.5 80 76 76 75 75 74 69 61 57 54 49 44 31 19 16 14 11 9 4.5 9.8 1. of length of circuit (in metres) 230 V / phase 400 V conductors (in mm2) 2.5 8 7 6 4 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9.7 3 3.5 4.5 2.5 8.1 1.2 1.8 1. divide the above lengths by e= 1.3 2.4 1.4 1.5 13 16 20 26 33 65 130 160 200 260 330 3 x 120 2.1 2.9 2.5 12 15 19 24 49 95 120 150 190 240 2 x 120 1.5 6 7.6 2.5 4.2 2.5 50 49 48 48 48 48 46 42 40 39 36 33 25 17 14 13 10 8.5 6.1 2.9 2.8 2.4 1.5 13 17 20 26 33 65 70 0.5 6.1 2.7 3 4 5.5 1.8 3.5 17 34 43 50 70 85 170 185 0.9 3.3 2.5 7 8 11 14 27 55 70 80 110 140 270 185 1 1.5 10 13 25 50 65 75 100 130 250 150 0.5 3 4 5 6.8 1.1 4 5.5 2.5 7.s.4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.6 2.5 7 8.8 2.6 5 10 13 16 21 26 50 35 1.9 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4.8 1.5 5 7 8.5 6.5 7 6.9 1 1.2 1.5 1.7 3 6 12 15 18 24 30 60 120 150 180 240 300 3 x 240 2.5 4 8 16 21 25 33 41 80 160 210 250 330 410 3 x 185 2.5 4 4 4 3. short-circuit current calculations (continued) H1 4.3 1.5 6.5 5 6.8 2.3 1.2 1.8 2 4 8 10 12 16 20 40 80 100 120 160 200 400 300 1.7 3.9 2.5 1.5 4.a.5 4 4.s.the switchgear .6 2.9 1 1.9 1.3 1.3 2.3 2.5 15 19 23 30 38 75 150 190 230 300 380 3 x 150 2.1 10 13 15 20 25 50 100 130 150 200 250 2 x 150 1.5 8.5 5 6.5 3.5 12 14 19 24 48 95 120 140 190 240 3 x 150 1.

Descend vertically the column in which the length is located.a.s.the switchgear . of the conductor in the column for copper conductors (in this example the c. a DIN-rail-mounted circuit breaker rated at 63 A and Isc of 50 kA (such as a NC100LH unit*) can be used for the 55 A circuit in figure H1-41. is 50 mm2). 4.s.H1-25 . The procedure for aluminium conductors is similar.a.4 short-circuit current supplied by an alternator or an inverter Please refer to Chapter J. A Compact* rated at 260 A with an Isc capacity of 25 kA (such as a NS160N unit*) can be used to protect the 160 A circuit.H1 Example: The network shown in figure H1-41 typifies a case for the application of table H1-40. the protection of circuits . In this case 30 kA is the nearest to 28 kA on the high side. The value of short-circuit current at the downstream end of the 11 metre circuit is given at the intersection of the vertical column in which the length is located. This value in the example is seen to be 19 kA. and the horizontal row corresponding to the upstream Isc (or nearest to it on the high side). Cu 11 m Icc = ? IB = 55 A IB = 160 A fig. Select the c. H1-41: determination of downstream short-circuit current level Isc using table H1-40. 400 V Icc = 28 kA 50 mm2. but the vertical column must be ascended into the middle section of the table. Search along the row corresponding to 50 mm2 for the length of conductor equal to that of the circuit concerned (or the nearest possible on the low side). In consequence. and stop at a row in the middle section (of the 3 sections of the table) corresponding to the known fault-current level (or the nearest to it on the high side). * Merlin Gerin product.

it is essential that it will operate with certainty at the lowest possible level of short-circuit current that can occur on the circuit. and is generally used on circuits of prefabricated bustrunking.the protection of circuits . As shown in figures H1-42 and H1-43. examples of such arrangements Figures H1-42 to H1-44 show some common arrangements where overload and shortcircuit protections are effected by separate devices. etc. a single protective device protects against all levels of current. circuit breaker D S1 S2 < S1 load with incorporated overload protection fig. aM fuses (no protection against overload) load-breaking contactor with thermal overload relay fig. lighting rails. In certain cases. however.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current if a protective device in a circuit is intended only to protect against short-circuit faults. on LV circuits. from the overload threshold through the maximum rated short-circuit current-breaking capability of the device. overload protective devices and separate short-circuit protective devices are used. particular cases of short-circuit current H1 5. circuit breaker with instantaneous magnetic short-circuit protective relay only load-breaking contactor with thermal overload relay fig. H1-42: circuit protected by aM fuses. In general. H1-44: circuit breaker D provides protection against short-circuit faults as far as and including the load. Figure H1-44 constitutes a derogation in the basic protection rules. H1-43: circuit protected by circuit breaker without thermal overload relay. H1-26 .the switchgear .5. the most common circuits using separate devices control and protect motors.

where: Zd = impedance of the fault loop Isc = short-circuit current (ph/ph) U = phase-to-phase nominal voltage.8 U Sph Lmax = 2 ρ Im with: U = 400 V ρ = 1.earthed schemes for single and double earth faults.926 Sph Lmax = Im * or for aluminium according to conductor material ** the high value for resistivity is due to the elevated temperature of the conductor when passing short-circuit current.8 x U x Sph 2 x ρ x Im practical method of calculating Lmax The limiting effect of the impedance of long circuit conductors on the value of short-circuit currents must be checked and the length of a circuit must be restricted accordingly. For cables i 120 mm2. The method of calculating the maximum permitted length has already been demonstrated in TN. L load P 0. where: K2 S2 tc = (tc < 5 seconds) Isc (min) Comparison of the tripping or fusing performance curve of protective devices. H1-47: protection by gl-type fuses. with the limit curves of thermal constraint for a conductor shows that this condition is satisfied if: c Isc (min) > Im (instantaneous or short timedelay circuit-breaker trip setting current level). The value of the current Ia corresponds to the crossing point of the fuse curve and the cable thermal withstand curve (figures H1-46 and H1-47). H1-46: protection by aM-type fuses. c elimination of the minimum short-circuit current possible in the circuit. H1-45: protection by circuit breaker.018 = 0.8 U u ρ or Sph 0. so that 0. respectively (see Chapter G Sub-clauses 5.a. the voltage at the point of protection P is assumed to be 80% of the nominal voltage during a shortcircuit fault. of a phase conductor in mm2 L = length in metres In order that the cable will not be damaged by heat Isc u Im 2L Im 0. t t= k2 S2 I2 Ia I fig. See figure H1-45. in practice this means that the length of circuit downstream of the protective device must not exceed a calculated maximum length: Lmax = 0. where ρ = resistivity of copper* at the average temperature during a short-circuit.and IT. Two cases are considered below: 1. t t= k2 S2 I2 Ia I fig. 5.2). so that 2L Zd = ρ Sph the protection of circuits . and Sph : c.the switchgear .8 U i f Using the "conventional method".mm2/m**.2 and 6. conditions to be respected The protective device must therefore satisfy the two following conditions: c its fault-current breaking rating > Isc the 3-phase short-circuit current at its point of installation. Im = magnetic trip current setting for the CB Lmax = maximum circuit length in metres. c Isc (min) > Ia for protection by fuses.s.H1 it is necessary that the protective device instantaneous-trip setting c Im < Isc (min) for protection by a circuit breaker. in a time tc compatible with the thermal constraints of the circuit conductors. or fusion current c Ia < Isc (min) for protection by fuses.8 U = Isc Zd.H1-27 . reactance may be neglected. t t= k2 S2 I2 Im I fig. calculation of Lmax for a 3-phase 3-wire circuit The minimum short-circuit current will occur when two phase wires are short circuited at the remote end of the circuit.027 Ω.5 x 0.

In other cases. previously noted in Chapter G Sub-clause 5.5 2.s.s.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current (continued) 2. particular cases of short-circuit current (continued) H1 5. tabulated values for Lmax Table H1-49 below gives maximum circuit lengths (Lmax) in metres. without neutral) and c 1-phase 2-wire 400 V circuits.a. At 60Hz the constant is 0. without neutral.5.the switchgear .2 (i.08mΩ/metre for cables (at 50 Hz).'s than those listed. 240 592 462 370 296 235 185 147 118 H1-28 . for: c 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuits (i. 120%). Irm is guaranteed to be within ± 20% of the regulated value. The calculations are based on the foregoing methods. A calculation similar to that of example 1 above is required.a. reactance values must be combined with those of resistance to give an impedance. Suitable values (taken from French standard NF 15-100) are as follows: 150 mm2 : R + 15% 185 mm2 : R + 20% 240 mm2 : R + 25% 300 mm2 : R + 30% where R is the value calculated from ρ 2L R= Sph For larger c. Reactance may be taken as 0.e.842 Sph Sph Lmax = where m = (1+m) Im Sn (1) for larger c. hence the worst-case factor of 1.421 Im c If Sn for the neutral conductor < Sph.096 mΩ/metre. the lengths must be multiplied by 0. calculation of Lmax for a 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V circuit The minimum Isc will occur when the shortcircuit is between a phase conductor and the neutral. operating current c. Refer to Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 50 148 246 394 63 117 195 313 470 80 92 154 246 370 100 74 123 197 296 493 125 59 99 158 237 395 160 46 77 123 185 308 494 200 37 62 99 148 247 395 250 30 49 79 118 197 316 494 320 23 38 62 92 154 247 386 400 18 31 49 74 123 197 308 432 500 15 25 39 59 99 158 247 345 494 560 13 22 35 53 88 141 220 308 441 630 12 19 31 47 78 125 196 274 392 700 11 18 28 42 70 113 176 247 353 494 800 9 15 25 37 61 98 154 215 308 432 875 8 14 22 34 56 90 141 197 282 395 1000 7 12 20 30 49 79 123 173 247 345 469 1120 6 11 17 26 44 70 110 154 220 308 419 1250 6 10 16 24 39 63 99 138 197 276 375 474 1600 7 12 18 31 49 77 108 154 216 293 370 532 2000 6 10 15 24 39 62 86 123 173 234 296 425 570 2500 8 12 20 31 49 69 99 138 188 237 340 438 3200 6 9 15 25 38 54 77 108 146 185 265 340 4000 7 12 20 31 43 62 86 117 148 212 273 5000 6 10 16 25 34 49 69 94 118 170 218 6300 8 12 20 27 39 55 74 94 134 175 8000 6 10 15 21 31 43 59 74 105 136 10000 8 12 17 25 35 47 59 85 109 12500 6 10 14 20 28 37 47 67 87 table H1-49: maximum circuit lengths in metres for copper conductors (for aluminium. apply correction factors (given in table H1-53) to the lengths obtained.e.a. but using the following formulae (for cable i 120 mm2 (1)).2 for details of regulation of circuit-breaker protective elements. the resistance calculated for the conductors must be increased to account for the non-uniform current density in the conductor (due to "skin" and "proximity" effects. then 6.2 Irm Irm = regulated short-circuit current trip setting. c where Sn for the neutral conductor = Sph for the phase conductor Sph Lmax = 3.'s.62).the protection of circuits . protected by general-purpose circuit breakers. (nominal cross-sectional-area) of conductors (in mm2) level Im of the instantaneous magnetic tripping element (in A) 1.2). with Im = 1.s.

Note: IEC 898 provides for an upper shortcircuit-current tripping range of 10-50 In for type D circuit breakers. rated current cross-sectional-area (c. again. are based on a range of 10-20 In. Categories B.2 Irm as previously noted.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 6 105 176 283 423 706 1129 10 63 105 170 254 423 639 1058 13 48 81 130 195 325 521 814 1140 16 40 65 105 158 264 422 661 925 1255 20 32 52 84 126 211 337 528 740 1004 25 25 41 67 101 169 270 423 592 803 32 20 32 52 79 132 211 330 462 627 40 16 26 42 63 105 168 264 370 502 50 12 20 33 50 84 135 211 296 401 63 10 16 26 40 67 107 167 234 318 80 8 13 21 31 52 84 132 185 251 100 6 10 16 25 42 67 105 148 200 125 5 8 13 20 33 54 84 118 160 table H1-52: maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by D-type circuit breakers (Merlin Gerin).H1 Tables H1-50 to H1-52 below give maximum circuit length (Lmax) in metres for: c 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuits (i. rated current cross-sectional-area (c.a.e. the protection of circuits .5 2. In other cases.5 2. a range which covers the vast majority of domestic and similar installations.) of conductors (in mm2) of circuit breakers (in A) 1.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 6 148 247 395 593 988 10 89 148 237 356 593 948 13 68 114 182 274 456 729 16 56 93 148 222 370 593 926 20 44 74 119 178 296 474 741 25 36 59 95 142 237 379 593 830 32 28 46 74 111 185 296 463 648 880 40 22 37 59 89 148 237 370 519 704 50 18 30 47 71 119 190 296 415 563 63 14 24 38 56 94 150 235 329 446 80 11 19 30 44 74 119 185 259 351 100 9 15 24 36 59 95 148 207 281 125 7 12 19 28 47 76 119 166 225 table H1-51: maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by C-type circuit breakers. These circuit breakers have fixed overload (thermal) tripping elements and fixed shortcircuit (magnetic) tripping elements.s.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 6 296 494 790 10 178 296 474 711 13 137 228 385 547 912 16 111 185 296 444 741 20 89 148 237 356 593 948 25 71 119 190 284 474 759 32 56 93 148 222 370 593 926 40 44 74 119 178 296 474 741 50 36 59 95 142 237 379 593 830 63 28 47 75 113 188 301 470 658 854 80 22 37 59 89 148 237 370 519 704 100 18 30 47 71 119 190 296 415 563 125 14 24 38 57 95 152 237 331 450 table H1-50: maximum length of copper-conductored circuits in metres protected by B-type circuit breakers. without neutral) and c 1-phase 2-wire 400 V circuits.s. with Im = 1.the switchgear . without neutral. European standards.s.H1-29 . and the above table H1-52 however. apply correction factors to the lengths indicated.a. rated current cross-sectional-area (c. The calculations are carried out according to the method described above. These factors are given in table H1-53. IEC 898 is the relevant international standard for these circuit breakers.5 2. C and D differ only in the levels of short-circuit-current trip setting Im.) of conductors (in mm2) of circuit breakers (in A) 1. protected in both cases by domestic-type circuit breakers or with circuit breakers having similar tripping/current characteristics. See also table H2-28 for tripping ranges.a.) of conductors (in mm2) of circuit breakers (in A) 1.

provided that its length does not exceed 296 metres. the row Im = 2. with neutral) Sph =1 S neutral 1 0. Example 2 In a single-phase 230 V (phase to neutral) system. in the worst case would require 2. examples Example 1 In a 3-phase 3-wire installation the protection is provided by a 250 A industrial-type circuit breaker. a correction factor from table H1-53 must be applied.s. particular cases of short-circuit current (continued) H1 5. (1) 0.a.the protection of circuits .2 = 2. = 120 mm2 at the value for Lmax of 296 m.e. provided that its length does not exceed 99 x 0. = 10 mm2 at the value for Lmax of 99 m.400 A to trip.a.a.the switchgear . Being a 230 V single-phase circuit. i.1 calculation of minimum levels of short-circuit current (continued) circuit details 3-phase 3-wire 400 V circuit 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V circuit or 1 ph 2-wire 400V circuit (no neutral) or 2 ph 3-wire 230/400 V circuit (i. the instantaneous short-circuitcurrent trip setting of which.s.5. The circuit breaker protects the cable against short-circuit faults.a. the protection is provided by a circuit breaker with an instantaneous short-circuitcurrent trip setting of 500 A (± 20%). of the neutral conductor. The circuit breaker will therefore protect the cable against short-circuit current. The cable c. H1-30 .s.39 (1) Sph =2 S neutral 1-phase 2-wire 0.000 A (accuracy of ± 20%). The cable c.s.000 A crosses the column c. i. This factor is seen to be 0.58 (phase and neutral) 230 V circuit table H1-53: correction factors to apply to lengths obtained from tables H1-49 to H1-52.s.58.77 for the c. In table H1-49. In table H1-49 the row Im = 500 A crosses the column c.000 x 1.58 = 57 metres.e.e.58 0. = 10 mm2 and the conductor material is copper.a. = 120 mm2 and the conductor material is copper. therefore. is set at 2. a worst case of 600 A to be certain of tripping.

the protection of circuits .0460 2. allowed to pass by the protecting circuit-breaker (from manufacturers catalogues) is less than that permitted for the particular conductor (as given in table H1-55 below).0199 0.s.0826 0. the relationship I2t = k2 S2 characterizes the time in seconds during which a conductor of c. some heat would leave the conductor and pass into the insulation.0552 0.4761 0. S (mm2) The factor k2 is given in table H1-54 below. insulation conductor conductor copper (Cu) aluminium (Al) PVC 13225 5776 PR 20449 8836 table H1-54: value of the constant k2. The method of verification consists in checking that the thermal energy I2t per ohm of conductor material.133 table H1-55: maximum allowable thermal stress for cables (expressed in amperes2 x seconds x 106). and amounts to 0.032 46.5776 2.e. since in practice.3181 0.a.1278 4 0.a. it is necessary to verify that the electrodynamic withstand performance when carrying short-circuit currents is satisfactory. are installed close to. The peak value of current.0450 16 3.0500 50 29.2079 0. the main general distribution board. a higher conductor temperature than that which would actually occur. S (in mm2) can be allowed to carry a current I amps.s.0924 0. Tables of coordination ensuring adequate protection of their products are generally published by the manufacturers of such systems.7362 10 1. as given in the manufacturer's catalogue. i.2 verification of the withstand capabilities of cables under short-circuit conditions in general verification of the thermal-withstand capability of a cable is not necessary.3856 1.6100 12.5 0. is considerably less.a.1414 0.8836 2.2620 5. limited by the circuit breaker or fuse.3272 x 106. before its temperature reaches a level which would damage the surrounding insulation. except in cases where cables of small c. The cable is therefore adequately protected by the circuit breaker up to its full rated breaking capability.8241 19.094 x 106 ampere2-seconds. must be less than that for which the pre-conductored system is rated. thermal constraints When the duration of short-circuit current is brief (several tenths of a second up to five seconds maximum) all of the heat produced is assumed to remain in the conductor. Example: Is a copper-cored XLPE cable of 4 mm2 c. or feeding directly from.2116 0.H1 5. aluminium 94 8836 0.s. PVC XLPE copper aluminium copper k 115 76 143 k2 13225 5776 20449 1.2656 3.5225 10. an assumption that simplifies the calculation and gives a pessimistic result.2350 25 8.3272 6 0. adequately protected by a C60N circuit breaker (Merlin Gerin)? The above table shows that the I2t value for the cable is 0.839 13.0130 0. etc.3225 0. For a period of 5 seconds or less. while the maximum "let-through" value by the circuit breaker.0756 25.0297 0.H1-31 .936 electrodynamic constraints For bus-trunking and other kinds of prefabricated pre-conductored channels. and is abstracted from the French standards NF C 15-100.2006 7.4786 5.0361 0. rails.7806 35 16. causing its temperature to rise.5 0. The heating process is said to be adiabatic.the switchgear .

Downstream of the point of separation. in parallel. H1-32 . The main earthing terminal is connected to the earthing electrode (see Chapter F) by the earthing conductor (grounding electrode conductor in USA).e. P. TT scheme The PE conductor need not necessarily be installed in close proximity to the live conductors of the corresponding circuit. no PE conductor can be connected to the neutral conductor. removable links. so that all rules governing PE conductors apply strictly to PEN conductors. in the same conduits. PE conductors must be: c insulated and coloured yellow and green (stripes). In IT and TN-earthed schemes it is strongly recommended that PE conductors should be installed in close proximity (i. referred to as a PEN conductor). as previously noted. not in series. i.the protection of circuits . choice and dimensioning of PE conductors (extracted from IEC standards and the French standard NF C 15-100) Protective (PE) conductors provide the bonding connection between all exposed and extraneous conductive parts of an installation. connection PE conductors must: c not include any means of breaking the continuity of the circuit (such as a switch. These conductors conduct fault current due to insulation failure (between a phase conductor and an exposed conductive part) to the earthed neutral of the source.the switchgear . protective earthing conductors (PE) H1 6. PEN PE N fig. c have an individual terminal on common earthing bars in distribution boards. A PEN conductor must always be connected directly to the earth terminal of an appliance. on the same cable tray. with a looped connection from the earth terminal to the neutral terminal of the appliance (figure H1-57).1 connection and choice connection. PEN fig. c TN-C scheme (the neutral and PE conductor are one and the same. etc.E. c be protected against mechanical and chemical damage.6. This arrangement ensures the minimum possible inductive reactance in the earth-fault currentcarrying circuits. H1-57: direct connection of the PEN conductor to the earth terminal of an appliance.e. since high values of earth-fault current are not needed to operate the RCD-type of protection used in TT installations. as shown in figure H1-56. H1-58: the TN-C-S scheme. H1-56: a poor connection in a series arrangement will leave all downstream appliances unprotected. must be installed as close by as possible to the corresponding live conductors of the circuit and no ferro-magnetic material must be interposed between them.) as the live cables of the related circuit. The protective function of a PEN conductor has priority. etc. PE correct PE incorrect fig. c TN-C to TN-S transition The PE conductor for the installlation is connected to the PEN terminal or bar (figure H1-58) generally at the origin of the installation. IT and TN schemes The PE or PEN conductor. c connect exposed conductive parts individually to the main PE conductor. to create the main equipotential bonding system. conductors are connected to the main earthing terminal of the installation.).

the metallic housing may be used as a PEN conductor.H1-33 . to ensure positive operation by instantaneous overcurrent tripping devices. in a TT scheme.a. The surest means of achieving a low loop impedance is to use a supplementary core in the same cable as the circuit conductors (or taking the same route as the circuit conductors).H1 types of materials Materials of the kinds mentioned below in table H1-59 can be used for PE conductors. the c. Measurements on the completed installation are the only practical means of assuring adequate protection for persons. 6. in parallel with the corresponding bar. for both PE or PEN conductors. cable-armouring tapes* or wires*. This table provides two methods of determining the appropriate c. 15 to 100 mm long (or the letters PE at less than 15 cm from each extremity). Thus.'s compared to those of the corresponding-circuit phase conductors. * forbidden in some countries only-universally allowed to be used for supplementary equipotential conductors. possible (4) table H1-59: choice of protective conductors (PE).s. The result is sometimes incompatible with the necessity in IT and TN schemes to minimize the impedance of the circuit earth-fault loop. * grounding electrode conductor.s. and also for the conductor to the earth electrode.g. NB: these elements must carry an indivual green/yellow striped visual indication. ladders.a. of the PE conductor can be limited to 25 mm2 (for copper) or 35 mm2 (for aluminium). while being economical and assuring protection of the conductor against overheating.the switchgear . provided that the conditions mentioned in the last column are satisfied. (2) The PEN conductor is a neutral conductor that is also used as a protective earth conductor. (5) It must allow the connection of other PE conductors. For this reason an insulated conductor is recommended for PEN operation. for TT installations. type of protective earthing conductor (PE) supplementary in the same conductor cable as the phases. leads to small c. but not recomended. (6) These elements must be demountable only if other means have been provided to ensure uninterrupted continuity of protection. or other PE conductor in the housing. (7) With the agreement of the appropriate water authorities. the protection of circuits . conduits*. c simplified This method is based on PE conductor sizes being related to those of the correspondingcircuit phase conductors. and for dimensioning an earthing conductor*. (1) In schemes TN and IT. gas pipes. and so on… IT scheme strongly recommended TN scheme strongly recommended TT scheme correct conditions to be respected the PE conductor must be insulated to the same level as the phases c the PE conductor may be bare or insulated (2) c the electrical continuity must be assured by protection against deterioration by mechanical. assuming that the same conductor material is used in each case. are: metal conduits*. mineral. hot-water pipes. in table H1-60 for: Sph i 16 mm2 SPE = Sph 16 < Sph i 35 mm2 SPE = 16 mm2 Sph > 35 mm2 SPE = Sph/2 c note: when. the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone of influence of the source earthing electrode. trays. "pyrotenax" type systems) certain extraneous conductive elements (6) such as: c steel building structures c machine frames c water pipes (7) metallic cable ways. phase/PEN) to include in the calculation of the earth-fault loop impedance. since the impedance of the earth-fault loop cannot be known at the design stage.insulated conductors (e. chemical and electrochemical hazards c their conductance must be adequate possible (1) possible (1) (2) correct possible (3) possible (3) possible (4) PE possible (3) PEN (8) PE possible (3) PEN not recommended (2) (3) PE possible (4) PEN forbidden correct possible possible PE possible (4) possible PEN not recommended (2) (4) forbidden for use as PE conductors. therefore. ducts.a. This stratagem minimizes the inductive reactance and therefore the impedance of the loop.s. (8) In the prefabricated pre-wired trunking and similar elements. The two methods are: c adiabatic (which corresponds with that described in IEC 724) This method. This method is used in practice. or in the same cable run independent of the phase conductors metallic housing of bus-trunking or of other prefabricated prewired ducting (5) external sheath of extruded. (3) The manufacturer provides the necessary values of R and X components of the impedances (phase/PE. This means that a current may be flowing through it at any time (in the absence of an earth fault). such as. fault clearance is generally effected by overcurrent devices (fuses or circuit breakers) so that the impedance of the fault-current loop must be sufficiently low to assure positive protective device operation. (4) Possible. trunking.2 conductor dimensioning Table H1-60 below is based on the French national standard NF C 15-100 for LV installations.

values of factor k to be used in the formulae (2) These values are identical in several national standards. protection of the neutral conductor must be assured by the protective devices provided for phase-conductor protection (described in Sub-clause 7.a. of phase conductors Sph (mm2) Cu simplified i 16 method 25.a.s.s. 16/mm2 Alu damage: S = I √t (2) SPEN = Sph/2 à Sph (3) with k 2 2 minimum 16/mm Cu. cannot.5 mm2 if the PE is mechanically protected c 4 mm2 if the PE is not mechanically protected. Minimum 16 mm2 for copper or galvanized steel.s.a. the following minimum values must be respected: c 2. (1) When the PE conductor is separated from the circuit phase conductors. its c. c. be less than that necessary for the neutral.s.the switchgear .6. k values The data presented in table H1-61 are those most commonly needed for LV installation design. and the temperature rise ranges.the protection of circuits . of PE conductor Alu i 16 25 35 > 35 SPE = Sph (1) SPE = 16 SPE = Sph/2 SPE = I √t (1) (2) k c. table H1-60: minimum c. minimum of 25 mm2 for bare copper and 50 mm2 for bare galvanized steel. but protected against corrosion by impermeable cable sheath.35 > 35 adiabatic any size method c.'s for PE conductors and earthing conductors (to the installation earth electrode). 25/mm Alu c without mechanical protection. Furthermore.s. This c.s. together with factor k values and the upper temperature limits for the different classes of insulation. of earthing conductor between the installation earth electrode and the main earth terminal SPEN = Sph with minimum c when protected against mechanical 10/mm2 Cu. commonly used in national standards and complying with IEC 724.a.a. Moreover. in any case. protective earthing conductors (PE) (continued) H1 6.a. Since a PEN conductor functions also as a neutral conductor. H1-34 . nature of insulation polyvinylchloride (PVC) final temperature (°C) insulated conductors not incoporated in cables or bare conductors in contact with cable jackets copper aluminium steel conductors of a multi-core-cable copper aluminium 160 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C cross-linked-polyethylene (XLPE) ethylene-propylene-rubber (EPR) 250 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C 143 95 52 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C 115 76 176 116 64 initial temperature θ initial = 30 °C 143 94 table H1-61: k factor values for LV PE conductors. is equal to or larger than 10 mm2 (copper) or 16 mm2 (aluminium).s. of PEN conductor c the kVA rating of single-phase loads is less than 10% of the total kVA load. (3) According to the conditions prescribed in the introduction to this table. correspond with those published in IEC 724 (1984).a.1 of this Chapter. as discuss in Subclause 7. a PEN conductor is not allowed in a flexible cable. c without either of the above protections. and c Imax likely to pass through the neutral in normal circumstances.a. (2) Refer to table H1-55 for the application of this formula. cannot be less than that of the phase conductors unless: c. is less than the current permitted for the cable size selected.2 of this Chapter).2 conductor dimensioning (continued) The neutral cannot be used as a PEN conductor unless its c.s.

All phase and neutral conductors upstream of the main incoming circuit breaker controlling and protecting the MGDB are protected by devices at the HV side of the transformer.s.2 s 0. in general. – between two exposed conductive parts.the switchgear . shown in figure H1-62. If the HV protection is by fuses.2 s 0. 6. c the fault-current clearance time by the HV protective devices. if an overvoltage protection device is installed (between the transformer neutral point and earth) the conductors for connection of the device should also be dimensioned in the same way as that described above for PE conductors. particulary for indirect-contact protection schemes in TN. Other important uses for supplementary equipotential conductors concern the reduction of the earth-fault-loop impedance. the protection of circuits . c the kinds of insulation and conductor materials.s. ducting. Recommended conductor sizes for bare and insulated PE conductors from the transformer neutral point. etc.5 s 25 25 25 25 35 50 50 70 70 95 95 25 25 35 35 50 70 70 95 120 120 150 25 35 50 70 70 95 120 150 150 185 185 conductors conductors PVC-insulated XLPE-insulated 0.4 equipotential conductor The main equipotential conductor This conductor must. must be at least a half of that of the protective conductor to which it is connected.a.a. have a c. is 6 mm2 (copper) or 10 mm2 (aluminium). If it connects two exposed conductive parts (M1 and M2 in figure H1-64) its c. then use the 0.H1 6. if SPE1 i SPE2 if SLS = SPE1 SPE1 SLS SPE2 M1 M2 – between an exposed conductive part and a metallic structure S SLS = PE 2 SPE1 SLS metal structures (conduits. wherever possible.6 of this chapter (for circuit C1 of the system illustrated in fig.5 s 25 25 25 35 35 50 70 70 95 95 120 25 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 120 150 25 50 50 70 95 95 120 150 185 185 240 25 25 25 25 35 35 50 70 70 70 95 25 25 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 120 25 35 50 50 70 95 95 120 150 150 185 table H1-63: c. The conductors in question. must be at least equal to that of the smaller of the two PE conductors (for M1 and M2). but in no case need exceed 25 mm2 (copper) or 35 mm2 (aluminium) while its minimum c.5 s 0. In IT schemes. H1-62: PE conductor to the main earth bar in the MGDB.s. Dimensioning of the phase and neutral conductors from the transformer is exemplified in Sub-clause 1. in seconds. and in special locations with increased electrical risk (IEC 364-4-41 refers). at least equal to a half of that of the largest PE conductor.5 s 0.or IT-earthed installations.s. H1-64: supplementary equipotential conductors.H1-35 .5 s 0.s. in terms of transformer ratings and fault-clearance times used in France.2 s 0.2 seconds columns.5 mm2 for mechanically protected conductors .3 protective conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the main general distribution board (MGDB) these conductors must be dimensioned according to national practices. …) M1 (*) with a minimum of 2.a. of the conductors in mm2 according to: c the nominal rating of the HV/LV transformer(s) in kVA.a. The kVA rating to consider is the sum of all (if more than one) transformers connected to the MGDB.a. 4 mm2 for conductors not mechanically protected copper equivalent fig. girders. of PE conductors SPE (mm2) PE MGDB main earth bar for the LV installation fig. Its c.2 s 0. together with the PE conductor.2 s 0.a.2 s 0. of PE conductor between the HV/LV transformer and the MGDB.a. conductors bare 0. Equipotential conductors which are not incorporated in a cable. must be dimensioned accordingly.s.5 s 0. should be protected mechanically by conduits.s. The table indicates the c. Supplementary equipotential conductor This conductor allows an exposed conductive part which is remote from the nearest main equipotential conductor (PE conductor) to be connected to a local protective conductor. H1-8). P (kVA) LV voltages 127/ 230/ 220 V 400 V i 63 i 100 100 160 125 200 160 250 200 315 250 400 315 500 400 630 500 800 630 1000 800 1250 conductor material copper t(s) aluminium t(s) c. are indicated below in table H1-63.

TN-S and IT schemes c single-phase circuits or those of c. in accordance with the following Sub-clause H1-7. TN. * the 3rd and multiples of the 3rd harmonic. The table has been based on French national standards (NF C 15-100). Circuit breaking Table H1-65 is based on circuit breakers.a. or: . 7. it is not recommended to distribute the neutral conductor. but in practice. a 3-phase 3-wire scheme is preferred. i 16 mm2 (copper) 25 mm2 (aluminium): the c.the switchgear . of the neutral conductor must be equal to that of the phases. which in the event of a fault. as previously noted in Chapter F Sub-clause 2. the neutral conductor must not be open-circuited under any circumstances since it constitutes a PE as well as a neutral conductor (see table H160 "c. IT scheme In general. or: . in which the operation of one or more fuses provokes a mechanical trip-out of all poles of an associated series-connected load-break switch.2 protection of the neutral conductor Table H1-65 summarizes the several possible cases. will open all poles. namely: c the type of earthing system.the neutral conductor is protected against short-circuit. should be considered when referring to the table.the single-phase power of the circuit is less than 10% of the balanced 3-phase power of the circuit. of the neutral may be chosen to be: v equal to that of the phase conductors.s.s. > 16 mm2 copper or 25 mm2 aluminium: the c. c method of protection against indirectcontact hazards according to the methods described below.s. The action can only be achieved with fuses in an indirect way. When a 3-phase 4-wire installation is necesssary.s.s. H1-36 . This table can also be used for fuses able to emulate this omnipolar opening. must be possible only when the used cartridge has been replaced by a new one.e. however. The action is commonly caused by a strikerpin which is projected by means of an explosive cartridge (triggered by the blowing fuse) against the switch tripping mechanism. c three-phase circuits of c. the circuit breakers are omnipolar. TN-C scheme The same conditions apply in theory as those mentioned above. i. apart from its current-carrying requirement. Protection against electric shocks Table H1-65 takes into account the fact that protection against indirect-contact dangers depend either on 300 mA RCDs (TT system) or on circuit breakers (TN and IT systems). Reclosing of the switch however.a.a. The following points however..s. i. Circuit isolation It is considered to be good practice that every circuit be provided with the means for its isolation.a. or v smaller.a. on condition that: .7.2. depend on several factors.the current likely to flow through the neutral in normal conditions is less than the permitted value Iz. 7. The influence of triplen* harmonics must be given particular consideration.the protection of circuits . the conditions described above for TT and TN-S schemes are applicable. and the protection of the neutral conductor. including the neutral pole.e. TT.2. the neutral conductor H1 The c. of PEN conductor" column).a. etc.1 dimensioning the neutral conductor influence of the type of earthing system TT.

viz: if the circuit breaker controlling a number of homogeneous (i.H1-37 . of which the ratio of the extreme circuit ratings does not exceed 2. Refer to example 2 for CB 5.s. similar) final circuits.a.s.a. (B) authorized for TT and TN schemes if the neutral conductor is protected against shortcircuits by protective arrangements made for the phases. thermal magnetic Symbol for overcurrent and short-circuit tripping devices.e. of phase 3P-N Sn < Sph (B) (B) (C) table H1-65: table of protection schemes for neutral conductors in different earthing systems. the protection of circuits . and if the normal service current is substantially less than the maximum permissible for the neutral conductor concerned. (C) authorized for IT schemes in certain conditions.a.the switchgear . and which are protected against a second fault occurring elsewhere in the installation by a RCD of sensitivity i 15% of that of the calibration of the final circuit having the smallest c. (A) authorized for TT and TN schemes if a RCD is installed at the origin of the circuit or upstream of it.s. of neutral conductor Sph = c. and if no artificial neutral is distributed downstream of its location.H1 reminder: protection against indirect contact earthing systems TT by RCD TN-C provided by circuit breakers or fuses with Ia (fuses) or Im (CB) < Isc (min) TN-S according to the method of protection chosen IT provided by circuit breakers or fuses and one RCD at least for each group of appliances connected to an earth electrode (see figure G20) protected circuit 1-phase P-N phase/neutral (C) 1-phase phase/phase 2P (A) (A) 3-phase 3-wire 3P 3-phase 4-wire 3P-N Sn = Sph* (C) * Sn = c.

This arrangement is not recommended.1 TT and TN-S schemes) is not satisfied in this case.5 mm2 DPN 4 x 2. A reduced neutral c. the circuits protected by these CBs have a neutral conductor of 50% of the c. 230 V and 400 V.5 mm2 DPN 2 x 1.2 protection of the neutral conductor (continued) examples Example 1: (figure H1-66) 3-phase 4-wire circuit with 3 x 95 mm2 copper phase conductors and 1 x 50 mm2 copper neutral conductor. H1-38 .a. The circuit breakers will therefore be 4-pole units. be used. HS 300 mA NS160N 4-pole 4d 125 A 8 9 C60N 4-pole 4d 32 A 10 NS160N 3-pole 3d 125 A NS80HMA 12 11 contactor LC1 D63 thermal overload relay 3 x 16 mm2 NS160N 4-pole + MT100/160 3d 160 A diff. but it does provide two levels of voltage.5 mm2 2 x 1. provided that it is correctly protected. 400 kVA HV LV N 4-pole CB 3 . BS 10 A 4 x 6 mm2 N PE PE 4 x 50 mm2 4 x 6 mm2 3 x 50 mm2 4 x 70 mm2 DPN 2 x 2.the protection of circuits . 2 and 3 As in example 1.s. H1-66: example 1. A suitable circuit breaker for this purpose would be a 4-pole unit rated at 250 A with 3 trip units (1 for each phase) set at 250 A and 1 trip unit (for the neutral) set at 125 A. e.the switchgear 30 kW 58 A outdoor lighting . BS = low-sensitivity differential tripping fig.250 A trip units 1 .1 x 120 mm2 (neutral) PE PIM compact NS250N 4-pole 3d 250 A 1d 125 A PE PE compact NS400N 4-pole 3d 250 A 1d 125 A 3 x 120 mm2 +1 x 70 mm2 3 x 185 mm2 +1 x 95 mm2 NS100N 3-pole 3d 100 A 4 3 x 35 mm2 6 PE 5 NS100N 4-pole 32 A 300 mA PE 7 C60N 4-pole 4d 32 A diff. since 70/140 = 50%. The interposition of a LV/LV transformer in a 3-phase 3-wire IT scheme (as shown in figure H1-8) is a preferred method of obtaining the two levels of voltage. the neutral conductor may be earthed. (protected by 2-pole. Overcurrent tripping is provided on all outgoing CBs. Circuit breaker 1.e. H1-67: example 2.5 mm2 DPN DPN 3d = 3 tripping units 4d = 4 tripping units diff. Single-phase power of load: 70 kVA (connected phase-neutral). may however. a 3-phase 4-wire system in which the neutral is not earthed). and in such a case.s. but the 4-pole incoming CB (no 5) has only the (300 mA) RCD protection (mentioned in (C) of table H1-65) the magnetic core of which embraces all 4 conductors. It may be noted that circuit breaker 12 supplies a long lighting circuit.a. H1-67) An installation is IT-earthed with a distributed neutral (i.7. particularly for small or medium-sized installations. the neutral and phase conductors of which have the same c.g. Three-phase power of load: 140 kVA. HS = high-sensitivity differential tripping diff.s. 2 single-core cables 120 mm2 per phase . 1-phase and neutral CBs) are supplied. The installation is TT-earthed with RCD protection upstream. the neutral conductor H1 7. and controlling the busbars from which a number of similar final circuits. Circuit breaker 5 This arrangement corresponds with that described in (C) of table H1-65 concerning a circuit breaker connected directly to. The condition of single-phase power being < 10% of the 3-phase power delivered (Sub-clause 7.a.125 A 50 mm2 3 x 95 mm2 3-phase power 140 kVA 1-phase power 70 kVA 3-phase loads 1-phase loads fig. of the phase conductors. Example 2: (fig. The operation of any one (or more) of these tripping units will trip all four poles of the circuit breaker. with tripping devices similar to those mentioned in example 1. A 4-pole circuit breaker having 3 tripping devices is therefore suitable (1 device per phase).

a.e. Circuit breaker 6 The protection of a circuit supplying socket outlets. Circuit breaker 5 c.the switchgear . as mentioned frequently in earlier Chapters.s. Circuit breaker 9 Controls and protects an extensive lighting circuit. A 4-pole circuit breaker with 3 tripping devices (set at 160 A) for the phases.s.2). * Chapter G Sub-clause 5. regulated to trip instantaneously at a current level of 4 In L max = 0. Associated circuit breaker and contactor 8 This combination provides short-circuit protection (circuit breaker) and overload protection (thermal relays on contactor to suit motor characteristics). neutral = 50% c.25 factor in the denominator is a 25% increase in resistance for a 240 mm2 c.a.H1 Example 3: (figure H1-68) TN-C/TN-S installation Three-pole circuit breakers only must be used for nos. having 3 tripping devices (1 for each phase).a. neutral = c.2 Section of the installation which is TN-S connected (PE conductor and neutral conductor separated at a point upstream) Circuit breaker 4 c.8 x 230 x 240 x 103 22.s. H1-68: example 3. since no switchgear of any kind must be included in the combined protective and neutral conductor (PEN) associated with them. the protection of circuits . The total single-phase power of the load is less than 10% of the 3-phase power.25 + 2) x Ia The 1. t minimum pre-arcing time curve fuse-blown curve 4In x In fig. a 4-pole circuit breaker is suitable.a. Lmax = 208 metres.5 (1. while Ia = 630 x 4 x 1. and 1 tripping device for the neutral (set at 80 A) is required. as noted in (B) of table H1-65.15 where the factor 1. so that a tripping device for the neutral is required. the worst case.H1-39 . requiring the shortest Lmax).15 allows for the guaranteed ± 15% tolerance of the instantaneous magnetic tripping element of the circuit breaker (i. For a 630 A CB.a.s. must include a RCD of high sensitivity (generally of 30 mA). of the PEN conductor from the source (i. phase. so that a tripping device for the neutral current is not necessary. phase.a.a. The protection against indirect contact for this circuit (1) is provided by CB1 if the maximum length of the circuit is less than Lmax (see Chapter G Sub-clause 5. conductor*. circuit 1) may be half that of the phase conductors of the circuit.e. A 4-pole circuit breaker with one tripping device per phase is therefore appropriate.s. 3 and 7.s. 2. so that the c. 1. The circuit breaker has no thermal tripping devices. while the contactor has three (one for each phase).s. and since the phase and neutral conductors have the same c.

14%. 1. IEC 1008. Any person coming into contact with live metal risks an electric shock. G1: curve C1 (of IEC 479-1) defines the current-magnitude/time-duration limits which must not be exceeded. the protection of persons against electric shock in LV installations must be provided in conformity with appropriate national standards and statutory regulations.1 0. c indirect contact. official guides and circulars. IEC 1009 and IEC 947-2 appendix B. G3: indirect contact. IEC 755. official guides and circulars. IEC 1008. IEC 479-1. duration of current flow t Curve C1 (of figure G1) shows that when a current greater than 30 mA passes through a part of a human being. the parts of the body through which the current passes. electric shock An electric shock is the pathophysiological effect of an electric current through the human body. Its passage affects essentially the circulatory and respiratory functions and sometimes results in serious burns. the person concerned is in serious danger if the current is not interrupted in a very short time. The degree of danger for the victim is a function of the magnitude of the current. G2: direct contact. The protection of persons against electric shock in LV installations must be provided in conformity with appropriate national standards and statutory regulations. IEC 755. Is: touch current fig. G1). Relevant IEC standards include: IEC 364. Id: insulation fault current protection against electric shocks . codes of practice.2 A B C1 C2 C3 2 3 4 ∂ imperceptible ∑ perceptible ∏ reversible effects: muscular contraction π possibility of irreversible effects C1: no heart fibrillation C2: 5% probability of heart fibrillation C3: 50% probability of heart fibrillation 0. ms 10000 5000 2000 1000 500 1 200 100 50 20 10 0. insulation failure 1 2 3 PE conductor Id 1 2 3 N busbars Is Is fig. etc. IEC 479-1.1 electric shock when a current exceeding 30 mA passes through a part of a human body. and the duration of current flow. direct contact A direct contact refers to a person coming into contact with a conductor which is live in normal circumstances. in each of which the pathophysiological effects are described (fig.G1 . IEC Publication 479-1 defines four zones of current-magnitude/time-duration.5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 mA current passing through the body Is fig.1. IEC 1009 and IEC 947-2 appendix B. but has become alive accidentally (due to insulation failure or some other cause). the person concerned is likely to be killed. and corresponding protective measures. codes of practice. Relevant IEC standards include: IEC 364. general G 1. The point 500 ms/100 mA close to the curve C1 corresponds to a probability of heart fibrillation of the order of 0. unless the current is interrupted in a relatively short time. etc. indirect contact An indirect contact refers to a person coming into contact with a conductive part which is not normally alive.2 direct and indirect contact standards and regulations distinguish two kinds of dangerous contact: c direct contact.

or c after complete isolation of the live parts in the enclosure. in practice. since many components and materials are installed in cabinets. have access. an opening in an enclosure (door. c additional protection in the event that a direct contact occurs.1 measures of protection against direct contact IEC and national standards frequently distinguish between degrees of protection c complete (insulation. the first measure may not prove to be infallible.) must only be removable.2). or c with the automatic action of an intervening metal shutter. Two complementary measures are commonly employed as protection against the dangers of direct contact: c the physical prevention of contact with live parts by barriers. partial measures of protection Protection by means of obstacles. fig. To be considered as providing effective protection against direct-contact hazards. G5: example of direct-contact prevention by means of an earthed metal enclosure. etc. measures of complete protection Protection by the insulation of live parts This protection consists of an insulation which conforms to the relevant standards. removable only with a key or with tools. The metal enclosure and all metal shutters must be bonded to the protective earthing conductor for the installation. G2 . since. inaccessibility. lacquers and varnishes do not provide an adequate protection. etc. or otherwise authorized personnel only. etc. This protection is based on residual-current operated high-sensitivity fastacting relays. Paints. or by placing out of reach This practice concerns locations to which qualified. as described in Sub-clause G3. particular measures of protection Protection by the use of extra-low voltage SELV (Safety Extra Low Voltage) schemes This measure is used only in low-power circuits. opened or withdrawn: c by means of a key or tool provided for the purpose. control panels and distribution-board enclosures. these equipments must possess a degree of protection equal to at least IP2X or IPXXB (see Chapter F Sub-clause 7. insulation. G4: inherent direct-contact protection by the insulation of a 3-phase cable with outer sheath. Protection by means of barriers or enclosures This measure is in widespread use. despite the above measures. 2. which are highly effective in the majority of direct contact cases.2. panel. protection against direct contact G two measures of protection against direct-contact hazards are often imposed.protection against electric shocks . Moreover. pillars. fig.5. drawer. and in particular circumstances. enclosures) c partial or particular.

This additional protection is imposed in certain countries for circuits supplying socket outlets of ratings up to 32 A. such as a person. or death by electrocution. in which any difference between the current entering a circuit and that leaving it. and even higher if the location is wet and/or temporary (such as work-sites for example). and with sufficient rapidity to prevent permanent injury to.a situation in which insulation is no longer effective. Chapter L section 3 itemizes various common locations in which RCDs of high sensitivity are obligatory (in some countries). All the preceding protective measures are preventive. Among these reasons may be cited: c lack of proper maintenance. In order to protect users in such circumstances. but experience has shown that for various reasons they cannot be regarded as being infallible. c accidental contact. . Some national wiring regulations impose their use on all circuits supplying socket outlets. Standard residual-current devices. c immersion in water. referred to as RCDs. Other standard IEC ratings for high-sensitivity RCDs are 10 mA and 6 mA (generally used for individual appliance protection). fig.2 additional measure of protection against direct contact an additional measure of protection against the hazards of direct contact is provided by the use of residualcurrent operated devices. either through faulty insulation or through contact of an earthed object. of a normally healthy human being. These devices operate on the principle of differential current measurement. but in any case. c imprudence. installed in particular locations considered to be potentially dangerous. flexure and abrasion of connecting leads. sufficiently sensitive for directcontact protection are rated at 30 mA of differential current. which operate at 30 mA or less. protection against electric shocks . c normal (or abnormal) wear and tear of insulation.G3 . or used for special purposes.and indirect-contact hazards. G6: high-sensitivity RCD. IEC wiring regulations impose the use of RCDs on circuits supplying socket outlets. highly-sensitive fast-tripping devices. are highly recommended as an effective protection against both direct. and are referred to as RCDs of high sensitivity.G 2. with a live conductor. etc. carelessness. for example. must (on a system supplied from an earthed source) be flowing to earth. based on the detection of residual currents to earth (which may or may not be through a human being or animal) are used to disconnect the power supply automatically.

12 0.04 0. the provision of devices for indirect-contact protection. table G9: maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 25 V. (3) touch voltage Uc: Touch voltage Uc is the voltage existing (as the result of insulation failure) between an exposed conductive part and any conductive element within reach which is at a different (generally earth) potential. TN or IT.12 0. G4 .05 0. Various measures are adopted to protect against this hazard.06 0. is referred to as "exposed conductive parts". the limit is reduced to 25 V. G7: in this illustration the dangerous touch voltage Uc is from hand to hand. or strongly recommend. For special locations.08 0.17 0.30 0.out-of-reach or interposition of barriers. (1) The resistance of the floor and the wearing of shoes are taken into account in these values.34 5 0. and include: c automatic disconnection of power supply to the appliance concerned. v non-conducting location(2) .02 0.40 0.25 0. Precise indications are given in the corresponding paragraphs. Conductive material(1) used in the manufacture of an electrical appliance. protection against indirect contact G national regulations covering LV installations impose. installation earth electrode Uc fig. principle This protective measure depends on two fundamental requirements: c the earthing of all exposed conductive parts of equipment in the installation and the constitution of an equipotential bonding network (see Sub-clause F4-1). in practice the disconnecting times and the choice of protection schemes to use depend on the kind of earthing system concerned. See G4-1 and Clause L3. depending on the system of earthing) c particular measures according to circumstances. c special arrangements such as: v the use of class II insulation materials. the greater the rapidity of supply disconnection required to provide protection (see Tables G8 and G9).45 5 0. in such a way that the touch-voltage/time safety requirements are respected for any level of touch voltage Uc(3). the measures of protection are: c automatic disconnection of supply (at the first or second fault detection. Failure of the basic insulation will result in the conductive parts becoming live.20 0.27 1 0. the maximum permitted touch voltage (UL) is 50 V. but which is not part of the circuit for the appliance.30 2 0. is separated from live parts by the "basic insulation". floor and ceiling of a non-conducting location is given in Sub-clause G3. (2) The definition of resistances of the walls. without dismantling the appliance. The highest value of Uc that can be tolerated indefinitely without danger to human beings is called the "conventional touch-voltage limit" (UL). v electrical separation by means of isolating transformers.25 0.18 0.5 3.protection against electric shocks . The greater the value of Uc. v equipotential locality. or an equivalent degree of insulation. reminder of the theoretical disconnecting-time limits* assumed touch voltage (V) < 50 50 75 90 120 150 220 280 350 500 maximum disconnecting time for the protective device (seconds) alternating direct current current 5 5 5 5 0. TT.50 0.10 assumed touch voltage (V) 25 50 75 90 110 150 230 280 maximum disconnecting time for the protective device (seconds) alternating direct current current 5 5 0.80 0. * For most locations. (1) Conductive material (usually metal) which may be touched.48 5 0. Touching a normally-dead part of an electrical appliance which has become live due to the failure of its insulation.3.60 5 0.02 table G8: maximum safe duration of the assumed values of touch voltage in conditions where UL = 50 V(1). c automatic disconnection of the section of the installation concerned.1 measure of protection by automatic disconnection of the supply protection against indirect-contact hazards by automatic disconnection of the supply can be achieved if the exposed conductive parts of appliances are properly earthed. is referred to as an indirect contact.

but where all other conditions required by the TN system cannot be fulfilled. protection against electric shocks .G 3. The resistance of the installation earth electrode RA is 20 ohms. The earth-fault current Id = 7. G10: automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation. example The resistance of the substation neutral earth electrode Rn is 10 ohms.e. where space limitations may impose the adoption of a TN earthing scheme. so that the magnitude of the earth-fault current is generally too small to operate overcurrent relays or fuses.G5 . HV/400V 1 2 3 4 substation earth electrode installation earth electrode Uc Rn : 10 Ω RA : 20 Ω fig. This principle of protection is also valid if one common earth electrode only is used.7 A. but. The supply system neutral is normally earthed at a point outside the area of influence of the electrode for the installation. For temporary supplies (to work-sites etc.) and agricultural and horticultural establishments. I∆n = 50 = 2. The touch-voltage Uc = IdRA = 154 V and therefore dangerous. the source and installation electrodes) in series. principle In this scheme all the exposed and extraneous conductive parts of the installation must be connected to a common earth electrode. the value of UL in the abovementioned formula must be replaced by 25 V. notably in the case of a consumer-type substation within the installation area. Automatic protection for a TT-earthed installation is assured by the use of a RCD of sensitivity: I∆n i UL = 50 V RA RA where RA = the resistance of the earth electrode for the installation. I∆n = rated differential current operating level.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation is effected by a RCD having a sensitivity of U 50 V* I∆n i L = RA RA where RA = resistance of the installation earth electrode * 25 V in some particular cases. or more.5 A so that a standard 300 mA 20 RCD will operate in 30 ms to clear a condition in which 50 V touch voltage. appears on an exposed conductive part. The impedance of the earth-fault loop therefore consists mainly of the two earth electrodes (i. and the use of a differential-current form of protection is essential. but need not be so.

576 A (≈ 22 In based on a 160 A circuit breaker). Zs = earth-fault current loop impedance. so that positive operation in the shortest possible time is assured.2 "conventional method" and. and need not be considered. Id = the fault current. the way in which this direct connection is carried out depends on whether the TN-C. so that S Id = 230/64. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. Zc = the faulty-circuit loop impedance (see "conventional method" Sub-clause 5. RCCB* (residual current circuit breaker) as defined in IEC 1008 is a specific class of RCD. In figure G12 the touch voltage 230 Uc = = 115 V 2 and is therefore dangerous. The impedance Zs of the loop = ZAB + ZBC + ZDE + ZEN + ZNA. in this example. the protective conductors from the fault position back to the source. in order to reduce the touch voltage as much as possible. In figure G12 the method TN-C is shown. as shown later in Sub-clause 4. the earth-fault current Id = Uo or 0.3.8 Uo u Ia where Zs Zc Uo = nominal phase-neutral voltage.2).2. This method. 3.8 Zs Zc principle In this scheme all exposed and extraneous conductive parts of the installation are connected directly to the earthed point of the power supply by protective conductors. Note: the path through earth electrodes back to the source will have (generally) much higher impedance values than those listed above. equal to the sum of the impedances of: the source. In practice. Note: some authorities base such calculations on the assumption that a voltage drop of 20% occurs in the part of the impedance loop BANE. this feature facilitates their use and allows the adoption of an effective scheme of discriminative protection. then: ZS = 2ρ x L = 64. Type G (general) and type S (selective) have tripping time/current characteristics as shown in table G11.3 . the live phase conductors to the fault position. If ZBC and ZDE are predominant. The "instantaneous" magnetic tripping device setting of the circuit breaker is many times G6 . For such duties RCDs known as RCBOs ("O" for overcurrent) as defined in IEC 1009 must be employed. while the consumer is generally required to instal an earth electrode at the service position. in which the neutral conductor acts as both the Protective-Earth and Neutral (PEN) conductor.3 automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation the principle of the TN scheme of earthing is to ensure that earth-fault current will be sufficient to operate overcurrent protective devices (direct-acting tripping. is explained in chapter G Sub-clause 5.3 milli-ohm. will give a fault current of 230 x 0.3 = 3. High fault current levels simplify protection requirements but can give rise to touch voltages exceeding 50% of the phase-toneutral voltage at the fault position during the brief disconnection time. therefore. As noted in Chapter F Sub-clause 4.816 A (≈ 18 In) 64. ** Note : the use of the term "circuit breaker" does not mean that a RCCB can break short-circuit currents. Ia = a current equal to the value required to operate the protective device in the time specified. In order to ensure adequate protection. These characteristics allow a certain degree of selective tripping between the several combinations of rating and type. TN-S. In all TN arrangements.8 x 103 = 2. any insulation fault to earth constitutes a phase-neutral short-circuit. On large installations additional earth electrodes dispersed around the premises are often provided.3. x I∆n instantaneous (ms) domestic type S (ms) industrial setting I** (ms) * Merlin Gerin 1 2 5 300 150 40 >5 40 500 200 150 150 150 150 150 150 table G11: maximum operating times of RCCBs (IEC 1008). or TN-C-S method of implementing the TN principle is used. G12: automatic disconnection for a TN-earthed installation. earth electrodes are normally installed at intervals along the neutral of the supply network. which is recommended.protection against electric shocks less than this value. overcurrent relays and fuses) so that Uo Uo* Ia i or 0.2 automatic disconnection for a TT-earthed installation (continued) the tripping times of RCDs are generally lower than those prescribed in the majority of national standards. example A F E NS160 35 mm2 D 50 m 35 mm2 C B 3 2 1 PEN N RnA Uc fig. all extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protective conductor at each level. In high-rise apartment blocks. specified disconnection time RCD is a general term for all devices operating on the residual-current principle.

as well as for final circuits supplying a fixed appliance.35 s. Uo (volts) phase/neutral 127 230 400 > 400 disconnection time (seconds) UL=50 V (see note 2) 0. for 230 V 0.G7 . t tc = 0. The fault current Uo/Zs or 0. for 400 V If the circuits concerned are final circuits. are suitable: Ia = Im. magnetic or electronic. Ia can be determined from the fuse performance curve. must largely exceed that necessary to ensure positive operation of the fuse. the maximum allowable disconnection time depends on the nominal voltage of the system. then these times can easily be achieved by the use of RCDs. to be sure of tripping whithin the permitted time limit. as mentioned in note 2. the specified disconnection times are: 0. automatic disconnection within the maximum allowable time will always be assured.4 s Ia Uo/Zs I fig. since all types of trip unit. The corresponding value of Ia can be read from the graph. for 127 V 0. Note 1: a longer time interval than those specified in the table (but in any case less than 5 seconds) is allowed under certain circumstances for distribution circuits.05 s.4 seconds. for all practical purposes on TN systems. protection by means of fuses The value of current which assures the correct operation of a fuse can be accertained from a current/time performance graph for the fuse concerned. Use of RCDs on TN-C-S systems means that the protective conductor and the neutral conductor must (evidently) be separated upstream of the RCD. The maximum tolerance authorized by the relevant standard.8 0. must always be taken into consideration.8 Uo/Zc as determined above. It is sufficient therefore that the fault current Uo / Zs or 0. which. the provision of equipotential bonding of all extraneous and exposed conductive parts that are simultaneously accessible. instantaneous or slightly retarded. In any case. t 1 : instantaneous trip 2 : short time-delayed trip 2 1 Im Uo/Zs I fig.8 x 230/Ia. Note 3: the use of RCDs may. specified maximum disconnection times The times specified are a function of the nominal voltage phase/earth. This separation is commonly made at the service position. is the phase/neutral voltage.2 0. and certain national regulations impose.8 Uo / Zc determined by calculation (or established on site) be greater than the instantaneous trip-setting current.8* Zs Zc * according to the "conventional" method of calculation (see sub-clause 5. Using the voltage (230 V) and the current Ia. or than the very short-time tripping threshold level. G15: disconnection by fuses for a TN-earthed installation.G for TN earthing. In consequence. The common equipotential busbar is installed in the distribution-board cabinet for the area concerned. it is sufficient to verify that the fault current will always exceed the current-setting level of the instantaneous or short-time delay tripping unit (Im): Im < Uo or 0.This impedance value must never be exceeded and should preferably be substantially less to ensure satisfactory fuse operation. IEC recommends.1 table G13: maximum disconnection times specified for TN earthing schemes (IEC 364-4-41).8 Uo as indicated in figure G15.1 second. The condition to observe therefore is that: Ia < Uo or 0. protection cannot be achieved if the loop impedance Zs or Zc exceeds a certain value. protection by means of a circuit breaker The instantaneous trip unit of a circuit breaker will eliminate a short-circuit to earth fault in less than 0. however. on condition that a dangerous touch voltage is not thereby caused to appear on another appliance. be necessary on TN-earthed systems.4 0. if the protection is to be provided by a circuit breaker.2). Zs Zc Example: The nominal phase-neutral voltage of the network is 230 V and the maximum disconnection time given by the graph in figure G15 is 0. from which portable or mobile equipment might be supplied. protection against electric shocks . Note 2: when the conventional voltage limit is 25 V. in any area where socket-outlets are installed.2 s. the complete loop impedance or the circuit loop impedance can be calculated from Zs = 230/Ia or Zc = 0. G14: disconnection by circuit breaker for a TN-earthed installation.

so that when added vectorially. or the neutral point of its power-supply source is connected to earth through a high impedance. c the rapid location and repair of a first fault is imperative if the full benefits of the IT system are to be realized. in this scheme: c a permanent surveillance of the condition of the insulation to earth must be provided.500 During a phase-to-earth fault.e. The first fault could occur at the end of a circuit in a remote part of the installation. However. the leakage (capacitive) impedance to earth ZF is of the order of 3. and whether separate earthing electrodes are used or not. in an IT scheme it is intended that a first fault to earth will not cause any disconnection. c all exposed and extraneous conductive parts are earthed via an installation earth electrode. in the installation concerned. G16: phases to earth insulation monitoring relay (obligatory on IT-earthed installation). so that a high level of fault current is assured. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. i. such that the rule Id x RA i 50 V (see G3.) in the event of a first earth fault occurring. G17: fault-current paths for a first (earth) fault on an IT-earthed installation. the simultaneous existence of two earth faults (if not both on the same phase) is dangerous. Since the exposed conductive parts of the installation are connected directly to earth. referred to as a "first fault".4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed system In this type of system: c the installation is isolated from earth. Example: For a network formed from 1 km of conductors. Fault clearance is carried out differently in each of the following cases: 1st case: concerns an installation in which all exposed conductive parts are bonded to a common PE conductor. etc. B Id1 Zct 1500 Ω Id1 Id2 RnA = 5 Ω fig.500 ohms per phase. The touch voltage Uc is therefore 198 x 5 x 10-3 = 0.3. Id2 in the present example. circuit breakers and fuses. the capacitive current* to earth is therefore Uo = 230 = 66 mA per phase ZF 3. For this reason. or on a neutral conductor. In normal (unfaulted) operation.protection against electric shocks second fault situation On the appearance of a second fault. the current passing through the electrode resistance RnA is the vector sum of the capacitive currents in the two healthy phases. HV/400 V Id2 Id1 3 2 1 PE Id1 Id2 A Uc Id2 Id2 ZF fig. In this case no earth electrodes are included in the fault current path. The voltages of the two healthy phases have (because of the fault) increased to √3 the normal phase voltage. These currents are displaced. it is conventional to double the loop impedance of a circuit.e. on a different phase. G8 . . as shown in figure G17.2) is respected and no dangerous touch voltages can occur. this amounts to 3 x 66 mA = 198 mA i. which is evidently harmless. so that the capacitive currents increase by the same amount. and rapid clearance by fuses or automatic circuit breaker tripping depends on the type of earth-bonding scheme. the neutral impedance Zct plays practically no part in the production of touch voltages to earth. when calculating the anticipated fault setting level for its overcurrent protective device(s). * Resistive leakage current to earth through the insulation is assumed to be negligibly small in the example. one from the other by 60°. as shown in figure G19. a rapid disconnection becomes imperative. while the second fault could feasibly be located at the opposite end of the installation.99 V. In practice the current Id is feeble. the fault current is very small. nor harmful to the installation. The current through the short-circuit is given by the vector sum of the neutral-resistor current Id1 (= 153 mA) and the capacitive current (Id2). a condition that is neither dangerous to personnel. Continuity of service is the great advantage afforded by the scheme. and conventional overcurrent protective devices are used. first fault On the occurrence of a short-circuit fault to earth. together with an alarm signal (audio and/or flashing lights.

the phase-to-neutral voltage must be used to calculate short-circuit protective levels i. i. (2) 0. the two circuits involved in a phase-to-phase short circuit are assumed to be of equal length. The current indicated should be significantly lower than the fault currents calculated for the circuit concerned. c RCCBs In particular cases. (1) When the conventional voltage limit is 25 V.06 seconds at 400/690 V.e.4 seconds at 127/220 V. The times recommended in table G18 can be readily complied with. In this case.G 1st case: where all exposed conductive parts are connected to a common PE conductor conventional overcurrent protection schemes (such as those used in TN systems) are applicable.G9 .8 0. So that the resistance of circuit 1 loop FGHJ = 2 RHJ = 2 ρ l mΩ a where: ρ = the resistance in milli-ohm of a copper rod 1 metre long of c. disconnection time (seconds) UL = 50 V (1) 3-phase 3-wires 3-phase 4-wires 0.e.8 Uo* u Ia where 2 Zc Uo = phase/neutral voltage Zc = impedance of the circuit fault-current loop (see G3.5 x 50 = 64. In four-wire IT installations. Zct G C Rn RA fig.3. therefore. Example: from the case shown in figure G19. the disconnecting times become: c in the case of a 3-phase 3-wire scheme.3. the levels of instantaneous and short time-delay overcurrent-trip settings must be decided. C.s. c where the system includes a neutral conductor in addition to the 3 phase conductors. 0.s. * based on the "conventional method" noted in the first example of Sub-clause 3. the PE conductors being the same size as the phase conductors. Example HV/400 V A Id J K NS160 160 A 50 m 35 mm2 H F E 50 m 35 mm2 D B 3 2 1 PE busbars c in the case of a 3-phase 4-wire scheme.2 seconds at 400/690 V. shown in Sub-clause 3. 1 mm2 l = length of the circuit in metres a = c. 1.2 of this chapter) will be twice that calculated for one of the circuits in the TN case. as described in figure G15. Reminder: In an IT system. The current levels and protective measures depend on the switchgear and fusegear concerned: c circuit breakers In the case shown in figure G19. with fault-level calculations and tripping/fuseoperating times suitably adapted. In such a case.470 A 129 c fuses The current Ia for which fuse operation must be assured in a time specified according to table G18 can be found from fuse operating curves.4 0. D. protection against indirect contact hazards can be achieved by using one RCCB for each circuit. F.8 0. of the conductor in mm2 = 2 x 22.8 x ex 230 x 103 = 2.8 e Uo* u Ia 2 Zc Specified tripping/fuse-clearance times Disconnecting times for 3-wire 3-phase IT schemes differ from those adopted for 4-wire 3-phase IT schemes.3 = 129 mΩ The fault current will therefore be: 0. RCCBs are necessary. and are given for both cases in table G18.4 0.2 seconds at 230/400 V and 0.a.2 0. H.1 5 0. determine that the short-circuit protection provided by the 160 A circuit breaker is suitable to clear a phase-to-phase shortcircuit occurring at the load ends of the circuits concerned. the impedance of the circuit loop when using the "conventional method" (Sub-clause 5.3) Ia = current level for trip setting Uo/U (volts) Uo = phase-neutral volts U = phase-phase volts 127/220 230/400 400/690 580/1000 c if no neutral conductor is provided. the lowest short-circuit fault currents will occur if one of the (two) faults is from the neutral conductor to earth (all four conductors are insulated from earth in an IT scheme). 0. then the voltage to use for the fault-current calculation is the phase-to-phase value. G. J will be 2 x 64. (1) 0. G19: circuit breaker tripping on second (earth) fault when exposed conductive parts are connected to a common protective conductor.3 mΩ 35 and the loop resistance B. with the same sized conductors. protection against electric shocks .5 seconds at 230/400 V and 0.0 second at 127/220 V.2 table G18: maximum disconnection times specified for an IT-earthed installation (IEC 364-4-41).a. 0. E.

Note 1: see also Chapter H1 Sub-clause 7. on IT-earthed systems. etc. protection of the neutral conductor. 2nd case: concerns exposed conductive parts which are earthed either individually (each part having its own earth electrode) or in separate groups (one electrode for each group). If all exposed conductive parts are not bonded to a common electrode system. The SELV circuit plugs and sockets must be special. c socket outlets for the SELV system must not have an earth-pin contact. the overcurrent protection operates. In all other cases. Note: In normal conditions. so that inadvertent connection to a different voltage level is not possible.4 automatic disconnection on a second earth fault in an IT-earthed system (continued) 2nd case: where exposed conductive parts of appliances are earthed individually or in separate groups. and the nominal voltage does not exceed 25 V rms. The secondary voltage never exceeds 50 V rms.2. other than in the high-risk locations noted above.3. and the equipment is used in normally dry locations only. The impulse withstand level of insulation between the primary and secondary windings is very high. and large-area contact with the human body is not expected. each appliance or each group must (in addition to overcurrent protection) be protected by a RCD. 3. Clause 3: "special locations". as defined in IEC 742. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. by the HV/LV case 1 electrode contact resistances with the earth. where no direct-contact protection is provided. etc. Protection against direct-contact hazards is generally necessary. amusement parks. is required. IEC 364-4-41 defines precisely the significance of the reference PELV. as shown in figure G20 (see also Table H1-65c). Three conditions of exploitation must be respected in order to provide satisfactory protection against indirect contact: c no live conductor at SELV must be connected to earth.protection against electric shocks fig. The more sensitive RCDs are therefore necessary. c exposed conductive parts of SELV-supplied equipment must not be connected to earth. Particular requirements are indicated in Chapter L. Note 2: in 3-phase 4-wire installations protection against overcurrent in the neutral conductor is sometimes more conveniently achieved by using a ring-type current transformer over the single-core neutral conductor.). The reason for this requirement is that the separate-group electrodes are "bonded" through the earth so that the phase-to-phase short-circuit current will generally be limited when passing through the earth bond. case 2 HV/LV RCD N PIM RCD N RCD RCD PIM group earth group 1 earth Rn RA 1 group 2 earth RA 2 Rn RA fig. unless cables which are insulated for the highest voltage of the other circuits are used for the SELV circuits. to other exposed conductive parts. 230 V / 24 V the use of PELV (Protection by Extra Low Voltage) This system is for general use where low voltage is required. c all live parts of SELV circuits and of other circuits of higher voltage must be separated by a distance at least equal to that between the primary and secondary windings of a safety isolating transformer. For a second fault occurring within a group having a common earth-electrode system. except when the equipment is in the zone of equipotential bonding. but the secondary circuit is earthed at one point. G10 . These measures require that: c SELV circuits must use conduits exclusively provided for them. Additional protection to that described above for case 1. This measure depends on supplying power at very low voltage from the secondary windings of isolating transformers especially designed according to national or to international (IEC 742) standards.5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without circuit disconnection extra-low voltage is used where the risks are great: swimming pools. wandering-lead hand lamps. The conception is similar to that of the SELV system. and other portable appliances for outdoor use. 6 V rms is the maximum permitted voltage. then it is possible for the second earth fault to occur in a different group or in a separatelyearthed individual apparatus. or to extraneous conductive parts. and consists of a RCD placed at the circuit breaker controlling each group and each individually-earthed apparatus. there is no need to provide protection against direct-contact hazards. . G21: low-voltage supplies from a safety isolating transformer. G20: the application of RCDs when exposed conductive parts are earthed individually or by groups. but the operating current of the RCDs must evidently exceed that which occurs for a first fault. when the SELV voltage is less than 25 V. or preferred for safety reasons. and/or an earthed metal screen is sometimes incorporated between the windings. thereby making protection by overcurrent devices unreliable. as described above for case 1. the use of SELV (Safety by Extra Low Voltage) Safety by extra low voltage SELV is used in situations where the operation of electrical equipment presents a serious hazard (swimming pools.

but not connected to earth. For these reasons. The two conductors from the unearthed single-phase secondary winding of a separation transformer are insulated from earth. Electronic devices. Some national standards such as NF C 15-100 (France) (annex to 413.G FELV system (Functional Extra Low Voltage) Where. A simple example is that of drawing a cable into a PVC conduit. c supplementary insulation in an electrical installation (IEC 364-4-41: Sub-clause 413-2). but not all of the requirements relating to SELV or PELV are fulfilled. As indicated above. The earth-pin connection is used in this case only to ensure the interconnection (bonding) of all exposed conductive parts. through the earth and back to the other conductor through the low conductor-to-earth insulation resistance. successful exploitation of the principle requires that: c no conductor or exposed conductive part of the secondary circuit must be connected to earth. It is preferably used for an individual appliance. a voltage of 50 V or less is used. G23: principle of class II insulation level. a very small current only will flow into the person making contact. the separation of electric circuits is suitable for relatively short cable lengths and high levels of insulation resistance. the current is generally below the level of perception. c some cables are recognized as being equivalent to class II by many national standards. remote-control switches. separation transformer 230 V / 230 V class II fig. In the case of a second fault. for example. c the length of secondary cabling must be limited to avoid large capacitance values*. Construction of the transformer is to class II insulation standards. for what is referred to as "total insulation". class II appliances symbol These appliances are also referred to as having "double insulation" since in class II appliances a supplementary insulation is added to the basic insulation. etc. for functional reasons. a low value of insulation resistance with respect to earth can result in danger. c a high insulation-resistance value must be maintained for the cabling and appliances. IEC 439-1 describes a set of requirements. the direct contact current will progressively increase to a point where a dangerous electric shock will be experienced. or with equivalent protection. and some types of transformer are designed to have double insulation. contactors) insufficiently insulated with respect to circuits at higher voltages. As the length of circuit cable increases. In the case where several appliances are supplied from a separation transformer. It is important to take particular care in the exploitation of class II equipment and to verify regularly and often that the class II standard is maintained (no broken outer envelope. overcurrent protection must provide automatic disconnection in the same conditions as those required for an IT scheme of power system earthing. relatively short lengths of well-insulated cable are essential in separation schemes. c the socket outlets must be provided with an earth-pin connection. with a high degree of insulation between primary and secondary windings. equivalent to class II.). via the inherent capacitance of that conductor with respect to earth. according to the location and use of these circuits. such as an earthed metal screen between the windings. be encountered when the circuit contains equipment (such as transformers. Note: Such conditions may. it is necessary to observe the following requirements: c the exposed conductive parts of all appliances must be connected together by an insulated protective conductor. Methods are also described for distribution boards. certain lamps. since the current path is then via the person making contact. protection against electric shocks . through the earth and back to the other conductor. Since the conductor capacitance to earth is very small. If a direct contact is made with one conductor. * It is recommended in IEC 364-4-41 that the product of the nominal voltage of the circuit in volts and length in metres of the wiring system should not exceed 100 000. the separation of electric circuits The principle of separation of circuits (generally single-phase circuits) for safety purposes is based on the following reasoning.G11 . radio and television sets have safety levels equivalent to class II. and that the length of the wiring system should not exceed 500 m. Chapter 41) describe in more detail the necessary measures to achieve the supplementary insulation during installation work. G22: safety supplies from a separation transformer. relays. appropriate measures described in IEC 364-4-41 must be taken to ensure protection against both direct and indirect contact hazards.5 active part basic insulation supplementary insulation fig. Even if a short length of cable precludes any danger from capacitive current. No conductive parts of a class II appliance must be connected to a protective conductor: c most portable or semi-fixed appliances. but are not formally class II appliances. These conditions generally limit the application of this safety measure to an individual appliance. c for distribution boards and similar equipment. Transformers are specially designed for this duty.

c no exposed protective conductor must be introduced into the chamber concerned. insulated obstacles insulated walls 2. i. requires also a non-conducting floor. Resistance is measured by means of "MEGGER" type instruments (hand-operated generator or battery-operated electronic model) between an electrode placed on the floor or against the wall. In practice. Different instrument suppliers provide electrodes specific to their own product.5 measures of protection against direct or indirect contact without circuit disconnection (continued) in principle.). Suitable precautions must be taken to protect personnel from this danger (e.3.e. e. c entrances to the chamber must be arranged so that persons entering are not at risk. a person standing on a conducting floor outside the chamber must not be able to reach through the doorway to touch an exposed conductive part. In such conditions. or by interposing obstacles. G25: equipotential bonding of all exposed conductive parts simultaneously accessible. c the placing of equipment and obstacles must be such that simultaneous contact with two exposed conductive parts or with an exposed conductive part and an extraneous conductive part by an individual person is not possible. is extremely low. *Note: extraneous conductive parts entering (or leaving) the equipotential space (such as water pipes. protection against indirect contact (continued) G 3. so that care should be taken to ensure that the electrodes used are those supplied with the instrument. such as a lighting switch mounted in an industrial-type cast-iron conduit box. including the floor (see *Note) are bonded by suitably large conductors. By these means. M conductive floor insulating material fig. G24: protection by out-of-reach arrangements and the interposition of non-conducting obstacles. while at the same time touching an extraneous conductive part at earth potential. G12 . this measure can only be applied in a dry location. since such parts are likely to be bonded to protective (earthed) conductors elsewhere in the installation. > 100 kΩ (500 V < installation voltages i 1000 V).e. The electrode contact area and pressure must evidently be the same for all tests. There are no universally recognized standards established for these tests at the time of writing. such that no significant difference of potential can exist between any two points. and is implemented according to the following conditions: c the floor and the walls of the chamber must be non-conducting. a person entering the chamber would be at risk (since he/she would be stepping on to a live floor). the resistance to earth at any point must be: > 50 kΩ (installation voltages i 500 V). the nearest protective earth-conductor). safety by placing simultaneously-accessible conductive parts out-of-reach. etc.5 m electrical apparatus insulated floor >2m electrical apparatus electrical apparatus <2m fig. earth-free equipotential chambers In this scheme.) must be encased in suitable insulating material and excluded from the equipotential network. etc. A failure of insulation between a live conductor and the metal envelope of an appliance will result in the whole "cage" being raised to phase-to-earth voltage. all exposed conductive parts.g.protection against electric shocks . Special protective devices are also necessary to detect insulation failure. in the absence of significant fault current. etc. earth-free equipotential chambers are associated with particular installations (laboratories. but no fault current will flow. for example. and so is not an easily applied principle out-of-reach or interposition of obstacles. nonconducting floor at entrances.g.) and give rise to a number of practical installation difficulties. and earth (i. the probability of touching a live exposed conductive part.

c at level B: RCD instantaneous. this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated i 32 A. c in some countries. Case where the exposed conductive parts of an appliance. are connected to a separate earth electrode Protection against indirect contact by a RCD at the circuit breaker controlling each group or separately-earthed individual appliance. G27: distribution circuits. caravans. protection against electric shocks . for given sensitivity levels of RCDs at UL voltage limits of 50 V and 25 V. table G26: the upper limit of resistance for an installation earthing electrode which must not be exceeded. pleasure boats. agricultural establishments. e. This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits. I∆n 3A 1A 500 mA 300 mA 30 mA maximum resistance of the earth electrode (50 V) (25 V) 16 Ω 8Ω 50 Ω 25 Ω 100 Ω 50 Ω 166 Ω 83 Ω 1666 Ω 833 Ω The choice of sensitivity of the differential device is a function of the resistance RA of the earth electrode for the installation. etc.G13 . c socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings(1). and travelling fairs(1). c supply circuits to work-sites. protection against indirect contact General case Protection against indirect contact is assured by RCDs. RA 1 RA 2 a distant location fig. In each case. high-sensitivity RCDs IEC 364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) in the following cases: c socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of i 32 A at any location(1). implementation of the TT system G 4. Case of distribution circuits IEC 364-4-41 and a number of national standards recognize a maximum tripping time of 1 second in installation distribution circuits (as opposed to final circuits). A B fig. or group of appliances.g.4.1 protective measures the application to living quarters is covered in Chapter L Clause 1. the sensitivity I∆n of which complies with the condition: 50 V (1) I∆n i RA (1) 25 V for work-site installations. fig. This allows a degree of selective discrimination to be achieved: c at level A: RCD time-delayed. G28: separate earth electrode. c strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets u 20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use). G29: circuit supplying socket-outlets. c socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations(1). the sensitivity must be compatible with the resistance of the earth electrode concerned. (1) these cases are treated in delail in Chapter L Clause 3. and is given in table G26. "S" type. c circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools(1).

overload. and mandatory in many countries. and the additional protection against the dangers of direct-contact . c relays with separate toroidal (ring-type) current transformers.2 types of RCD RCDs are commonly incorporated in the following components: c industrial-type moulded-case differential circuit breakers conforming to IEC 947-2 and its appendix B. 4. RCDs are mandatorily used at the origin of TT-earthed installations. thereby ensuring the level of service continuity required. short-circuit. the international standard for industrial differential circuit breakers is IEC 947-2 and its appendix B. fig. and 1009 (RCBOs). conforming to IEC 755. fire-risk area fig. or in the event that a protective earth wire becomes broken) RCDs of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) will afford both protection against indirect-contact hazards. protection when exposed conductive parts are not connected to earth (in the case of an existing installation where the location is dry and provision of an earthing connection is not possible.2. The sensitivity of the RCD must be i 500 mA. G31: unearthed exposed conductive parts (A).1 protective measures (continued) in areas of high fire risk RCD protection at the circuit breaker controlling all supplies to the area at risk is necessary in some locations.protection against electric shocks . c differential switches conforming to particular national standards. 1008. The ensemble provides a comprehensive range of protective functions (isolation. where their ability to discriminate with other RCDs allows selective tripping. c domestic-type differential circuit breakers (RCCBs)* conforming to IEC 755. G30: fire-risk location.4. including DIN-rail mounted units. to which may be associated an auxiliary module. G32: industrial-type CB with RCD module. G14 . are available. DIN-rail circuit breaker with RCD module fig. and sensitive earth-fault protection). Adaptable differential circuit breakers. *see NOTE concerning RCCBs at the end of Sub-clause 3. implementation of the TT system (continued) G 4.

provide complete isolation when opened. discrimination is possible at three or four different levels of distribution. viz: v at the main general distribution board. fig. Circuit breakers so equipped are referred to as CBRs. As noted in sub-clause 7. Differential switches (RCCBs) are used for the protection of distribution or sub-distribution boards. fig. Such discrimination avoids the tripping of any circuit breaker. other than that immediately upstream of a fault position c with equipment currently available. RCBOs and CBRs RCCBs (Residual Current Circuit Breakers) These devices are more-accurately described in the French version of IEC 1008 as "interrupteurs" which is generally translated into English by "load-break switches". RCDs with separate toroidal CTs can be used in association with circuit breakers or contactors.3 coordination of differential protective devices Discriminative-tripping coordination is achieved either by time-delay or by subdivision of circuits. which covers the incorporation of residual-current protection into industrialtype LV circuit breakers. G34: differential switches (RCCBs).G the international standards for domestic circuit breakers (RCBOs) is IEC 1009. Note: Both RCCBs and RCBOs as standardized in IEC 1008 and 1009 respectively. These units are designed for domestic and similar installations. v at sub-distribution boards. overcurrent protection is provided. v at socket outlets for individual appliance protection c in general. differential switches are covered by particular national standards (NF C 61-140 for France). is not designed to break short-circuit currents (the unique feature of a circuit breaker) so that the term RCCB can be misleading. although assigned a rated making and breaking capacity. v at local general distribution boards. The RCBO has a rated short-circuit breaking capability and is properly referred to as a circuit breaker. The Appendix is based on the relevant requirements of IEC 755. at distribution boards (and subdistribution boards. in addition to sensitive differential earth-fault protection. IEC 1009 is the international reference standard. 4. protection against electric shocks . G35: RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers. G33: domestic earth-fault differential circuit breakers.G15 . there are ranges of "monobloc" differential circuit breakers intended for domestic and tertiary sector applications. CBRs Amendment 1 (1992) of the product standard IEC 947-Part 2: "Circuit Breakers" includes Appendix B. RCBOs The "O" stands for "Overcurrent" which refers to the fact that. The incoming-supply circuit breaker can also have timedelayed characteristics (type S). which are then protected individually or by groups. devices for automatic disconnection in the event of an indirect-contact hazard occurring are installed together with additional protection against direct-contact hazards. or by a combination of both methods. RCCBs. fig. if existing) and on individual-appliance protection. "Monobloc" type of earth-fault differential circuit breakers designed for the protection of socket-outlet circuits and final circuit protection. In addition to the adaptable industrial circuit breakers which comply to industrial and domestic standards.3 a SCPD (ShortCircuit Protective Device) must always be series-connected with a RCCB. "Residual-current load-break switches" would be a more accurate description of a RCCB. which. RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers are standardized in IEC 755. IEC 1008 and IEC 1009.

100 mA.4. 300 mA and 1 A and the corresponding tripping times. G16 . c level B: RCD instantaneous.e. implementation of the TT system (continued) G 4. A RCD 300 mA type S B RCD 30 mA fig. c level D: RCD instantaneous. c level B: RCD time-delayed (setting II). See also Chapter L Clause 3). discrimination at 2 levels Protection: c level A: RCD time-delayed setting 1 (for industrial device) type S (for domestic device) for protection against indirect contacts. G37.5 fig. G38: discrimination at 3 or 4 levels. etc.protection against electric shocks . with high sensitivity on circuits supplying socket-outlets or appliances at high risk (washing machines. A relay with separate toroidal CT 3 A delay time 500 ms discrimination at 3 or 4 levels Protection: c level A: RCD time-delayed (setting III). c level C: RCD time-delayed (setting I) or type S. B RCCB 1 A delay time 250 ms C RCCB 300 mA delay time 50 ms or type S D RCCB 30 mA fig. as shown below in figure G36.3 coordination of differential protective devices (continued) discrimination between RCDs Discrimination is achieved by exploiting the several levels of standardized sensitivity: 30 mA. time (ms) 10000 1000 500 300 250 200 150 130 100 60 40 II 300 mA selective RCDs (i. time-delayed) industrial (settings I and II) domestic S time delayed I RCD 30 mA general domestic and industrial setting 0 10 15 30 60 1000 500 600 current (mA) 10 100 500 1000 (A) 100 150 300 1 1. G36: discrimination between RCDs.

protection against electric shocks .G discriminative protection at three levels main circuit breaker HV/LV MERLIN GERIN differential relay with separate toroidal CT setting level ≤ 50/RA time-delay setting level II Rp Rn RA 3 2 1 N PE NS400 NS80H-MA MERLIN GERIN differential relay with separate CT discontactor N 1 2 3 PE instantaneous 300 mA T T Vigi compact NS100 setting level 300 mA MERLIN GERIN SM20 IN OUT M earth leakage current monitor MCB 300 mA type S timedelayed RCD RCD MCB discontactor distribution box M N Ph PE DPN Vigi 30 mA T TEST XC40 diff. G39: typical 3-level installation. One motor is provided with specific protection. 30 mA RCD 30 MCB + RCD mA remotelycontrolled actuator fig.G17 . showing the protection of distribution circuits in a TT-earthed system.

e. or where a cable is movable. as listed below and illustrated in figure G40. since inductive and/ or proximity effects can increase the effective impedance of the conductor. Control and protective switchgear for the several TN arrangements will be: c 3-pole when the circuit includes a PEN conductor. a means of isolation is required at the origin of the LV installation. always provide sufficient current to operate an overcurrent device. together with the use of tables of values for obtaining rapid results. c the method of composition. Note : This is not normally done for a single domestic installation. c the "method of composition". connection must be made directly to the earth terminal of an appliance (see 3 in figure G40) before being looped to the neutral terminal of the appliance. c preferably 4-pole (3 phases + neutral) when the circuit includes a neutral with a separate PE conductor. (3) a PEN conductor must never be interrupted under any circumstances.5. The most recent IEC recommendations for indirect-contact protection on TN earthing schemes only relates maximum allowable tripping times to the nominal system voltage (see table G13 in Sub-clause 3.e. The source and supply mains impedances are much lower that those of the installation circuits. earth electrodes should be provided at evenly-spaced points (as far as practical conditions allow) along the PE conductor. The foregoing list indicates the conditions to be respected in the implementation of a TN scheme for the protection against indirect contacts. so that any restriction in the magnitude of earth-fault currents will be mainly caused by the installation conductors (long flexible leads to appliances greatly increase the "fault-loop" impedance. c the conventional method. the maximum permitted lengths of cable downstream of a controlling circuit breaker (or set of fuses) must be calculated. all be earthed to a common earthing system. where the conductor i 6 mm2 for copper or 10 mm2 for aluminium.1 preliminary conditions At the design stage. methods of determining levels of short-circuit current In TN-earthed systems. or be mounted on steel work. The principle is straightforward. and the extraneous conductive parts in the sub-station and installation. (2) for a substation in which the metering is at low-voltage. TN-C RpnA TN-C-S fig. a short-circuit to earth will. earth faults should be cleared by overcurrent-protection devices. in the case of a PEN conductor (a neutral conductor which is also used as a protective conductor). These methods are only reliable for the case in which the cables that make up the earthfault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and not separated by ferromagnetic materials. 1. 5 2 5 PEN 1 3 PE N 4 2 5 imposed conditions Certain conditions must be observed. while during the installation work certain rules must be fully respected. and the isolation must be clearly visible. based on the trigonometric addition of the system resistances and inductive reactances. or c the conductor will weld itself into a solid fault and provide adequate current to operate overcurrent devices. based on the summation of all the impedances (positivephase-sequence only) around the fault loop. G18 . 5. 3. when the short-circuit current level at the near end of the loop is known. the exposed conductive parts of the substation and of the installation. Other simpler methods of adequate accuracy are preferred.2 protection against indirect contact Three methods of calculation are commonly used: c the method of impedances. c the "conventional method" of calculating the minimum levels of earth-fault currents. for each circuit. The reasoning behind these recommendations is that.protection against electric shocks . A rigorous analysis requires the use of phasesequence-component techniques applied to every circuit in turn. but the amount of computation is not considered justifiable. i. with a corresponding reduction of short-circuit current). one earth electrode only is usually required at the service position. 4. G40: implementation of the TN system of earthing. based on an assumed voltage drop and the use of prepared tables. by fuses and circuit breakers. Three practical methods are: c the "method of impedances". etc. a reasonably accurate assessment of short-circuit earthfault current levels must be determined at the design stage of a project. To ensure correct operation of overcurrent devices in the latter case. the PE conductor must not pass through ferro-magnetic conduit. especially since the zero-phase-sequence impedances are extremely difficult to determine with any resonable degree of accuracy in an average LV installation. in principle. implementation of the TN system G 5. the neutral and protective conductors should be separated (i. 5.3). ducts. the current which must pass in order to raise the potential of an exposed conductive part to 50 V or more is so high that one of two possibilities will occur: c either the fault path will blow itself clear. which is an estimation of short-circuit current at the remote end of a loop. practically instantaneously. 2. a TN-S scheme should be adopted within the installation). note (1) the TN scheme requires that the LV neutral of the HV/LV transformer. for TN systems.

5 10-3 for copper = 36 10-3 for aluminium Ia = trip current setting for the instantaneous operation of a circuit breaker. in the specified time. using the conventional method. If the overcurrent settings are based on this calculated value. i. or fuse. when all conductors of a 3-phase 4-wire circuit are in close proximity (which is the normal case). for a TN-earthed system. * This results in a calculated current value which is less than that which would actually flow. together with the circuit loop impedance. conductor lengths.) included in the earth-fault loop circuit from which the short-circuit earth-fault current is calculated. National Authorities generally also publish Guides. Principle: The principle bases the short-circuit current calculation on the assumption that the voltage at the origin of the circuit concerned (i. modern practice is to use software agreed by National Authorities.8 Uo Sph Lmax = metres. at the sending end. etc. In many cases.e. then operation of the relay. the maximum length of any circuit of a TN-earthed installation is: 0. which include typical values. This approximation is considered to be valid for cable sizes up to 120 mm2. or Ia = the current which assures operation of the protective fuse concerned.8 Uo Sph Lmax = ρ (1+m) Ia Example: B A PE Id L SPE C Sph fig.G for calculations. is assured. The 80% value is used. where: ρ (1+m) Ia Lmax = maximum length in metres Uo = phase volts = 230 V for a 230/400 V system ρ = resistivity at normal working temperature in ohm-mm2/metre = 22.C. to compute the short-circuit current. and based on the method of impedances. etc. a national guide can supply typical values for estimation purposes. at the point at which the circuit protective device is located) remains at 80% or more of the nominal phase to neutral voltage. by means of the approximate formula: U Isc I= where U + Zsc Isc Isc = upstream short-circuit current I = end-of-loop short-circuit current U = nominal system phase voltage Zsc = impedance of loop Note: in this method the individual impedances are added arithmetically* as opposed to the previous "method of impedances" procedure. the inductive reactance internal to* and between conductors is negligibly small compared to the cable resistance. In LV cables.e. PE conductor. conventional method This method is generally considered to be sufficiently accurate to fix the upper limit of cable lengths. This coefficient takes account of all voltage drops upstream of the point considered. the resistance value R is increased as follows: core size (mm2) value of resistance S = 150 mm2 R+15% S = 185 mm2 R+20% S = 240 mm2 R+25% * causes proximity and skin effects. method of impedances This method summates the positivesequence impedances of each item (cable. an apparent increase in resistance. transformer. Above that size. because it supposes a knowledge of all parameter values and characteristics of the elements in the loop. The maximum length of a circuit in a TNearthed installation is given by the formula: 0. method of composition This method permits the determination of the short-circuit current at the end of a loop from the known value of S. m = Sph / SPE Sph = cross-sectional area of the phase conductors of the circuit concerned in mm2 SPE = cross-sectional area of the protective conductor concerned in mm2 protection against electric shocks .G19 . G41: calculation of L max. using the formula: 2 2 I =U/ (∑R) +(∑X) where (∑R)2 = (the sum of all resistances in the loop)2 and (∑X)2 = (the sum of all inductive reactances in the loop)2 and U = nominal system phase-to-neutral voltage The application of the method is not always easy. such as ECODIAL 2 (Merlin Gerin).

B. The tables give maximum circuit lengths.5 2. c type of earthing scheme (see fig. (1) For the definition of type B circuit breaker refer to chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.67 0.42 m=3 0.protection against electric shocks . Equivalent tables for protection by Compact and Multi 9 circuit breakers (Merlin Gerin) are included in the relevant catalogues. c type of circuit breaker (i.40 0. beyond which the ohmic resistance of the conductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below that required to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit. c operating-current settings.31 m=4 0. tables The following tables.62 0. C or D). and the conductor materials.25 table G42: correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46 for TN systems. c cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors. Correction factor m Table G42 indicates the correction factor to apply to the values given in tables G43 to G46 according to the ratio SPH/SPE. implementation of the TN system (continued) G 5. G47).5. circuit 3P + N or P + N conductor material copper aluminium m = SPH/SPE (or PEN) m=1 m=2 1 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 rated current (A) 1 2 3 4 1227 613 409 307 681 511 1090 818 6 204 341 545 818 8 10 153 123 256 204 409 327 613 491 1022 818 13 16 94 77 157 128 252 204 377 307 629 511 1006 818 20 25 61 49 102 82 164 131 245 196 409 327 654 523 1022 818 32 38 64 102 153 256 409 639 894 40 31 51 82 123 204 327 511 716 45 27 45 73 109 182 291 454 636 50 25 41 65 98 164 262 409 572 777 63 19 32 52 78 130 208 325 454 617 80 15 28 41 61 102 164 258 358 485 100 12 20 33 49 82 131 204 288 388 table G44: maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and rated currents for type B (1) circuit breakers. Circuits protected by Compact* or Multi 9* circuit breakers for industrial or domestic use SPH mm2 1. The tables may be used for 230/400 V systems.e.50 0. G20 . * Merlin Gerin products. the type of circuit.2 protection against indirect contact (continued) the following tables* give the length of circuit which must not be exceeded. have been established according to the "conventional method" described above.5 2. Circuits protected by general-purpose circuit-breakers nominal crosssectional area of conductors mm2 1. with sufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact. * Based on tables given in the guide UTE C15-105. applicable to TN systems. in order that persons be protected against indirect contact hazards by protective devices.2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 185 240 instantaneous or short-time-delayed tripping current Im (amperes) 50 103 171 274 410 63 81 136 217 326 80 64 107 171 256 427 100 51 85 137 205 342 125 41 66 109 164 273 436 160 32 53 85 126 214 342 200 25 42 68 102 171 274 428 250 20 34 54 82 137 219 342 479 320 16 26 43 64 107 171 267 374 400 13 21 34 51 85 137 213 299 406 500 10 17 27 41 68 109 171 239 325 479 560 9 15 24 36 61 97 152 214 290 427 630 8 13 21 32 54 87 135 190 258 380 700 7 12 19 29 49 78 122 171 232 342 464 800 6 10 17 25 42 68 107 150 203 299 406 875 6 10 16 23 39 62 98 136 185 274 371 469 1000 1120 1250 1600 2000 2500 3200 4000 5000 6300 8000 10000 12500 5 8 8 7 5 14 12 11 8 7 5 20 18 16 13 10 8 6 5 34 30 27 21 17 14 10 8 7 5 55 49 44 34 27 21 17 13 11 8 7 5 85 76 66 53 43 34 27 21 17 13 10 8 7 120 107 96 75 80 48 37 30 24 19 15 12 9 162 145 130 101 81 65 50 40 32 26 20 16 12 239 214 191 150 120 96 75 60 48 38 30 24 19 325 290 260 203 162 130 101 81 65 51 40 32 26 410 366 328 256 205 165 128 102 82 65 51 41 33 446 398 357 279 223 178 139 111 89 71 56 44 36 471 422 329 264 211 165 132 105 84 66 53 42 410 328 263 205 164 131 104 82 66 52 table G43: maximum circuit lengths for different sizes of conductor and instantaneous-tripping-current settings for general-purpose circuit breakers. The tables take into account: c the type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses.

refer to Chapter J figure J5-3. RA 1 RA 2 a distant location fig. to which must be applied a factor of 0.42 (table G42 for m = SPH/SPE = 2). A circuit is protected by a circuit breaker rated at 63 A.5 2. (1) For the definition of type D circuit breakers refer to chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. What is the maximum length of circuit.5 2.3 8 70 53 10 44 73 12.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 1. SPH rated current (A) mm2 1 1.2. particular case where one or more exposed conductive part(s) is (are) earthed to a separate earth electrode Protection must be provided against indirect contact by a RCD at the origin of any circuit supplying an appliance or group of appliances. G47: separate earth electrode. The sensitivity of the RCD must be adapted to the earth electrode resistance (RA2 in figure G47).2. Example: A 3-phase 4-wire (230/400 V) installation is TN-C earthed. Downstream of the RCD. (1) For the definition of type C circuit breakers refer to chapter H2 Sub-clause 4. The maximum length of circuit is therefore: 617 x 0.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 rated current (A) 1 2 3 4 6 613 307 204 153 102 1022 511 341 256 170 818 545 409 273 818 613 409 1022 681 8 77 128 204 307 511 818 10 13 61 47 102 79 164 126 245 189 409 315 654 503 1022 786 16 38 64 102 153 256 409 639 894 20 31 51 82 123 204 327 511 716 25 25 41 65 98 164 262 409 572 777 32 19 32 51 77 128 204 319 447 607 40 15 26 41 61 102 164 256 358 485 45 14 23 36 55 91 145 227 318 431 50 12 20 33 49 82 131 204 286 389 63 10 16 26 39 65 104 162 227 309 80 8 13 20 31 51 82 128 179 243 100 6 10 16 25 41 65 102 143 194 table G45: maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type C (1).G SPH mm2 1.42 = 259 metres. For typical use of an MA circuit breaker.5 13 35 58 93 34 56 90 16 27 46 73 20 22 37 58 25 18 29 47 70 32 14 23 37 55 40 11 18 29 44 73 45 10 16 26 39 65 50 9 15 23 35 58 63 7 12 19 28 46 74 80 5 9 14 21 35 58 100 4 7 12 18 29 47 73 438 274 219 175 146 110 73 730 456 365 292 243 183 122 116 88 730 584 467 389 292 195 186 141 117 876 701 584 438 292 279 211 175 974 730 487 465 352 292 779 743 564 467 881 730 140 135 110 88 234 225 183 146 117 91 374 359 292 234 187 146 117 104 93 584 562 456 365 292 228 183 162 146 116 88 1022 818 786 639 511 409 319 258 227 204 162 123 102 867 692 558 432 347 308 277 220 174 139 table G46: maximum circuit lengths for different conductor sizes and for rated currents of circuit breakers of type D or MA Merlin Gerin (1).G21 . the exposed conductive parts of which are connected to an independent earth electrode. protection against electric shocks .6 2 2.5 3 4 6 6. below which protection of persons against indirectcontact hazards is assured by the instantaneous magnetic tripping relay of the circuit breaker? Table G44 gives 617 metres. the earthing scheme must be TN-S. and consists of an aluminium cored cable with 50 mm2 phase conductors and a neutral conductor (PEN) of 25 mm2.

G22 . c in some countries. (1) these cases are treated in delail in Chapter L Clause 3. c circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools(1). implementation of the TN system (continued) G 5.5. fire-risk area fig. and the TN-S arrangement must be adopted. caravans.4 protection in high fire-risk locations In locations where the risk of fire is high.3 high-sensitivity RCDs IEC 364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) in the following cases: c socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of i 32 A at any location(1). 5. c socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations(1). pleasure boats. and travelling fairs(1). c strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets u 20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use). c supply circuits to work-sites. This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits. Protection by a RCD of sensitivity 500 mA at the origin of the circuit supplying the fire-risk location is mandatory in some countries. G48: circuit supplying socket-outlets. fig.protection against electric shocks . c socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings(1). G49: fire-risk location. this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated i 32 A. the TN-C scheme of earthing is often prohibited.

Suggestion 2: install a RCD on the circuit.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high When the earth-fault current is restricted due to an inevitably high fault-loop impedance. generally one RCD for a number of socket outlets on a common circuit. For TN-C installations. PE or PEN 2 i Irm i 4In unusually long cable fig. in any case. G51: RCD protection on TN systems with high earth-fault-loop impedance. however. Suggestion 3: increase the size of the PE or PEN conductors and/or the phase conductors. that high transient currents such as the starting currents of motors will not cause nuisance trip-outs. be protected by HS (i 30 mA) RCDs. phases neutral PE TN-S phases PEN TN-C fig. G50: a circuit breaker with low-set instantaneous magnetic trip. and Suggestion 3 should be adopted. to reduce the loop impedance. i. Where socket-outlets are involved. protection against electric shocks . the particular circuits must.G 5. bonding as shown in figure G52 is not allowed. a reduction in the earthfault-loop resistance. while at the same time improving the existing touch-voltage protection measures. Suggestion 4: add supplementary equipotential conductors. It must be checked.e. G52: improved equipotential bonding. for example: 2In i Irm i 4In This affords protection for persons on circuits which are abnormally long. The effectiveness of this improvement may be checked by a resistance test between each exposed conductive part and the local main protective conductor. so that the overcurrent protection cannot be relied upon to trip the circuit within the prescribed time.G23 . the following possibilities should be considered: Suggestion 1: install a circuit breaker which has an instantaneous magnetic tripping element with an operation level which is lower than the usual setting. fig. This will have a similar effect to that of suggestion 3. The device need not be highly-sensitive (HS) (several amps to a few tens of amps).

The second fault (by definition) is an earth fault affecting a different phase than that of the first fault or a neutral conductor*. This means that the current through an earth fault will be measured in milli-amps. which will not cause serious damage at the fault position. minimum functions required protection against overvoltages at system frequency neutral earthing resistor (for impedance earthing variation) overall earth-fault monitor with alarm for first fault condition automatic fault clearance on second fault and protection of the neutral conductor against overcurrent location of first fault components and devices (1) voltage limiter (2) resistor (3) permanent insulation monitor PIM with alarm feature (4) four-pole circuit breakers (if the neutral is distributed) all 4 poles + trip (5) with device for fault-location on live system. G24 . c a "first-fault" location routine by an efficient maintenance staff.protection against electric shocks . as shown in figure G58. In practice. all exposed conductive parts of an installation are connected via PE conductors to an earth electrode at the installation. or give rise to dangerous touch voltages. The second fault results in a short-circuit through the earth and/or through PE bonding conductors.1 preliminary conditions Preliminary conditions are summarized in table G53 and fig. * on systems where the neutral is distributed. HV/LV 4 L1 L2 L3 N 4 2 1 3 5 4 fig. Such a fault is referred to as a "first fault". In this scheme. or by successive opening of circuits examples (MG) Cardew C impedance Zx Vigilohm TR22A or XM 200 Compact circuit breaker or RCD-MS Vigilohm system table G53: essential functions in IT schemes. or present a fire hazard. G54: 3-phase 3-wire IT-earthed system.000 ohms or more). c automatic high-speed tripping of appropriate circuit breakers must take place in the event of a "second fault" occurring before the first fault is repaired. the system can continue to function without interruption.6. Fault location is greatly facilitated by automatic devices which are currently available. which must signal (audibly or visually) the occurrence of the first fault. in the event of a short-circuit to earth fault. while the neutral point of the supply transformer is isolated from earth or connected to earth through a high resistance (commonly 1. implementation of the IT system G The basic feature of the IT scheme of earthing is that. 6. The system may therefore be allowed to function normally until it is convenient to isolate the faulty section for repair work. G54. c a device for limiting the voltage which the neutral point of the supply transformer can attain with respect to earth. the scheme requires certain specific measures for its satisfactory exploitation: c permanent monitoring of the insulation with respect to earth.

G
6.2 protection against indirect contact
first-fault condition
The earth-fault current which flows under a first-fault condition is measured in milli-amps. The touch voltage with respect to earth is the product of this current and the resistance of the installation earth electrode and PE conductor (from the faulted component to the electrode). This value of voltage is clearly harmless and could amount to several volts only in the worst case (1,000 Ω earthing resistor will pass 230 mA* and a poor installation earth-electrode of 50 ohms, would give 12.5 V, for example). An alarm is given by the permanent earthfault monitoring. Principle of earth-fault monitoring A generator of very low frequency a.c. current, or of d.c. current, (to reduce the effects of cable capacitance to negligible levels) applies a voltage between the neutral point of the supply transformer and earth. This voltage causes a small current to flow according to the insulation resistance to earth of the whole installation, plus that of any connected appliance. Low-frequency instruments can be used on a.c. systems which generate transient d.c. components under fault conditions. Certain versions can distinguish between resistive and capacitive components of the leakage current. Modern developments permit the measurement of leakage-current evolution, so that prevention of a first fault can be achieved. Examples of equipment and devices** c manual fault-location (fig. G55). The generator may be fixed (example: XM200) or portable (example: XGR permitting the checking of dead circuits) and the receiver, together with the magnetic tongtype pick-up sensor, are portable.
* On a 230/400 V 3-phase system. ** The equipment and devices described to illustrate the principles of fault location, are manufactured by M.G.

modern monitoring systems greatly facilitate first-fault location and repair.

MERLIN GERIN
XM100

XM200
P12 P50 P100
ON/O FF

XGR

XRM

fig. G55: non-automatic (manual) fault location. c fixed automatic fault location (fig. G56) The monitoring relay XM200, together with the fixed detectors XD301 (each supplied from a toroidal CT embracing the conductors of the circuit concerned) provide a system of automatic fault location on a live installation. Moreover, the level of insulation is indicated for each monitored circuit, and two levels are checked: the first level warns of unusually low insulation resistance so that preventive measures may be taken, while the second level indicates a fault condition and gives an alarm.

MERLIN GERIN
XM100

toroidal CTs

XM200

1 to 12 circuits

XD301 XD301 XD312

XD301

fig. G56: fixed automatic fault location.

protection against electric shocks - G25

6. implementation of the IT system (continued)

G
6.2 protection against indirect contact (continued)
c automatic monitoring, logging, and fault location. The Vigilohm System also allows access to a printer and/or a PC which provides a global review of the insulation level of an entire installation, and records the chronological evolution of the insulation level of each circuit. The central monitor XM300C, together with the localization detectors XL308 and XL316, associated with toroidal CTs from several circuits, as shown below in figure G57, provide the means for this automatic exploitation.

MERLIN GERIN
XM100

XM300 C
MERLIN GERIN
XL08

MERLIN GERIN
XL16

897

678
XL308

XL316

fig. G57: automatic fault location and insulation-resistance data logging. Implementation of permanent insulationmonitoring (PIM) devices c connection The PIM device is normally connected between the neutral (or articificial neutral) point of the power-supply transformer and its earth electrode, c supply Power supply to the PIM device should be taken from a highly reliable source. In practice, this is generally directly from the installation being monitored, through overcurrent protective devices of suitable short-circuit current rating, c impedance of the PIM device In order to maintain the level of earth-fault within safe limits, the current passing through a PIM device during a short-circuit to earth is normally limited to a value < 30 mA. Where the neutral point is earthed through an impedance, the total current passing through the PIM device and the impedance (in parallel with it) must be < 500 mA. This means that a touch voltage of less than 50 V will occur in the installation as long as the installation earth-electrode resistance is less than 100 ohms, and that fire risk of electrical origin is avoided, c level settings Certain national standards recommend a first setting at 20% below the insulation level of the new installation. This value allows the detection of a reduction of the insulation quality, necessitating preventive maintenance measures in a situation of incipient failure. The detection level for earth-fault alarm will be set at a much lower level.
G26 - protection against electric shocks

By way of an example, the two levels might be: v new installation insulation level: 100 kΩ v leakage current without danger: 500 mA (fire risk at > 500 mA) v indication levels set by the consumer: - threshold for preventive maintenance: 0.8 x 100 = 80 kΩ - threshold for short-circuit alarm: 300 mA. Notes: v following a long period of shutdown, during which the whole, or part of, the installation remains de-energized, humidity can reduce the general level of insulation resistance. This situation, which is mainly due to leakage current over the damp surface of healthy insulation, does not constitute a fault condition, and will improve rapidly as the normal temperature rise of current-carrying conductors reduces the surface humidity. v the PIM device (XM) can measure the resistive and the capacitive current components of the leakage current to earth, separately, thereby deriving the true insulation resistance from the total permanent current leakage.

G
the case of a second fault
A second earth fault on an IT system (unless occurring on the same conductor as the first fault) constitutes a phase-phase or phase-toneutral fault, and whether occurring on the same circuit as the first fault, or on a different circuit, overcurrent protective devices (fuses or circuit breakers) would normally operate to effect an automatic fault clearance. The settings of overcurrent tripping relays and the ratings of fuses are the basic parameters that decide the maximum practical length of circuit that can be satisfactorily protected, as discussed in Sub-clause 5.2. Note: in normal circumstances, the fault current path is through common PE conductors, bonding all exposed conductive parts of an installation, and so the fault loop impedance is sufficiently low to ensure an adequate level of fault current. Where circuit lengths are unavoidably long, and especially if the appliances of a circuit are earthed separately (so that the fault current passes through two earth electrodes), reliable tripping on overcurrent may not be possible. In this case, an RCD is recommended on each circuit of the installation. Where an IT system is resistance earthed, however, care must be taken to ensure that the RCD is not too sensitive, or a first fault may cause an unwanted trip-out. Tripping of residual current devices which satisfy IEC standards may occur at values of 0.5 I∆n to I∆n, where I∆n is the nominal residual-current setting level. at the remote end of a loop, when the level of short-circuit current at the near end of the loop is known. Complex impedances are combined arithmetically in this method, c the conventional method, in which the minimum value of voltage at the origin of a faulty circuit is assumed to be 80% of the nominal circuit voltage, and tables are used based on this assumption, to give direct readings of circuit lengths. These methods are reliable only for the cases in which wiring and cables which make up the fault-current loop are in close proximity (to each other) and are not separated by ferromagnetic materials.

three methods of calculating shortcircuit current levels are commonly employed: c method of impedances, which takes account of complex representation of impedances, c method of composition, is a conservatively approximate method, which combines impedances arithmetically, c conventional method, is a simplified method based on an assumed minimum voltage during fault, and the use of tables. the software Ecodial 2 (Merlin Gerin) is based on the "method of impedances".

A reasonably accurate assessment of shortcircuit current levels must be carried out at the design stage of a project. A rigorous analysis is not necessary, since current magnitudes only are important for the protective devices concerned (i.e. phase angles need not be determined) so that simplified conservatively approximate methods are normally used. Three practical methods are: c the method of impedances, based on the vectorial summation of all the (positivephase-sequence) impedances around a faultcurrent loop, c the method of composition, which is an approximate estimation of short-circuit current Method of impedances This method as described in Sub-clause 5.2, is identical for both the IT and TN systems of earthing. Method of composition This method as described in Sub-clause 5.2, is identical for both the IT and TN systems of earthing.

the maximum length of an IT earthed circuit is: c for a 3-phase 3-wire scheme 0.8 Uo ex Sph L max = 2 ρ Ia (1+m) c for a 3-phase 4-wire scheme 0.8 Uo S1 L max = 2 ρ Ia (1+m)

Conventional method The principle is the same for an IT system as that described in Sub-clause 5.2 for a TN system, viz: the calculation of maximum circuit lengths which should not be exceeded downstream of a circuit breaker or fuses, to ensure protection by overcurrent devices. It is clearly impossible to check circuit lengths for every feasible combination of two concurrent faults. All cases are covered, however, if the overcurrent trip setting is based on the assumption that a first fault occurs at the remote end of the circuit concerned, while the second fault occurs at the remote end of an identical circuit, as already mentioned in Subclause 3.4. This may result, in general, in one trip-out only occurring (on the circuit with the lower trip-setting level), thereby leaving the system in a first-fault situation, but with one faulty circuit switched out of service. c for the case of a 3-phase 3-wire installation the second fault can only cause a phase/ phase short-circuit, so that the voltage to use in the formula for maximum circuit length is eUo. The maximum circuit length is given by: 0.8 e Uo Sph Lm = metres 2 ρ (1+m) Ia

For the case of a 3-phase 4-wire installation the lowest value of fault current will occur if one of the faults is on a neutral conductor. In this case, Uo is the value to use for computing the maximum cable length, and, 0.8 Uo S1 Lm = metres 2 ρ (1+m) Ia (i.e. 50% only of the length permitted for a TN scheme). Reminder: there is no length limit for earth-fault protection on a TT scheme, since protection is provided by RCDs of high sensitivity. In the preceding formulae: Lmax = longest circuit in metres Uo = phase-to-neutral voltage (230 V on a 230/400 V system) ρ = resistivity at normal operating temperature = 22.5 x 10-3 ohms-mm2/m for copper = 36 x 10-3 ohms-mm2/m for aluminium Ia = overcurrent trip-setting level in amps or Ia = current in amps required to clear the fuse in the specified time m = Sph/SPE SPE = cross-sectional area of PE conductor in mm2 S1 = S neutral if the circuit includes a neutral conductor.

protection against electric shocks - G27

6. implementation of the IT system (continued)

G
6.2 protection against indirect contact (continued)
N N

D PE C A

B PE

Id Id

Id Id

fig. G58: calculation of Lmax. for an IT-earthed system, showing fault-current path for a double-fault condition.

the following tables* give the length of circuit which must not be exceeded, in order that persons be protected against indirect contact hazards by protective devices.
* The tables are those shown in Sub-clause 5.2 (tables G43 to G46). However, the table of correction factors (table G59) which takes into account the ratio Sph/SPE, and of the type of circuit (3-ph 3-wire; 3-ph 4-wire; 1-ph 2-wire) as well as conductor material, is specific to the IT system, and differs from that for TN.

Tables The following tables have been established according to the "conventional method" described above. The tables give maximum circuit lengths, beyond which the ohmic resistance of the conductors will limit the magnitude of the short-circuit current to a level below that required to trip the circuit breaker (or to blow the fuse) protecting the circuit, with sufficient rapidity to ensure safety against indirect contact. The tables take into account: c the type of protection: circuit breakers or fuses, c operating-current settings, c cross-sectional area of phase conductors and protective conductors, c type of earthing scheme, c correction factor: table G59 indicates the correction factor to apply to the lengths given in tables G43 to G46, when considering an IT system. circuit 3 phases conductor material m = S ph/SPE (or PEN) m=1 m=2 0.86 0.57 0.54 0.36 0.50 0.33 0.31 0.21 m=3 0.43 0.27 0.25 0.16 m=4 0.34 0.21 0.20 0.12

copper aluminium 3ph + N or 1ph + N copper aluminium

table G59: correction factors, for IT-earthed systems, to apply to the circuit lengths given in tables G43 to G46. Example A 3-phase 3-wire 230/400 V installation is IT-earthed. One of its circuits is protected by a circuit breaker rated at 63 A, and consists of an aluminium-cored cable with 50 mm2 phase conductors. The 25 mm2 PE conductor is also aluminum. What is the maximum length of circuit, below which protection of persons against indirect-contact hazards is assured by the instantaneous magnetic tripping relay of the circuit breaker? Table G44 indicates 617 metres, to which must be applied a correction factor of 0.36 (m = 2 for aluminium cable). The maximum length is therefore 222 metres.

G28 - protection against electric shocks

G
6.3 high-sensitivity RCDs
IEC 364-4-471 strongly recommends the use of a RCD of high sensitivity (i 30 mA) in the following cases: c socket-outlet circuits for rated currents of i 32 A at any location(1), c socket-outlet circuits in wet locations at all current ratings(1), c socket-outlet circuits in temporary installations(1), c circuits supplying laundry rooms and swimming pools(1), c supply circuits to work-sites, caravans, pleasure boats, and travelling fairs(1). This protection may be for individual circuits or for groups of circuits, c strongly recommended for circuits of socket outlets u 20 A (mandatory if they are expected to supply portable equipment for outdoor use), c in some countries, this requirement is mandatory for all socket-outlet circuits rated i 32 A.
(1) these cases are treated in delail in Chapter L Clause 3.

fig. G60: circuit supplying socket-outlets.

6.4 in areas of high fire-risk
RCD protection at the circuit breaker controlling all supplies to the area at risk, is mandatory in many countries. The sensitivity of the RCD must be i 500 mA.

fire-risk area

fig. G61: fire-risk location.

protection against electric shocks - G29

6. implementation of the IT system (continued)

G
6.5 when the fault-current-loop impedance is particularly high
When, during the design stage of the installation, it is found that the fault-current loop impedance of a circuit will be inevitably high, so that the overcurrent protection cannot be relied upon to operate within the prescribed time, the following possibilities should be considered: Suggestion 1: instal a circuit breaker which has an instantaneous magnetic tripping element with an operation level which is lower than the usual setting, for example: 2In i Irm i 4 In. This affords protection on circuits which are abnormally long. It must be checked, however, that high transient currents such as the starting currents of motors will not cause nuisance trip-outs. Note: this is also the case when one (of two) earth faults occurs at the end of a long flexible lead, for example.

PE or PEN 2In i Irm i 4In unusually long cable

fig. G62: a circuit breaker with low-set instantaneous magnetic trip.
phases neutral PE

Suggestion 2: instal a RCD on the circuit of low sensitivity (several amps to a few tens of amps, since it must not operate for a first fault). If the circuit is supplying socket outlets, it will, in any case, be protected by a high-sensitivity RCD (i 30 mA). fig. G63: RCD protection. Suggestion 3: increase the size of the PE conductors and/or the phase conductors, to reduce the loop impedance. Suggestion 4: add supplementary equipotential conductors. This will have a similar effect to that of suggestion 3, i.e. a reduction in the earthfault-loop resistance, while at the same time improving the existing touch-voltage protection measures. The effectiveness of this improvement may be checked by a resistance test between each exposed conductive part and the local main protective conductor. For TN-C installations, bonding as shown in figure G52 is not allowed, and Suggestion 3 should be adopted.

TN-S

fig. G64: improved equipotential bonding.

G30 - protection against electric shocks

7. residual current differential devices (RCDs)

G
7.1 description
principle
The essential features are shown diagrammatically in figure G65 below. A magnetic core encompasses all the currentcarrying conductors of an electric circuit and the magnetic flux generated in the core will depend at every instant on the arithmetical sum of the currents; the currents passing in one direction being considered as positive, while those passing in the opposite direction will be negative. In a normally healthy circuit (figure G65) i1 + i2 = 0 and there will be no flux in the magnetic core, and zero e.m.f. in its coil. An earth-fault current id will pass through the core to the fault, but will return to the source
P N

via the earth, or via protective conductors in a TN-earthed system. The current balance in the conductors passing through the magnetic core therefore no longer exists, and the difference gives rise to a magnetic flux in the core. The difference current is known as the "residual" current and the principle is referred to as the "differential current" principle. The resultant alternating flux in the core induces an e.m.f. in its coil, so that a current i3 flows in the tripping-device operating coil. If the residual current exceeds the value required to operate the tripping device, then the associated circuit breaker will trip.

i1

i2

i3 S N

Ø

id

fig. G65: the principle of RCD operation.

7.2 application of RCDs
earth-leakage currents exist which are not due to a fault, as well as transient overvoltages, either or both of which can lead to unwanted tripping by RCDs. Certain techniques have been developed to overcome these operational problems.

permanent earth leakage currents
Every LV installation has a permanent leakage current to earth, which is mainly due to imperfect insulation, and to the intrinsic capacitance between live conductors and earth. The larger the installation the lower its insulation resistance and the greater its capacitance with consequently increased leakage current. On 3-phase systems the capacitive leakage current to earth would be zero if the conductors of all three phases had equal capacitance to earth, a condition that cannot be realized in practical installations. The capacitive current to earth is sometimes increased significantly by filtering capacitors associated with electronic equipment (automation, informatics and computer-based systems, etc.). In the absence of moreprecise data, permanent leakage current in a given installation can be estimated from the following values, measured at 230 V 50 Hz, and abstracted from "Bulletin de l'UTE" April 1992. Fax terminal 0.5 to 1.0 mA IT* workstation 1 to 2 mA Printer (IT*) < 1 mA IT* terminal 1 to 2 mA Photocopier 0.5 to 1.5 mA
* Information Technology.

transient leakage currents
The initial energization of the capacitances mentioned above gives rise to high-frequency transient currents of very short duration, similar to that shown in figure G66. The sudden occurrence of a first-fault on an ITearthed system also causes transient earthleakage currents at high frequency, due to the sudden rise of the two healthy phases to phase/phase voltage above earth.

100% 90%

10 µs (f = 100 kHz)

10% t ca.0.5 µs

60%

fig. G66: standardized 0.5 µs/100 kHz current transient wave.

protection against electric shocks - G31

eliminate the influence of all corresponding current transients. G69: standardized symbol used in some countries. having a peak value of several tens of amperes (figure G68). by sub-division of circuits. U U max 0. It is essential that RCDs be immune to possible malfunction from the effects of electromagnetic-surge disturbances.) are part of the increasingly important field of EMC (electromagnetic compatibility). In practice.086 C at 60 Hz where C = capacity (in n F) of one phase to earth. before a new stable state is reached. will. G32 . ignition systems. in practice.1 t 8 µs 20 µs fig.2/50 µs impulse wave (figure G67). atmospheric. switching.I∆n for a nominal rating of I∆n. fig. G67: standardized voltage-impulse wave 1. on LV systems. the Technical publications nos.5 I∆n. These overvoltages give rise to transient currents represented by a current impulse wave of the conventional 8/20 µs form. * Merlin Gerin products. the manufacturers must be consulted. Note: Time-delayed RCDs are normally installed near the service position of installations.5 I∆n . particularly in the case of large installations and/or where filter circuits are present. 120 and 149.2 application of RCDs (continued) influence of overvoltages Electrical power networks are subjected to overvoltages of various origins. These sudden changes often cause large transient voltages and currents in system inductive and capacitive circuits. * for RCDs having I∆n < 10 mA this test is not required (IEC 1008-1). the levels shown in table G70 are complied with in design and manufacturing specifications*.2/50 µs. and that they can be adequately represented by the conventional 1. together with other electromagnetic disturbance sources (contactor coils. by Merlin Gerin. electrostatic discharges.072 C (n F) at 50 Hz implementation c every RCD installed must have a minimum level of immunity to unwanted tripping in conformity with the requirements of table G70.072 C at 50 Hz i mA = 0. or again. the equivalent leakage disturbance overvoltage transient current type of test 1.). G68: standardized current-impulse wave 8/20 µs. Sub-clause 1. Since RCDs complying with IEC and many national standards may operate within the range 0. to indicate proof against incorrect operation due to transients. Records have established that. or partial renovation of extended IT-earthed installations.2 µs 50 µs t fig. 0. and radiated electromagnetic waves (radio.25 I∆n. etc. The transient currents flow to earth via the capacitances of the installation surge arresters or through an insulation failure.5 electromagnetic compatibility The high-frequency (or unidirectional impulse) transient overvoltages and currents mentioned above. 3 i mA* = 230 V x 1009π x 10 C (n F) 10 i mA* = 0. including those of lightning arresters (see installation layouts in Chapter L. overvoltages remain generally below 6 kV. fuse operation.3) of a duration less than 40 ms. current for the choice of the sensitivity of a RCD is: i mA* = 0. where current surges of external origin are the most severe. residual current differential devices (RCDs) (continued) G 7. etc. may be consulted.protection against electric shocks . For further details. relays.5 U 1. RCDs type "S" or time-delay setting levels I or II (see figure G36) cover all transient leakage currents. I 0. The 5 kA peak test reflects this high-performance duty requirement. The limitation of permanent leakage current to 0. in the case of an IT-earthed installation.5 µs/100 kHz impulse 8/20 µs impulse switching static electricity radiated waves repetitive transient bursts IEC 801-4 electrostatic discharges IEC 801-2 radiated electromagnetic fields IEC 801-3 required withstand quantity 6 kV peak 200 A peak* 200 A peak 60 A peak for 10 mA RCDs 5 kA peak for types "S" or time-delayed models (see note) 4 kV 8 kV 3 V/m table G70: electromagnetic compatibility withstand-level tests for RCDs. the leakage current downstream of a RCD must not exceed 0. For very particular cases. If the capacitance values are known.9 0.7. c permanent leakage currents downstream of a RCD must be studied. such as the extension. dry contacts). or due to abrupt changes of system operating conditions (faults.2/50 µs impulse 0.

e. where a 50 mm core would be large enough. chassis members. etc. and the proximity of ferrous material (steel enclosure.c.) can affect the balance of magnetic forces sufficiently.000. Because of its high permeability.c. the ratio 1/1. G71: means of reducing the ratio I∆n/Iph (max. Class A: operates if residual current consists of uni-directional pulses. 3 classes are distinguished: Class AC: operates due to a. supplies for control and indication of electrical and mechanical equipment are common. Problems of this kind generally concern industrial applications. and each case must be considered individually. This limit can be increased substantially (i. transformer energizing current surge. and summarized in table G72.000 could become 1/30. The risk depends on the level of insulation of the d. current only. circuits in an appliance. recommendations concerning the installation of RCDs with separate toroidal current transformers The detector of residual current is a closed magnetic circuit (usually circular) of very high magnetic permeability.c. the response can be desensitized) by adopting the measures shown in fig.5 mm ø 80 3 c of length 2 x inside diameter of ring core ø 120 3 c completely surrounding the conductors and overlapping the circular core equally at both ends ø 200 2 These measures can be combined. Unless particular measures are taken. Note: For general use Class AC RCDs are normally installed. the ensemble constituting a toroidal (or ring-type) current transformer. the fault current can include a d. on which is wound a coil of wire. the ratio of operating current I∆n to maximum phase current Iph (max. and certain appliances include rectifiers (diodes. thyristors).c. components in the residual current. G71. etc.) to cause unwanted tripping of the RCD. Class A are available for specific requirements as a special variation of Class AC devices.c.) is generally less than 1/1. Class B: operates on pure d.c.). By carefully centralizing the cables in a ring core of 200 mm diameter. The IEC classifies RCDs according to their ability to function correctly in the presence of d. L L = twice the diameter of the magnetic ring core fig. component.G33 .000. at times of large load currents (motor-starting current. table G72: means of reducing the ratio I∆n/Iph (max. Centralize the cables in the ring core Use an oversized magnetic ring core Insert a tubular magnetic screen. In the event of an earth fault downstream of a rectifier. and using a sleeve. sensitivity diminution factor careful centralizing of cables through the ring core 3 oversizing of the ring core ø 50 > ø 100 2 ø 80 > ø 200 2 ø 120 > ø 200 6 use of a steel or soft-iron shielding sleeve ø 50 4 c of wall thickness 0.G direct current components Auxiliary d. measures diameter (mm) protection against electric shocks . triacs.). any small deviation from perfect symmetry of the conductors encompassed by the core.

3 choice of characteristics of a residual-current circuit breaker (RCCB . short-circuit (not applicable to aM fuses) upstream fuses gl (not applicable to aM fuses) 16 A 25 A 32 A 40 A 50 A 63 A 80 A 100 A downstream 2 p 25 A 100 100 100 RCCB 40 A 100 100 80 10 (1) 63 A 80 50 30 20 10 (1) 80 A 30 20 4 p 25 A 100 100 100 10 (1) 40 A 100 100 80 10 (1) 63 A 80 50 30 20 10 (1) 80 A 30 20 10 (1) table G74: typical manufacturers coordination table for RCCBs.s. the rated current of both items will be the same. G34 . electrodynamic withstand requirements Protection against short-circuits must be provided by an upstream SCPD (Short-Circuit Protective Device) but it is considered that where the RCCB is located in the same distribution box (complying with the appropriate standards) as the downstream circuit breakers (or fuses). c if the RCCB is located upstream of a group of circuits.e. the short-circuit protection afforded by these (outgoing-circuit) SCPDs is an adequate alternative. (a) (b) In1 In In In1 In2 In3 In4 fig.3. circuit breakers.IEC 1008) rated current The rated current of a RCCB is chosen according to the maximum sustained load current it will carry. G73 (a)).max. and fuses. (1) A 100 A fuse with several RCCBs downstream: the thermal withstand of the RCCBs is not certain.max. then the RCCB rated current will be given by In u ku x ks (In1 + In2 + In3 + In4). estimated in accordance with the methods described in Chapter B Sub-clause 4. as shown in fig. short-circuit current in kA (r. Coordination between the RCCB and the SCPDs is necessary. In u In1* (fig.m.) upstream circuit breaker type C60a C60N C60H C60L NC100H NC100L downstream 2 p 25 A 10 16 20 45 45 RCCB 40 A 10 16 20 40 45 63 A 16 20 30 5 45 80 A 5 4 p 25 A 5 8 10 25 22 40 A 5 8 10 25 22 63 A 8 10 15 5 22 Coordination of fuses and RCCBs. and downstream of a circuit breaker. Coordination of circuit breakers and RCCBs. i. c if the RCCB is connected in series with. * Some national standards include a thermal withstand test at a current greater than In in order to ensure correct coordination of protection.7. and manufacturers generally provide tables associating RCCBs and circuit breakers or fuses (see table G74). residual current differential devices (RCDs) (continued) G 7. G73: residual current circuit breakers (RCCBs). protected by circuit breakers.protection against electric shocks . G73 (b).

c maintenance work on.1. to supply local distribution and subdistribution boards. for fire-alarm and protection circuits). conduits. etc. constitute the practical realization of an electrical installation. and. etc. Division of circuits falls logically into several categories. c power circuits for motor-driven fixed plant. general F 1. c circuits for safety systems (emergency lighting. * IEC 38 (1983). The arrangement of groups of insulated conductors and the means of fixing them and of protecting them from mechanical damage. Circuit arrangements The creation of independent circuits to different parts of an installation allows: c the limitation of consequences. while respecting aesthetic considerations. on the failure of a circuit. each requiring an individual circuit or group of circuits. c simplification in locating a defective circuit. the following circuit groups are required: c lighting circuits (the circuits on which the majority of insulation failures occur). the installation of which is normally subject to strict national regulations and codes of practice. The most common distribution arrangements for low-voltage installations are described in the following pages. or extension of a circuit may be effected without disturbing the greater part of the installation.g.). in some cases. In general.F1 . particular kinds of cable (e. c power-supply circuits for auxiliary services (indication and control). distribution circuits originate at a main general-distribution board (MGDB) from which cables are installed in various kinds of cables-ways. distribution within a low-voltage installation . c heating and/or air-conditioning appliances circuits. fire-protection systems and uninterruptible-power-supplies (UPS) circuits for computer systems.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution In a typical LV installation. c socket-outlet circuits.

F2 . are commonly used. in which conductor sizes are progressively reduced at each point of circuit sub-division are the most commonly used systems in most countries. radial branched distribution This scheme of distribution is practically universal. F1) in buildings intended for specific use: dwellings. Circuit wires drawn through conduits. ducts. trays. Location of the defect is simplified. Conductor sizes can be tapered to suit the decreasing current levels towards the final sub-circuits. and its realization generally follows arrangements similar to those illustrated below: Advantages One sub-divided circuit only will be isolated (by fuses or MCCB) in case of a fault. schools. MGDB (main general distribution board) D1 to lighting and heating distribution board D2 D3 D4 prefabricated bus channel a second prefabricated bus channel M M process M fig.1. Disadvantages A fault occurring on one of the cables from the main distribution board will cut off supply to all circuits of related downstream distribution boards and sub-distribution boards. F2) for industrial and tertiary sector installations. easy exploitation. etc. Advantages Flexibility of installation in large nonpartitioned work-spaces. Maintenance or extensions to the circuit leaves the remainder of the installation in service.1 the principal schemes of LV distribution (continued) radial branched distribution schemes. etc. For socket-outlet circuits in certain countries. a ring-main circuit is standard. F1: radial branched distribution by conventional wiring at 3 levels. in which the conductor size is the same throughout the circuit. F2: radial branched distribution using prefabricated bus channels at the second level of distribution. Advantages Virtually unrestricted passage for cable ways. as well as prefabricated bus channels. main distribution board distribution board "A" worhshop power sub-distribution board M process M lighting & heating sub-distribution board fig. Conventional wiring installation (fig. With prefabricated bus channels at the second level of distribution (fig. conduits. agricultural activities. hotels. general (continued) F 1.distribution within a low-voltage installation .

etc.. F3: radial branched distribution using prefabricated pre-wired channels and lighting rails at final-circuits level.F With prefabricated bus-rail and pre-wired channels at final-circuits level (fig. Advantages A fault (other than at the busbar level) will clear one circuit only. etc. laboratories. easy exploitation. bus rails for luminaires fig. Disadvantages Surplus of copper due to a multiplicity of circuits. its control. main distribution board M M M M fig. maintenance and surveillance. F4: simple radial distribution. simple (unbranched) radial distribution This scheme is used for the centralised control of an installation or process dedicated to a particular application.F3 . Protective-device characteristics must be at a high level (proximity of source).. main distribution board A B C distribution board office C to heating control board prefabricated pre-wired columns. distribution within a low-voltage installation . Advantages Aesthetically acceptable. F3): for offices. skirting-board channels. flexible in locations where partitioning may change according to consumers requirements.

2 the main LV distribution board The starting point for the design of an electrical installation. 1. PE protective earthing conductor PE protective earthing conductor Note: in this scheme of delta-connected loads. In fact. Very often. c earth faults occurring on the TN system will be cleared rapidly by the TN system circuit breaker and the advantages of the IT scheme will be preserved.distribution within a low-voltage installation . the HV/LV substation being on the building line with the public way. particularly in factories and in some hospitals.1. The HV/LV substation. very often only the main LV distribution board can be located at the load centre. In order to provide the lower voltages for lighting circuits. the agreement of the power-supply authority concerning the HV/LV substation. etc. etc network retaining. 230 V or 240 V as required. c and a second level of 220 V. F4 . c all loads are connected phase-to-phase only (see Note). for those circuits requiring them. In this way : c a 3-phase 3-wire supply is available at the secondary side of the LV/LV transformer with phase-to-phase voltages of 220 V. is the geographical division of the loads. two voltage levels are normally used: c one level which is generally of 380 V. and the physical location of distribution and sub-distribution boards. which are mainly motors. the system comprises the three phase wires only. Many other factors must be considered however. the advantages of the IT scheme. F6. F6: use of a LV/LV transformer to provide a 3-phase 3-wire TN system from a 3-phase 3-wire IT network. and in particular. fig. and the main LV distribution board. general (continued) F 1. and correspond respectively to the phase-toneutral voltages given in the second set. F5: low-voltage main distribution board. 400 V or 415 V (or exceptionally 480 V) for power circuits. fig. should. LV/LV delta/star transformers are used. as shown in fig. and operates as an IT scheme (discussed fully in Chapter G Clause 6). it is essential that balanced loading is maintained in all three phases. for both technical and economic reasons. The first set of voltages are the phase to phase voltages of 3-phase systems. be placed as near to the electrical centre of the load area as possible. 230 V or 240 V (or exceptionally 277 V) for lighting and socket-outlet circuits. shown on plans of the building(s) concerned. standby-supply plant. and its related civil engineering works.3 transition from IT to TN In large LV installations. while at the same time residual earth fault device IT power network TN lighting.

etc.). the division of installations and the provision of more than one source Ring-main type HV supplies. c the type of earthing scheme (IT for example). Moreover. inverters. the sub-division of circuits. c discriminative protection schemes.F5 . a ringmain type service connection. two groups. etc.g. a privately-owned power plant. TT. with automatic standby supplies provided for essential loads. it is necessary that the continuity and quality of the electric-power supply be assured. such as large motors. with provision for interconnection of the LV main distribution boards. providing more than one source. c circuits which create harmonics. the sub-division of circuits Circuits are divided into groups according to their relative importance. any triplen harmonic voltages which may be present on the HV busbars (from directly-connected HV loads for example) will not be transformed down to LV by a delta/star transformer.1 continuity of electric-power supply continuity of power supply is achieved by: c appropriate division of the installation and the provision of alternative supply sources. These loads and others of similar characteristics. commonly referred to as "essential" and "non-essential" loads are separated and supplied from different busbars. The separation of loads through transformers in this way is sometimes referred to as "de-coupling". c the provision of local emergency standby generation. then triplen harmonic currents on the LV side of one transformer do not appear in the HVside conductors supplying it (the currents circulate internally around the delta winding) and so cannot affect neighbouring transformers. TN. which accounts for their particular behaviour in delta/star transformers. In this way. The use of several transformers allows a measure of separation of loads which would otherwise cause an unacceptable disturbance to other circuits. c sub-division and duplication of important circuits. * Known as "triplen" harmonics. electric converters of various kinds (thyristor-controlled rectifiers. automatic local standby generation for essential services. should preferably be supplied through different HV/LV transformers. such as discharge lamps. motor-speed controllers. the choice of earthing system (IT. and (where the installed load justifies the expense) two or more HV/LV transformers. i. diesel-generator sets.) fig. arc furnaces. relays). c circuits which create excessive voltage changes. F7: essential and non-essential loads are separated. e. If delta/star HV/LV transformers are used. etc.) and the use of selective protection devices (fuses. A high degree of power-supply continuity can be achieved by: dividing the installation. essential services standby supplies F In order to achieve the highest possible plant performance. the PCC (point of common coupling) is moved from the LV busbars to the HV busbars. and in some cases are completely eliminated. HV LV the provision of standby emergency power supplies Examples of standby emergency power supplies include: two separate HV/LV substations. distribution within a low-voltage installation . Triplen harmonics are of zero-phase-sequence on balanced 3-phase systems. for example: c computer systems which are sensitive to voltage regulation (dips and peaks) and to waveform distortion (harmonics). In general. loads susceptible to disturbances. Figure F7 shows a typical arrangement of an automatic changeover scheme to provide LV standby power to an "essential" loads distribution board. etc. is the most common way of ensuring a high level of supply continuity from the power network. e. and loads creating them. A case in particular concerns 3rd harmonics and all multiples of the 3rd harmonic*. G standby generator ant automatic changeover contactor NORMAL-STANDBY non-essential loads essential loads inverter sensitive load (computer.2. uninterruptible static power supply equipment (UPS). where the effects are considerably less between one group of loads and the next. 2.

2 quality of electric-power supply public and private power-supply networks are subject to diverse disturbances.). c high-frequency phenomena. in continuous-process manufacturing. in terms of the design and operation of a network. etc. etc. c harmonic currents and voltages. stable voltage level. * Chapter F Sub-clause 4-5 discusses the matter of earthing schemes in more detail.g.. F9: the principle of selective discrimination. or sudden peaks and dips.. the level and frequency of which must be controlled and maintained within acceptable limits. and quality of wave form. Among the most onerous are: c voltage drops.). In general.. F6 . which will cause overcurrent relays to trip the circuit(s). In this way. c harmonic voltages and currents. namely computer and information technology equipment (ITE).2.1 continuity of electric-power supply (continued) A sub-group of the essential loads. over-loading. A second earth fault (if it occurs on a different phase or on a neutral conductor) will.. c overvoltage surges.g. from half a cycle to 1 s) and peaks of the supply voltage at normal frequency. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2. By "discrimination" is meant that none of the upstream protective devices through which the fault (or overload) current flows will operate before the protective device controlling the faulted circuit has operated. i. requires the highest degree of continuity. is to trip the circuit breaker or blow the fuse(s) which control(s) the faulted circuit only. choice of earthing system Where considerations of supply continuity are paramount. etc. due to welding machines. however. etc. from 15 to 90% of Un. the IT scheme* of earthing is generally adopted.distribution within a low-voltage installation . 5th. photocopiers. HV LV HV LV essential loads non-essential loads essential loads non-essential loads fig. closed closed open fig. e. c flicker.. leaving all other circuit breakers and fuses unaffected. These requirements are met by a static UPS inverter system. F8: an example of HV standby power supply. c overvoltages. 2. at any convenient time (e. the failure to operate of the relay closest to the fault means that the next relay upstream will operate in a slightly longer time. particularly the odd harmonics (3rd.. 5th. The short-circuit (or overload) current will generally pass through one or more circuit breaker(s) or fuse(s) upstream of the circuit breaker (or fuses) controlling the faulted cable. c high-frequency phenomena. hospital operating theatres. Supply from a HV substation HV from a private power plant or from a different HV substation selective discrimination by protection relays and/or fuses The prime objective in any scheme of automatic protection against insulation faults. at the end of a manufacturing process. this means the nearest upstream circuit breaker or fuse(s) to the fault position.e.). constitute a short-circuit fault.. e. The most important of these. c flicker.g.2) and effect repairs can then be carried out later. This scheme allows normal (and safe) system operation to continue in the event of an earth-fault (by far the most common type of insulation failure). All downstream loads then being inevitably deprived of supply. A shutdown to trace the fault manually or automatically (see G 6. In radial branched installations. repetitive voltage drops of less than 10%. Power network disturbances may be of a continuous or transitory nature. discrimination is achieved by increasing the operating time of relays as their location in a network becomes closer to the power source. are: c excessive dips (occasional voltage drops. particularly odd-numbered harmonics (3rd.

the damaging effects of overvoltages can be avoided: c for overvoltages at power-system frequency by: v assuring adequate overvoltage withstand capability for the equipment concerned.5 seconds: on rural networks where auto-reclosing circuit breakers are common. depending on the degree of phase difference) conditions of short-circuit. but effectively isolate sensitive circuits from the kind of voltage surges in question. cold incandescent lamps and resistive heating loads. depending on the apparatus in question. v the use of voltage limiting devices where required. machine-tool control. overvoltages Types of overvoltage Overvoltages are distinguished in a general way.. v due to the flow of earth-fault current from a HV fault or lightning stroke. Methods of protection against the dangers of such overvoltages are described in Chapter C Sub-clause 3. extinguish below a certain voltage level..1 to 0.1 second: short-circuit faults occurring anywhere on local LV networks. based on trickle-charged storage cells and inverters. and the measures described below have been taken to protect against high-frequency high-voltage and unidirectional surge phenomena. or a HV line touching a LV overhead-line distributor. the blowing of fuses to clear fault current can also produce relatively severe surges of overvoltage. the following may be cited: c depending on the severity of the dip and the type of loads in a given installation. the deceleration during a voltage dip (torque α V2) means that its back-e. protection against overvoltage is considered to be achieved if all components of the installation have been successfully tested for power-frequency overvoltage withstand ability. outdoor substation equipment. In industrial installations.5 seconds: most of the faults occurring on HV systems fall into this category. A possible solution is a scheme of automatic load shedding and staged re-connection of apparatuses requiring high restarting currents. c overvoltage on an LV installation due to faults on an HV system.m. voltage dips are unacceptable. but the universal solution for important installations is the use of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) units. and require several minutes (to cool) before re-igniting. as opposed to networks close to heavy industry. fuses. switching overvoltages are adequately suppressed by standard lightning arresters. and so on. and cleared by protective devices (relays.g. etc. Electric motors are particularly susceptible to winding insulation failure in the presence of high-frequency high-voltage surges. and other solutions. c tests at normal power frequency. in sufficient number to maintain a safe level of illumination. with catastrophic consequences. with the consequent tripping of main circuit breakers on overcurrent. Some common remedies include: c automatic load shedding and reconnection. while on LV networks. for example: v a direct HV/LV fault occurring between the primary and secondary windings of a transformer. i. lift motors will affect local consumers. Consequences and solutions All appliances. with a corresponding heavy current flow. At HV distribution voltage levels. c above 0. since the loss of information or destruction of a programme can occur. while computer installations and related electronic processing equipments are frequently provided with independent (battery based) supplies. associated with automaticallycontrolled diesel-generator sets. e. underground cables or overhead lines. This kind of dip is the most common in "standard" systems. In IT-earthed systems a voltage-limiting device between the supply-transformer neutral point and earth is obligatory for protection against power-frequency and possible induced-surge type overvoltages. by: v the application of lightning arresters. which passes through a substation earthing system that is common to both the HV and LV networks. for example). and equipment must have a basic overvoltage withstand ability. The dielectric withstand test voltage at normal power frequency for most LV materials is 2U + 1. etc. Other reasons for voltage dips exceeding 0. information technology. the origin of the dip may be due to one of the following causes: c less than 0. c some types of discharge lamp (notably mercury-vapour lamps) used for public lighting. and switchgear and transformers. Some degree of voltage variation can be tolerated and voltage-stabilizing circuits are built-in for this purpose. c for transitory (generally impulsetype) overvoltages. connected directly to such exposed plant. distribution within a low-voltage installation .).1. such as: word processing. with a risk of damaging shafts and couplings.f. voltage depressions of short duration ("dips") Types of voltage dip According to the duration of the undervoltage condition. plant.5 seconds include the starting of local electric motors (central station fire-alarm sirens produce cyclic dips in the neighbouring distribution network. c high-torque motors. and so on. A common remedy is to install high-inertia high peak-torque motors where the driven load allows.e. excessive transient torques may occur. etc..e. These overvoltages mainly affect overhead transmission and distribution lines. c from 0. i. where large disturbances are frequent. which not only assure a high quality level of harmonic-free stable voltage as already described. c the use of uninterruptible powersupply units. c in all computer-based applications.F the undesirable effects of voltage dips are countered in various ways. The frequency of such surges occurring is related to the so-called keraunic level of the region and to the types of network concerned. there can be the risk of a heavy current surge occurring at the restoration of normal voltage. Switching at high voltage can produce surges of voltage similar to those of atmospheric origin.. in a properly co-ordinated insulation scheme. The remedy is to use other types of lamp or to mix non-extinguishing lamps. etc. v correct coordination in the insulation scheme noted above.F7 . will very likely be out-of-phase with the restored voltage.000 volts for 1 minute (or close to this value . according to their origin: c overvoltage surges due to lightning are referred to as being of atmospheric origin. The keraunic level is defined as the number of days per annum on which the sound of thunder is heard at the location concerned. several successive dips may be experienced before the fault is cleared. c use of lamps which do not extinguish during dips. This constitutes (more or less.discussions are still underway in the IEC). c for an electric motor. Some consequences and solutions Among the numerous undesirable consequences of voltage dips. These devices are always necessary in IT earthed systems. In certain cases. c operational overvoltages.

This feature provides additional safety for operating personnel.2/50 µs. for altitudes of 0-2. These measures depend.8 kV 9. The peak value is designated by Uimp (imp = impulse).000 metres. at terminals of large motors).2. the front face of which is insulated to class II level. For LV installations. Other impulse test wave-forms. nominal voltage of the installation The basic test applies a standardized lightning voltage impulse of the form shown in figure F11. regardless of the keraunic level.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) c measures against transient impulse-type overvoltage surges.3 kV 14. notably for representing switching overvoltages. Note: Materials tested to IEC standards have an impulse withstand capability of 123% of the values shown in Table F10. F8 . IEC Publication 947 takes account of the rules governing insulation coordination and requires that LV switchgear be impulse tested according to the withstand values shown in the relevant tables.8 kV circuit breakers/isolators + class II front face 9. no break down of insulation must occur between phases between open contacts or between any phase and earth. v impulse voltage withstand capability of insulating materials. These values are called "front time" and "time to half value" respectively. These two values (in micro seconds) indicate the time interval for the wave to attain its peak value from the (defined) instant of impulse initiation (i.8kV 50% 1. are used for test purposes. Note: all Compact* and Masterpact* circuit breakers have the class II front face feature. on the application of lightning arresters at the origin of the installation. Their use is strongly recommended. beyond the ranges used for distribution. the transference of surge voltages through the interwinding capacitances of the HV/LV transformer reduces considerably the severity of the overvoltage on the LV side. Lightning arresters are necessary (obligatory in some countries) where an installation is supplied by a low-voltage overhead line and the keraunic level is 25 or more. in addition to a basic impulse-voltage withstand capability of the insulating materials. compared to that on the HV side. Table F10 shows maximum values of peak overvoltage assumed to be possible at different points in a typical LV installation. v use of lightning arresters. application of impulse voltage between phases across the open circuit breaker between phases and earth impulse-voltage values circuit breakers circuit breakers/ isolators 9. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2.distribution within a low-voltage installation . together with voltage-surge suppression devices at sensitive points in the installation (e. characterized by the values 1. * Merlin Gerin brand names.e. During the several impulse-voltage tests.2 µs) and the time for the impulse to fall to 50% of its peak value (50 µs). v industrial switchgear.2/50 µs. Table F12 also includes a test for switchgear.7 kV table F12: typical levels of impulse withstand voltage of industrial circuit breakers labelled Uimp = 8 kV. concerning overvoltages. but these tests are relevant only for very high system voltages.5 kV 4 kV table F10: assumed levels of transient overvoltage possible at different points of a typical installation. kV 9.g.8 kV 12. F11: standardized impulse voltage wave-form 1. 1. levels of distribution main distribution board 230/400 V 400/690 V 6 kV 8 kV local distribution board 4 kV 6 kV final circuits level 2.8 kV 12.3 kV 9.2 50 µs fig. Such schemes require careful study and are best carried out in cooperation with the relevant manufacturers. where equipment known to be susceptible to damage from overvoltage surges is installed. The levels indicated in Table F12 are abstracted from IEC Publication 947.8 kV 9. but at the same time including an accessible manual-operating handle. Transformers with earthed screens between HV and LV windings may also be used to provide a costly but effective method of eliminating the problem.8 kV 9.

5 kV. The action of a damped filter is described in Appendix F1. rectifiers and so on) which depend on thyristor control and current-chopping techniques. In this arrangement the voltage will not exceed 3-4. according to the resistance of the several different earth electrodes to which it is connected. while (unlike the ferromagnetic sources) the 2nd harmonic may be present. distribution within a low-voltage installation . more or less. supplied through static thyristor-controlled rectifiers. the undesirable effects of harmonic voltages and currents are minimized by: c over-sizing of components (e. which are related to winding slots in the magnetic circuits (slot ripple). and add arithmetically).g.c. c use of harmonics filters. c possibility of resonance between network capacitances and inductances (ferroresonances) or between capacitor banks and the system source impedance (mainly inductive). then the discharge current through the arresters will raise the potential of the neutral conductor. as described in chapter C sub-clause 3. The value of the subtransient reactance of the alternator and the type of loads are important factors.c. Solutions In general. This potential will be transferred to the phase conductors of the installation. capacitors).F9 . harmonic voltages and currents Sources and types of harmonics The principal sources of harmonics are: c electromagnetic machines and devices. series connected to a capacitor bank. in dieselgenerating sets). c computer installations. Filters are of two kinds: v shunt-connected. then a TT-earthed system is commonly used. an installation cannot tolerate a significant percentage of harmonics: a value of 5% maximum is a limit often recommended.F Arresters are commonly installed at each end of the LV line.1. If the installation earth electrode is beyond the zone of influence of the arresters electrode. Consequences Harmonics give rise to (among others) the following consequences: c the need to oversize certain network and installation components: v oversizing of conductors (refer to the manufacturers of the products concerned). c arc furnaces create a continuous spectrum of random disturbances. the wave front being chopped at this level. and results from the non-linear relationship between current and magnetic flux produced by the current in ferro-magnetic materials. c local overheating of magnetic circuits in motors. v oversizing of capacitor banks. speed controllers for a. motors.g. then the random perturbations are of lower average amplitude and the harmonics produced by the rectifiers are relatively significant. This non-linearity produces odd-order harmonics (principally 3rd order) with some additional harmonics from rotating machines. For the latter case.or fluorescent-lighting circuits. for example. c static 3-phase converters of various kinds (inverters. c discharge lamps and ballasts (both lamps and ballasts are highly nonlinear). transformers (magnetizing currents). but in general the 5th and 7th harmonics are prominent.. a 33% 3rd-harmonic content in the current of each phase produces 100% 3rd-harmonic current in the neutral conductor (since 3rd harmonic currents have zerophase-sequence on 3-phase systems. series-resonant: extremely effective for a particular harmonic (the 5th for example) and is used in association with others for selective filtration of harmonic voltages. motors and generators and so on. generally on the first pole away from the HV/LV transformer position and on the pole at which the consumers service cable is connected to the line. Refer to the manufacturers of single-phase static rectifiers and inverters for guidance. The action of a series harmonic-suppression reductor is described in Appendix F1. The withstand value of LV components is normally standardized at 6 kV for a 1. v oversizing of neutral conductors (of a 3-phase 4-wire system) particularly for discharge. v oversizing of alternators (e. c installing filters. If not. and equipments complying with such standards are therefore adequately protected. v harmonic-suppression reactor. If the arc is d. such as: iron-cored inductances. v oversizing of transformers. The harmonic generation is variable according to the function. v damped filter: less efficient. the manufacturer of the capacitor banks should be able to advise on suitable filtering arrangements. to which they present a virtual short-circuit. but covering a wide band of frequencies. Reducing the harmonic content of a system to an acceptable level consists of: c using delta/star LV/LV transformers to isolate the 3rd (and odd multiples of the 3rd-harmonic). then the more-costly TN-C-S system and equipotential "cage" earthing scheme will be necessary.2/50 µs impulse. Assuming that the neutral conductor and the lightning arresters are connected to the same earth electrode. v increasing insulation levels v increasing current-carrying capability c isolation of a harmonic source by supplying it through a separate HV/LV transformer.

equipment It is for the foregoing reasons that electronic equipment requires special care. are minimized by: c the selection of appropriate materials. etc. This is why.g. result in producing emfs in any conducting medium in their paths. or different combinations of any number of them. their zone of influence rapidly diminishes with distance from the conductor. This is the case if large metal loops exist.distribution within a low-voltage installation . It may be noted that in the context of the present discussion. i. until recently. concerning electromagnetic compatibility. e. a very common example is the connection of earthed conductors of power supply cables and of cables for information technology systems in a wide (extensive) mesh. electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) This subject concerns all cases of coupling. leave the space immediately surrounding their point of origin. lightning.e. this aspect of EMC will require closer attention than hitherto. the effects of a radiated wave have not. The unifying feature of all inductive phenomena is that electric. gas. Protection against electromagnetic interference (EMI) Lightning currents in a lightning protection system (LPS) or in the vicinity of a building can cause overvoltages in electrical installations of buildings by induction. for example. etc. provoked by normal (switching. in a low-voltage lowimpedance (high current) circuit. i.) operating conditions.or micro-volts. commonly causing problems. In practice. are installed on different routes. will cause a radiated wave to leave the conductor and propagate through space. walkie-talkies. When non-electrical pipe-systems or metal parts of the building construction are connected with the equipotential bonding system of the building. The European Directive of 3rd March 1989. or radiated electromagnetic fields. etc. and full protection against interference from any propagated or direct-coupled source. certain modern electronic circuits have enormous amplifying power. c commercial and amateur radio transmitters. earthing arrangements and equipotential bonding-guidance for installation contractors The following notes have been abstracted from November 1993 IEC draft proposal documents. at the instant of switching on a lamp. However.g. Essential differences are as follows: c electric or magnetic fields at power-system frequency and its harmonics do not. in a high-voltage high-impedance (low current) circuit. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2. magnetic. The field strength of a propagated wave varies inversely as the distance from the conductor. and the greater the portion of energy leaving the circuit as radiation. whether in a unidirectional or oscillatory manner. imposes a maximum level of permitted radiation from electrical installations and their component parts (the practical application of the methods to adopt is still being studied at the time of publication of this guide). All disturbances on power systems which cause electrons to accelerate. radio-directed taxis.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) the undesirable effects of inductive (electric or magnetic) or commonimpedance coupling between adjacent circuits at power-system frequency (with its harmonics and superimposed high-frequency disturbances) together with highfrequency radiated electromagnetic waves. With the increasing use of walkie-talkies. F10 . The value of the induced voltage depends on the rate of rise (di/dt) of the lightning current.) and abnormal (system faults. these metal parts may contribute to a screening effect which reduces the induction and contributes to the protection against electromagnetic interference. i. include: c "white-noise" from fluorescent and other types of discharge lamps. The emfs induced by one or more of the three possible modes are generally of the order of milli. heating or air conditioning.2. for example: the opening of contactor coils or circuit breaker tripping coils.F. can also present such induction loops. c specific studies. * except in very close proximity to the conductor. e. for water. Whereas in a radiated wave the energy in the electric field is exactly equal to that of the magnetic field. Moreover. the greater the acceleration of electrons. for example. and vice-versa. c mains-borne interference through conductors in the installation. been very important. for power supply and for information technology. while at the same time in other circuits minute currents and voltages are normal and the circuit components are correspondingly fragile. where it varies inversely as the distance cubed. Other sources. building constructions or pipe systems for non-electrical supplies. c a further difference between the above cases is that a non-radiating electric field can be much stronger than its associated magnetic field. together with unidirectional and H. the circuit of origin generally being a capacitive/inductive combination where XC = XL at the frequency of natural resonance. for all practical purposes. by common impedance and induction (electric or magnetic) at fundamental frequency and harmonic frequencies. The higher the frequency. equipotential bonding systems.e. surges. the switching-transient current).e. the radiation due to the initial acceleration of electrons can be heard in a radio receiver (i. where different electrical wiring systems for the supply of different electrical equipment. and radiated electromagnetic waves. the field strength in both cases varies inversely with the distance squared from the conductor*. c radiation from ignition systems of internal combustion engines.e. mobile transmitters and cordless telephones. Furthermore. however... namely a charged conductor (electric field) or a current-carrying conductor (magnetic field). etc. c the amount of energy leaving a conductor in the form of an electromagnetic wave depends on the acceleration of electrons. and on the size of the loop. its zone of influence is much greater than that of the electric or magnetic fields noted above.

8. i.e. there are two possibilities depending on the arrangement for interconnection of equipment and extraneous conductive parts within the building: c avoidance of the "TN-C section" of the TN-C-S system for distribution within the building. e. significant information technology equipment installed. Avoidance of TN-C system (see subclause F 4. L N PE I equipment 1 loop equipment 2 I fig. L PEN I1 I1 equipment 1 I6 I1 I3 I6 loop equipment 2 I6 I5 I4 I6 I5 fig.g. electric or magnetic fields of electrical installations may interfere with medical electrical equipment (a new clause for Section 710 of IEC 364. or are likely to have. Bonding connections should be made as short as possible.F11 . make the separation (of the PE conductor from the PEN conductor) at the origin of the installation. the starting current of lifts or currents controlled by rectifiers) can induce overvoltages in cables of information technology systems. Location of potential sources of interferences relative to sensitive equipment. F13: neutral currents in a TN-S system. see figure F13. 3. 11. 5. concerning such situations is currently under consideration). Use of signal cables. See also item 17 of this list. 10.g. Recommended measures for reduction in the effect of induced overvoltages depend on adequate equipotential bonding. F14: neutral currents in a TN-C system. screened and/or in twisted pairs. For buildings which have. distribution within a low-voltage installation . 4.2 and clause G5) in installations with sensitive equipment. Avoidance of induction loops by selection of a common route for the wiring systems. In or near rooms for medical use. screening. Location of sensitive equipment relative to heavily loaded centres. For TN-C-S systems. physical separation. lifts. in order to minimise the possibility of over-current and EMC problems. Adequate separation of power and signal cables and crossovers at right angles. Wiring systems with single core conductors should be enclosed in bonded metal enclosures. 7. which may influence or damage the related electrical equipment. due to the passage of neutral current through signal cables (see figures F13 and F14). busbars or equipment. use of filters and surge suppressors. consideration must be given to the use of separate protective conductors (PE) and neutral conductors (N) beyond the incoming supply point. Bonding of metal enclosures and screening. 9. Consideration must be given by the planner and designer of electrical installations to the following: 1. 6.F Power cables carrying large currents with a high rate of rise of current (di/dt) (e. Provision of filters and/or surge suppressors in the circuits feeding sensitive electrical equipment. 2. c avoidance of loops between different "TN-S sections" of the TN-C-S system within the building (see figure F14).

g. this can provide a low impedance earth reference plane for signal interconnections between those system components in close proximity to the mesh. The protective conductor at each equipment provides a relatively high impedance path for electromagnetic disturbances (other than mains-borne transients) such that inter-unit signal cables are subject to a large proportion of the incident noise. from other supply circuits and earthing systems and extraneous conductive parts such as building metalwork. Provisions for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Signal connections In buildings which include a PEN conductor. telephone power supply Information Technology equipment may be subject to malfunction due to currents and voltages induced in equipment or between interconnected equipment. As with Method 1. IT earthing systems are defined in sub-clause F 4. Equipment must therefore have a high immunity to function satisfactorily. for protection by electrical separation (e. Note: the problem of earth differential voltages on large public telecommunication networks are the responsibility of the network operator. transformers according to IEC 742). the PE bar in the relevant distribution board) of the radially connected protective and functional earthing conductors for the Information Technology equipment may be earthed by a separate dedicated insulated conductor connected to the main earthing terminal. There is a continuous range of earthing and equipotential bonding methods to achieve electromagnetic compatibility.2. Use of Class II equipment. 14. 13. the following methods may be considered to avoid or minimise the problem. Use of local transformers with separate windings (double wound transformers) for the supply of the information technology equipment. Method 1: radially connected protective conductors (see figure F16) This uses the normal protective conductors associated with the supply conductors. telephone power supply earth electrode embedded in the foundation MEB I V U=0 cable from the antenna I water district heating gas waste water a) a common introduction is suitable. screens and metal pipes and connections of these parts with the main equipotential bonding (MEB) of the building (see figure F15).distribution within a low-voltage installation . d) to provide a low impedance earth reference plane to minimize earth potential differential voltages and provide shielding. or of clause 413-5. who may employ other methods. either electrically or by use of error correction. Bonding of metal sheaths. In some cases. additional immunity may be provided by a separate dedicated Information Technology supply circuit and earthing system. I cable from the antenna V U≠0 water district heating gas waste water I fig.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) 12.2. 16. Avoidance of potential differences between different areas of equipotential bonding should be achieved by the use of metal-free fibre optic cable or other nonconducting interconnecting systems such as microwave or laser links. Method 2: use of a local horizontal equipotential bonding system (mesh) (see figure F17) The normal protective conductors are supplemented by equipotential bonding of the components of the Information Technology system to a local mesh (bonding mat). U ≠ 0. F12 . the star earthing point (e. 17. b) to separate the Information Technology equipment from the sources of disturbance. or where there are EMC problems on signal cables due to inadequate EMC provisions in the electrical installations.2. Depending on the frequency and the mesh spacing.5. sub-clause 413. By providing a dedicated supply circuit and earthing system serving the Information Technology equipment. F15: introduction of armoured cables and metal pipes into buildings (examples). including the bonding mesh. Further examples of basic techniques used to achieve immunity to incoming electromagnetic disturbances are: a) to provide inherent immunity in the Information Technology equipment. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2.g. for IT* systems (local IT* systems).1. for water. The following methods exemplify this range.3 and IEC 364-4. gas or heating) for feeding the building should enter the building at the same place. sub-clause 312. taking into account the requirements of IEC 364-3. * not to be confused with Information Technology. 15. U = 0 b) introduction at different places is not suitable. incident disturbances can be much reduced. Use of fibre optic links for signal connections. Use of suitable wiring (cabling) routing in order to minimise the enclosed area of common loops formed by the supply cables and signal cables. c) to provide equipotential bonding between equipment for the relevant range of frequencies. Cables and pipes (e.g.

especially in existing buildings. these are more likely to provide an acceptable environment for unspecified future Information Technology equipment.F13 .F Method 2 may be extended where necessary by the installation of bonding meshes on other floors. However.5 kV 7. All such meshes are interconnected by (numerous) vertical bonding conductors to minimize potential differences in the meshes.5 kV 5 kV 80 A 200 A table F18: compatibility levels for installation materials. distribution within a low-voltage installation . In the case of particular difficulties. switch closing) 10 kV 7. F17: local horizontal bonding mesh. The foregoing information concerning Methods 1 and 2 has been abstracted from a November 1993 draft proposal for a new section (548) of IEC 364 Part 5 Chapter 54. it may be necessary to consult specialists. F16: radially connected protective conductors. PE signal cables ITE PE signal cables ITE PE ITE distribution board ITE . The difficulty and cost of implementation increases through Method 2 and its possible extensions. and in the absence of more precise information. it is recommended that materials be selected which satisfy the requirements indicated in table F18.Information Technology Equipment main earthing terminal or earthing-bus-conductor fig. Method 1 is most easily implemented. PE signal cables ITE PE signal cables ITE PE ITE distribution board main earthing terminal or earthing-bus-conductor fig.2 at the origin 690 V of the installation 400 V other cases 690 V 400 V IEC 8/20 µs (in preparation) level minimum level 3 (8 kV) level 2 (3 V/m) level 2 recommended level 4 (15 kV) level 3 (10 V/m) level 4 current waves (lightning. For current projects. disturbance electrostatic discharge field strength high speed repetitive transient "bursts" (contact bounce) transient overvoltages reference IEC 801-2 IEC 801-3 IEC 801-4 IEC 60.

which is supplied. Continuity of supply is assured by means of a diesel-generator set and automatic changeover switch. etc. cash registers. such as computerbased appliances. etc. High Quality Supplies The objective is to supply sensitive equipment (information-technology devices. F14 . The diagram of figure F19 represents a scheme at the level of the main general distribution board. to provide a supply of High Quality (free from disturbances) for dedicated circuits specifically intended to supply highly sensitive equipments.2 quality of electric-power supply (continued) it is possible. F19: example of the production of High Quality power supply.) from a source which is free from the pollution discussed above. so that an uninterrupted power supply can be maintained indefinitely (if personnel are available to top up the fuel tank) or for several hours if the substation is unattended. HV LV Diesel generator UPS fig. essential services standby supplies (continued) F 2. from one outgoing-way of the main general distribution board. within a low-voltage installation. in normal circumstances. micro-processors. at a reasonable cost.distribution within a low-voltage installation .2. The High Quality supply is achieved by means of an inverter and its associated battery of storage cells and rectifier (charger).

Sub-clause 4. administrations. F20: examples of reserve power supplies: central storage battery (left) and diesel-generator sets (right).). airport runway lighting. c establishments in which people are employed (offices. and standby power supplies F 3.. Note: power supplies for security lighting are described in Chapter J.. they can also be used as reserve-power sources. notably: c security and safety lighting.) or services (tunnel lighting.3.. desalination plants..). boiler feed-water pumps in power stations.. c telecommunications. plane reservations. on condition that any one of them is available and capable of starting and supplying all safety and emergency circuits.. shops. egg-hatching.2 standby reserve-power supplies standby reserve-power plant is an economic necessity in numerous circumstances where loss of supply would have far-reaching consequences. 3. c fire-extinguishing systems. c ticketing.).1 safety installations the provision of safety and emergency installations is a legal obligation. c automatic fire detection. c industrial processes (continuity of "feed" material for continuous processing.. c surgical operating theatres... c water pumps for re-filling the fireextinguishing system. fig. Apart from the general rules noted above. banking. etc.. c military.).F15 . c scientific research. c smoke evacuation..6. paper production. They must be provided with the means for ensuring the safe evacuation of personnel. there are certain projects for which the safety regulations are related to a particular process (petro-chemical. c alarms and warning systems. factories. safety and emergency-services installations. Among the many applications in which an interruption of power supply cannot be tolerated. the following may be cited: c information technology installations (protection of data concerning insurances. c air compressors for the pressure-operated fire-extinguishing system. concerning: c establishments receiving the public. Safety and emergency-services installations are governed by statutory regulations. professional practices. and that the failure of one of them does not affect the normal functioning of the others.). c food-processing industry (refrigeration plants.. distribution within a low-voltage installation .. cement works. cash registers. c high-rise apartment blocks. It may be noted that where several emergency-services standby sources exist.

safety and emergency-services installations. v in continuous-process operations. c autonomy demanded for the reserve-power source: in general it corresponds to the time necessary to complete all safety operations for persons: for example. principal specifications In order to satisfy the requirement of economical exploitation. it is a function of the economics related to exploitation beyond the minimum demanded for the safety (only) of personnel.distribution within a low-voltage installation . and standby power supplies (continued) F 3. In large apartment blocks. c autonomy is desirable for reserve-power supplies installations.3. the time to evacuate an ERP (Establishments for Receiving the Public): 1 hour minimum. or more. table F21: table showing the choice of reserve-power supply types according to application requirements and acceptable supply-interruption times. to ensure the utmost security. F16 . UPS systems are essential in these cases.light machining .packaging assembly chain .nuclear .data banks . Specifications particular to safety installations Regulations covering safety installations contain a number of conditions to be respected concerning their electric-power sources: c duration time of an interruption: according to the case. and are used together with the reserve-power source. As previously noted. v a break of less than 15 seconds.management systems for production processes zero i1s i 15 s i 15 mn 10 mn 20 mn 1h . . the following features are imperative: c supply interruption is not tolerated: v in information technology (IT) systems.3.thermal . imperceptible interruptions of several milli-seconds are sufficient to interfere with certain equipments.indications and control of the process parameters . the autonomy of the source must be 36 hours. continuous process requirement programmable controllers interruptible IT equipment sequential telecommunications process applications applications types examples of installations . the following choices are imposed: v no break.chemical .heavy mechanical (high inertia) conditions allowable duration of break autonomy of source minimum and preferred solutions technique employed c c (1) c (1) c (2) c c c permanent if economical no-break generator or start-up and take over load from an inverter c c c c inverter with or without a generator to take over load of the inverter permanent generation set (1) according to economic circumstances.biological .cold-working sequence . choice and characteristics of reserve-power supplies Apart from perceptible (albeit very brief) cuts in power supply.process control and monitoring . except for loads of high inertia which can tolerate an interruption in the order of 1 second.IT services banking insurance administration. c period for conserving data in information technology (IT) systems: 10 minutes. (2) data-storage time limit. v a break of less than 1 second.

. table F22: table of characteristics of different sources. 10. and according to the source(s) used. c complementary equipment. distribution within a low-voltage installation . life expectancy (3) 4 to 5 years (2). ability to supply the load for a given period without attention (refilling fuel tanks for example). e. x 2 if the installation is permanent.F 3. necessary x 2 if installation is typically 2 for 1 redundance (4) permanent.000 hrs or 1 year. Automatic synchronizing equipment. Fixed maximum load. On the loss of normal supply. but minimal wear and very little upkeep required. None. meters. 4 to 5 years (for sealed batteries). reliability (4) constant checking Integrated checks. type. (4) A study of safety requirements allows the definition of an optimal scheme. (1) A motor-generator set permanently running and equipped with a heavy flywheel. additional batteries indications and are required. (3) Before requiring an important overhaul. 5 to 10 years. System losses. Fuel tanks. the pick-up of load generally requires less than 1 second. Mechanical and starter batteries. M G load pick-up (1) generators in permanent service c time required to supply load zero time (no break) c c 1 second 1 to 10 minutes (5) total time for a changeover operation zero c c related to the automatic c changeover scheme adopted for each source installation constraints Special location None. batteries x 2. Unless (type of battery). other parameters maintenance Periodic shut-downs None. Inertial fly wheel and clutch. Starter. fire protection). Periodic startups Periodic checks.000 to 10. operational mode and constraints Special network.4. Mechanical particularly clutch assembly and coupling shaft. Permanent operating staff. 1.e.. c c c c c Special location (vibrations noise nuisance.c.. maintenance work. according to manufacturers operating instructions or local statutory regulations. access required for maintenance. batteries are open Special d.e. and their autonomy.000 hrs and 5 to 10 years. Minor mechanical Periodic checks. Frequent checking. Manual or automatic. c routine maintenance requirements. i. is important (numerous human errors). x 2 where security is important. It is also necessary to take account of: c constraints imposed by the installation: in particular for specialized locations.F17 . etc. i. Unless Regulator. c operational constraints. immediate or delayed load pick-up time. additional equipment (apart from protection and changeover devices) Charger. (2) Longer if the battery is of the open type. but constraints only except on minimal wear and very clutch and coupling shaft little upkeep required. which could impose less than ideal restrictions during the periods allotted to such work. choice and characteristics of different sources The several possible solutions are characterized by their availability. network. Mechanical and system of synchronization. Automatic. Automatic. A battery of storage cells maintains an uninterrupted supply during the start-up and load pick-up time of the standby set. emergency and/or reserve power supply battery inverter cold-start diesel generator An overall review of the many possibilities and associated constraints often leads to an optimum solution based on an inverter scheme associated with a standby dieselgenerator set. Unless openfor checking and type batteries. (5) According to whether the set is pre-heated or not. and 3 for 2.g. by batteries or compressed air.

and a very small part of the d. independent of the normal public service. and is associated with an inverter. Closing down of the inverter is also carried out progressively by similar controls on the rectifier circuits. In the example shown in fig.5 local generating sets the association of an inverter and local generating set is the optimum solution for ensuring a long autonomy. The remainder of the d. The rectifier in the conversion system creates harmonic currents which generally means that the reserve-power generator has to be derated (i. relative to its rating) that damaging transient torques on the generator shaft and couplings be avoided. by means of an automatic changeover panel. The coupling is generally carried out at the LV main general distribution board. an oversized generator may have to be installed). it is important (particularly if the load to be supplied from the generator is large. i. so that. power at the output of the rectifier maintains the battery in a fullycharged condition. gradually increasing the current until the load is taken entirely by the generator and the battery is receiving its * necessary in some cases.c. to adapt the voltages.c.g.e. Such torques occur for suddenlyapplied loads and are due to the oscillating transient torque of the shaft and the steady load torque adding and subtracting at the natural frequency of the shaft oscillations. power passes into the rectifier section. and fluctuations in frequency. an example of which is shown diagrammatically in fig.c. instantaneous closure of the static changeover switch will maintain supply. e. diesel generator network 1 network 2 battery charger static changeover switch manual by-pass maintenance switch protection and distribution equipment (complementary) battery protection box inverter fig. In this case the autonomy of the inverter.e. power is converted into interference-free a. taken from Merlin Gerin "Guides Pratiques". the output from the inverter is in synchronism with the input supply to the rectifier. possible shedding of inessential loads. such as: start-up sequence for the engine. F23. a. In the event of a changeover from normal to reserve-power generator supply... in the event of overloading or failure of the inverter. power for the load. The time required to effect a changeover from normal power source protection and distribution equipment (complementary) possible transformater * one source to the other depends on the characteristics of the particular installation. In certain installations a power supply. F18 . is needed so that a local generator (usually driven by a diesel engine) is provided. safety and emergency-services installations.3. A gradual application of load also avoids the possibility of large transient currents. In order to avoid this phenomenon.distribution within a low-voltage installation . In normal operation of the inverter. This question should be discussed with the UPS equipment manufacturer. This operation lasts for 10-15 seconds.c. F23: example of an inverter/generating-set changeover scheme. F23. maintaining trickle charge. of the battery must be sufficient to cover the period of starting the diesel and coupling the generator to the load. the rectifier is controlled electronically to pass a low current initially. and standby power supplies (continued) F 3. the latter being due to inertia in the speed-regulation governor system of the prime mover.

whose electric potential at any point is conventionally taken as zero. v metal conduits and pipework (not part of the electrical installation) for water. c protective conductor (3): a conductor used for some measures of protection against electric shock and intended for connecting together any of the following parts: v exposed-conductive-parts.g. Connection of exposed-conductive-parts to the earth electrode(s) The connection is made by protective conductors with the object of providing a lowresistance path for fault currents flowing to earth. However. distribution within a low-voltage installation .e. c earth electrode (1): a conductor or group of conductors in intimate contact with. and metal materials associated with them. For example: v non-insulated floors or walls. c main earthing terminal (6): the terminal or bar provided for the connection of protective conductors.4. heating. etc. and conductors for functional earthing. i.1 earthing connections in a building.F19 . but which may become live under fault conditions. c earth: the conductive mass of the Earth. Bracketed numbers refer to fig. metal framework of buildings.) being raised to some potential due to a fault external to the building.6). F24. etc. F24: an example of a block of flats in which the main earthing terminal (6) provides the main equipotential connection. v the earthed point of the source or an artificial neutral. connections to earth of metallic sheaths of communications cables require the authorization of the owners of the cables. no difference of potential can occur between extraneousconductive-parts within the installation. generally earth potential. and be connected to the main earthing terminal (6). and providing an electrical connection with Earth (see F4. definitions The following terms are commonly used in industry and in the literature. the connection to an earth electrode and the interconnection (bonding) of all metal parts of the building and all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment prevents the appearance of dangerously high voltages between any two simultaneously accessible metal parts. c earthing conductor (2): a protective conductor connecting the main earthing terminal (6) of an installation to an earth electrode (1) or to other means of earthing (e. and not forming part of the electrical installation (4). the original bonding conductors present an unacceptably high resistance. including equipotential bonding conductors. c electrically independent earth electrodes: earth electrodes located at such a distance from one another that the maximum current likely to flow through one of them does not significantly affect the potential of the other(s). The removable link (7) allows an earth-electrode-resistance check. c exposed-conductive-part (see table F25): a conductive part of equipment which can be touched and which is not a live part. The bonding must be effected as close as possible to the point(s) of entry into the building. v the main earthing terminal. connections The main equipotential bonding system The bonding is carried out by protective conductors and the aim is to ensure that. Supplementary equipotential connections These connections are intended to connect all exposed-conductive-parts and all extraneous-conductive-parts simultaneously accessible. gas. earthing schemes F 4. v earth electrode(s). compressed-air. c extraneous-conductive-part (see table F25): a conductive part liable to introduce a potential. TN systems). v extraneous-conductive-parts. in the event of an incoming extraneous conductor (such as a gas pipe. to the means of earthing. if any. when correct conditions for protection have not been met. c earth electrode resistance: the contact resistance of an earth electrode with the Earth. branched protective conductors to individual consumers (3) extraneous conductive parts (4) 4 3 3 3 main protective conductor heating water 4 gas 5 5 5 6 possible TN connection 1 7 2 fig. c bonding conductor (5): a protective conductor providing equipotential bonding.

c surface finishes: v floors and walls in re-inforced concrete without further surface treatment.. c metallized papers. armoured or unarmoured c mineral insulated metal-sheathed cable (pyrotenax. c related metal components (furnaces. cable ways c conduits c impregnated-paper-insulated lead-covered cable. non-electrical elements v metallic fittings associated with cable ways (cable trays. c carpets and wall-to-wall carpeting. diverse service channels. v prefabricated RC panels. bathrooms. c conduits of insulating material. 3. conduits. and all exposed-conductiveparts of electrical appliances and equipment. etc..) 2. etc. elements used in building construction c metal or re-inforced concrete (RC): v steel-framed structure. appliances c exposed metal parts of class 1 insulated appliances 4. water and heating systems. c mouldings in wood or other insulating material. etc. appliances c all appliances having class II insulation. component parts not to be consider as extraneous-conductive-parts c wooden-block floors. 2. c metallic fittings in wash rooms. ducts.1 earthing connections (continued) the efficient bonding and connecting to earth of all accessible metal fixtures. c metallic covering. etc. component parts to consider as extraneous-conductive-parts 1.) c metal objects: v close to aerial conductors or to busbars v in contact with electrical equipment. toilets. radiators). v metallic wall covering. trunking. c dry plaster-block partition. regardless of the type of exterior envelope. cable ladders. F20 . v tiled surface. table F25: list of exposed-conductive-parts and extraneous-conductive-parts. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. installation and measurements of earth electrodes This subject is dealt with at the end of Subclause 4. etc. tanks.4. reservoirs.distribution within a low-voltage installation .6. switchgear c enclosures made of insulating material. is essential for effective protection against electric shocks. etc. building services elements other than electrical c metal pipes. c rubber-covered or linoleum-covered floors. 2. component parts not to be consider as exposed-conductive-parts 1. switchgear c withdrawable section 3. c brick walls. c conductors and cables without metallic sheaths. component parts component parts to consider as exposed-conductive-parts 1. v re-inforcement rods. for gas.

5 x 50 mm2 PEN L1 L2 L3 N PE PE 16 mm2 6 mm2 16 mm2 PEN bad bad 16 mm2 TN-C scheme not permitted downstream of TN-S scheme fig F29: TN-C-S scheme. without affecting the operation of protective devices. F28: TN-S scheme. The several versions of TN schemes are shown below: TN-C scheme The neutral conductor is also used as a protective conductor and is referred to as a PEN (Protective Earth and Neutral) conductor. This electrode may or may not be electrically independent of the source electrode. and the earthing of the exposed conductive-parts of the LV installation supplied from it. L1 L2 L3 N PE Rn fig. The use of separate PE and N conductors (5 wires) is obligatory for circuits of cross-sectional area of less than 10 mm2 for copper and 16 mm2 for aluminium on mobile equipment. The choice of earthing scheme governs the measures to be taken for the protection of persons against the hazards of indirect contact. F26: TT scheme. the two zones of influence may overlap. F27: TN-C scheme. all exposed. L1 L2 L3 PEN Rn fig. is generally at the origin of the installation. At the installation.F21 . The TN-C scheme requires the establishment of an efficient equipotential environment within the installation with dispersed earth electrodes spaced as regularly as possible. neutral) conductor. TT scheme (earthed neutral) One point* at the supply source is connected directly to earth.e. In the scheme TN-C-S the TN-C (4 wires) scheme must never be used downstream of the TN-S (5 wires) scheme. Several different schemes of earthing can coexist in an installation if necessary. the TN-S (5 wires) system is obligatory for circuits of crosssectional-area of less than 10 mm2 for copper and 16 mm2 for aluminium on mobile equipment. neutral Earth exposed-conductive-parts Neutral TN schemes The source is earthed as for the TT scheme (above). TN-S scheme The protective conductor and the neutral conductor are separate. The point at which the PE conductor separates from the PEN (i. On underground cable systems where lead-sheathed cables exist. TN-C TN-S L1 L2 L3 N PE Rn fig. All exposed. * Generally the star-point of a star-connected LV winding. The choice of these methods governs the measures necessary for protection against indirect-contact hazards. This scheme is not permitted for conductors of less than 10 mm2 and for portable equipment. characterize the method of earthing the LV neutral point of a HV/LV transformer.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes the different earthing schemes described.F 4. distribution within a low-voltage installation . the protective conductor is generally the lead sheath. TN-C-S scheme The TN-C and TN-S schemes can be used in the same installation.and extraneous-conductive-parts are connected to the neutral conductor.and extraneous-conductive-parts are connected to a separate earth electrode at the installation. neutral Earth exposed-conductive-parts Earth The earthing schemes to be described characterize the method of earthing the LV neutral point of a HV/LV transformer (or of any other source) and the means of earthing exposed conductive parts of the related LV installation.

4). Zs fig. and the bridging connection is then made to the neutral terminal. HV/LV R1 C1 C2 C3 R2 R3 Zct fig.000 ohms) is connected permanently between the neutral point of the transformer LV winding and earth (fig.2 definition of standardized earthing schemes (continued) important: in the TN-C scheme the protective conductor function of the PEN conductor takes priority. F34: IT scheme (impedance-earthed). All exposed. neutral exposed-conductive-parts Earth IT scheme (isolated neutral) No intentional connection is made between the neutral point of the supply source and earth (fig. since no insulation is perfect. HV/LV IT scheme (impedance-earthed) An impedance Zs (in the order of 1. 1 km of cable will have a leakage impedance due to C1. with respect to earth. C2. F33: equivalent impedance to leakage impedances in an IT scheme. F32). C3 and R1. Exposed. In particular.000 to 2. F30: connection of the PEN conductor in the TN-C scheme. F34).and extraneous-conductiveparts are connected to an earth electrode. etc.distribution within a low-voltage installation . F22 . Example: In a LV 3-phase 3-wire system. earthing schemes (continued) F 4.000 to 4. static charges. the PEN conductor must be connected directly to the earth terminal of an applicance. In practice all circuits have a leakage impedance to earth. fig. HV/LV Isolated or Impedance-earthed fig F31: IT scheme (isolated neutral).and extraneous-conductive-parts of the installation are connected to an earth electrode. The reasons for this form of power-source earthing are to fix the potential of a small network with respect to earth (Zs is small compared to the leakage impedance) and to reduce the level of overvoltages. R2 and R3 equivalent to a neutral earth impedance Zct of 3.000 ohms.4. It has. In parallel with this (distributed) resistive leakage path there is the distributed capacitive current path. F31). the two paths together constituting the normal leakage impedance to earth (fig. TNC 4 x 95 mm2 L1 L2 L3 PEN 6 mm2 16 mm2 10 mm2 6 mm2 PEN N PEN correct incorrect PEN connected to the neutral terminal is prohibited correct incorrect S < 10 mm2 TNC prohibited fig. however. such as transmitted surges from the HV windings. the effect of slightly increasing the first-fault current level (see G 3. F32: leakage impedance in an IT scheme.

Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. F36: any insulation fault occurring outside a building creates a rapid rise in the potential difference outside the building. The result of a high voltage insulation fault is shown here for a TN system. On installations with a combined neutral and protective conductor. c overvoltages: during a LV insulation fault. c overvoltages: v under normal conditions.F 4. L1 L2 L3 PEN Rn fig. electromagnetic disturbances and the risk of damage (fire. These choices and their consequences will be described for each scheme. during a HV insulation fault. the neutral point of the triangle representing the 3-phase voltage system is displaced and the voltage between phase and the exposed conductive parts of the installation exceed the phase-to-neutral voltage. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. the potential may vary with the distance from the electrode. In practice. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers or fuses. F35: with a TN-S scheme. distribution within a low-voltage installation . fault currents can be very high. exposed conductive parts and earth are at virtually the same potential. the neutral. The PE and neutral conductors are combined in a single PEN conductor. v given the localised effect of earth electrodes. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. Therefore. Consequences c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth and the neutral conductor is earthed at as many points as possible. limited only by the impedance of the live conductors (phase and PEN). c fire. c electromagnetic disturbances. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the neutral conductor. c protective conductors. TN-C scheme Characteristics c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth and the neutral conductor is earthed at as many points as possible. L1 L2 L3 N Ω Rm PE Rd Rc The consequences are related to the following points: c electric shock. fig.F23 . residual current devices cannot be used for this purpose since an insulation fault to earth also constitutes a phase-neutral short-circuit. a value of 1.3 earthing schemes characteristics Each earthing scheme (often referred to as the type of power system or system earthing arrangement) reflects three technical choices: c earthing method. The PE and neutral conductors are combined in a single PEN conductor. electromagnetic compatibility and fire: the current of insulation faults is not limited by any earth electrode impedance and is therefore high (several kA). c arrangement of PE protective conductors. c power supply continuity. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the neutral conductor. During a LV insulation fault. c design and operation. motor windings and magnetic frames) is high. a current will flow through the earth electrode of the LV neutral and a power frequency voltage will appear between the exposed conductive parts of LV equipment and the distant earth. c power supply continuity. the supply voltage drop. c arrangement of PE protective conductors.45 Un provides a rough approximation. all earth electrodes considered together. c overvoltages.

it is necessary to know the impedance of the normal source. etc. The TN-C scheme is prohibited for all circuits with cross-sectional areas less than 10 mm2 for copper conductors or 16 mm2 for aluminium conductors. coaxial cable and the shielding of computer or telecommunications systems. at levels as low as 0. F24 .4. TNC TNS v in a less apparent manner. engine generator set. It is also prohibited for flexible conductors. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. etc. F38: to determine the breaking capacity of circuit breaker C. c corrosion: corrosion has two sources. c fire: protection is not provided for certain types of faults (impedant faults) that are not instantly transformed into solid short-circuits. regardless of its length. This situation therefore presents a risk of fire. During insulation faults. these circulating currents are considerably increased. Only residual current devices offer this type of protection. creating potential differences and therefore the flow of currents in any circuit formed by the exposed conductive parts of the installation. This impedance must be measured after installation and then at regular intervals (depending on the type of premises concerned). This phenomenon is amplified in the event of an insulation fault. the impedance of the source. that of the replacement source and the length of circuit C protected by circuit breaker C.e. the PE function has priority. c electromagnetic compatibility v when a PEN conductor is installed in a building. On installations with a combined neutral and protective conductor. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers or fuses. it leads to a power frequency voltage drop under normal operating conditions. The characteristics of the protection devices are determined from these elements.3 earthing schemes characteristics (continued) The PEN conductor must satisfy the requirements of both its functions. for example in class BE2 and BE3 premises respectively for standard NFC 15-100. upstream circuits and downstream circuits (the ones to be protected) must be known at the design phase and subsequently remain unchanged unless the protection is also changed. certain medical equipment. These phenomena are the reason for prohibiting the use of the TN-S scheme in premises where the risk of fire is high. the extraneous conductive parts of the building. resulting in a risk of fire and electromagnetic disturbances. monitors. 5 A passing one metre from a sensitive device).). the telluric currents that corrode the earth electrodes and metal structures in the case of multiple earthing. these circulating currents correspond to an imbalance of the currents in the distribution circuit and therefore the creation of a magnetic field that can disturb cathode-ray tubes. The reason is that the connection of the extraneous conductive parts of the building to the PEN conductor creates a flow of current in the structures. The magnitude of this harmonic is tripled in the neutral conductor instead of being cancelled out as is the case for the fundamental. In the event of a conflict. 5 x 50 mm 2 L1 L2 L3 N PE PEN PE 16 mm2 6 mm2 16 mm2 PEN incorrect incorrect 16 mm2 TNC scheme not permitted downstream of TN-S scheme fig. Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault.distribution within a low-voltage installation . These voltage drops are amplified in modern installations by the proliferation of equipment generating 3rd-order harmonics. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. the characteristics governing the opening of the circuit breaker or the blowing of the fuse must be determined for each configuration and source used.7 A/m (i. first the DC component that the PEN conductor can carry and second. residual current devices cannot be used for this purpose since an insulation fault to earth also constitutes a phase-neutral short-circuit. L1 L2 L3 N PE Rn fig. F37: the presence of any length of PEN conductor in a building leads to the flow of currents in the exposed conductive parts and the shielding of equipment supplied by a TN-S scheme. c design and operation v when using circuit breakers or fuses to protect against indirect contact. v when the installation can be supplied from two sources (UPS. c fire protection The TN-C scheme is prohibited in premises where there is a high risk of fire or explosion.

a high impulse voltage appears along the PE conductor. This avoids creating a TN-C scheme with its inherent disadvantages. v the neutral point of the transformer (or the power supply system if the distribution uses a TN-C scheme and the installation a TN-S scheme) is earthed just once at the upstream end of the installation. TNC 4 x 95 mm2 L1 L2 L3 PEN 6 mm2 16 mm2 10 mm2 6 mm2 PEN correct incorrect PEN connected to the neutral terminal is prohibited correct incorrect S < 10 mm2 TNC prohibited fig. creating the same transient problems as for the TN-C scheme. is not subject to voltage drop and all the resulting drawbacks of the TN-C scheme are therefore eliminated. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers. c overvoltages: under normal conditions. i. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protection conductors which are in turn connected to the transformer neutral. the neutral of the transformer. v this disconnection must be provided by circuit breakers. exposed conductive parts and earth electrode are at the same potential. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. v in the event of an insulation fault. Oversized cable cross-sections may be necessary in certain cases. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact.F25 . Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. The TN-S scheme is similar in this respect to the TT scheme. even if transient phenomena cannot be excluded and can lead to the use of lightning arrestors on the phases. fuses or residual current devices since the protection against indirect contact can be separated from the protection against phase-phase or phase-neutral shortcircuits. distribution within a low-voltage installation . TN-S scheme Characteristics c earthing method. c power supply continuity. as opposed to the PEN conductor. c arrangement of PE protective conductors.F v each circuit is designed once and for all and cannot exceed a maximum length specified in design tables as a function of the protection device used. Given the high fault currents and touch voltages: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. In particular. voltage drop and load currents in the protective conductor under normal operating conditions. electromagnetic compatibility and fire: the effects of HV/LV faults. the current of insulation faults is not limited by any earth electrode impedance and is therefore high (several kA) (see points 2. fuses or residual current devices since the protection against indirect contact can be separated from the protection against phase-phase or phase-neutral shortcircuits. 3 and 4 of the corresponding part for the TN-C scheme). The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. F39: with a TN-S scheme. neutral and exposed conductive parts. v any modification to the installation requires reassessment and checking of the protection conditions. c electromagnetic compatibility: v under normal conditions. the PE conductor. fault currents can be very high. fig. limited only by the impedance of the live conductors (phase and PE). fault currents are limited by the earth electrode resistances and the accompanying voltage drops are very small.e. v exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts are connected to the protection conductors which are in turn connected to the transformer neutral. c the neutral conductor cannot be earthed. HV insulation faults and LV insulation faults are similar to those already described for the TN-C scheme. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. F40: with a TT scheme. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. Consequences c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer (or the power supply system if the distribution uses a TN-C scheme and the installation a TN-S scheme) is earthed just once at the upstream end of the installation.

. c overvoltages: although. engine generator set. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. As a result. the potential of the exposed conductive parts and the earth electrode is the same. c fire: the use of residual current devices with operating currents i 500 mA helps prevent fires of electrical origin. v double determination of the disconnection conditions when the installation can be supplied from two sources (UPS.g. c design and operation: v calculation of the impedance of the sources and that of the circuit to be protected. The coupling of the two earth earth electrodes is. v exposed conductive parts of equipment are connected by protective conductors to the earth electrode of the installation which is generally independent with respect to the earth electrode of the transformer neutral. this may not be true for the neutral conductor which is galvanically connected to an earth electrode and the exposed conductive parts. etc. c fire. The installation of lightning arrestors provides the necessary level of protection. two interconnected PCs) connected by a shielded cable are much easier to withstand than for a TN-S scheme. v the use of residual current devices with operating currents 500 mA helps to prevent damage of electrical origin which can occur in the event of an impedant fault or due to the high level of insulation faults. v the use of a replacement source by the distribution utility or the operator is straight forward. from an overall point of view.4. Their operating currents must be low enough for the devices to detect the fault currents. v any modification to the installation requires reassessment and checking of the protection conditions. the fault current is only 100 A. the voltage drop created by the fault. c earthing method. They can protect a single circuit or a group of circuits and their operating currents are chosen according to the maximum value of the resistance R of the earth electrode for the exposed conductive parts. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. the fault current is relatively low.3 earthing schemes characteristics (continued) If the protection against indirect contact is provided by overcurrent protection devices: the same characteristics apply as for the TN-C scheme. c exposed conductive parts of equipment are connected by protective conductors to the earth electrode of the installation which is generally independent with respect to the earth electrode of the transformer neutral. with an earth electrode resistance of 230V/100A z 2. limited by two earth electrode resistances in series.distribution within a low-voltage installation the accompanying electromagnetic disturbances and the transient difference in potential between two devices (e. F26 . An installation can be modified or extended without calculations or in-situ measurements. It is unnecessary to know the upstream source impedance and there is no limit concerning the length of the circuits (except to avoid excessive voltage drop). as for the TN scheme. On industrial sites or urban areas. v the presence of residual current devices minimises the design and operating constraints. c electromagnetic compatibility: in the event of an insulation fault. design and operation: v the drawbacks already discussed are eliminated and we obtain the advantages of the TT scheme. If the protection against indirect contact is provided by residual current devices: to avoid nuisance tripping. Their operating currents must be low enough for the devices to detect the fault currents.). c arrangement of PE protective conductors. TT scheme Characteristics c earthing method: v the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth. it is often possible to use high residual operating currents in the order of 1 A or more. c electromagnetic compatibility: under normal conditions. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. different and in some cases relatively far away (often the case for lightning strikes in rural areas). an acceptable compromise. limited by two earth electrode resistances in series. leading to a risk of fire. For instance. the impulse voltage that appears along the PE conductor is low and the resulting disturbances are negligible. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. c fire: protection is not provided for impedant faults. In practice. v residual current devices are added in the form of relays for circuit breakers and in the form of RCCBs for fuses. v the circuits have a maximum length that cannot be exceeded. this disconnection is carried out by residual current devices. Consequences c the neutral point of the transformer is connected directly to earth. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact: v automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault. In practice. c design and operation: for distribution circuits. with checking by measurements after installation and then at regular intervals. the PE conductor is not subject to voltage drop and all the resulting drawbacks of the TN-C scheme are therefore eliminated. the cross-sectional area of the PE conductor can be less than for a TN-S scheme. In the event of an insulation fault. this disconnection is carried out by residual current devices. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. Automatic disconnection is mandatory in the event of an insulation fault.3 Ω. this is not generally the case.

F c electromagnetic compatibility: insulation fault currents last only a short time. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. F41: with an IT scheme. even if the standards allow for this possibility for safety reasons. distribution within a low-voltage installation . The neutral point of the transformer is isolated from earth or earthed through an impedance and an overvoltage limiter. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. The user of an IT system chooses that this situation must never occur. exposed conductive parts and the extraneous conductive parts of the building to which they are connected. c arrangement of PE protective conductors. c overvoltages: v under normal conditions. Consequences c earthing method. fault currents are limited by the earthing of the neutral and by the overvoltage limiter. c overvoltages: after a first fault. Exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts of the building are connected to the building’s earth electrode. c arrangement of protection against indirect contact. The occurrence of a second fault should be made highly improbable by installing an insulation monitoring device that will detect and indicate the occurrence of a first fault that can then be promptly located and eliminated. the neutral conductor. the PE conductors show no voltage drop. its potential is maintained close to that of the exposed conductive parts by the earth leakage capacitances of the trunking and equipment. functional earthing conductors. Exposed conductive parts of equipment and extraneous conductive parts of the building are connected to the building’s earth electrode. HV/LV R1 C1 C2 C3 R2 R3 fig. The fault current in the event of a single insulation fault is low and does not represent a hazard. exposed conductive parts and earth electrode are at virtually the same potential. The protection against overvoltages should be implemented according to the criteria common to all the earthing schemes. c if lightning arrestors are used. A high level of equipotentiality is maintained between protective conductors. IT scheme Characteristics c earthing method The neutral point of the transformer is isolated from earth or earthed through an impedance and an overvoltage limiter. the standards stipulate that their rated voltages should be chosen according to the phase-tophase voltage. its potential is held close to that of the exposed conductive parts by the earth leakage capacitances of the trunking and equipment. the equipment continues to be supplied with power and the phase-to-phase voltage gradually appears between the healthy phases and the exposed conductive parts. less than 100 ms (or less than 400 ms on distribution circuits) and are low in magnitude. Under normal conditions. and even when a first insulation fault occurs. a result of the capacitances between the live conductors and the expoed conductive parts such as those of the load circuits and HF filters. c electromagnetic compatibility: under normal conditions. c power supply continuity and electromagnetic compatibility: second insulation fault can occur on a different phase. v a first low voltage insulation fault does not produce any voltage drop on the mains or electromagnetic disturbance over a wide frequency range corresponding to the occurrence of a classical insulation fault current. c power supply continuity and electromagnetic compatibility: v the current of a first insulation fault is low. The PE conductors are separate from the neutral conductors and are sized for the highest fault current that can occur. creating a short-circuit and the associated hazards. The fault current in the event of a single insulation fault is low and does not represent a hazard.F27 . v an overvoltage limiter should be installed to prevent a rise in potential between the live parts and the exposed conductive parts that could exceed the withstand voltage of the LV equipment in the event of a fault originating in the high voltage installation. Equipment must be chosen with this constraint in mind. Notes: c standard IEC 950 (or EN 60950) defines a category of information processing equipment that can be used on IT systems. Under normal conditions. c arrangement of PE protective conductors.

Otherwise the use of sockets should be avoided or other measures taken. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. v comment: the earth conductor. v if 30 mA residual current devices are used to protect socket circuits: . If the two faults occur downstream of the same residual current device.distribution within a low-voltage installation . isolation of loads with high leakage currents (certain furnaces and certain types of computer hardware). the residual current device can trip on a first insulation fault. must be protected by 4-pole devices including neutral protection or 2-pole devices.if the loads powered by such a circuit are not critical. c design and operation: v trained maintenance personnel must be available for prompt locating and elimination of the first insulation fault. and their earth electrode systems are not connected. the device considers the fault current as a load current and may not trip. Residual current devices can alos be used.3 earthing schemes characteristics (continued) The occurrence of a second fault should be made highly improbable by installing an insulation monitoring device that will detect and indicate the occurrence of a first fault that can then be promptly located and eliminated. The protective devices are designed to operate in the event of a double fault. F28 . and as long as a residual current device is present upstream. thereby eliminating it immediately. the rules are similar to those for the TN scheme. . a residual current device must always be included at the head of each installation. This measure prevents one insulation fault on phase 1 of the first site and another on phase 2 of the second site from creating a dangerous situation. etc.the total capacitive earth leakage current downstream of such a device must not exceed 10 mA. A separate residual current device is therefore required for each circuit..4. examination of the influence of leakage currents. 1-pole + neutral protection devices are permitted as long as the ratings for the phase and neutral are the same or close. If circuit breakers or fuses are used. c fire: the use of an insulation monitoring device and possibly residual current devices with operating currents i 500 mA prevents fires of electrical origin. v the installation must be designed with great care: use of the IT scheme where justified by requirements related to continuity of supply. division of the installation. The value is estimated using the phase-to-phase voltage for the phase and for the phase-to-neutral voltage for the neutral. if distributed. in particular with respect to residual current devices. In final distribution boxes. If two sites have the same installation using an IT scheme.

basing the final choice on the specific constraints of the electrical installation. If medium-sensitivity residual current devices are installed.1 choice criteria 1st criterion No earthing scheme is universal. they provide this scheme with improved protection against fire and greater flexibility both in design and use. analyse every case separately. On the other hand. The main reason is that it is the simplest scheme to implement in private or public distribution. the needs of the user and the rules laid down by applicable legislation or by the power distribution utility. When it is possible to choose the earthing scheme.4. including those related to: c design. The best solution often involves several different earthing schemes for different parts of the installation. The TN-C and TN-C-S schemes are not recommended for use. c maintenance. all costs must be taken into account. The IT scheme is recommended if power supply continuity is imperative. c currents flowing in the extraneous conductive parts. c trained maintenance personnel available at all times: v to promptly eliminate any first fault. This scheme is generally implemented without medium-sensitivity residual current devices. c modification or extensions. The TN-S scheme is recommended for installations that have a high level of surveillance or installations not subject to extensions or modifications. shielding. INFLUENCE OF EARTHING ELECTRODES Private substation with TN scheme c the inside of the equipment is not exposed (U2 = 230 V). c high insulation fault currents. The IT scheme offers the best guarantee concerning the availability of power. 4th criterion In terms of overvoltage withstand and electromagnetic disturbances. c uneliminated impedant faults. c protection against overvoltages. v to supervise extensions to the installation. IT. LV consumer with TT scheme c the inside of the equipment is exposed in the event of nearby lightning strikes (Rb-If).F29 .F 4. c when correctly implemented. c production losses. c protection against fire of electric origin. 2nd criterion These solutions must satisfy the following fundamental criteria: c protection against electric shock. the effects of an HV insulation fault are eliminated. distribution within a low-voltage installation . given the need for two separate LV earthing electrodes. A detailed study is required. 5th criterion When making an economic comparison. It however requires: c a detailed study: v organisation of withstand to overvoltages and leakage currents. overvoltage protection must often be provided. c power supply continuity. exposed conductive parts. The presence of any length of PEN conductor in a building leads to the flow of currents in the exposed conductive parts and the shielding of equipment supplied by a TN-S scheme. Drawbacks however include: c insulation fault currents are high and can result in: v transient disturbances. v even fire! c a detailed study is required. TT and TN-S schemes are equally satisfactory if correctly implemented. c protection against electromagnetic disturbances. given the risk of fire and electromagnetic disturbances due to: c voltage drops along the PEN conductors. See the section dealing with lightning arrestors. c the incoming systems are exposed to Uf. v high risk of damage. 3rd criterion: comparison of earthing schemes A comparison of the different earthing schemes leads to the following recommendations for use: The TT scheme is recommended for installations that have only limited surveillance or installations subject to extensions or modifications.

protection against overvoltages due to HV faults must be provided by an overvoltage limiter. For TN type schemes. This continuous current creates voltage drops between the exposed conductive parts of sensitive equipment connected to the PEN conductor. it is recommended to use the TN-S scheme together with residual current devices rather than the standard TN scheme.protection against fire of electrical origin For TT schemes and IT schemes. etc. a load imbalance current circulates continuously in the PEN conductor. etc. for sites with a number of buildings supplied by the same source and interconnected by communications media. The TN-C scheme presents a higher risk of fire under normal operating conditions than the other schemes. the earthing scheme used is of no importance. 2) Decide on the number and quality of equipotential zones (room.2 comparison for each criterion 1 . v by a denser mesh. A load imbalance current circulates continuously in the PEN conductors and the connected parts (e. TT. for IT schemes. site) so as to organise the protection of each. The presence of 3rd order harmonics significantly amplifies this current in modern installations. metal frames. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. the insulation fault current is high and major damage can result.level of protection against electric shock All earthing schemes provide equal protection against electric shock as long as they are implemented and used in accordance with applicable standards. 3 . building. 2) If correctly implemented.4.distribution within a low-voltage installation . F30 . Comment: c the use of a TN-S scheme does not eliminate the need for the above measures. v nearby direct lightning strikes. This evaluation should be carried out at power frequency and then at higher frequencies up to several MHz. exposed conductive parts. 2 . For all common mode or differential mode disturbances with frequencies greater than 1 MHz. the earthing scheme used is of no importance. It is therefore prohibited in premises presenting a high risk of fire or explosion. exposed conductive parts of equipment and cable shielding. c the type of premises: v choose the appropriate level of safety. the insulation fault current is respectively low or very low.4. in the event of a solid fault. Furthermore. in the event of a single fault.protection against electromagnetic disturbances 1) For differential mode disturbances. For TN schemes. Note however that for the TN-S scheme.). 3) For TN-C or TN-C-S earthing schemes. major disturbances are produced during an insulation fault. protection against impedant faults is insufficient unless residual current devices are included: c in this case. 4 . In practice.) on the lines of the different incoming and outgoing electrical systems. c TT installations generally require lightning arrestors (rural). c the type of supply system: v in particular HV insulation faults. c complete isolation. for example by using an optical fiber communication link without a conductive sheath. The same is true for the risk of fire. 3) Implement the necessary protection (lightning arrestors.protection against overvoltages For all neutral schemes.g. shielding. the following steps are necessary: 1) Evaluate the disturbances to be taken into account as a function of: c site exposure: v overvoltages due to indirect effects of lightning. TN-S and IT schemes can satisfy all electromagnetic compatibility criteria. sized for the possible fault currents. These schemes are therefore not recommended for use. one of the following solutions should be used: c equipotentiality by interconnection of the buildings in one of the two following manners: v by at least one accompanying conductor with a cross-sectional area of at least 35 mm2.

distribution within a low-voltage installation .. which is difficult to forecast. The cost of switchgear is reduced (shortcircuit current level is lower). and a painting workshop for which supply continuity has top priority. The latter supply is shown to be provided by an IT Island system. which is independent of any imposed earthing scheme in the primary LV network.g. voltage depression during the start-up period of a large motor. HV/LV LV/LV TN system overvoltage device PIM IT system fig. safety. via a LV/LV transformer. the tables F40 and F41 can be used as an aid in deciding on divisions and possible galvanic isolation of appropriate sections of a proposed installation. v local reserve power supply source (see Clause 3 of this chapter) and the appropriate earthing schemes. e. Network islands The creation of galvanically-separated "islands" by means of LV/LV transformers allows an open choice of earthing system to be used on the secondary side. the installation network may be arranged for optimum performance on different types of load.implementation After consulting local regulations and relevant codes of practice.F31 . The quality and continuity of supply to the whole installation are thereby improved.F 4. etc.6). and c future operational expenditure that can arise from insufficient reliability. quality of materials. F42: a workshop in which supply continuity is paramount (IT) includes an arc furnace. Including: c initial investments. The most suitable arrangement is an IT scheme for the workshop. example HV/LV overvoltage device PIM LV/LV IT system TN system arc furnace fig. continuity of service. which would otherwise cause unacceptable disturbance to other loads. In this way. and an isolating LV/LV transformer to supply the arc furnace. An ideal structure would comprise: v normal power supply source. The technical/ economic appraisal must be made case by case. etc. Division of source This technique concerns the use of several transformers instead of employing one large unit.5 choice of earthing method . conclusion The optimization of the performance of the whole installation governs the choice of earthing system (see the following Sub-clause 4.. in a TN earthing scheme. F43: a factory with a load consisting mainly of welding machines requiring a TN system of earthing. This method has already been noted as a means of de-coupling loads. and so on.

e.bare cable or multiple-strip u 25 mm2. particularly when it is laid in an excavation for foundations. in which case the spacing between them should exceed the depth to which they are driven. in the electro-chemical series. however. At least four (widely-spaced) vertically arranged conductors from the electrode should be provided for the installation connections. but is the most suitable from considerations of corrosion. F44: conductor buried below the level of the foundations. often forming a base for concrete). care must be taken to avoid the occurrence of corrosion. Aluminium and lead are not suitable for use as earthing electrodes. The approximate resistance R of the electrode in ohms = 2ρ L where L = length of conductor in metres ρ = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see tables F47 and F48). The conductors may be: c copper . F45) Vertically driven earthing rods are often used for existing buildings. For existing buildings. have approximately the same galvanic potential. i. and for improving (i. F32 . on the other hand. at least 50 cm below the hard-core or aggregate base for the concrete foundation.e.4. It is often necessary to use more than one rod. since the elementary primary cell (e. zinc/copper) formed in the damp earth "electrolyte" would result in problems of corrosion. c stainless steel cable or multiple strip u 35 mm2. the zinc would be sacrificial to the copper. divided by the number of rods in question. In the case noted. The conductor forming the earth electrode. F44) This solution is strongly recommended. The quality of an earth electrode (resistance as low as possible) depends essentially on two factors: c installation method.g. c galvanized-steel cable. u 2 metres long in each case.distribution within a low-voltage installation .000 V). will corrode if connected to steel reinforcing rods in concrete. and where possible any reinforcing rods in concrete work should be connected to the electrode.6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes A low-impedance earth electrode improves considerably the protection of the electrical installation from external electromagnetic influences. Earthing rods (fig. should ever be in contact with the foundation concrete. so that copper earth electrodes may be connected to steel reinforcing rods with no danger of corrosion*. c nature of the earth. reducing the resistance of) earth electrodes in cases where upper-strata soil-drying can only be countered by deeper penetration into the earth. however. all vertical connections from an electrode to aboveground level should be insulated for the nominal LV voltage (600-1. The total resistance (in homogeneous soil) is then equal to the resistance of one rod. the watertable level in areas of high soil resistivity) a very effective method of obtaining a low-resistance earth connection is to bury a conductor in the form of a closed loop in the soil at the bottom of the excavation for the building foundations. * Practical experience has shown that corrosion is not a problem at potential differences of less than 0. for n rods: R = ρ ohms nL c galvanized (see note below) steel pipe u 25 mm diameter. The resistance R of such an electrode (in homogeneous soil) is given (approximately) in ohms by: R = 2ρ L where L = the length of the buried conductor in metres ρ = soil resistivity in ohm-metres. particularly in the case of a new building. The latter are generally 1 or 2 metres long and provided with screwed ends and sockets in order to reach considerable depths. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. As a general rule. or rod u 15 mm diameter. The use of more than one of these materials in the same soil is deprecated. The rods may be: c copper or (more commonly) copper-clad steel. not in the concrete. notably where dissimilar metals are buried in close proximity. The electrode should be buried around the perimeter of the excavation made for the foundations. requires specialized studies. installation methods Three common types of installation will be discussed: A conductor-type electrode forming a ring beneath the perimeter of the building which houses the installation concerned (fig. the electrode conductor should be buried around the outside wall of the premises to a depth of at least 1 metre. as copper in soil. and particularly in the case of overvoltages caused by lightning. Protection of the building against direct lightning strokes. by a factor of 2 to 3. Neither the electrode nor the vertical rising conductors to the ground floor. It is important that the bare conductor be in intimate contact with the soil (and not placed in the gravel or aggregate hard-core.3 V. eventually leaving an uncoated (corroding) steel conductor of high surface-to-earth contact resistance. must be in the earth. fig. Steel reinforcing rods in concrete. and is not dealt with here. Copper is the most expensive material. if necessary (for instance. Steel rods in soil.

5000 500 .500 200 . bogs silt alluvium humus. F46: vertical plate. turf soft clay marl and compacted clay jurassic marl sandy clay siliceous sand stoney ground grass-covered-stoney sub-soil chalky soil limestone fissured limestone schist.500 100 . roughly banked land stoney soil.-m) 1 . being buried in a vertical plane such that the centre of the plate is at least 1 metre below the surface of the soil. In such circumstances specialist advice is recommended.100 10 . for a vertical plate electrode: R ≈ 0. leaf mold peat. data concerning earth resistivities in analogous terrains provide a useful base for designing an earth-electrode system.300 1500 .300 1000 . The plates may be: c copper of 2 mm thickness.600 table F48: mean values of resistivity (Ω-m) for an approximate estimation of an earthelectrode resistance with respect to zero-potential earth. each side of which u 0. The resistance R in ohms is given (approximately).40 50 .1000 50 .200 30 .30 20 . F45: earthing rods.8 ρ ohms L 2 mm thickness (Cu) fig. fissured rocks mean value of resistivity (in Ω.300 800 1500 .8 ρ L where: ρ = resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres L = the perimeter of the plate in metres * Note: Where galvanized conducting materials are used for earth electrodes. sacrificial cathodic protection anodes may be necessary to avoid rapid corrosion of the electrodes where the soil is aggressive.150 5 . dry sand. gravel. c galvanized* steel of 3 mm thickness.-m) 50 500 3000 resistivity (in Ω. are commonly used as earth electrodes.10000 100 .3000 300 . Specially prepared magnesium anodes (in a porous sack filled with a suitable "soil") are available for direct connection to the electrodes. bare.100 50 100 . F46) Rectangular plates. by: 0. Vertical plates (fig.F The approximate resistance R obtained in ohms = ρ n L if the distance separating the rods > 4L where: L = the length of the rod in metres ρ = the resistivity of the soil in ohm-metres (see table F47) n = the number of rods Lu3m rods connected in parallel fig. nature of the terrain heavy arable land. shale mica schist granite and sandstone decomposed granite and sand stone table F47: resistivity (Ω-m) for different kinds of terrain. compacted humid banks light soil arable land.5 metres. influence of the nature of the soil nature of the terrain swampy soil. distribution within a low-voltage installation .F33 .

4. the zones of resistance of electrodes (X) and (C) become more remote. different soils acting on sections of the same conductor can also form cathodic and anodic areas with consequent loss of surface metal from the latter areas.c. low soil resistivity) are also those in which galvanic currents can most easily flow. measured between (X) and (P). F34 . F49) UTt1 A = RT + Rt1 = i1 Ut1t2 B = Rt1 + Rt2 = i2 Ut2T C = Rt2 + RT = i3 A + C . and the curve of potential (voltage) becomes more nearly horizontal about the point (O). v galvanic: due to stray d. is due to the test current. together with two auxiliary electrodes. voltage at a frequency of between 85 Hz and 135 Hz. U A T t2 t1 fig. two auxiliary electrodes are required.c.68 of the distance (X) to (C). Measurement of the earth-electrode resistance There must always be removable links which allow the earth electrode to be isolated from the installation. A number of tests at differspacings and directions are generally made for cross-checking the test results. This voltage.c. and wrapping with a suitable greased-tape binding is the preventive measure commonly adopted. according to site convenience. c oxidization: brazed and welded joints are the locations at which oxidization is most likely to occur. The distance (X) to (P) is generally about 0. however. therefore. to allow it to be tested.e. the spacing of which must be such that the zone of influence of the electrode being tested should not overlap that of the test electrode (C). for recommending the installation of deep electrodes.distribution within a low-voltage installation ..c. currents in the earth from traction systems. F49: measurement of the resistance to earth of the earth electrode of an installation by means of an ammeter. 50) These instruments use a hand-driven or electronic-type of a.6 installation and measurements of earth electrodes (continued) measurements and constancy of the resistance between an earth electrode and the earth The resistance of the electrode/earth interface rarely remains constant Among the principal factors affecting this resistance are the following: c the humidity of the soil: the seasonal changes in the moisture content of the soil can be significant at depths of up to 2 meters. so that periodic check tests of the earthing resistance can be carried out.i2 ) 2 In order to avoid errors due to stray earth currents (galvanic (d. Instruments using hand-driven generators to make these measurements usually produce an a. or due to dissimilar metals forming primary cells. while the second test electrode (P) picks up a voltage. etc. c ageing: the materials used for electrodes will generally deteriorate to some extent for various reasons. c ammeter method (fig. one from the other.B = 2RT When the source voltage U is constant (adjusted to be the same value for each test) then: U 1 1 1 RT = ( i1 + i3 . To make such tests. At a depth of 1 metre the value of resistivity (ρ) can vary in the ratio of 1 to 3 between a wet Winter and a dry Summer in temperate regions. If the distance (X) to (C) is increased. The test electrode (C) furthest from the electrode (X) under test. there must always be a (or a number of) removable link(s) to isolate an earth electrode. It is clear that the distance (X) to (P) must be carefully chosen to give accurate results. c use of a direct-reading earthingresistance ohmmeter (fig. passes a current through the earth and the electrode under test. but at a different frequency to that of the power system or any of its harmonics. earthing schemes (continued) F 4. the distance (X) to (C) is increased until readings taken with electrode (P) at three different points viz: at (P) and at approximately 5 metres on either side of (P) give similar values. the most favourable conditions for low earth-electrode resistance (i. In practical tests. Thorough cleaning of a newlymade joint. Unfortunately. generator. together with that noted above. and is a measure of the contact resistance (of the electrode under test) with earth. The distances between the electrodes are not critical and may be in different directions from the electrode being tested.c. for example: v chemical reactions (in acidic or alkaline soils). each consisting of a vertically driven rod. c frost: frozen earth can increase the resistivity of the soil by several orders of magnitude. This is one of the reasons.) or leakage currents from power and communication networks and so on) the test current should be a.

The location of test electrode P is not critical and can be easily determined fig. F50: measurement of the resistance to the mass of earth of electrode (X) using an earth-electrode-testing ohmmeter. In case of doubt. a simplified measurement of the earth-electrode resistance is possible. distribution within a low-voltage installation .F VG G V X P I C voltage-drop due to the resistance of electrode (X) O VG voltage-drop due to the resistance of electrode (C) a) the principle of measurement is based on assumed homogeneous soil conditions where the zones of influence of electrodes C and X everlap. X P C O b) showing the effect on the potential gradient when (X) and (C) are widely spaced. It equals the sum of the consumer earth-electrode resistance and the distributor earth-electrode resistance. It consists in measuring the impedance between the earthelectrode and the neutral conductor. Simplified measurement (TT-system) In a TT-earthed system. the location of test electrode P is difficult to determine for satisfactory results. but the distributor earth-electrode resistance is generally less than 5 Ω. This value is always pessimistic.F35 . use the general method.

fig. c the protection of personnel against the possibility of electric shock. distribution boards according to specific applications The principal types of distribution board are: c main general distribution board (fig. F51: typical sub-distribution board. heating circuits control board.).. Some of the circuits feed directly into the busbars of local distribution boards.. indicating instruments.distribution within a low-voltage installation . For example MCC (motor-controlcentre). distribution boards F a distribution board is among the most important elements in an installation.. Individual circuits. vermin. fusegear. power and so on. at which a division of circuits is made. sub-distribution boards are sometimes necessary. F51).5. F53). F52). Modern practice is to enclose LV distribution boards in metal housings. which afford double protection: c the protection of switchgear. "functional" distribution board. and so on. relays.. each of which is controlled and protected by the fuses or switchgear of the board. are supplied from the busbars. and to the design principle adopted (notably in the arrangement of the busbars). c sub-distribution board (fig. may differ according to the kind of application. F53: an example of a large industrial main general distribution board. or an assembly of LV switchgear. while in extensive installations. The local and sub-distribution boards are dispersed throughout the installation. the load requirements dictate the type of distribution board to be installed. against mechanical shocks.e. fig. or c in proximity to the process concerned. etc. F52: local general distribution board. Its design and construction must conform with welldefined standards. c local general distribution board (fig. vibrations and other external influences likely to interfere with operational integrity (EMI*. * electromagnetic interference 5. A main general distribution board is the point at which the incoming-power supply divides into separate circuits. fig. which are usually grouped according to the circuit function (lighting. moisture.). c process-control i. dust. thereby creating three levels of distribution. the power supply is connected to a set of busbars via a main switch (a circuit breaker or switch-fuse). Distribution boards are generally referred to in written texts by the abbreviation DB. F36 . The process-control boards are either: c adjacent to the main general distribution board. heating. In general.1 types of distribution board Distribution boards.

A quick estimation of the area required can be made by multiplying the sum of the areas of the individual items by 2. and so on. Using these prefabricated components greatly facilitates the assembly of the board. modifications and so on. realization of the two types of DB Traditional DBs Switchgear and fusegear. pushbuttons. etc. thereby ensuring an excellent safety performance. isolating switch. the connections to be made to it. etc. fig. Moreover. For example. indicating lamps. Isolation is effected on both the upstream and downstream sides by the complete withdrawal of the unit. fixed functional units (fig.and fusegear. fig. control pushbuttons. lamps. F55) Each functional unit is mounted on a removable panel and provided with a means of isolation on the upstream (busbars) side and disconnecting facilities on the downstream (circuit) side. fuses. are fixed to a chassis at the inside-rear part of the housing c functional DBs for specific applications. F56: board with withdrawable chassismounted units. according to the particular function. Figure F54 is an example of an industrial functional DB. These units are not suitable for circuit isolation (from the busbars for example) so that any intervention for maintenance. F54: board with fixed functional units. distribution within a low-voltage installation . etc.) are mounted on the front face of the board. Design of the board is rapid. taking into account the dimensions of each item. F55: board with isolating and disconnecting features on each functional unit. without requiring a general shutdown. Functional DBs Dedicated to specific functions. are normally located on a chassis near the back of the enclosure. The complete unit can therefore be removed for servicing. drawer-type motor control units. Indications and control devices (meters. since it is sufficient to add the number of modules required. with vacant spaces for later additional units if necessary. and the clearances necessary to ensure safe and trouble-free operation.F37 . withdrawable chassis-mounted functional units (fig. functional units which have isolating and disconnecting features (fig. the components of these boards have benefited from type tests. recourse is made to functional modules which include switchgear and devices.F a distinction is made between: c traditional DBs in which switch. F56) The switchgear and associated accessories fig. The placement of the components within the enclosure requires very careful study. F54) The board is made up of fixed functional units such as contactors and associated relays.5. are mounted on a drawer-type horizontally withdrawable chassis. The use of removable plug-in or withdrawable units however can minimize shutdown times. 5.2 the technologies of functional distribution boards There are three basic technologies in general use for the realization of functional DBs. which comprise contactor. requires the shutdown of the entire board. together with accessories for mounting and connections. The function is generally complex and often concerns motor control. which are then limited to the interval required only to remove or withdraw the unit of the circuit concerned.

Such signal conversions (e. analogue-todigital.distribution within a low-voltage installation . than that afforded by Form 1. unless the whole distribution board is shut down. into different compartments. c finally. for transmission to and reception from the central command post. F38 .) to suit the data-transmission links must therefore be housed. in schemes of remote control. form 1 form 2 form 3 form 4 fig. according to the degree of internal separation.3 standards conformity with the relevant standards is essential in order to ensure an adequate degree of operational safety.g.g. manufactured and type-tested as complete units. etc. The organization of data acquisition from. c limitation of the probability of initiating arcing faults. distribution boards (continued) F 5.g. metallic or non-metallic) shall be the subject of agreement between the manufacturer and the user. The form of the separation (e. v Form 3: separation of busbars from the functional units and separation of all functional units. IEC standard 439-1 IEC 439-1 covers LV switchgear and controlgear assemblies. safe intervention for maintenance. is not possible. also conform to specific recommendations of IEC 439-1. but including separation of the outgoing terminals of all functional units. The separations provide: c protection against contact with live parts of adjacent functional units. concerned. The following are typical forms of separation by barriers or partitions: v Form 1: no separation. 3 and 4 are generally used since. by barriers or partitions. v Form 2: separation of busbars from the functional units.5. one from another. Forms 2. and supplied with suitable pollutionfree power. c protection against the passage of foreign solid bodies from one unit of the assembly to an adjacent unit. F57: representation of different forms of LV functional distribution boards. one from another. individual type tests. v Form 4: as for Form 3. two elements of the standard IEC 439-1 largely contribute to operational safety: c forms of separation between adjacent functional units according to user's requirements c clearly defined individual and type tests. In the interests of economy (in communication-cable costs) all data and control-command signals should be processed at the equipment (e. in each case. the busbars are enclosed. thereby allowing safer intervention on functional units or their outgoing-circuit components. and instructions to equipment. electrical-to-optical. at. so that without complete segregation between adjacent units. functional distribution boards) in which all component parts are individually subject to IEC 947. except at their output terminals. is assuming greater importance as Centralized Technical Management techniques become more general. etc.. checks and functional tests carried out during manufacture ensure conformity to the standard of the entire assembly. Certains types of distribution boards (in particular. functional DBs) in question.4 centralized control the integration of functional distribution boards in a system of centralized technical management must be taken into account from the earliest design stage. or very near to the distribution boards or other equipment. Forms 3 and 4 are adopted where the space available for each functional unit is limited. IEC 439-1 defines four "forms" of assembly. 5.

distributors F 6. and by the number of connecting points possible. as noted in IEC 439 Parts 1 and 2. flexibility.6. and by the number of connecting points possible. c by prefabricated pre-wired cable channels. The method of installation will affect the maximum current permitted. types Two types of distribution are possible: Distribution by insulated conductors and cables Includes the mechanical protection and fixing of conduits. Distribution by prefabricated cable channels These channels are distinguished by their ease of installation. F58: example 1: radial distribution wiring scheme for a hotel. distribution within a low-voltage installation . The latter are distinguished by their ease of installation. flexibility. examples subdistribution board local general distribution board main general distribution board (MGDB) heating. general utilities distribution board fig. etc.1 description and choice two types of distribution are possible: c by insulated wires and cables. etc.F39 . using conductors in conduits and cables.

1.s. Where flexibility and ease of circuit modification are important.2 and 2. then the prefabricated cable channelling system should be the first choice. F59: example 2: radial distribution with prefabricated bus trunking and cable channels for an entrepot installation. then the insulated wires-andconduit system is the more-economic solution. 2. In the case of a fixed installation which is unlikely to be modified. selection of method-criteria The main considerations governing the choice of one method or the other are the first cost and the likelihood of extensive and frequent modifications. for the case of a wires-and-conduit installation.1 description and choice (continued) transformer bus-duct transformer to MGDB mainbusbar trunking prefabricated pre-wired cable channels prefabricated distribution busbar trunking MGDB prefabricated power and light-current distribution column local general distribution board offices prefabricated pre-wired cable channels fig. distributors (continued) F 6. of wiring conductors and cables. either frequently or extensively. the most economic) c. is given in Sub-clauses 2.a.e. F40 . Design information concerning the smallest allowable (i.6.distribution within a low-voltage installation .3 of Chapter H1.

F
6.2 conduits, conductors and cables
IEC 364-5-52 provides information on the selection and erection of wiring systems, based on the principles described in IEC 364-1, concerning cables and conductors, their termination and/or jointing, their associated supports or suspensions, and their enclosures or methods of protection against external influences.

selection of wiring systems and methods of installation, according to IEC 364-5-52 (1993)
The selection of a wiring system may be made from the following table. conductors and cables method of installation without clipped conduit cable fixings direct trunking (including skirting trunking, flush floor trunking) + + cable cable on supducting ladder, inport cable sulators wire tray, cable brackets

bare conductors insulated conductors sheathed cables (including armoured and mineral insulated) c multi-core c single-core

+

-

+ +

-

+ 0

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

0 0

+ +

+: Permitted. -: Not permitted. 0: Not applicable, or not normally used in practice.

table F60: selection of wiring systems. Recommended erection methods are indicated in the table below. situations method of installation without with conduit cable fixings fixings trunking (including skirting trunking, flush floor trunking) 21, 25 0 22, 73, 73, 74 74 43 43 41, 42 31, 32 cable cable on supducting ladder, inport cable sulators wire tray, cable brackets 23 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 0 0 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 0 -

building voids

cable channel

4, 23

-

-

buried in ground embedded in structure surface mounted overhead

62, 63 52, 53 -

0 51 11

61 1, 2, 5 3

33 31, 32 71, 72 34

61 24 4

18

-

-

-

0

-

18

17

immersed

81

81

0

-

0

-

-

The number in each box indicates the reference number in table H52 (IEC 364-5-52)*. -: Not permitted. 0: Not applicable, or not normally used in practice. Note: for current-carrying capacity see IEC 364-5-523.

table F61: erection of wiring systems.
* Table H52 of IEC 364-5-52 fills seven pages. Two of these pages are reproduced below by way of example.

distribution within a low-voltage installation - F41

6. distributors (continued)

F
6.2 conduits, conductors and cables (continued)
example 1 description 2 insulated conductors in conduits embedded in thermally insulating walls room reference 3 1

multicore cables in conduits embedded in thermally insulating walls room

2

insulated conductors in surface mounted conduits

3

single or multicore cables in surface mounted conduits

3A

insulated conductors in cable ducting on a wall single or multicore cables in cable ducting on a wall

4 4A

insulated conductors in conduits embedded in masonry

5

single or multicore cables in conduits embedded in masonry

5A

sheathed and/or armoured cables or sheathed single or multicore armoured cables c on a wall 11

c on a ceiling

11A

c on unperforated trays

12

c on perforated trays

13

c on brackets run horizontally or vertically

14

c on cleats, spaced from a wall or a ceiling

15

c on ladders

16

F42 - distribution within a low-voltage installation

F
example 1 description 2 sheathed single-core or multicore cables suspended from or incorporating suspension wire reference 3 17

bare or insulated conductors on insulators

18

table F62: some examples of installation methods.
Note: the illustrations are not intended to depict actual product or installation practices but are indicative of the method described.

distribution within a low-voltage installation - F43

6. distributors (continued)

F
6.2 conduits, conductors and cables (continued)
Designation of conduits according to the most recent IEC recommendations
new designation code 3 90 3 2 8 6 1 2 25

obligatory marking code 1st numeral: mechanical properties average mechanical constraints: very light 1 light 2 medium 3 high 4 very high 5 2nd and 3rd numerals: classification according to temperature withstand capabilities: conduit class: -5°C 05 -25°C 25 +90°C 90 complementary marking code: 1st complementary numeral: malleability of conduits: rigid (slight bends only are possible) 1 malleable ("bendable") 2 transversally flexible (will flatten when bent) 3 flexible 4 2nd complementary numeral: electrical properties of conduits: with electrical continuity 1 intended for use as complementary insulation 2 intended for use as complementary insulation but including electrical continuity 3 3rd complementary numeral: resistance of conduits to the penetration of water, including: rain water projections of water (wind-blown rain) jets of water (from hose pipe, etc.) sea spray temporary immersion long-term immersion 4th complementary numeral: resistance to the penetration of solid bodies: conduits providing protection against: solid bodies greater than 2.5 mm solid bodies greater than 1 mm dust dust-proof (total exclusion) 5th complementary numeral: resistance to corrosion: conduits with protection: light, internal and external protection medium external, and light internal protection medium external and internal protection heavy external and light internal protection heavy external and medium internal protection heavy external and internal protection 6th complementary numeral: resistance to solar radiation: conduits with protection: low degree medium degree high degree reference number indicating the exterior diameter in mm 16-20-25-32-40-50-63

3 4 5 6 7 8 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3

table F63: designation code for conduits according to the most recent IEC publications.

F44 - distribution within a low-voltage installation

F
designation code for LV conductors and cables
as referred to in this sub-clause a conductor comprises a single metallic core in an insulating envelope.
Definitions c a conductor: as referred to in this subclause a conductor comprises a single metallic core in an insulating envelope. c a cable: a cable is made of a number of conductors, electrically separated, but mechanically solid, and generally enclosed in a protective flexible sheath. c a cable-way: the term cable-way refers to conductors and/or cables together with the means of support and protection, etc. for example: cable trays, ladders, ducts, trenches, and so on... are all "cable-ways". Designation Most countries have national standards of codification for conductors and cables. In Europe, a code has been established by CENELEC* which "harmonizes" the several codes of member countries, each of which is progressively replacing its national code by the CENELEC version. It may be noted, that at the time of writing, certain cable types (notably XLPE insulated) have not yet been included in the harmonized code. Table F64 illustrates the form and significance of the designation code. * Comité Européen de Normalisation de l'Electrotechnique.

a cable is made up of a number of conductors, electrically separated, but mechanically solid, and generally enclosed in a protective flexible sheath.

the term cable-way refers to conductors and/or cables together with the means of support and protection, etc. for example : cable trays, ladders, ducts, trenches, and so on... are all "cable-ways".

designation code (CENELEC)

H

07

R

N

-

-

F

3

G

1,5

"harmonized" cable H cable derived from a harmonized cable A cable according to a national standard FRN service voltage between conductors 300 volts maximum 03 500 volts maximum 05 750 volts maximum 07 1,000 volts maximum 1 symbols for insulation materials ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) natural rubber or equivalent (Rubber) polyvinylchloride (PVC) cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) polychloroprene (neoprene) (PCP) symbol of sheath materials ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) natural rubber or equivalent (Rubber) polyvinylchloride (PVC) cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) polychloroprene (neoprene) (PCP) special constructions flat divisible cable flat indivisible cable core metals copper (no code) aluminium core symbols solid single core (inflexible) core of twisted strands (inflexible) flexible core, class 5 standard flexible core (fixed installation) highly-flexible core, class 6 composition of the cables number of conductors multiplication sign if no green/yellow conductor is present sign when a green/yellow conductor is present cross-sectional area of conductor

B R V X N B R V X N H H2

A U R F K H X X G X

table F64: designation of conductors and cables according to CENELEC code for harmonized cables.
CENELEC has undertaken a project of harmonization of different national standards, with a view to facilitating exchanges between European countries.

distribution within a low-voltage installation - F45

6. distributors (continued)

F
6.2 conduits, conductors and cables (continued)
Example of decoding: H07 RN-F 3G 1,5 : Harmonized cable - Nominal voltage 450/750 V - Rubber insulated - Neoprene (PCP) sheathed - Flexible-3 conductors: 1 green/yellow conductor - All conductors are 1.5 mm2. conductors and cables designation according to the French national standards code U 1000 R12N U 1000 R2V U 1000 RVFV U 1000 RGPFV
core core insulation non-metallic protective sheath

fig. F65: typical 3-core unarmoured cable. designation according to CENELEC code cable standards not yet harmonized FRN 1X1X2 FRN 1X1G1 FRN 1X1X2Z4X2 FRN 1X1G1Z4G1 H 07 RN-F FRN 07 RN-7 FRN 05VV-U FRN 05VV-R H 05VV-F H 05VVH2-F H 07V-U H 07V-R H 07VK FRN 0...-U FRN 0...-R FRN 0...number of conductors c.s.a.-voltage mm2 V

cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) inflexible cables inflexible cables with halogen-free insulation (1) flexible elastomericinsulated cables PVC-insulated cables

1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 1 to 5 2 to 5 7 to 37 2 to 5 2 to 5 2 to 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

1.5 - 630 1.5 - 300 1.5 - 240 1.5 - 630 1.5 - 630 1.5 - 300 1.5 - 300 1.5 - 500 1.5 - 4 1.5 - 35 1.5 - 35 0.75 - 2.5 0.75 1.5 - 400 1.5 - 400 1.5 - 240 1.5 - xxx 1.5 - xxx 1.5 - xxx

PVC-insulated conductors conductors with halogen-free insulation
(1) cable of category C1 (non-fire-propagating cable).

table F66: commonly used conductors and cables.

c rule 1 The green-and-yellow striped marking is reserved exclusively for protective conductors PE or PEN. c rule 2 Where a circuit includes a neutral conductor, it must be coloured lightblue (or marked by the number 1 for multicore cables of more than 5 conductors). Where a circuit does not include a neutral conductor, the light-blue conductor may be used as a phase conductor if it is included in a cable of more than one conductor. c rule 3 Phase conductors may be identified by any colour, except: v green-and-yellow, v green, v yellow, v light-blue (see rule 2).

identification marking of LV conductors
LV wiring and cable conductors are marked either by colouring, or by numbers. These markings, as recommended in IEC 446, are governed by the following three rules: c rule 1 The green-and-yellow striped marking is reserved exclusively for protective conductors PE or PEN. c rule 2 Where a circuit includes a neutral conductor, it must be coloured light-blue (or marked by the number 1 for multicore cables of more than 5 conductors). Where a circuit does not include a neutral conductor, the light-blue conductor may be used as a phase conductor if it is included in a cable of more than one conductor. c rule 3 Phase conductors may be identified by any colour, except: v green-and-yellow, v green, v yellow, v light-blue (see rule 2). Note: if a circuit requires a protective conductor, but the cable which is available for the circuit does not include a green-andyellow striped conductor, the protective conductor may be: c either a separate conductor with green-andyellow striped insulation, or c a light-blue conductor, if the circuit does not include a neutral conductor, or c a black conductor, if the circuit includes a neutral conductor. In the two last cases, the conductor used must be marked by bands or grommets of striped green-and-yellow colours at the extremities of the cable, and along any of its exposed lengths.

F46 - distribution within a low-voltage installation

7. external influences

F
Every electrical installation occupies an environment which presents a more-or-less severe degree of risk c for persons, c for the materials constituting the installation. Consequently, environmental conditions influence the definition and choice of appropriate installation materials and the choice of protective measures for the safety of persons. The environmental conditions are referred to collectively as "external influences".

7.1 classification
external influences shall be taken into account when choosing: c the appropriate measures to ensure the safety of persons (in particular in special locations or electrical installations) c the characteristics of electrical equipment, such as IP degree, mechanical withstand, water ingress.
Many national standards concerned with external influences include a classification scheme which is based on, or which closely resembles, that of the international standard IEC 364-3. This standard (IEC 364-3) devotes many pages to detailed explanations of each class of influence, and for such detail the reader is referred to the standard. Following the IEC codification scheme given below, however, a concise list of external influences, extracted from Appendix A of the IEC document, is presented in table F67. Codification Each condition of external influence is designated by a code comprising a group of two capital letters and a number as follows: The first letter relates to the general category of external influence. A = environment B =utilization C = construction of buildings The second letter relates to the nature of the external influence. The number relates to the class within each external influence. For example the code AC2 signifies: A = environment AC = environment-altitude AC2 = environment-altitude > 2,000 m Note: the codification given in this chapter is not intended to be used for marking equipment.

distribution within a low-voltage installation - F47

1 classification (continued) A AA AA1 AA2 AA3 AA4 AA5 AA6 AB AC AC1 AC2 AD AD1 AD2 AD3 AD4 AD5 AD6 AD7 AD8 AE AE1 BA BA1 BA2 BA3 BA4 BA5 BB BC BC1 C CA CA1 CA2 materials non-combustible combustible CB CB1 CB2 structure negligible risk fire propagation building ambient (°C) -60°C +5°C -40°C +5°C -25°C +5°C -5°C +40°C +5°C +40°C +5°C +60°C humidity altitude (m) ≤ 2000 > 2000 water negligible drops sprays splashes jets waves immersion submersion foreign bodies negligible capability ordinary children handicapped instructed skilled resistance contact with earth none AE2 AE3 AE4 AF AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AG AG1 AG2 AG3 AH AH1 AH2 AH3 AJ AK AK1 AK2 BC2 BC3 BC4 BD BD1 BD2 BD3 small very small dust corrosion negligible atmospheric intermittent continuous impact low medium high vibration low medium high other mechanical stresses flora no hazard hazard low frequent continuous evacuation (low density/ easy exit) (low density/ difficult exit) (high density/ easy exit) AL AL1 AL2 AM AM1 AM2 AM3 AM4 AM5 AM6 AN AN1 AN2 AP AP1 AP2 AP3 AP4 AQ AQ1 AQ2 AR BD4 BE BE1 BE2 BE3 BE4 fauna no hazard hazard radiation negligible stray currents electromagnetic ionization electrostatics induction solar negligible significant seismic negligible low medium high lightning negligible indirect wind (high density/ difficult exit) materials no risk fire risk explosion risk contamination risk B utilization environnement CB3 CB4 structure movement flexible table F67: concise list of important external influences (taken from Appendix A of IEC 364-3). F48 . external influences (continued) F 7.7.distribution within a low-voltage installation .

c protection against the ingress of liquids. recommended in IEC 529 (1989). fig. IP Code letters (International Protection) First characteristic numeral (numerals 0 to 6. Additional letters and/or supplementary letters may be omitted without replacement. W) 2 3 C H Where a characteristic numeral is not required to be specified. or letter X) Additional letter (optional) (letters A.2 protection by enclosures: IP code The degree of protection provided by an enclosure is indicated in the IP code. c protection of persons against access to live parts. S. C.F49 . M. F68: IP Code arrangement. D) Supplementary letter (optional) (letters H. B. Note: the IP code applies to electrical equipment for voltages up to and including 72.F 7. or letter X) Second characteristic numeral (numerals 0 to 8. it shall be replaced by the letter "X" ("XX" if both numerals are omitted).5 kV. Protection is afforded against the following external influences: c penetration by solid bodies. c protection against the ingress of dust. distribution within a low-voltage installation .

5 mm diameter u 2. external influences (continued) F 7.7. F50 . Element Code letters Numerals or letters IP Meaning for the protection of equipment Against ingress of solid foreign objects 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 (non-protected) u 50 mm diameter u 12.2 protection by enclosures: IP code (continued) Elements of the IP Code and their meanings A brief description of the IP Code elements is given in the following chart.distribution within a low-voltage installation .5 mm diameter u 1.0 mm diameter dust-protected dust-tight Meaning for the protection of persons Against access to hazardous parts with (non-protected) back of hand finger tool wire wire wire First characteristic numeral Second characteristic numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Against ingress of water with harmful effects (non-protected) vertically dripping dripping (15° tilted) spraying splashing jetting powerful jetting temporary immersion continuous immersion - Additional letter (optional) A B C D - Against access to hazardous parts with back of hand finger tool wire Supplementary letter (optional) H M S W Supplementary information specific to: High-voltage apparatus Motion during water test Stationary during water test Weather conditions - fig. F69: elements of the IP Code.

box spanners. IP20C . (4) protects the equipment inside the enclosure against harmful effects due to water splashed against the enclosure from any direction. IP2X . using additional letter. IPX5 .protects the equipment inside the enclosure against ingress of solid foreign objects having a diameter of 12. using additional letter. IPX1C . the rotor of a rotating machine). IPXXC . Access to the interior of a protective enclosure In the normal operating state. no options. etc.omitting second characteristic numeral. Figure F70 shows IEC test probes intended to prove the adequacy of protection against such dangers. An extensive description of the numerous possible combinations of protective requirements is beyond the scope of this guide.F51 . Such penetrations could. (C) protects persons handling tools having a diameter of 2. unless interior arrangements are carefully designed to prevent it.) from the outside are also common.using additional letter.protects persons. (3) protects the equipment inside the enclosure against the harmful effects due to water sprayed against the enclosure.omitting first characteristic numeral. while limited access to some "safe" sections of an enclosure are frequently provided in the form of hand-holes under a removable plate.5 mm and greater. IP3XD .5 mm and greater. IP21CM . (S) is tested for protection against harmful effects due to the ingress of water when all the parts of the equipment are stationary (e.protects the equipment inside the enclosure against ingress of solid foreign objects having a diameter of 2. IP44 .using additional letter and supplementary letter. the reader is referred to IEC Publication 529 (1989). access doors and removable panels provided for maintenance purposes are closed.using supplementary letter. Adjustments through orifices by tools (screw drivers. against access to hazardous parts . For additional information and full details of application and testing requirements of the IP Code.omitting first characteristic numeral. but the majority of enclosures are provided with orifices for ventilation. handling tools having a diameter of 2.no letters. Examples of designations with the IP Code c IP Code not using optional letters: IP 3 4 Code letters 1st characteristic numeral 2nd characteristic numeral An enclosure with this designation (IP Code) (3) . distribution within a low-voltage installation .protects persons against access to hazardous parts with fingers . IP23S .g.omitting both characteristics numerals.giving two different degrees of protection by an enclosure against both water jets and temporary immersion for "versatile" application. and the corresponding IP Code for each probe.F Examples of the use of letters in the IP Code The following examples are to explain the use and arrangement of letters in the IP Code. IPX5/IPX7 . using additional letter. c IP Code using optional letters: IP 2 3 C S Code letters 1st characteristic numeral 2nd characteristic numeral Additional letter Supplementary letter An enclosure with this designation (IP Code) (2) .5 mm and greater and a length not exceeding 100 mm against access to hazardous parts (the tool may penetrate the enclosure up to its full length).5 mm and greater. lead to accidental contact with live parts.omitting second characteristic numeral.

0 6. 100 Ø10 100 fig.5 mm diameter. The severity of the corrosive environment may be indicated in the equipment specifications by the AF code (AF1. viz: level 1 2 3 4 energy in joules 0. 100 Ø10 100 test wire 1.0 20. It is recommended that these values be used in specifications. AF3 or AF4) as listed in table F67. and are based on four levels of impact energy. F52 . protection against mechanical impact The selection of equipment according to an adequate IP code can ensure safety only if the enclosure is sufficiently robust to sustain anticipated mechanical stresses.255 2. external influences (continued) F 7. pending quantification of the AG code in IEC 364-3.2 protection by enclosures: IP code (continued) first numeral 1 addit.0 protection against corrosion For similar reasons to those mentioned above (i. Specifications for such equipment should therefore include the appropriate AG code (AG1. the possibility of weakening of enclosures or enlarging of orifices and so on. and defined in sub-clause 321 of IEC 364-3. AG2 or AG3) according to the severity of possible impact stresses as listed in table F67. AF2. letter A access probe sphere 50 mm diameter approx. 100 mm long approx. Tests for standardized impact severities are being "harmonized" November 1993 internationally. 100 Ø10 rigid test sphere (metal) handle guard (insulating material) 2 B jointed test finger 80 Ø12 Ø45 10 N ± 10% 4 Ø50 test force 50 N ± 10% jointed test finger (metal) insulating material 3 C stop face (Ø50x20) 3 N ± 10% Ø2. possible reduction in the degree of protection required. due to external influences).0 mm diameter. 5.distribution within a low-voltage installation .7. 100 mm long approx.e. F70: access probes for the tests for protection of persons against access to hazardous parts.5 edges free from burrs handle (insulating material) 4. without distortion which will adversely affect its IP classification. 6 D Ø35 stop face (insulating material) rigid test rod (metal) 1 N ± 10% Ø1 edges free from burrs handle (insulating material) Ø35 stop face (insulating material) rigid test wire (metal) test rod 2. caused by corrosion must also be given due consideration. notably impact forces.

energy is stored electrostatically. The cyclic charging and discharging of capacitive plant reacts on the generators of the system in the same manner as that described above for inductive plant. In this case. i. The pulsating torque is stricly true only for single-phase alternators. and is referred to as "active" or "wattful" energy. systems convert electrical energy from the powersystem generators into mechanical work and heat. c "reactive" energy. etc. The nett result is zero average load on the generators.Q).e. An exactly similar phenomenon occurs with shunt capacitive elements in a power system. S represents kVA of "apparent" power. The reactive power (kvar) is represented by Q. S (kVA) Q (kvar) P (kW) fig. power factor improvement E 1. The effect on generator rotors is to (tend to) slow them during one part of the cycle and to accelerate them during another part of the cycle. wattless components of load currents are invariably inductive. the reactive current is "wattless". etc. The power-supply authorities reduce the amount of wattless (inductive) current as much as possible.E1 . In three-phase alternators the effect is mutually cancelled in the three phases. E1: an electric motor requires active power P and reactive power Q from the power system. which again takes two forms: v "reactive" energy required by inductive circuits (transformers. at any instant.1. For these reasons. The reason for this is that inductive plant cyclically absorbs energy from the system (during the build-up of the magnetic fields) and re-injects that energy into the system (during the collapse of the magnetic fields) twice in every power-frequency cycle. power factor improvement . All inductive (i. heat. Inductively-reactive power is conventionally positive (+ Q) while capacitively-reactive power is shown as a negative quantity (. Q. motors. etc). magnetic fields have to be established in the machines. in direct phase opposition to the system voltage). power capacitors. the reactive energy supplied on one (or two) phase(s) is equal to the reactive energy being returned on the other two (or one) phase(s) of a balanced system. v "reactive" energy required by capacitive circuits (cable capacitance. Sub-clause 1. Figure E1 shows that the kVA of apparent power is the vector sum of the kW of active power plus the kvar of reactive power.3 shows the relationship between P. This feature is the basis on which powerfactor improvement schemes depend.e. and these fields are associated with another form of energy to be supplied from the power system. known as "reactive" or "wattless" energy. since. but the current flow to and from capacitive plant is in exact phase opposition to that of the inductive plant. viz: c transmission power losses and c voltage drop.1 the nature of reactive energy alternating current systems supply two forms of energy: c "active" energy measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) which is converted into mechanical work. such as cable capacitance or banks of power capacitors. while the impedances of transmission and distribution systems are predominantly inductively reactive.c. It should be noted that while this "wattless" current (more accurately. the wattless component of a load current) does not draw power from the system. Wattless (capacitive) currents have the reverse effect on voltage levels and produce voltage-rises in power systems. The combination of inductive current passing through an inductive reactance produces the worst possible conditions of voltage drop (i. In practical power systems. and S.e. The power (kW) associated with "active" energy is usually represented by the letter P. electromagnetic) machines and devices that operate on a.). it does cause power losses in transmission and distribution systems by heating the conductors. light. This energy is measured by kWh meters. etc. In order to perform this conversion.

c. for all practical purposes. a synchronous motor is sometimes referred to as a "synchronous condenser". PF = P (kW) ≈ cos ϕ S (kVA) P = active power S = apparent power definition of power factor The power factor of a load. or a number of items (for example an entire installation). so that cos ϕ and power factor are considered to be exact equivalents. or depend on magnetically-coupled windings. the ballasts of). E2: power consuming items that also require reactive energy. kW divided by kVA at any given moment.2 plant and appliances requiring reactive current items of plant which require reactive energy. E2 . is given by the ratio of P/S i. motors and discharge lamps (i. It is generally assumed that these effects are small.3 the power factor the power factor is the ratio of kW to kVA. All a. by adjustment of the excitation current. Before capacitor technology had developed sufficiently to guarantee the high standard of reliability of modern capacitors. for optimum transmission-line performance under changing load conditions. Conventionally. c 5-10% for transformers. A power factor close to unity means that the reactive energy is small compared with the active energy. The value of a power factor will range from 0 to 1.e.power factor improvement . plant and appliances that include electromagnetic devices. The proportion of reactive power (kvar) with respect to active power (kW) when an item of plant is fully loaded varies according to the item concerned being: c 65-75% for asynchronous motors. The most common items in this class are transformers and reactors. These machines can be made to operate at lagging (underexcited) or leading (overexcited) power factors. while a low value of power factor indicates the opposite condition. this angle is given the symbol ϕ. power factor improvement (continued) E 1. synchronous condensers were widely used on transmission systems to provide reactivepower compensation. in which case power factor = cos ϕ. fig. In the latter condition. the greater the benefit to consumer and supplier.1. require some degree of reactive current to create magnetic flux. 1. The power diagram of figure E3 shows that the ratio mentioned above gives the cosine value for the angular displacement between the kW vector and the kVA vector.e. The closer the power factor approaches its maximum possible value of 1. which may be a single power-consuming item. The power factor at which a synchronous motor operates may be changed. The accuracy of this equivalence depends on an absence of harmonic currents and voltages on the system.

kvar and kVA values per phase. the power quantities have direction and magnitude. P: active power Q: reactive power S: apparent power S= P +Q 2 * for balanced and near-balanced loads on 4-wire systems.4 tan ϕ tan ϕ = Q (kvar) P (kW) Some electricity tariffs are partly based on this factor. to provide a visual representation. A low value of tan ϕ corresponds to a high power factor and to a favourable consumer bill. kVA and kvar are double-frequency functions and cannot be represented on a simple vector diagram. then VI equals the apparent power (in kVA) for the circuit. expressed in kV. kW. when multiplied by 3. The component of I which lags 90 degrees behind V is the wattless component of I and is equal to I sin ϕ. and derivation of the power diagram The power "vector" diagram is a useful artifice. A static diagram for these quantities (figure E3) can be obtained. derived directly from the true rotating vector diagram of currents and voltage. 1. Since. if V is expressed in kV. if V is expressed in kV. as shown in figure E3. ϕ P = VI cos ϕ (kW) V S = VI (kVA) Q = VI sin ϕ (kvar) fig. power vector diagram Active power P (in kW) c single phase (1 phase and neutral): P = VI cos ϕ c single phase (phase to phase): P = UI cos ϕ c three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): P = e UI cos ϕ* Reactive power Q (in kvar) c single phase (1 phase and neutral): Q = VI sin ϕ c single phase (phase to phase): Q = UI sin ϕ c three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): Q = e UI sin ϕ* Apparent power S (in kVA) c single phase (1 phase and neutral): S = VI c single phase (phase to phase): S = UI c three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): S = e UI* where: V: voltage between phase and neutral U: voltage between phases 2 ϕ P kW Q S kVA kvar fig. which shows the amount of reactive power supplied per kW. The above kW.E power quantities kA. current and voltage vectors. E3: power diagram. for practically all power-system loads.E3 . and one phase only is considered on the assumption of balanced 3-phase loading. power factor improvement . E4: current and voltage vector diagram per phase. however. as follows: The power-system voltages are taken as the reference quantities. kvar and power factor for a total 3-phase load. The component of I which is in phase with V is the wattful component of I and is equal to I cos ϕ. can therefore conveniently represent the relationships of kVA. while VI sin ϕ equals the reactive power (in kvar) in the circuit. and the current (I) of that phase will. If the vector I is multiplied by V. in the diagram. The reference phase voltage (V) is co-incident with the horizontal axis. they are referred to as "vectors" for convenience. while VI cos ϕ equals the active power (in kV) in the circuit. with the aid of the true vector diagram of current components and one phase-voltage (figure E4). lag the voltage by an angle ϕ.

equipment and appliances plant and appliances c common loaded at induction motor 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% cos ϕ 0.5 0.8 tan ϕ 5.75 0.0 0. E6: calculation power diagram.55 0. E4 .33 0 0.5 0.9 0.85 0.17 0. which allows a record over a period of time to be obtained.62 0 1.85 0.85 1.7 to 0.1.39 2.5 three phase 3-wires or 3-wires + neutral example motor Pn = 51 kW cos ϕ = 0.02 to 0.52 0. Q= S . 1.73 0. on referring to Table E20 or using a pocket calculator.7 to 0.8 to 0. in addition to other information Table E20 gives corresponding cosine and tangent values for given angles.62 0.8 0.7 kvar Q = e UI sin ϕ 33 kvar table E5: example in the calculation of active and reactive power.6 1.59 = 33 kvar.29 to 1.91 S = apparent power = P P = = 65 kVA cos ϕ 0.59 Q = P tan ϕ = 56 x 0.75 c incandescent lamps c fluorescent lamps (uncompensated) c fluorescent lamps (compensated) c discharge lamps c ovens using resistance elements c induction heating ovens (compensated) c dielectric type heating ovens c resistance-type soldering machines c fixed 1-phase arc-welding set c arc-welding motor-generating set c arc-welding transformer-rectifier set c arc furnace table E7: values of cos ϕ and tan ϕ for commonly-used plant and equipment.94 0.91 (motor efficiency) apparent power active power S (kVA) P (kW) S = VI P = VI cos ϕ S = UI P = UI cos ϕ 10 kVA 5 kW S = e UI 65 kVA P = e UI cos ϕ 56 kW reactive power Q (kvar) Q = VI sin ϕ Q = UI sin ϕ 8. either: c by a direct-reading cos ϕ meter for an instantaneous value.73 1.80 0.9 0.48 1. the value of tan ϕ corresponding to a cos ϕ of 0.86 ρ = 0.6 practical values of power factor an example of power calculations type of circuit single-phase (phase and neutral) single-phase (phase to phase) example 5 kW of load cos ϕ = 0.48 1.power factor improvement .5 practical measurement of power factor The power factor (or cos ϕ) can be measured.75 to 0.80 1.93 0.73 0.75 0.02 to 0. power factor improvement (continued) E 1.P = 2 2 65 .56 = 33 kvar 2 average power factor values for the most commonly-used plant. of current.86 is found to be 0.4 to 0. Readings taken over an extended period provide a useful means of estimating an average value of power factor for an installation. The calculations for the three-phase example above are as follows: Pn = delivered shaft power = 51 kW P = active power consumed = Pn 51 = = 56 kW ρ 0.86 so that.62 0. or c a recording var meter. Alternatively 2 ϕ P = 56 kW Q = 33 kvar S= 65 kVA fig.0 0. voltage and power factor.

if steps are taken to ensure that during the limitation periods the PF never falls below 0. c without limitation during light-load periods in winter. power factor improvement . Note: Overcompensation will produce a voltage rise at the capacitors. the current through the transformer will be reduced.8 0.6 0.2. reactiveenergy consumption exceeding 40% of the active energy (i. reduction of voltage drop PF correction capacitors reduce or even cancel completely the (inductive) reactive current in upstream conductors. thereby allowing more load to be added. the correction should be effected as close to the individual items of inductive plant as possible.1 reduction in the cost of electricity an improvement of the power factor of an installation presents several technical and economic advantages. the power supply distributor delivers reactive energy free. switchgear and cables. and are measured by the kWh meter for the installation. etc. the consumer will have nothing to pay for the reactive power consumed.0. designed to encourage consumers to minimize their consumption of reactive energy. kW) in cables Losses in cables are proportional to the current squared. and that paying for some of the reactive energy consumed is less expensive than providing 100% compensation. as well as reducing power losses and voltage drop in an installation. until: c the point at which it reaches 40% of the active energy (tan ϕ = 0.93.2 technical/economic optimization power factor improvement allows the use of smaller transformers. tan ϕ = 0. multiplying factor 1 1. A high power factor allows the optimization of the components of an installation. and in spring and summer.4) for a maximum period of 16 hours each day (from 06-00 h to 22-00 h) during the most-heavily loaded period (often in winter). will reduce the losses by almost 20%. These notes are based on an actual tariff structure of a kind commonly applied in Europe. 2.4 table E8: multiplying factor for cable size as a function of cos ϕ. than to replace the transformer by a larger unit.4 corresponds to a PF of 0. the quantity of reactive energy billed in these periods will be: kvarh (to be billed) = kWh (tan ϕ . During the periods of limitation. notably in the reduction of electricity bills. thereby reducing or eliminating voltage drops.4 kWh is the amount of reactive energy delivered free during a period of limitation.5 for the cross-sectional area of the cable core(s) cos ϕ 1 0. Against the financial advantages of reduced billing. reduction of cable size Table E8 shows the required increase in the size of cables as the power factor is reduced from unity to 0. and 0. reactive energy is billed according to the tan ϕ criterion. The question of power-factor correction is a matter of optimization. automatic control equipment (where stepped levels of compensation are required) together with the additional kWh consumed by the dielectric losses of the capacitors. As previously noted: Q (kvarh) tan ϕ = P (kWh) At the supply service position. Reduction of the total current in a conductor by 10% for example. why improve the power factor? E 2. increase in available power By improving the power factor of a load supplied from a transformer. but to achieve the best results. installing and maintaining the power-factor-improvement capacitors and controlling switchgear.e. Overating of certain equipment can be avoided. except in very simple cases. and kWh tan ϕ is the total reactive energy during a period of limitation. Good management in the consumption of reactive energy brings with it the following economic advantages. the consumer must balance the cost of purchasing.67 2. etc. as previously noted.4. The installation of power-factor correcting capacitors on installations permits the consumer to reduce his electricity bill by maintaining the level of reactive-power consumption below a value contractually agreed with the power-supply authority.25 1.4) where kWh is the active energy consumed during the periods of limitation. In this particular tariff. It may be found that it is more economic to provide partial compensation only. tan ϕ > 0.4) is billed monthly at the current rates. * Since other benefits accrue from a high value of PF. it may be less expensive to improve the power factor*.E5 . This matter is further elaborated in clause 6.93 so that. Thus. reduction of losses (P. In practice.

E10: diagram showing the principle of compensation: Qc = P (tan ϕ . a number of precautions should be observed. For this reason. the reactive energy consumed by a motor results in a very low power factor (≈ 0.e. the two components flowing through the same path will cancel each other. capacitors are sometimes referred to as "generators of lagging vars". capacitors). IL . as noted in sub-clause 1. P ϕ ϕ' Q' S' Q S Qc fig. as pointed out in sub-clause 1.93 (i.4) = 48 kvar The selected level of compensation and the calculation of rating for the capacitor bank depend on the particular installation. In doing so.3 (figure E3) to illustrate the principle of compensation by reducing a large reactive power Q to a smaller value Q' by means of a bank of capacitors having a reactive power Qc.e. In diagram (c) of figure E9.power factor improvement . such that if the capacitor bank is sufficiently large and Ic = IL there will be no reactive current flow in the system upstream of the capacitors.0. This is indicated in figure E9 (a) and (b) which show the flow of the reactive components of current only. In this latter condition. Since.tan ϕ'). It will be seen from diagram (b) of figure E9. E6 . and in clauses 6 and 7 for transformers and motors.75 (i. the active-power current component has been added.1. This arrangement is said to provide reactive energy compensation. To improve the PF to 0. and shows that the (fully-compensated) load appears to the power system as having a power factor of 1. tan ϕ = 0. In this figure: R represents the active-power elements of the load L represents the (inductive) reactive-power elements of the load C represents the (capacitive) reactive-power elements of the power-factor correction equipment (i. An inductive load having a low power factor requires the generators and transmission/distribution systems to pass reactive current (lagging the system voltage by 90 degrees) with associated power losses and exaggerated voltage drops.17).1 theoretical principles improving the power factor of an installation requires a bank of capacitors which acts as a source of reactive energy. its (capacitive) reactive current will take the same path through the power system as that of the load reactive current. In general. The factors requiring attention are explained in a general way in clause 5. oversizing of motors should be avoided. load a) reactive current components only flow pattern IL .1. If a bank of shunt capacitors is added to the load. how to improve the power factor E 3. the magnitude of the apparent power S is seen to reduce to S'.IC = 0 IC C IL = IC IL L R load b) when IC = IL. the reactive power of the capacitor bank must be : Qc = 100 (0. Note: Before embarking on a compensation project. Example: A motor consumes 100 kW at a PF of 0.4).88 . as well as the operation of the motors in an unloaded condition.e. that the capacitor bank C appears to be supplying all the reactive current of the load.3. it is not economical to fully compensate an installation. E9: showing the essential features of power-factor correction.IC IC C IL IL L R Figure E10 uses the power diagram discussed in sub-clause 1. all reactive power is supplied from the capacitor bank IR IC C IR + IL IL L IR R load c) with load current added to case (b) fig. this capacitive current Ic (which leads the system voltage by 90 degrees) is in direct phase opposition to the load reactive current (IL).88). In particular. this is because the kW taken by the motor (when it is unloaded) are very small. tan ϕ = 0.

Control may be: c manual: by circuit breaker or load-break switch. as loading of the installation changes. power factor improvement . These capacitors are applied: c at the terminals of inductive devices (motors and transformers). c direct connection to an appliance and switched with it. a selected level of power factor. compensation can be carried out by a fixed value of capacitance in favourable circumstances. automatic capacitor banks This kind of equipment provides automatic control of compensation. E12: example of automatic-compensation-regulating equipment.E7 . c equipment providing automatic regulation.V. Note: When the installed reactive power of compensation exceeds 800 kvar. and the load is continuous and stable. for example: c at the busbars of a general power distribution board. E11: example of fixed-valuecompensation capacitors.2 by using what equipment? compensation at L. c at busbars supplying numerous small motors and inductive appliance for which individual compensation would be too costly. fig. compensation is more-commonly effected by means of an automatically-controlled stepped bank of capacitors. c in cases where the level of load is reasonably constant. maintaining within close limits.E 3. or banks which allow continuous adjustment according to requirements. c at the terminals of a heavily-loaded feeder cable. compensation is provided by: c fixed-valued capacitor. fixed capacitors This arrangement employs one or more capacitor(s) to form a constant level of compensation. Such equipment is applied at points in an installation where the active-power and/or reactive-power variations are relatively large. At low voltage. it is often found to be economically advantageous to instal capacitor banks at high voltage. fig. c semi-automatic: by contactor.

In principle. the principles of. The current transformer for the monitoring relay must evidently be placed on one phase of the incoming cable which supplies the circuit(s) being controlled. how to improve the power factor (continued) E 3. A control relay monitors the power factor of the controlled circuit(s) and is arranged to close and open appropriate contactors to maintain a reasonably constant system power factor (within the tolerance imposed by the size of each step of compensation). By closely matching compensation to that required by the load. the ideal compensation is applied at a point of consumption and at the level required at any instant. local (at each individual device). partial (section-by-section). or some combination of the latter two. or equal to 15% of the supplytransformer rating. technical and economic factors govern the choice. Overvoltages due to excessive reactive compensation depend partly on the value of source impedance. as shown in figure E13. CT In / 5 A cl 1 varmetric relay fig.3. and reasons.power factor improvement . The location of low-voltage capacitors in an installation constitutes the mode of compensation. which may be global (one location for the entire installation).3 the choice between a fixed or automatically-regulated bank of capacitors commonly-applied rules Where the kvar rating of the capacitors is less than. and possible damage to appliances and equipment. by the closure and opening of the controlling contactors. the possibility of producing overvoltages at times of low load will be avoided. The size of the bank can therefore be increased or decreased in steps. Above the 15% level. it is advisable to install an automatically-controlled bank of capacitors. In practice. Closure of a contactor switches its section into parallel operation with other sections already in service. 3. a fixed value of compensation is appropriate. thereby preventing an overvoltage condition. E8 . each of which is controlled by a contactor. E13: the principle of automatic-compensation control.2 by using what equipment? (continued) automatically-regulated banks of capacitors allow an immediate adaptation of compensation to match the level of load. for using automatic compensation A bank of capacitors is divided into a number of sections.

and the power losses in them. or will have additional capacity for possible load increases. c reduces the apparent power kva demand. as shown in figure E14. E14: global compensation. c the size of the cables supplying the local distribution boards may be reduced. A significant part of the installation benefits from this arrangement. on which standing charges are usually based. are not improved by the global mode of compensation. the sizing of these cables.e. 4. n°2 n°2 M M M M fig.4. c where large changes in loads occur. n°1 comments c reactive current still flows in all conductors of cables leaving (i. downstream of) the main LV distribution board. c reduces the apparent power kVA demand. advantages The global type of compensation: c reduces the tariff penalties for excessive consumption of kvars.E9 . c losses in the same cables will be reduced. and power losses in them. principle The capacitor bank is connected to the busbars of the main LV distribution board for the installation. and remains in service during the period of normal load.1 global compensation where a load is continuous and stable. c relieves the supply transformer. there is always a risk of overcompensation and consequent overvoltage problems. M M M M fig. power factor improvement . n°1 advantages The compensation by sector: c reduces the tariff penalties for excessive consumption of kvars. c for the above reason. which is then able to accept more load if necessary. the sizing of these cables. which is then able to accept more load if necessary. c relieves the supply transformer. and where the load/time patterns differ from one part of the installation to another. kW kvar conductors comments c reactive current still flows in all cables downstream of the local distribution boards. are not improved by compensation by sector. c for the above reason. principle Capacitor banks are connected to busbars of each local distribution board. E15: compensation by sector. where to install correction capacitors E 4. notably the feeder cables from the main distribution board to each of the local distribution boards at which the compensation measures are applied. global compensation can be applied. on which standing charges are usually based.2 compensation by sector compensation by sector is recommended when the installation is extensive.

n°1 advantages Individual compensation: c reduces the tariff penalties for excessive consumption of kvars. c reduces the apparent power kVA demand. Individual compensation should be considered when the power of the motor is significant with respect to the declared power requirement (kVA) of the installation. see further in Clause 7). where to install correction capacitors (continued) E 4.3 individual compensation individual compensation should be considered when the power of motor is significant with respect to power of the installation. E10 . fig.4. principle Capacitors are connected directly to the terminals of inductive plant (notably motors.power factor improvement . Complementary compensation at the origin of the installation (transformer) may also be beneficial. n°3 n°2 n°2 n°3 n°3 n°3 M M M M comments c significant reactive currents no longer exist in the installation. E16: individual compensation. The kvar rating of the capacitor bank is in the order of 25% of the kW rating of the motor. c reduces the size of all cables as well as the cable losses.

. etc.93 (after correction) indicates a value of 0.8 to 0. the intersection of the row cos ϕ = 0.487 = 244 kvar of capacitive compensation is required. power factor improvement . at each level of the installation (generally at points of distribution and sub-distribution of circuits) can then be determined.487 kvar of compensation per kW of load. 5. to raise the power factor of the installation from 0. partial or independent mode. The rating of a bank of capacitors at the busbars of the main distribution board of the installation would be Q (kvar) = 0.e. The active power demand is 666 x 0. therefore. v cost of dielectric heating losses in the capacitors. relaying.5. cabinets. Example It is required to improve the power factor of a 666 kVA installation from 0.93 will require 0.75 = 500 kW. In table E17. following the installation of capacitors.). reference can be made to table E17. In order to improve the power factor to a value sufficient to avoid tariff penalties (this depends on local tariff structures. Note: this method is valid for any voltage level.355 x P (kW).4. how to decide the optimum level of compensation E 5. etc. From the table. c costs of: v purchase of capacitors and control equipment (contactors. v installation and maintenance costs.355 kvar per kW of load. Several simplified methods applied to typical tariffs (common in Europe) are shown in sub-clauses 5. This simple approach allows a rapid determination of the compensation capacitors required.75 (before correction) with the column cos ϕ = 0.2 simplified method general principle An approximate calculation is generally adequate for most practical cases. For a load of 500 kW. i.1 general method listing of reactive power demands at the design stage This listing can be made in the same way (and at the same time) as that for the power loading described in chapter B. 500 x 0. in the installation. is independent of voltage. The levels of active and reactive power loading. it can be seen that. technical-economic optimization for an existing installation The optimum rating of compensation capacitors for an existing installation can be determined from the following principal considerations: c electricity bills prior to the installation of capacitors. but is assumed here to be 0. etc. c future electricity bills anticipated following the installation of capacitors. and may be based on the assumption of a power factor of 0.8 (lagging) before compensation.75 to 0. versus reduced losses in cables. transformer.E11 . albeit in the global.928.93) and to reduce losses.3 and 5. volt-drops.

171 1.61 0.614 1.811 0.532 1.549 0.356 1.175 0.232 1.738 1.141 0.191 1.130 1.684 1.677 1.086 0.971 1.473 1.463 0.355 0.474 1.585 1.970 1.024 1.309 0.625 1.97 0.089 0.534 1.48 0.132 0.567 1.377 1.228 1.949 0.659 1.771 1.62 0.192 0.117 0.162 0.76 0.230 1.870 0.68 0.557 1.249 1.559 1.44 0.83 0.281 1.300 1.395 0.816 1.620 0.654 0.663 0.768 0.935 1.591 0.750 0.45 1.320 0.680 1.33 0.884 0.309 0.749 0.20 tan ϕ cos ϕ cos ϕ 0.47 1.876 1.871 0.804 0.343 0.179 1.870 0.86 0.035 1.458 1.337 1.441 1.85 0.57 0.779 0.584 0.96 0.887 0.179 1.136 0.573 0.309 1.92 0.358 0.937 0.076 1.426 0.918 0.058 0.56 0.345 0.698 0.855 0.935 1.878 0.713 0.508 0.727 0.600 0.840 0.519 0.607 0.501 1.317 0.369 0.75 0.266 0.561 1.840 1.41 1.269 0.650 0.730 0.164 2.91 0.283 0.685 0.809 0.405 1.319 0.713 0.899 1.538 0.98 0.936 0.353 1.553 0.624 1.237 1.73 0.480 0.50 0.51 0.556 0.124 1.879 0.874 1.878 0.686 1.625 0.43 0.732 1.939 0.268 1.552 0.485 0.361 0.484 E12 .783 0.82 0.079 0.751 1.40 0.407 0.453 0.740 0.403 1.190 1.042 1.054 0.059 0.742 1.246 0.786 1.05 0.010 1.356 1.257 0.275 0.315 1.568 0.22 0.474 0.687 0.685 0.77 0.154 1.684 0.870 0.541 0.14 0.544 1.021 2.515 0.196 1.277 1.998 2.837 1.225 2.329 0.338 1.96 0.958 0.013 1.205 1.60 0.850 1.131 1.242 0.512 0.645 0.114 0.695 1.077 1.083 1.02 0.58 0.164 1.997 1.386 1.204 0.039 1.290 1.567 0.800 1.59 0.769 1.878 0.230 0.335 0. to improve cos ϕ (the power factor) or tan ϕ.257 1.519 1.840 1.020 0.500 0.771 0.78 0.387 0.420 1.716 0.46 1.419 0.590 1.672 0.682 0.478 0.507 0.976 1.116 1.608 0.214 0.031 0.489 1.64 0.466 0.929 1.087 1.14 0.82 0.561 1.758 1.992 0.242 0.806 0.515 0.499 0.841 0.power factor improvement .712 1.65 0.20 0.54 0.157 1.805 0.452 0.618 0.99 2.48 1.996 1.262 0.964 1.672 0.709 0.580 0.165 1.022 1.665 0.51 0.048 1.114 1.149 0.843 0.437 0.597 0.343 1.413 0.047 1.392 0.190 0.936 1.79 0.288 0.083 0.046 0.44 1.88 0.758 0.905 1.369 0.855 1.079 1.658 0.213 0.10 0.329 0.189 1.582 0.909 0.063 1.536 0.11 0.713 0.321 0.225 0.624 0.04 0.817 0.849 0.397 1.335 0.42 1.329 0.677 1.894 1.961 2.005 1.299 1.514 0.155 0.478 0.846 1.020 0.40 1.508 0.291 1.08 0.053 0.299 0.895 1.395 0.121 0.316 1.49 1.229 0.364 0. compensation to a given value tan ϕ 0.138 1.89 0.453 0.774 0.183 0.430 1.942 0.72 0.420 0.487 0.55 0.16 0.716 0.831 1.435 1.94 0.724 0.86 0.292 0.326 1.453 1.593 0.23 0.364 0.534 0.270 0.918 1.59 0.936 0.629 1.026 0.192 1.096 1.30 0.737 1.850 0.489 0.323 1.75 0.008 1.143 0.661 0.049 1.058 1.29 0.924 1.421 0.913 1.243 0.73 0.209 0.248 1.74 0.294 0.105 0.000 1.159 0.90 0.075 1.966 1.588 1.176 0.67 0.446 1.037 2.512 0.639 1.130 1.397 1.421 0.479 0.460 0.742 1.902 0.216 0.399 0.303 1.563 0.230 1.46 0.433 0.072 0.882 0.529 1.156 1.826 1.37 0.355 0.52 0.784 1.238 0.644 1.896 1.480 1.809 0.986 1.041 1.497 1.459 0.005 1.085 0.062 1.996 0.546 0.5.091 1.191 0.374 0.94 0.84 0.729 0.740 0.188 1.330 1. to improve the power factor of an installation.347 0.36 0.628 1.308 1.592 1.215 1.425 1.381 0.69 0.085 2.499 1.966 0.861 1.828 0.504 0.117 1.53 0.623 1.536 0.278 1.144 1.591 0.481 1.81 0.54 0.71 0.341 0.754 0.268 1.530 0.912 0.186 0.90 0.123 1.233 1.076 1.454 1.098 0.903 2.442 1.594 0.108 1.085 1.750 0.117 1.043 1.538 0.251 0.805 0.70 0.288 2.441 1.838 0.790 1.368 1.425 0.72 0.679 0.276 1.936 0.776 0.230 1.677 1.277 0.52 0.87 0.569 0.974 1.836 1.334 1.028 0.449 0.618 0.464 1.634 0.80 0.473 0.629 0.904 0.651 1.93 0.80 0.654 0.769 0.007 0.014 1.959 1.090 1.686 0.673 0.733 0.63 0.973 1.600 1.634 0.720 0.167 0.483 0.140 0.48 0.88 0.202 1.29 0.70 0.86 0.98 2.701 0.263 1.388 0.778 1.881 1.492 0.832 1.631 0.794 0.268 0.255 0.532 1.297 1.769 0.973 2.373 0.082 2.67 0.440 0.48 0.567 0.400 1.712 0.836 0.107 2.558 1.146 2.390 0.691 0.909 0.169 1.485 1.217 0.713 1.172 0.781 0.692 0.264 0.202 0.798 1.904 0.0 1 2.700 0.743 0.60 0.93 0.652 0.652 0.982 1.271 1.69 0.725 1.620 0.798 0.109 0.847 0.228 1.907 0.815 0.336 0.33 0.483 1.541 0.57 0.113 1.95 0.921 0.837 0.525 0.40 0.369 1. how to decide the optimum level of compensation (continued) E before kvar rating of capacitor bank to install per kW of load.959 1.788 0.62 0.188 0.239 1.782 1.88 0.939 0.281 table E17: kvar to be installed per kW of load.988 1.699 0.578 1.103 1.447 0.151 1.480 0.151 1.355 1.809 0.645 0.417 1.709 1.347 0.620 0.200 1.564 0.949 0.408 0.303 0.821 0.202 1.657 0.030 1.803 0.691 1.079 1.578 0.533 1.65 0.230 0.229 1. 0.413 1.150 0.234 0.164 0.030 1.371 0.530 1.381 0.226 1.417 0.502 1.647 1.857 0.775 0.78 0.43 1.160 1.343 0.777 0.043 1.357 1.112 0.450 0.370 1.59 0.395 0.398 0.636 1.600 1.291 0.83 0.633 0.265 1.99 0.982 1.623 0.75 0.395 1.426 0.78 0.301 0.741 0.564 0.519 1.80 0.526 0.434 0.393 1.198 0.424 0.64 0.369 0.051 1.502 1.450 0.744 0.25 0.963 0.665 0.441 1.349 1.538 0.27 0.767 0.447 0.593 0.83 0.17 0.565 0.575 1.905 0.66 0.829 0.604 0.240 0.805 1.400 0.295 0.745 0.91 0.56 0.595 0.601 0.309 0.124 0.681 1.384 1.317 0.507 0.

and 12 kVA steps above that value. plus a charge per kWh consumed. this is a common feature in many types of two-part tariff). as well as drawing attention to constraints imposed by harmonic voltages on the power system. the consumer was billed on the basis of 132 kVA. The diagram of figure E18 shows that as the power factor improves. 0. a table (E16) allows determination of the kvar of compensation required to reduce the value of kVA declared.4 = 90 kVA. These are given in the tariff documents.966 kvarh in January. Table E17 indicates the value of kvar of compensation per kW of load.7 to 0. c identify the line on the bills referring to "reactive-energy consumed" and "kvarh to be charged". voltage and current ratings) and/or harmonic-suppression inductors or filters (see Appendix E3). no charge is made for kvarh consumption.7 lagging.e.4 = 59 kvar in the table).966 kvarh Qc = = 73 kvar 220 h The rating of the installed capacitor bank is generally chosen to be slightly larger than that calculated. according to particular tariffs. an active-power load of 85. E18: reduction of declared maximum kVA by power-factor improvement.95 ϕ ϕ' Q' cos ϕ = 0. the pay-back period of a bank of power-factor-improvement capacitors and associated equipment is generally about 18 months. an improvement of 30%.1 kvar Qc = 59 kvar Q' = 28.95 (0.95 S = 122 kVA S' = 90 kVA Q = 87. The following method allows calculation of the rating of a proposed capacitor bank. The improvement of the power factor is aimed at (apart from other advantages previously mentioned) reducing the declared level and never exceeding it. power factor improvement . thereby avoiding the payment of an excessive price per kVA during the periods of excess.00 H to 23.00 H to 22. In the case being considered. The method determines the minimum compensation required to avoid these charges which are based on kvarh consumption. The procedure is as follows: c refer to the bills covering consumption for the 5 months of winter (in France these are November to March inclusive).1 kvar S' Q S Qc fig. Certain manufacturers can provide "sliderules" especially designed to facilitate these kinds of calculation.e.00 H or from 07. The hours which must be counted are those occurring during the heaviest load and the highest peak loads occurring on the power system.4 kW Example: A supermarket has a declared load of 122 kVA at a power factor of 0.4 method based on reduction of declared maximum apparent power (kVA) for 2-part tariffs based partly on a declared value of kVA. c evaluate the total period of loaded operation of the installation for that month. P = 85.00 H according to the region. required to improve from one value of power factor to another. based on billing details. for instance: 220 hours (22 days x 10 hours). where the tariff structure corresponds with (or is similar to) the one described in sub-clause 2. during the hours for which reactive energy is charged for the case considered above: 15. the kVA value diminishes for a given value of kW (P). and to avoid exceeding it. The declared value of kVA will then be 85. The remainder of this example will assume Winter conditions in France. Referring to table E17. c the necessary value of compensation kvarh billed in kvar = = Qc number of hours of operation* * in the billing period. i. either from 06. and are (commonly) during a 16 hour period each day. These devices and accompanying documentation advise on suitable equipment and control schemes. it is evident that a reduction in declared kVA would be beneficial. an examination of several bills covering the most heavily-loaded period of the year allows determination of the kvar level of compensation required to avoid kvarh (reactive-energy) charges. it can be seen that a 60 kvar bank of capacitors will improve the power factor of the load from 0. Outside these periods. Choose the bill which shows the highest charge for kvarh (after checking that this was not due to some exceptional situation). i. Such voltages require either overdimensioned capacitors (in terms of heat-dissipation. Note: in tropical climates the summer months may constitute the period of heaviest loading and highest peaks (owing to extensive airconditioning loads) so that a consequent variation of high-tariff periods is necessary in this case. For example: 15.E 5. For consumers whose tariffs are based on a fixed charge per kVA declared. The particular contract for this consumer was based on stepped values of declared kVA (in steps of 6 kVA up to 108 kVA. 5.1 of this chapter.4 kW. and/or tripping of the the main circuit breaker.E13 .691 x 85.3 method based on the avoidance of tariff penalties in the case of certain (common) types of tariff.7 cos ϕ' = 0.

80 0.550 2 = 307 kvar tan ϕ 0. The apparent power S1 = 450 = 562 kVA 0.307 = 132 kvar.e. without the need to replace the existing transformer. i.550 = 80 kW. improvement of the load power factor.8 The corresponding reactive power 2 2 Q1= S1 − P1 = 337 kvar The anticipated load increase P2 = 100 kW at a power factor of 0.48 0.P 2 Total reactive power required by the installation before compensation: Q1 + Q2 = 337 + 102 = 439 kvar. So that the minimum size of capacitor bank to instal: Qkvar = 439 . It should be noted that this calculation has not taken account of peak loads and their duration.92 0.59 0.78 0.82 0.4. The maximum reactive power capability of the 630 kVA transformer when delivering 550 kW is: Qm = S 2 .76 0.6. An installation is supplied from a 630 kVA transformer loaded at 450 kW (P1) with a mean power factor of 0.70 0. E19: compensation Q allows the installation-load extension S2 to be added. in order to avoid a change of transformer? Total power now to be supplied: P = P1 + P2 = 550 kW.02 cos ϕ 1 0. when supplying loads at different values of power factor. will maximise the available transformer capacity. Steps similar to those taken to reduce the declared maximum kVA.88 0.96 0.90 0.94 0.96 1. Table E20 shows directly the power (kW) capability of fully-loaded transformers at different load power factors.43 0.98 0. compensation at the terminals of a transformer E 6. Example: Refer to figure E19. can be obtained.72 0.e. i.7 lagging.8 lagging. Qm = 630 2 .86 0.e. as the value of power factor increases. correction which attains a PF of 1 would permit a power reserve for the transformer of 630 . The apparent power S2 = 100 = 143 kVA 0. The capacitor bank would then have to be rated at 439 kvar.20 0.29 0. may be avoided by this means. to supply more active power. E14 .36 0. from which the increase of active-power output.84 0.65 0.00 0.75 0. Q S2 Q2 Q P2 S1 S Q1 P1 Qm P fig.power factor improvement .1 compensation to increase the available active power output the installation of a bank of capacitors can avoid the need to change a transformer in the event of a load increase.74 0.54 0. the output of which is limited to S.7 The corresponding reactive power Q2 = S2 − P2 = 102 kvar 2 2 What is the minimum value of capacitive kvar to be installed. as discussed in subclause 5.70 nominal kVA rating of transformers (in kVA) 100 160 250 315 400 100 160 250 315 400 98 157 245 309 392 96 154 240 302 384 94 150 235 296 376 92 147 230 290 368 90 144 225 284 360 88 141 220 277 352 86 138 215 271 344 84 134 210 265 336 82 131 205 258 328 80 128 200 252 320 78 125 195 246 312 76 122 190 239 304 74 118 185 233 296 72 115 180 227 288 70 112 175 220 280 500 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 430 420 410 400 390 380 370 360 350 630 630 617 605 592 580 567 554 541 529 517 504 491 479 466 454 441 800 800 784 768 752 736 720 704 688 672 656 640 624 608 592 576 560 1000 1000 980 960 940 920 900 880 860 840 820 800 780 760 740 720 700 1250 1250 1225 1200 1175 1150 1125 1100 1075 1050 1025 1000 975 950 925 900 875 1600 1600 1568 1536 1504 1472 1440 1408 1376 1344 1312 1280 1248 1216 1184 1152 1120 2000 2000 1960 1920 1880 1840 1800 1760 1720 1680 1640 1600 1560 1520 1480 1440 1400 table E20: active-power capability of fully-loaded transformers.80 0. i. to cater for load growth. Cases can arise where the replacement of a transformer by a larger unit.91 0.86 0. The best possible improvement.

This level depends on the tariff. but often corresponds to a tan ϕ value of 0.E15 . the reactive power absorbed by a transformer cannot be neglected. series-connected reactances. to compensate for the reactive energy absorbed. where the shunt branch represents the magnetizing-current path. as follows: If per-unit values are used (instead of percentage values) direct multiplication of I and XL can be carried out. and can amount to (about) 5% of the transformer rating when supplying its full load. however. 1.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer where metering is carried out at the HV side of a transformer.e.01 pu = 630 x 0. Complete compensation can be provided by a bank of shunt-connected LV capacitors. all of the kvar of the transformer is being supplied from the capacitor bank. It can be seen that E > V and sin ϕ' > sin ϕ. while the input to the HV side of the transformer is at unity power factor. In such a case.01 = 6. As far as reactive-energy losses only are concerned. the reactive-energy losses in the transformer may (depending on the tariff) need to be compensated. E21: reactive power absorption by series inductance.3 kvar and so on. The magnetizing current remains practically constant (at about 1. The reactive-current component from the source = I sin ϕ' so that kvars = EI sin ϕ' where V and E are expressed in kV. series inductances can be compensated by fixed series capacitors (as is commonly the case for long HV transmission lines). it is sufficient to raise the power factor to a point where the transformer plus load reactive-power consumption is below the level at which a billing charge is made. a transformer may be represented by the elementary diagram of figure E22.8 % of full-load current) from no load to full load.2 kvar (or. so that.).04 = 25. in normal circumstances. 4% of 630 kVA). shunt compensation is always applied. It can be shown that this kvar value is equal to I2XL (which is analogous to the I2R activepower (kW) losses due to the series resistance of power lines. What is its reactive-power (kvar) loss? 4% = 0. This example. The 3-phase kvar losses are 630 x 0. reactive power is absorbed by both shunt (magnetizing) and series (leakage flux) reactances. XL E source V load E V ϕ ϕ' IXL I sin ϕ I sin ϕ' fig.. with a constant primary voltage. in transformers.8% of the transformer kVA rating) must be added to the foregoing "series" losses.31 (cos ϕ of 0. The reactive-current component through the load = I sin ϕ so that kvarL = VI sin ϕ. quite simply. c that kvar losses due to leakage reactance vary according to the current (or kVA loading) squared. at the voltage levels covered by this guide. the kvar losses in a transformer can be completely compensated by adjusting the capacitor bank to give the load a (slightly) leading power factor.04 pu kvar where 1 pu = 630 kVA power factor improvement .04 = 0. In the case of HV metering. reactive-power absorption in series-connected (leakage flux) reactance A simple illustration of this phenomenon is given by the vector diagram of figure E21. Compensation can be provided by a bank of capacitors. To determine the total kvar losses of a transformer the constant magnetizing-current circuit losses (approx. as shown in figure E23. the reactive-energy losses in the transformer may (depending on the tariff) need to be compensated. The difference between EI sin ϕ' and VI sin ϕ gives the kvar per phase absorbed by XL. etc. so that a shunt capacitor of fixed value can be installed at the HV or LV side. All reactance values are referred to the secondary side of the transformer.. The reason for this is that shuntconnected plant requires (by far) the largest quantities of reactive energy in power systems. E22: transformer reactances (per phase). Where metering is carried out at the HV side of a transformer.04 = 0. Table E24 shows the no-load and full-load kvar losses for typical distribution transformers. etc. i. however. and the vector diagram of figure E21 show that: c the power factor at the primary side of a loaded transformer is different (normally lower) than that at the secondary side (due to the absorption of vars). and PF-correcting capacitor banks etc. At half load i. Example: A 630 kVA transformer with a short-circuit reactance voltage of 4% is fully loaded. In principle. I = 0. also absorb reactive energy. perfect transformer primary winding secondary winding leakage reactance magnetizing reactance fig.52 x 0.955). c that full-load kvar losses due to leakage reactance are equal to the transformer percentage reactance (4% reactance means a kvar loss equal to 4% of the kVA rating of the transformer). the nature of transformer inductive reactances All previous references have been to shuntconnected devices such as those used in normal loads. This arrangement is operationally difficult.e.. As a matter of interest. From the I2XL formula it is very simple to deduce the kvar absorbed at any load value for a given transformer.04 pu Ipu = 1 loss = I2XL = 12 x 0. such as the inductive reactances of power lines and the leakage reactance of transformer windings.5 pu the losses will be 0.E 6.

5 6.9 2.power factor improvement . the transformer absorption (i. Unlike most other kvar-absorbing items.7 8.3 at no load to 35.5 2.2 3.8 32. if individual compensation is applied to the transformer.5 100. as well as for the total losses at full load.7 9.3 18. this kvar consumption generally forms only a relatively small part of the total reactive power of an installation.2 113. partially. therefore.6. the range of kvar losses extends from 11. so that. then an average level of loading will have to be assumed.0 140.0 27.8 10. and so mismatching of compensation at times of load change is not likely to be a problem.0 88.6 3. Note: for a 630 kVA transformer.8 15.0 155.5 28. E16 .0 19.5 5. These values correspond closely to those given in the worked example above.6 45. or in the individual mode.0 191.3 14.4 9. rated power kVA 50 100 160 250 315 400 500 630 800 1 000 1 250 1 600 2 000 2 500 reactive power (kvar) to be compensated oil immersed type cast resin type no load full load no load full load 1.9 38.5 30.4 57.9 6.e.0 125.7 7.2 table E24: reactive power consumption of distribution transformers with 20 kV primary windings. the part due to the leakage reactance) changes significantly with variations of load level.5 36. for a standard range of distribution transformers supplied at 20 kV (which include the losses due to the leakage reactance).3 22.0 7.9 5.0 178.0 82.5 24.2 20 66. compensation at the terminals of a transformer (continued) E 6.9 19.6 22.5 8. Fortunately.7 kvar at full load.7 12. either globally.8 11.2 45.3 35. In practical terms.9 2. Table E24 indicates typical kvar loss values for the magnetizing circuit (“no-load kvar” columns).0 71.0 29. compensation for transformer-absorbed kvar is included in the capacitors primarily intended for powerfactor correction of the load.7 5.3 5.2 compensation of reactive energy absorbed by the transformer (continued) E (input voltage) I ϕ V (load voltage) I0 compensation current IXL load current fig.6 12.7 24. E23: overcompensation of load to completely compensate transformer reactive-power losses.

91 0. plugging. This is because a significant part of the reactive component of the motor current is being supplied from the capacitor. after compensation. effect on protection settings After applying compensation to a motor.E17 . general precautions Because of the small kW consumption. as shown in figure E25. the overcurrent relay settings must be reduced in the ratio: cos ϕ before compensation cos ϕ after compensation For motors compensated in accordance with the kvar values indicated in Table E28 (maximum values recommended for avoidance of self-excitation of standard induction motors. the transformer supplies all the reactive power. as discussed in sub-clause 7.1 connection of a capacitor bank and protection settings individual motor compensation is recommended where the motor power (kVA) is large with respect to the declared power of the installation. special motors It is recommended that special motors (stepping. the current to the motor-capacitor combination will be lower than before. so that a number of unloaded motors constitute a consumption of reactive power which is generally detrimental to an installation.90 0.) should not be compensated.2).88 0. for reasons explained in preceding sections. the capacitor supplies a large part of the reactive power. compensation at the terminals of an induction motor E 7. the above-mentioned ratio will have a value similar to that indicated for the corresponding motor speed in Table E26. The reactive current of the motor remains practically constant at all loads.M. 750 1000 1500 3000 reduction factor 0. Two good general rules therefore are that unloaded motors should be switched off. before compensation transformer after compensation speed in R. reversing motors. power factor improvement . E25: before compensation. and motors should not be oversized (since they will then be lightly loaded).P. the power factor of a motor is very low at no-load or on light load. power made available active power C M motor M reactive power supplied by capacitor fig. assuming the same motor-driven load conditions. inching. Where the overcurrent protection devices of the motor are located upstream of the motorcapacitor connection (and this will always be the case for terminal-connected capacitors). etc.7. connection The bank of capacitors should be connected directly to the terminals of the motor.93 table E26: reduction factor for overcurrent protection after compensation.

If this precaution is not taken. Notes 1. which causes capacitive currents to flow through the stator windings. The "magnetic inertia" of the rotor circuit means that an emf will be generated in the stator windings for a short period after switching off. the stator currents increase. it is important to check that the size of the bank is less than that at which self-excitation can occur. When a motor is driving a high-inertia load. installed for global compensation of a number of smaller appliances. together with reverse-power checking contacts (the motor will feed power to the rest of the installation. in the case of an uncompensated motor. i. 3 000 Rpm. the motor will continue to rotate (unless deliberately braked) after the motor supply has been switched off.c. The table values are. be applied to the system. immediately following the loss of power supply. then selfexcitation to very high voltages is likely to occur. and the voltage at the terminals of the motor increases.7. 2. In order to avoid self-excitation as described above. Table E28 gives appropriate values of Qc corresponding to this criterion. sometimes to dangerously-high levels. too small to adequately compensate the motor to the level of cos ϕ normally required. the currents circulating are largely reactive. but will increase. for example an overall bank. generators are not normally operated at leading power factors.e. An undervoltage relay would not be suitable because the voltage is not only maintained. so that the braking (retarding) effect on the motor is mainly due only to the load represented by the cooling fan in the motor. E18 . be rapidly tripped. until the stored inertial energy is dissipated).power factor improvement . 400 V. Example A 75 kW. fig. compensation at the terminals of an induction motor (continued) E 7. since all other banks of capacitors in the installation will effectively be in parallel with those of the high-inertia motors. High-inertia motors and/or loads In any installation where high-inertia motordriven loads exist. 3. in the event of total loss of power supply. however. This phenomenon is known as self-excitation and is one reason why a. both have the same phase relationship to the terminal voltage. 3-phase motor may have a capacitor bank no larger than 17 kvar according to Table E28. The protection scheme for these motors should therefore include an overvoltage tripping relay. the circuit breakers or contactors controlling such motors should. constitute a 3-phase "wattless" load for this decaying emf. in general. The characteristics of a motor being driven by the inertia of the load are not rigorously identical to its no-load characteristics. These stator currents will produce a rotating magnetic field in the rotor which acts exactly along the same axis and in the same direction as that of the decaying magnetic field. This assumption. The rotor flux consequently increases. and would normally reduce to zero after 1 or 2 cycles. E27: connection of the capacitor bank to the motor. Compensation capacitors however. is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. With the motor acting as a generator. the kvar rating of the capacitor bank must be limited to the following maximum value: Qc i 0. It is for this reason that the two characteristics may be superimposed on the graph.9 Io Un e where Io = the no-load current of the motor and Un = phase-tophase nominal voltage of the motor in kV.2 how self-excitation of an induction motor can be avoided when a capacitor bank is connected to the terminals of an induction motor. Additional compensation can. and the (almost 90° leading) current supplied to the capacitors by the motor acting as a generator. The (almost 90° lagging) current taken from the supply in normal circumstances by the unloaded motor. however. there is a tendency to spontaneously (and uncontrollably) selfexcite.

power factor improvement . which trips in unison with the main motorcontrolling circuit breaker or contactor.F. 3-phase motors 230/400 V nominal kvar to be installed power speed of rotation (RPM) kW hp 3000 1500 1000 750 22 30 6 8 9 10 30 40 7. Closing of the main contactor is commonly subject to the capacitor contactor being previously closed.5 16 45 60 11 13 14 17 55 75 13 17 18 21 75 100 17 22 25 28 90 125 20 25 27 30 110 150 24 29 33 37 132 180 31 36 38 43 160 218 35 41 44 52 200 274 43 47 53 61 250 340 52 57 63 71 280 380 57 63 70 79 355 482 67 76 86 98 400 544 78 82 97 106 450 610 87 93 107 117 table E28: maximum kvar of P. Note Exact sizing of capacitor unit for a particular motor is only possible when the "no-load current" or "no-load magnetising" kvar is known. as shown in figure E27.E If the capacitor bank associated with a highinertia motor is larger than that recommended in Table E28.E19 . correction applicable to motor terminals without risk of self-excitation.5 37 50 9 11 12. then it should be separately controlled by a circuit breaker or contactor.5 10 11 12.

75 c reactive energy is supplied through the transformer and via the installation wiring. the cos ϕ of the workshop remains at 0. and cables must be over-dimensioned.8. correction ¡¡¡ kVA=kW+kvar kVA kW c kvarh are billed heavily above the declared level. c the installation must be over-dimensioned.F. example of an installation before and after power-factor correction E installation before P. according to the cos ϕ required. cos ϕ = 0.F. c the consumption of kvarh is v eliminated.75 workshop cos ϕ = 0. fig. c the fixed charge based on kVA demand is adjusted to be close to the active power kW demand. c the corresponding excess current causes losses (kWh) which are billed.2. E20 .928. c the transformer.928 c reactive energy is supplied by the capacitor bank. the cos ϕ at the HV side of the transformer will be slightly lower. c apparent power kVA is significantly greater than the kW demand.928 workshop Note: In fact. kvar Capacitor bank rating is 250 kvar in 5 automatically-controlled steps of 50 kvar. E29: technical-economic comparison of an installation before and after power-factor correction. cos ϕ = 0. * due to the reactive power losses in the transformer. Characteristics of the installation 500 kW cos ϕ = 0. c the tariff penalties v for reactive energy where applicable v for the entire bill in some cases are eliminated. * the arrows denote vector quantities. correction *¡¡¡ kVA=kW+kvar kVA kW kvar installation after P. As mentioned in Sub-clause 6.928 c transformer no longer overloaded c the power-demand is 539 kVA c there is 14% spare-transformer capacity available. 630 kVA Characteristics of the installation 500 kW cos ϕ = 0. circuit breaker.power factor improvement .75 but cos ϕ for all the installation upstream of the capacitor bank to the transformer LV terminals is 0.75 c transformer is overloaded c the power demand is P 500 S= = = 665 kVA cos ϕ 0. c losses in cables are calculated as a function of the current squared: (960)2 P=I2R c the losses in the cables are (778)2 reduced to = 65% of the former value. cos ϕ = 0. * moreso in the pre-corrected case. (960)2 thereby economizing in kWh consumed. or v reduced.75 S = apparent power 630 kVA 400 V 400 V c the current flowing into the installation downstream of the circuit breaker is P I= = 960 A eU cos ϕ c the current flowing into the installation through the circuit breaker is 778 A.

2 possible solutions harmonics are taken into account mainly by oversizing capacitors and including harmonic-suppression reactors in series with them. This possibility. fo/50 for a 50 Hz system. switches.5 times nominal rating. countering the effects of resonance Capacitors are linear reactive devices.93 which shows that the natural frequency of the capacitor/system-inductance combination is close to the 3rd harmonic frequency of the system. and associated non-linear components. practical means of reducing the influence of harmonics are recommended. In this particular case. The harmonic order ho of the natural resonant frequency between the system inductance and the capacitor bank is given by SSC / Q where Ssc = the level of system short-circuit kVA at the point of connection of the capacitor Q = capacitor bank rating in kvar.m. Harmonics have existed from the earliest days of the industry and were (and still are) caused by the non-linear magnetizing impedances of transformers. fluorescent lamp ballasts. fuses. strong resonant conditions with the 3rd harmonic component of a distorted wave would certainly occur. result in total or partial resonance occurring at one of the harmonic frequencies.e. etc.s.. which aim basically at reducing the distortion of the supply-voltage wave form.3 to 1.9. however. * With the advent of power electronics devices. In many instances. the elevated current will cause overheating of the capacitor. 9.1 problems arising from power-system harmonics Equipment which uses power electronics components (variable-speed motor controllers. or fo/60 for a 60 Hz system. together with other overvoltage conditions likely to occur when countering the effects of resonance. 7th. are taken into account by increasing the insulation level above that of "standard" capacitors.93 = 146. between the equipment causing the distortion. All series elements. these two counter measures are all that is necessary to achieve satisfactory operation. If the natural frequency of the capacitor bank/ power-system reactance combination is close to a particular harmonic.total elimination is not possible. considerably increased the problems caused by harmonics in powersupply systems. The installation of capacitors in a power system (in which the impedances are predominantly inductive) can. which may result in its eventual failure.. and the magnitude decreases as the order of the harmonic increases. Harmonic distortion of the voltage wave frequently produces a "peaky" wave form. etc. 9th. as described below.) have. with degradation of the dielectric. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor bank E 9. in recent years. Several solutions to these problems are available. between 1. the greater will be the (undesirable) effect. with particular reference to capacitor banks. and ho = the harmonic order of the natural frequency fo i. In the above example. even-numbered harmonics are now sometimes encountered. and the bank of capacitors in question. with amplified values of voltage and current at the harmonic frequency concerned. In this section. in which the peak value of the normal sinusoidal wave is increased. The presence of harmonic components causes the (normally sinusoidal) wave form of voltage or current to be distorted. the greater the harmonic content. An allowance is made for this by designing for an r.3 times the nominal rated current. This is generally accomplished by shunt connected harmonic filter and/or harmonic-suppression reactors. value of current equal to 1.. For example: SSC / Q may give a value for ho of 2. etc. such as connections.5 Hz The closer a natural frequency approaches one of the harmonics present on the system. this means that a relatively small percentage of harmonic voltage can cause a significant current to flow in the capacitor circuit. power factor improvement . Capacitors are especially sensitive to harmonic components of the supply voltage due to the fact that capacitive reactance decreases as the frequency increases. associated with the capacitors are similarly oversized.E21 . 5th. Harmonics on symmetrical 3-phase power systems are generally* odd-numbered: 3rd. countering the effects of harmonics The presence of harmonics in the supply voltage results in abnormally high current levels through the capacitors. and consequently do not generate harmonics. then partial resonance will occur.. All of these features may be used in various ways to reduce specific harmonics to negligible values . reactors. From ho = fo/50 it can be seen that fo = 50 ho = 50 x 2. In practice. the greater the degree of distortion . thyristor-controlled rectifiers.

In this arrangement. capacitors supplied at LV via transformer(s) c general rule valid for any size of transformer Ssc i Gh i Ssc Gh i Ssc 120 120 70 standard capacitors capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% (except 230 V units) c simplified rule if transformer(s) rating Sn i 2 MVA Gh i 0. these reactors are often adjusted to bring the resonant frequency of the combination.e. by reference to the following table. The reactors are adjusted to 228 Hz for a 60 Hz system. can be made.power factor improvement . E22 . by using capacitors which are designed for 440 V operation on 400 V systems.e.60 Sn filters table E30: choice of solutions for limiting harmonics associated with a LV capacitor bank.8 for a 50 Hz system. i. steps are taken to change the natural frequency to a value which will not resonate with any of the harmonics known to be present.9. directly connected to) the system level of which the busbars form a part.2 possible solutions (continued) countering the effects of resonance (continued) In such cases. inverters.25 Sn standard capacitors capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% (except 230 V units) c Sn = the sum of the kVA ratings of all transformers supplying (i.3 choosing the optimum solution A choice is made from the following parameters: c Gh = the sum of the kVA ratings of all harmonic-generating devices (static converters. This is achieved by the addition of a harmonic-suppression inductor connected in series with the capacitor bank. i. Gh > Ssc 70 capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% + harmonic-suppression reactor 0.25 Sn < Gh i 0. From these parameters. for example. etc. If a number of transformers are operating in parallel. the removal from service of one or more. speed controllers. This feature is taken into account.7 to obtain the kVA ratings. approximately mid-way between the 3rd and 5th harmonics.) connected to the busbars from which the capacitor bank is supplied. the effect of harmonics on the rating of a capacitor bank (continued) E 9. assume an average power factor of 0.15 Sn 0. 9. On 50 Hz systems. These frequencies correspond to a value for ho of 3.e. will significantly change the values of Ssc and Sn. If the ratings of some of these devices are quoted in kW only. the presence of the reactor increases the fundamental-frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz) current by a small amount (7-8%) and therefore the voltage across the capacitor in the same proportion. c Ssc = the 3-phase short-circuit level in kVA at the terminals of the capacitor bank.60 Sn capacitor voltage rating increased by 10% + harmonic suppression reactor Gh > 0. the capacitor bank + reactors to 190 Hz. a choice of capacitor specification which will ensure an acceptable level of operation with the system harmonic voltages and currents.15 Sn < Gh i 0.

m.E examples Three cases are presented. For LV loads supplied through a transformer from a high-voltage service connection.000 kVA transformer having 6% short-circuit voltage.4 possible effects of power-factor-correction capacitors on the power-supply system it is necessary to ensure that interaction between harmonicgenerating devices and P. Such filters are shuntconnected. Filters connected in this way fortuitously have the added benefit of contributing to reactivepower compensation for the installation. showing (respectively) situations in which standard.500 kVA 4 Ssc 12.500 = = 104 120 120 Ssc Gh = 50 i 120 Solution: use standard capacitors.F.667 = = 139 120 120 Ssc 16. then recourse has to be made to low-voltage L-C series filters. value of the fundamental frequency wave (50 or 60 Hz). this means that a maximum value of 4 or 5% for voltage THD is permissible at the LV terminals of the transformer. does not result in unacceptable levels of voltage and/or current wave-form distortion on the power-supply network. with respect to the r. and are tuned to resonate at harmonic frequencies to which they present practically zero impedance. Total rating of harmonic-generating devices Gh = 50 kVA 100 Ssc = 500 x = 12. Total rating of harmonic-generating devices Gh = 220 kVA 100 Ssc = 1.667 kVA 6 Ssc 16. value of all harmonics present. Power-supply authorities generally impose a strict limit on the total-harmonic distortion (THD) permitted at the point of power supply to a consumer. If this value of THD is unattainable. Example 2: 1.667 = = 238 70 70 Ssc Ssc Gh = 220 is between and 120 70 Solution: use overated (440 V) capacitors.E23 .s. correction capacitors.000 x = 16.750 kVA 4 Ssc 15. power factor improvement . overdimensioned.m. Total rating of harmonic-generating devices Gh = 250 kVA 100 Ssc = 630 x = 15. and overdimensioned plus harmonic-suppression-equipped capacitor banks should be installed. Example 1: 500 kVA transformer having 4% short-circuit voltage. The degree of distortion is measured as the ratio of the r. Example 3: 630 kVA transformer having 4% short-circuit voltage.s.750 = = 225 70 70 Scc Gh = 250 > 70 Solution: use overated (440 V) capacitors and harmonic-suppression reactors. 9.

The protection scheme operates as follows: c a short-circuit through the dielectric will blow the fuse.g. due to a microscopic flow in the dielectric film.e. c current levels greater than normal. but insufficient to blow the fuse sometimes occur.2 A/kvar 3. v gas produced by vaporizing of the metallisation at the faulty location will gradually build up a pressure within the plastic container. E31: cross-section of a capacitor element.e. fuse discharge resistor short-circuiting contacts overpressure device fig. UL tests 400 V 50 Hz 0 to + 5% 55 °C 45 °C 35 °C -25 °C 50 Hz 1 mn withstand voltage: 6 kV 1. are not impregnated by liquid dielectric) comprising metallized polypropylene self-healing film in the form of a two-film roll. i. NF C 54-104. thereby causing the fuse to blow. VDE 0560 CSA standards. Capacitors are made of insulating material providing them with double insulation and avoiding the need for a ground connection. implementation of capacitor banks E 10.50 Hz supply consumption on 230 V . e. and the fuse will blow.2/50 µs impulse withstand voltage: 25 kV standard range H range 30% 50% 10% 20% 2 A/kvar 2. Such "faults" often re-seal due to local heating caused by the leakage current. the units are said to be "self-healing".50 Hz supply IEC 831.5 A/kvar E24 .10. the defect may develop into a short-circuit. They are protected by a high-quality system (overpressure disconnector used with an HPC fuse) which switches off the capacitor if an internal fault occurs.1 capacitor elements technology The capacitors are dry-type units (i. v if the leakage current persists.power factor improvement . electrical characteristics standards operating rated voltage range rated frequency capacitance tolerance temperature maximum temperature range average temperature over 24 h average annual temperature minimum temperature insulation level permissible current overload permissible voltage overload current on 400 V . and will eventually operate a pressure-sensitive device to short-circuit the unit.

plus harmonic components. while a further 15% is due to the range of manufacturing tolerances. the upstream cables and transformers constitute the predominant part of Lo (the system inductance). This transient overcurrent however. supplied from a 3-phase system having a phase/phase voltage of Un kilo-volts. component dimensions The choice of upstream cables and protection and control devices depends on the current loading. c the capacitance value. components must be over-sized. rapidly falling to normal operating values. All components carrying the capacitor current therefore. power factor improvement . must be adequate to cover this "worst-case" condition. c where a bank of capacitors is automatically switched in steps. control devices. For this condition. the current is a function of: c the applied voltage and its harmonics.3 x 1. i. is generally a high-frequency phenomenon. derating of the components will be necessary. the current is limited only by the impedances of the network upstream of the capacitor. The first peak of transient high-frequency or (sometimes) unidirectional* current has the greatest magnitude. peak unidirectional currents are lower than the first peaks of high-frequency currents. The transient in-rush current from the previouslycharged units will then amount to an initial peak of I' P = U 2C n ( )A 3 L n +1 where L = the supply cable inductance in series with each capacitor n = the number of capacitor steps already energized before closure of the switch C = capacitance of each group forming 1 step (all steps are electrically identical). so that 1. so that high peak values of current will occur for a brief period. is given by: Q A In = 3 Un The permitted range of applied voltage at fundamental frequency. etc.5 In. together with manufacturing tolerances of actual capacitance (for a declared nominal value) can result in a 50% increase above the calculated value of current. The nominal current In a capacitor of kvar rating Q.e.5 times rated current. The frequency fo of the transient current surge is given by: 1 fo = Hz 2Π LoC * In general. Generally. The maximum value attainable. and based on 1. from the system and from the previously-charged bank. protection At the instant of closing a switch to energize a capacitor. the frequencies of the two infeeds will not be equal.E 10. in an ambient temperature of 50 °C maximum. For capacitors. will occur if the closing switch contacts touch at the instant of peak power-supply voltage. and connecting cables due to the possible presence of harmonic currents and to manufacturing tolerances.15 = 1. The frequency f'o of the current from the energized capacitors is given by 1 fo' = Hz 2Π LC The total inrush current is the sum of the two infeeds.2 choice of protection. In the case where higher temperatures (than 50 °C) occur in enclosures. the maximum highfrequency peak current is given by: Ip = U 2C A 3 Lo Where U = system phase-to-phase voltage in Volts C = capacitance of capacitor in Farads Lo = inductance of system impedance in Henrys (system resistance is ignored).E25 . when charging an initially uncharged capacitor. however. c for a single capacitor bank. which is superimposed on the 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) current wave. Approximately 30% of this increase is due to the voltage increases. those units which are already in service will initially discharge into an uncharged capacitor group at the instant of switching it into service.

the instantaneous elements of overcurrent tripping relays should be given a suitably high setting. and connecting cables (continued) The peak value of this transient current must not exceed 100 times the rated current of the capacitors in one step of a multi-step bank (IEC 831-1). or other types of conductor.power factor improvement . cross-sectional area of conductors The current rating of cables. For any other values of voltage and polarity on the pre-charged capacitor. The discharge delay time may be shortened. It is sometimes necessary to install small series inductors to achieve this limitation. if necessary. In order to avoid undesirable nuisance tripping of controlling circuit breakers at the instant of energizing a capacitor bank. This maximum transient current peak occurs when the last step is energized. method of installation. as previously noted. must be based on 1. This maximum condition occurs only if: c the existing voltage at the capacitor is equal to the peak value of rated voltage. when switching an uncharged capacitor into service. and c the switch contacts close at the instant of peak supply voltage. voltage transients High-frequency voltage transients accompany the high-frequency current transients.5 times the nominal current rating for the capacitor bank concerned. In the particular case of peak rated voltage on the capacitor having the same polarity as that of the supply voltage. and closing the switch at the instant of supply-voltage peak. therefore. the voltage transient can attain a maximum value approaching 3 times the normal rated peak value. there would be no voltage or current transients. and ambient temperature. in which case the manufacturer of the capacitors should be consulted. In such a situation. Note: The short-circuit current-breaking rating of the circuit breaker must be adequate to match the short-circuit level existing at the point of connection of the capacitor bank. the maximum voltage transient peak never (in the absence of steady-state harmonics) exceeds twice the peak value of rated voltage. etc. Section H1-2 of chapter H facilitates the selection of suitable cables. as a function of their characteristics. E26 .10. as previously noted. the current transient will be at its maximum possible value. by using discharge resistors of a lower resistance value. implementation of capacitor banks (continued) E 10.2 choice of protection. and c the polarity of the power-supply voltage is opposite to that of the charged capacitor. control devices. In the case of a capacitor being already charged at the instant of switch closure. care must be taken to ensure that a section of capacitors about to be energized is fully discharged. viz: twice that of its maximum when closing on to an initially uncharged capacitor. however. Where automatic switching of stepped banks of capacitors is considered. the transient peaks of voltage and current will be less than those mentioned above.

f.11. while at intermediate frequencies.m. Care should be taken to ensure that frequencies corresponding to the lowimpedance point are not close to control frequencies (such as those of ripple-control schemes used by many power companies for remote control of power-network devices). a series-connected LCR circuit (figure AE3-1(a)) tuned to resonate at the harmonic frequency concerned. The role of a filter bank. thereby reducing VAB(h) to practically zero. even-numbered harmonics were rarely encountered. so that the 100 Hz (on 50 Hz systems) separating one harmonic frequency from the next made the task of filters (despite manufacturing tolerances. The same procedure can be adopted for any number harmonic frequencies known to be present. will constitute a virtual shortcircuit to the current of that harmonic frequency. the response of the filter bank in terms of its impedance at different frequencies is shown in figure AE3-2. harmonic source protected network and power source B fig. is to allow a free flow of harmonic currents to circulate between the harmonic source and the filter bank. the impedance is very low. so that satisfactory results were achieved (and still are in all but exceptional cases) by the methods described below. When all factors have been taken into account. since each filter is affected by those in parallel with it. the more commonlyoccurring odd-numbered harmonics are shown in the diagrams.s.) relatively straightforward. elementary harmonic filters E For this appendix. high-impedance values occur. and resulting currents in order to function correctly.1 . Before the advent of power-electronics. IZI Ω fh/f50 1 5 7 11 13 (harmonic order) fig. If it is required to eliminate (almost) a harmonic voltage existing across two points A and B in a network. the individual filters being connected in parallel across the points A-B (figure AE3-1(b)). the control signals will be virtually short-circuited. Harmonic-producing equipment must create the harmonic e. including a degree of damping caused by the load impedance. and impedance changes with temperature. etc. while practically eliminating these currents and voltages from the rest of the network. It will be seen that. AE3-2. (a) A C L R B (b) A f= 1 2 π v LC An exact analysis of the combination is not simple. AE3-1. as well as by the powersystem source reactance shunting the filter bank (shown dotted in figure AE3-3). at each harmonic frequency for which a filter has been provided. Otherwise. as described. Appendix E3 .

e. Such a high-pass filter is commonly used for the highest-order harmonic filter (the 11th or 13th for example) of a bank.E A Zh a loads X source Vh harmonic source 5 7 11 filter bank 13 B fig.Appendix E3 . however. the successful application of power electronics devices is largely due to the development of effective filtering techniques which are. the filter for the highest harmonic of a bank. by connecting a resistor in parallel with the reactor. For that reason. most of the harmonic voltage Vh will be dropped across the internal impedance Zh of the harmonic source and that small harmonic-current components only will pass through the power-system source impedance Xs and the loads (the latter having relatively high impedance). most of the power-frequency voltage will appear across the capacitors. as shown dotted in figure AE3-3. such as that shown in figure AE3-1 (b) is often damped. AE3-3. approaching the value of the resistor only (figure AE3-4) as the frequency increases (i. The result is a filter which is less effective (but adequate) at its tuned frequency. In figure AE3-3.1. it will be seen that since the filters are practically short-circuits to harmonics. so that a useful contribution to any power-factor correction requirement is fortuitously available. AE3-4: damped filter circuit and characteristic impedance/frequency curve. the impedance will be low (inductive/resistive). according to particular requirements. the magnitude of harmonic emfs diminishes as the order of the harmonic increases. The filtering requirements are not. 2 . Since at fundamental frequency the capacitive reactance of each filter is much greater than its inductive reactance. There are several variations of damped filters and many combinations of band-pass and undamped filters in service. it forms a "highpass" filter). damped harmonic filters As noted in Chapter E. therefore. so critical for high-order harmonics as those necessary for lower-order harmonics. IZI Ω R L C r R Hz fo fig. In fact. while at all higher frequencies. beyond the scope of these brief notes. Sub-clause 9.

e. to ensure complete immunity from resonance. The addition of further identical steps in parallel will not affect the two resonant frequencies fp and fs. so that the amount of compensation can be adjusted to suit the requirements of a changing load. the inductance has reduced to 1/n times its original value. Such currents must be eliminated by shuntconnected series filters. the addition of reactor L means that changes in the power-system source reactance will have much less influence (than formerly) on the parallel-resonant frequency. 2 to 9 times) and the parallelresonant frequency depends on L + LS.12. the first step in service must fulfill the conditions of series resonance already mentioned and shown in figure AE4-1 (b).1 . since L generally has a much greater value than LS (e. remains constant. The reason for this is that for frequencies higher than the series-resonant frequency XL > XC so that the LCR branch behaves as an inductance + resistance series circuit. as described in Appendix E3. providing that every step is tuned to the same series resonant frequency. as shown in figure AE4-1 (b). the powersystem source inductance. the circuit now resonates at two different frequencies. i. AE4-1. the lower frequency is due to the parallel Ls//LCR combination. on which the series resonant frequency depends. It is sufficient that the two resonant frequencies be lower than those of the harmonics to be protected against. Furthermore. By similar reasoning. This is because. although a harmonicsuppression reactor protects the capacitor bank against the problem of resonance with the source reactance. and the upper due to the series LCR circuit. it follows that mixed steps of any kvar rating may be paralleled. the parallel resonant condition is moved away from the harmonic frequency towards a lower frequency. C L R (a) LS stepped banks of capacitors Power-factor correction capacitor banks are frequently made up of a number of switched sections. then the series resonant frequency of each step must be the same. the crux of the problem for capacitor banks is that a fraction of the total component of a given harmonic current can be magnified to dangerous levels in a parallel LCR circuit if that circuit resonates at the harmonic frequency concerned. In fact. it does not reduce the amount of harmonic current which passes through the HV/LV transformer to the source. Appendix E4 . If all switched steps have the same kvar rating.g. so that the product LC. although the capacitance has increased n times (for n steps in service). It may be noted that. IZI Ω (b) parallel resonance fP series resonance fS power source impedance f (Hz) f1 fp fS range of unwanted harmonic frequencies fig. By connecting a reactor L in series with the capacitor bank. no resonant condition is possible. This branch being in parallel with LS. harmonic suppression reactor for a single (power factor correction) capacitor bank E As shown in Appendix E2.

1 220 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 120/240 (G) 120 (L) 120 (L) (1) 230/380 (A) 220 (L) (9) ±7 ± 10 (9) ± 10 Denmark 50 ± 0.2 kV 6.5 kV 6.6 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 200/346 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) low-voltage tolerance % ±6 the adjoining table is extracted from the document "World Electricity Supplies".88 kV 225/390 (A) 220/380 (A) 13. low-voltage public distribution networks D 1. The voltage of the local LV network may be 120/208 V or 240/415 V. as shown in table D1. 6. An international voltage standard for 3-phase 4-wire LV systems is recommended by the IEC to be 230/400 V.2 kV 120/240 (G) 120/240 (G) (3) 22 kV 15 kV 6 kV 3 kV 220/380 (A) 30 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 6. or at some intermediate level.0 225 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 225/390 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) Brazil 60 220 (L) (1) 127 (L) (1) ± 10 (9) Belgium 50 ± 3 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (F) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (F) + 5 (day) ± 10 (night) Bolivia Cambodia Canada 50 ± 1 50 60 ± 0. but power-supply organizations generally propose a HV service at load levels for which their LV networks are marginally adequate.5 kV 347/600 (A) 120/208 600 (F) 480 (F) 240 (F) 220/380 (A) (3) 220/380 (A) (3) 13. Loads up to 250 kVA can be supplied at LV. by definition. commercial industrial Australia 240/415 (A) (E) 240 (L) 240/415 (A) 250/440 (A) 440 (N) (6) 22 kV 11 kV 6.3 Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Czechoslovakia 50 50 60 ± 1 60 50 ± 0.6 kV 240/415 (A) 250/440 (A) (9) 10 kV 5.e.3 ±5 Greece 50 ± 1 table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world. i. the lower or upper extremes of the most common 3-phase levels in general use.8 kV 11. An international voltage standard for 3-phase 4-wire LV systems is recommended by the IEC to be 230/400 V. fourth edition.1.5 250/440 (A) 127/220 (E) 220 (L) (1) (9) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) ± 6 (10) + 5 and + 10 Argentina 50 ± 1.2 kV 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 15 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (F) 115/230 (H) (3) 220/380 (A) (3) 120/208 (A) 7. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams.3 ± 10 50 ± 0.2/12.* country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 50 ± 0.D1 .02 115/230 (H) 120/208 (A) 120 (L) 120/240 (K) 115/230 (H) 220/380 (A) 120/208 (A) 347/600 (A) 480 (F) 240 (F) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 220/380 (A) (1) 220/380 (A) 120/240 (G) 120 (L) 120/240 (K) 120 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) ±5 (9) ±4 .4 50 ± 1 50 ± 0.6 kV 220/380 (A) 380/660 (A) 500 (B) 220/380 (A) (D) 20 kV 15 kV 230/400 380 (B) 220/380 (A) (D) 20 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 10 kV 6 kV 380/660 (A) 220/380 (A) 22 kV 20 kV 15 kV 6.6 kV 220/380 (A) 13.* Low-voltage consumers are. but power-supply organizations generally propose a HV service at load levels for which their LV networks are marginally adequate.1 domestic Loads up to 250 kVA can be supplied at LV. low-voltage service connections . those consumers whose loads can be satisfactorily supplied from the low-voltage system in their locality.1 low-voltage consumers the most-common LV supplies are within the range 120 V single phase to 240/415 V 3-phase 4-wires.8.1 50 ± 1 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) ± 10 + 10 ± 10 ± 10 Egypt (AR) Finland France 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (E) 127 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) 127 (L) 220 (L) (1) 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (D) 380 (B) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) Germany Ex-DRG Ex-FRG 50 ± 0. Western Algeria 50 50 ± 1. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.6 kV 220/380 (A) ±5 Hong Kong (and Kowloon) 50 ± 2 200/346 (A) 200 (L) (1) 11 kV 200/346 (A) 220/380 (A) 200 (L) ±6 * IEC 38 (1983).

13. D2 .4 50 50 ± 0.6 kV 105/210 (H) 100/200 (H) 220/380 (A) (9) 240/415 (A) (3) 20 kV 15 kV 5 kV 240/415 (A) (3) 13.24 kV 3.1.c.4 220/380 (A) 127/220 (E) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (E) ± 5 (urban) ± 10 (rural) Japan (East) (4) 50 ± 0.4 kV 110/220 (H) 240/120 (H) (K) 240/120 (H) (9) ±5 table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world.16 kV 2.3 kV 230/400 (A) 20 kV 15 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 220 (C) 6. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams (continued). low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1.2 kV 277/480 (A) 127/220 (B) 220/380 (A) (3) 10 kV 3 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 230/400 (A) 240/415 (A) 440 (N) (6) 15 kV 11 kV 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 20 kV 10 kV 5 kV 220/380 (A) 230 (B) 230/400 (A) (3) 13.6 kV 240/120 (H) 10 kV 6 kV 225 (B) +4 +6 +6 +5 + 15 Iraq 50 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) +5 Ireland (Northern) Ireland (Republic of) Israel 50 ± 0.8 .10 ±6 Malaysia Mexico Morocco Netherlands 50 50 ± 0.2 (5) 60 ± 0.6 (10) (9) (9) ± 5 and ± 10 +5 .6 kV 3 kV 220/380 (A) 230/400 (A) (3) 220/380 (A) 10 kV 220/380 (A) 22 kV 12.2 230 (B) 220/380 (A) 230 (B) ± 10 Pakistan Philippines 50 60 ± 0.low-voltage service connections Manila 60 ± 5 240/120 (H) (K) 240/120 (H) ±5 Peru 60 225 (B) (M) 225 (B) (M) (9) .0 60 ± 0.16 kV 2.1 50 ± 1 50 ± 3 50 ± 3 25 d. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.16 230 (L) (1) 110/220 (K) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 13.5 (9) ±6 ±5 New Zealand Nigeria 50 ± 1 240/415 (A) (E) 230/400 (A) (E) 230 (L) 240 (L) 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) ±5 Norway 50 ± 0.10 Hungary 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) Iceland India (4) Bombay New Delhi Romakrishnapuram (2) Indonesia Iran 50 ± 0.2 230 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) +6 (9) +6 Italy 50 ± 0.4 50 ± 1.5 50 ± 1.6 kV 100/200 (H) 200 (G) (J) 22 kV 6.8 kV 4.2 + 6.6 kV 6.8 kV 13. 50 ± 1 -2 50 ± 5 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 250/440 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/460 (P) 127/220 (A) 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 250/440 (A) 230 (L) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 220/400 (A) 230 (L) 230/460 (P) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 220/380 (A) 20 kV 220 (L) 10 kV 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) (9) 11 kW 250/440 (A) 11 kV 230/400 (A) 22 kV and 11 kV (9) (9) 220/380 (A) (3) 20 kV 11 kV 231/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 11 kV 6.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 50 ± 2 domestic commercial industrial low-voltage tolerance % + 5 .4 kV 440 V (B) 110/220 (H) 20 kV 6.8 kV 4.1 (5) 100/200 (K) 100 (L) 105/210 (K) 100/200 (K) 100 (L) 220 (L) 100 (L) 240 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 120/208 (A) 240 (L) (1) 127/220 (A) 220 (L) 120 (M) 127/220 (A) 115/200 (A) 220/300 (A) 220 (E) (L) 230/400 (A) (E) 230 (L) 240 (L) 230 (L) (1) 220 (L) (1) 100/200 (H) (K) ± 10 Japan (West) (4) 105/210 (H) (K) 100/200 (K) 100 (L) 220/380 (A) 100/200 (K) 240/415 (A) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) 120/208 (A) 240/415 (A) 127/220 (A) 220 (L) 120 (M) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) ± 10 Korea (North) Korea (South) Kuwait Luxembourg 60 + 0 -5 60 50 50 ± 0.

3 kV 500 (B) ±5 Saudi Arabia Singapore 60 ± 0.2 Syria 50 220 (L) (1) 115 (L) (1) Taiwan 60 ± 4 Tunisia 50 + 2 50 ± 2 50 ± 1 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 110/220 (K) 110 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 115/200 (A) 115 (L) 220/380 (A) 110/220 (H) 20 kV 10 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) 115/200 (A) ± 10 (9) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) Turkey United Kingdom 240 (L) (1) 240/415 (A) 22.5 kV 2. Portland (Oregon) 60 120/240 (K) 227/480 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 480 (F) 240 (F) (9) low-voltage service connections .A. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams (continued).8 kV 120/240 (G) 13.8 kV 120/240 (G) 120/240 (K) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 240 (F) 265/460 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 460 (F) 230 (F) ±5 ±5 New York (New York) 60 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) (9) Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) 60 ± 0. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.D 1.3 kV 240/415 (A) 14.2 kV 11. (4) Charlotte (North Carolina) 60 ± 0.3 120/240 (K) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 4.3 kV 220/380 (A) 22 kV 11 kV 6.4 kV 277/480 (A) 120/208 (A) 480 (F) 240 (F) ± 5 and ± 10 + 10 ± 10 ±6 U.16 kV 480 (F) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (A) 4.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 50 ± 1 50 ± 1 domestic commercial industrial low-voltage tolerance % ±5 ±5 Poland 220 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) Portugal 220/380 (A) 220 (L) Rumania 50 ± 1 220 (L) (1) 15 kV 5 kV 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (L) 15 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 15 kV 5 kV 220/380 (A) 20 kV 10 kV 6 kV 220/380 (A) 13.6 kV 3.6.3 kV 250/433 (A) (7) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) ±5 Sweden 50 ± 0.2 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 480 (F) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (A) + 4 .4 kV 265/460 (A) 120/208 (A) 460 (F) 230 (F) 19.S.8 kV 220/380 (A) 22 kV 6.06 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 265/460 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) + 5 .47 kV 4.6 kV 230/400 (A) 220/380 (A) 127/220 (A) ±5 ±3 ±7 Spain South Africa 50 ± 2.D3 .4 kV 575 (F) 460 (F) 240 (F) 265/460 (A) 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 13.2 kV 2.5 50 ± 0.2.2 kV 2.2 60 ± 0.6 kV 3.6 Los Angeles (California) Miami (Florida) 60 ± 0.8 kV 4.5 50 ± 3 127/220 (A) 230/400 (A) 230 (L) 220/380 (A) (E) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) (E) 127 (L) 250/433 (A) (7) 230/400 (A) (7) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 230/400 (A) (7) 220/380 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) 220/380 (A) 6.5 Detroit (Michigan) 60 ± 0.5 25 (8) 11 kV 6.6 kV 230/400 (A) 15 kV 11 kV 220/380 (A) 11 kV 6.4 kV 480/277 (A) 120/240 (H) 12.4 kV 220/380 (A) 220 (H) 15 kV 10 kV 220/380 (A) 15 kV 6.16 kV 277/480 (A) 480 (F) 13.9 kV 12 kV 7.03 120/240 (K) ± 5 (lighting) ± 10 (power) table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world.2 kV 4.8 kV 11.6 kV 3.2 kV 2.4 kV 7.

47 kV 7.2 kV 4.1 50 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 127/220 (A) 127 (L) 220 (L) (1) 120 (L) (1) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) (9) 220/380 (A) 120/208 (A) 220/380 (A) 220 (L) 15 kV 220/380 (A) 10 kV 6. D4 .1 low-voltage consumers (continued) country frequency & tolerance Hz & % 60 ± 0.16 kV 480 (F) 277/480 (A) 120/208 (A) 220/380 (A) (3) Toledo (Ohio) 60 ± 0. Bracketed letters relate to the circuit diagrams at the end of the table.08 domestic commercial industrial low-voltage tolerance % ±5 San Francisco (California) 120/240 (K) 277/480 (A) 120/240 (K) 20.16 kV 277/480 (A) 120/240 (G) 12.1.8 kV 4.6 kV 220/380 (A) ± 10 (9) table D1: survey of electricity supplies in various countries around the world.low-voltage service connections .8 kV 12 kV 4. while bracketed numbers refer to the notes which follow the diagrams.08 120/240 (K) 120/208 (A) 277/480 (C) 120/240 (H) 120/208 (K) ±5 USSR (former) 50 Viet-Nam Yugoslavia 50 ± 0. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1.

four-wire: earthed neutral (b) three-phase star: three-wire (c) three-phase star. two-wire: unearthed V kV (n) single-wire: earthed return (swer) (p) d. (8) Refers to isolated mining districts. (6) Some remote areas are supplied via a Single Wire Earthed Return (SWER) system. three-wire: earthed mid point (l) single-phase. (4) More than one area of country is given to illustrate the differences which exist. (10) Observed values. (7) A few towns only have this supply. supplies are used in limited areas only. low-voltage service connections . (3) Information on higher voltage supplies to factories is not available. four-wire: earthed mid point of one phase (j) three-phase open delta: earthed junction of phases (k) single-phase. two-wire: earthed end of phase (m) single-phase. (2) Frequencies below 50 Hz and d. (9) Information not available. The dividing line from north to south passes through Shizuoka on Honshu Island. four-wire: non-earthed neutral (e) two-phase star.c. three-wire: earthed neutral (f) three-phase delta: three-wire (g) three-phase delta. Notes (1) The supply to each house is normally single-phase using one line and one neutral conductor of systems (A) or (G).: three-wire: unearthed * Windings (A) (B) (C) (D) and (F) may be transformer-secondary windings or alternator stator windings. The examples given show the diversity of possibilities existing. three-wire: earthed neutral (d) three-phase star. (5) Frequency is 50 Hz (eastern area) and 60 Hz (western area).D circuit diagrams* (a) three-phase star.D5 .c. four-wire: earthed mid point of one phase (h) three-phase open delta.

The two principal limiting parameters of a distributor are: c the maximum current which it is capable of carrying indefinitely. In principle.2 14. being (arbitrarily) based on 60 A maximum service currents for the first three systems. c small factories. In practice. The second group of systems is (again. i.(or switch-) board from which the mains distributors emanate. when carrying its maximum current. medium-size and small industrial consumers (with dedicated LV lines direct from a public-supply HV/LV substation) Medium and small industrial consumers can also be satisfactorily supplied at low-voltage. c the total load already connected to the distributor. c farms. workshops and filling stations. etc. the upper load limit which can be supplied by this means is restricted only by the available spare transformer capacity in the substation. however: c large loads (e. c the location along the distributor of the proposed new load. etc. since smaller voltage drops are allowed at these lower voltages. For the range of LV systems mentioned in the second paragraph of this sub-clause (1. so that. These constraints mean that the magnitude of loads which power-supply organizations are willing to connect to their LV distribution mains.1) viz: 120 V single phase to 240/415 V 3-phase. > 300 kVA) require correspondingly large cables. is necessarily restricted. will not exceed the statutory voltage-drop limit. and c the maximum length of cable which. unless the load centre is close to the substation. system 120 V 1-phase 2-wire 120/240 V 1-phase 3-wire 120/208 V 3-phase 4-wire 220/380 V 3-phase 4-wire 230/400 V 3-phase 4-wire 240/415 V 3-phase 4-wire table D2. and no "standardized" values can be given. Consumers normally supplied at low voltage include: c domestic dwellings. and will be sufficient for the installations of many administrative. c shops and commercial buildings. typical maximum permitted loads connected to a LV distributor might* be: assumed max. The current-rating requirements of distributors are estimated from the number of consumers to be connected and an average demand per consumer. or near the remote end of the distributor. for a given percentage statutory limit.4 22 80 83 86 * The table D2 values shown are indicative only. a dedicated cable can usually be provided from the LV distribution fuse. in the power-supply authority substation. Practices vary considerably from one powersupply organization to another. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. each case must be examined individually. c many power-supply organizations prefer to supply loads exceeding 200 kVA (this figure varies with different suppliers) at high voltage.e. The load levels listed above are adequate for all normal domestic consumers. For these reasons. this method can be economically unfavourable. close to the substation. permitted current per consumer service 60 A 60 A 60 A 120 A 120 A 120 A kVA 7. Factors to be considered include: c the size of an existing distributor to which the new load is to be connected. In short. dedicated supply lines at LV are generally applied (at 220/380 V to 240/415 V) to a load range of 80 kVA to 250 kVA. arbitrarily) based on a maximum permitted service current of 120 A. For loads which exceed the maximum permitted limit for a service from a distributor.1. commercial and similar buildings.1 low-voltage consumers (continued) residential and commercial consumers The function of a LV "mains" distributor (underground cable or overhead line) is to provide service connections to a number of consumers along its route. D6 .g.low-voltage service connections . c restaurants.

where two cables cross. low-voltage service connections . or moulded-case circuit breaker boards. or 240/415 V. and one or two HV circuit breakers or combined fuse/ load-break switches for the transformer circuits. the phase links are omitted or replaced by fuses. Moreover. a standard size of distributor is laid to form a network.2. while the area normally supplied from it is fed from link boxes of the surrounding substations. In European countries the standard 3-phase 4-wire distribution voltage levels are 220/380 V. but the neutral link remains in place. control and protect outgoing 4-core distribution cables. short lengths of distributor (between two link boxes) can be isolated for fault-location and repair. are typically equipped with: c a 3-or 4-way HV switchboard. by removing (phase) links. The target date for completion is the year 2003. flush-mounted in the wall. D3: showing one of several ways in which a LV distribution network may be arranged for radial branched-distributor operation. Links are inserted in such a way that distributors form radial circuits from the substation with open-ended branches (see figure D3). with (generally) one cable along each pavement and 4-way link boxes located in manholes at street corners. c one or two 1. The output from a transformer is connected to the LV busbars via a load-break switch. so that each (fused) distributor leaving a substation forms a branched openended radial system. c one or two (coupled) 6-or 8-way LV 3-phase 4-wire distribution fuse boards. 4-way link box HV/LV substation service cable phase links removed fig. as shown in figure D3. Some links are removed. Medium to large-sized towns and cities have underground cable distribution systems. mutually spaced at approximately 500-600 metres. This arrangement provides a very flexible system in which a complete substation can be taken out of service. often made up of incoming and outgoing load-break switches forming part of a ring main. 230/400 V. LV distribution networks in cities and large towns. generally referred to as “distributors". Many countries are currently converting their LV systems to the latest IEC standard of 230/400 V nominal (IEC 38-1983). In densely-loaded areas. either against a wall. Recent trends are towards weather-proof cabinets above ground level. standardsized LV distribution cables form a network through link boxes. Where a link box unites a distributor from one substation with that from a neighbouring substation. or where possible.D7 . HV/LV distribution substations.000 kVA HV/LV transformers. or simply through isolating links.D 1.

North and Central American practice differs fundamentally from that in Europe. The HV system is. which again differs from standard European practices. The neutral conductors are permanently connected. from which smaller distributors supply consumers immediately surrounding the pillar. in Europe. to interconnect corresponding phases at times of emergency. have been developed. the secondary windings of which are centre-tapped to produce 120/240 V single-phase 3-wire supplies. Distribution in market towns. are solidly earthed at intervals along their lengths. D8 . The distribution is effectively carried out at high voltage in a way. As a matter of interest. placed above ground at strategic points in the network.1. which. for many years. in fact. and 3-phase supplies to domestic premises in residential areas are rare. similar principles have been applied at higher voltages. LV insulated conductors. In Europe. in that LV networks are practically nonexistent. by direct service cable (or line) from the transformer location. villages and rural areas generally has. arrangements are made at poles on which the LV lines from different substations meet. the substations are more closely spaced. In this scheme a number of large-sectioned LV radial feeders from the distribution board in the substation each supply the busbars of a distribution pillar. and transformers up to 1. Where the load density requires it. Each HV/LV transformer normally supplies one or several premises directly from the transformer position by radial service cable(s) or by overhead line(s). and selfsupporting “bundled” insulated conductors for HV overhead installations are now available for operation at 24 kV.500 kVA are sometimes necessary. twisted to form a two-core or 4-core selfsupporting cable for overhead use. together with the HV neutral conductors. This scheme exploits the principle of tapered radial distributors in which the distribution cable conductor size is reduced as the number of consumers downstream diminish with distance from the substation. concrete or steel poles. in which conductors of reduced size are installed as the distance from a substation increases. each public-supply distribution substation is able to supply at LV an area corresponding to a radius of approximately 300 metres from the substation. Other forms of urban LV network. This is particularly so when the conductors are fixed to walls (e. under-eaves wiring) where they are hardly noticeable. Where more than one substation supplies a village. The central conductors provide the LV neutrals. a 3-phase 4-wire system from which single-phase distributors (phase and neutral conductors) supply numerous single-phase transformers. and supplied from pole-mounted or ground-mounted transformers. are widely used in areas of lower load density.low-voltage service connections . In recent years. North and Central American systems of distribution consist of a HV network from which numerous (small) HV/LV transformers each supply one or several consumers. improved methods using insulated twisted conductors to form a polemounted aerial cable are now standard practice in many countries.2 LV distribution networks (continued) in less-densely loaded urban areas a more-economic system of tapered radial distribution is commonly used. been based on bare copper conductors supported on wooden. based on free-standing LV distribution pillars. each public-supply distribution substation is able to supply at LV an area corresponding to a radius of approximately 300 metres from the substation.g. and are considered to be safer and visually more acceptable than bare copper lines. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1.

the earthing reactor has a secondary winding to provide LV 3-phase supplies for the substation. Frequently.4 kV / 120-240 V 1 ph . it is common practice in some European countries to use an earthed-star primary winding and a delta secondary winding.16 kV N 1 2 3 each HV/LV transformer shown represents many similar units 2 3 N 2. The neutral point on the secondary side is then provided by a zigzag earthing reactor. Figure D4 shows the main features of the two systems. It is then referred to as an “earthing transformer”. the star point of which is connected to earth through a resistor. D4: widely-used American and European-type systems.D Many other systems exist in these countries.8 kV / 2.3 wire distribution transformer N 1 1 N HV (2) } tertiary delta normally (not always) used if the primary winding is not delta 1 ph HV / 230 V service transformer to isolated consumer(s) (rural supplies) Ph resistor replaced by a Petersen coil on O/H line systems in some countries N HV (1) } N 2 2 N 1 2 3 N main 3 ph and neutral HV distributor N 3 ph HV / 230/400 V 4-wire distribution transformer N 1 2 3 LV distribution network (1): 132 kV for example (2): 11 kV for example fig.4-4. Note: at primary voltages greater than 72.5 kV in bulk-supply substations. for primary voltages > 72. but the one described appears to be the most common.D9 .5 kV (see note) primary winding may be : – delta with on-load – earthed star tap changer – earthed zigzag depending on the country concerned 13. low-voltage service connections .

as shown in figure D8. supplies can be quickly restored following correction of the anomaly. following a satisfactory test and inspection of the installation. either: c in a free-standing pillar-type housing as shown in figures D6 and D7. c in a space inside a building. so that if the MCCB is inadvertently tripped on overload. which is sealed by the supply authority. In the past. The modern tendency is to locate these items outside in a weatherproof cabinet. D5: typical service arrangement for TT-earthed systems. Closing and tripping of the MCCB is freely available to the consumer. the supplyauthority fuses (inaccessible to the consumer) and meters were installed. A more recent trend is (as far as possible) to locate these service components in a weatherproof housing outside the building. but with cable termination and supply authority’s fuses located in a flush-mounted weatherproof cabinet accessible from the public way. A = Service cable tee-joint F = Supply authority fuses C = Metering equipment S = Isolating link DB = Installation main circuit breaker LV consumers are normally supplied according to the TN or TT system. since the overload trip setting. the location of meters is nowadays generally outside the premises. A MCCB which incorporates a sensitive residual-current earth-fault protective feature is mandatory at the origin of any LV installation forming part of a TT earthing system. an underground cable service or the wall-mounted insulated conductors from an overhead line service. The installation main circuit breaker for a TT supply must include a residualcurrent earth-leakage protective device. A further reason for this MCCB is that the consumer cannot exceed his (contractual) declared maximum load. in some cases. In view of the inconvenience to both the meter reader and consumer.1. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1. overcurrent protection by circuit breaker or switch-fuse is required. D10 . The supply-authority/consumer interface is often at the outgoing terminals of the meter(s) or.3 the consumer-service connection service components and metering equipment were formerly installed inside a consumer's building. fig. For a TN service. where the cable-end sealing box. The reason for this feature and related leakage-current tripping levels are discussed in Clause 3 of Chapter G.low-voltage service connections . at the outgoing terminals of the installation main circuit breaker (depending on local practices) to which connection is made by supply-authority personnel. will cut off supply above the declared value. as described in chapters F and G. A typical arrangement is shown in figure D5. or due to an appliance fault. invariably terminated inside the consumer's premises.

D7: semi-urban installations (shopping precincts. fig. fig.). etc. D8: town centre installations. D6: typical rural-type installation. etc. when the consumer can provide a suitable metering and main-switch location. saw-mills. pumping stations.D fig. This method is preferred for esthetic reasons. e.g. In this kind of installation it is often necessary to place the main installation circuit breaker some distance from the point of utilization. The main installation CB is located in the consumer's premises in cases where it is set to trip if the declared kVA load demand is exceeded. accessible from the public way.D11 . The service cable terminates in a flushmounted wall cabinet which contains the isolating fuse links. low-voltage service connections .

and it is confidently predicted that. supply authority/ consumer interface overhead line LV distributor service cable isolation by fuse links installation meter meter cabinet main installation circuit breaker fig. using information technology (IT) techniques. D9: typical LV service arrangement for domestic consumers.low-voltage service connections .1. and accessible to authorized personnel from the pavement. and recording on magnetic cards is now possible. Experiments are now well-advanced in the field of electronic metering. in which removable fuse links provide the means of isolation. in addition to remote reading and recording. or flush-mounted in the boundary wall. in areas where it is economically justified. the modification of tariff structures for a given meter will be possible from a central control location. reading. the equipment shown in the cabinet in figure D5 is installed in a weatherproof cabinet mounted vertically on a metal frame in the front garden. low-voltage public distribution networks (continued) D 1.3 the consumer-service connection (continued) c for private domestic consumers. Figure D9 shows the general arrangement. D12 .

8 power factor lagging. i. an unloaded transformer output voltage will be held within a band of ± 2% of its no-load voltage output. This would result in a voltage band of 102% to 106% in the present case.5 x 0.6% voltage margin is not unduly restrictive. in which case the off-circuit tapping switch should be selected to the .6% to (106 . This means.3.6%. Furthermore. In this case. practical application With the HV/LV transformer correctly selected at its off-circuit tapping switch.85 is a more common value.8 PF lagging is appropriate to industrial loads. 105% of the nominal voltage. For example. under the worst conditions (of minus 5% at the service position.5% tap position. 104% at no-load*.6%. The maximum allowable voltage drop along a distributor is therefore 98.5% position. i. c uninterrupted power supply. In present-day practice. and depend on the system powerflow pattern. as described above...6 . an adequate level of voltage at the consumers supply-service terminals is essential for satisfactory operation of equipment and appliances. IEC and most national standards recommend that LV appliances be designed and tested to perform satisfactorily within the limits of ± 10% of nominal voltage.6 = 0. the HV/LV distribution transformer should have its HV off-circuit tapping switch selected to the + 2. Alternatively. then the voltage drop within the transformer when supplying full load at 0. for the same volt-drop.D 1. Practical values of current. If the HV/LV transformer is in a location close to a bulk-supply substation. and so the 3. the voltage could be 20. power-supply authorities have a statutory obligation to maintain the level of voltage at the service position of consumers within the limits of ± 5% (or in some cases ± 6% or more-see table D1) of the declared nominal value. To ensure that the transformer can maintain the necessary voltage level when fully loaded. so that the volt-drop noted above may be considered as a “worst case” example.e. in practical terms. and resulting voltage drops in a typical LV system. The voltage drops in a typical distribution system occur as follows: the voltage at the HV terminals of a HV/LV transformer is normally maintained within a ± 2% band by the action of automatic onload tapchangers of the transformers at bulk-supply substations.D13 .4% The voltage band at the output terminals of the fully-loaded transformer will therefore be (102 . the remaining subjects are covered in Clause 2 of chapter F. the winding ratios generally give an output voltage of about low-voltage service connections .3.4 + 3 = 3.8 + 5 x 0. or as a result of system faults or other emergencies. for example) of 5% allowable voltage drop in the installation wiring. will be: V% drop = R% cos ø + X% sin ø = 0. at locations remote from bulksupply substations a value of 19.5 kV ± 2% on a 20 kV system. Moreover.8 PF lagging. In most countries. * Transformers designed for the 230/400 V IEC standard will have a no-load output of 420 V. the cable can be fully loaded for distances normally required in LV distribution systems. which feed the HV network from a higher-voltage subtransmission system. that a medium-sized 230/400 V 3-phase 4-wire distribution cable of 240 mm2 copper conductors would be able to supply a total load of 292 kVA at 0. 0. when nominal voltage is applied at HV. the same load at the premises of a single consumer could be supplied at a distance of 153 metres from the transformer.4) = 102. except for scheduled maintenance shutdowns. If it is assumed that its resistance voltage is one tenth of this value. The different levels of voltage in a system are normal. these voltage differences are the reason for the term “nominal” when referring to the system voltage. A typical LV distribution transformer has a short-circuit reactance voltage of 5%. In mixed semi-industrial areas 0. distributed evenly over 306 metres of the distributor. In this Sub-clause the maintenance of voltage magnitude only will be discussed.4 quality of supply voltage The quality of the LV network supply voltage in its widest sense implies: c compliance with statutory limits of magnitude and frequency. c preservation of a near-sinusoidal wave form. while 0.4) = 98. the output voltage at no-load must be as high as possible without exceeding the upper + 5% limit (adopted for this example). show the importance of maintaining a high Power Factor as a means of reducing voltage drop. Conversely. As a matter of interest. or is corrected by the tapping switch.5 kV ± 2% is possible.e. and so on. the maximum rating of the cable. the ± 2% voltage band may be centred on a voltage level which is higher than the nominal HV value.95 = 3. based on calculations derived from IEC 287 (1982) is 290 kVA.9 is generally used for calculations concerning residential areas. This leaves a margin. Again. c freedom from continual fluctuation within those limits.

and minimizing plant redundancy.). that of reducing peak power demands. one of which operates during the day and the other (switched over by a timing device) operates during the night. meters It will be appreciated that high-quality instruments and devices are necessary to implement this kind of metering. for a given kW loading. * Ripple control is a system of signalling in which a voicefrequency current (commonly at 175 Hz) is injected into the LV mains at appropriate substations. c reduction of the peak power demand. many tariff structures are based partly on kVA demand. while increasing demand at low-load periods. as well as on kWh consumed. The kVA demand generally used for tariff purposes is the maximum average kVA demand occurring during each billing period. and that for the lowest-load period of the year. the consumption of which is then indicated on the register to which the cheaper rate applies. A contactor. The simplest example is that of a domestic consumer with a storage-type water heater (or storage-type space heater. The meter has two digital registers. D14 . i. and facilitate considerably the application of the principles discussed. are: c reduction of power losses in the generation. 30 or 60 minute periods) and selecting the highest of these values. operated by the same timing device. transmission and distribution of electrical energy. etc.2.) are now operational. Large industrial consumers may have 3 or 4 rates which apply at different periods during a 24-hour interval.e. transmission and distribution. Recent developments in electronic metering and micro-processors. up to 960 discrete control signals are available. reduction of losses Although the ideal condition noted in the first possibility mentioned above cannot be realized in practice. Since. and a similar number for different periods of the year. together with remote ripple-control* from a supply-authority control centre (to change peak-period timing throughout the year. when using classical electro-mechanical equipment. thereby exploiting the generating plant more fully. The heater can be switched on and off at any time during the day if required. tariffs and metering D tariffs and metering No attempt will be made in this guide to discuss particular tariffs. closes the circuit of the water heater. the consumer can minimize billing costs by taking steps to improve the power factor of the load (as discussed in Chapter E). In principle the lowest losses in a power system are attained when all parts of the system operate at unity power factor. The two predominant ways in which the cost of supplying power to consumers can be reduced. In such schemes the ratio of cost per kWh during a period of peak demand for the year. The signal is injected as coded impulses. In this way. reduction of peak power demand The second aim. and relays which are tuned to the signal frequency and which recognize the particular code will operate to initiate a required function. c certain periods of the year. has resulted in tariffs which offer substantial reduction in the cost of energy at: c certain hours during the 24-hour day. etc. The principle is described below in "principle of kVA maximum-demand metering". over fixed periods (generally 10. may be as much as 10: 1. the minimum value of kVA occurs at unity power factor. since there appears to be as many different tariff structures around the world as there are distribution authorities. while increasing the demand at low-load periods.low-voltage service connections . and is based on average kVA demands. Some tariffs are very complicated in detail but certain elements are basic to all of them and are aimed at encouraging consumers to manage their power consumption in a way which reduces the cost to the supply authority of generation. but will then be metered at the normal rate.

the red indicator will be at the maximum of all the average values occurring in the billing period. instead of having a set of decade counter dials. If now. during the billing periods (often 3-monthly intervals). is. It is known that a varying amount of kVA of apparent power has been flowing for 10 minutes. and that position. The maximum demand registered by the meter to be described. 0 1 time 2 hrs fig. At the end of 10 minutes the pointer will have moved part way round the dial (it is designed so that it can never complete one revolution in 10 minutes) and is then electrically reset to the zero position. to start another 10 minute period. The red indicator remains at the position reached by the measuring pointer. corresponds to the number of kVAh (kilo-volt-ampere-hours) taken by the load in 10 minutes. the highest) average kVA demand kVA maximum average value during the 2 hour interval average values for 10 minute periods registered for succeeding periods during the billing interval. Electro-mechanical meters of the kind described are rapidly being replaced by electronic instruments. Furthermore. this instrument has a rotating pointer. certain tariffs.D15 . principle of kVA maximumdemand metering A kVAh meter is similar in all essentials to a kWh meter but the current and voltage phase relationship has been modified so that it effectively measures kVAh (kilo-volt-amphours). are the same as those described above. then the average kVA for the period is obtained. in addition to the kWh consumption. as noted above. the figure for average kVA will be 6 times greater than the kVAh value at any given point. The meter measures the average value of kVA during each of these 10 minute periods. Similar reasoning can be applied to any other reset-time interval.D In most countries. The basic measuring principles on which these electronic meters depend however. The following figures will clarify the matter. 1/6 hour. low-voltage service connections . the 5 kVAh is divided by the number of hours.e. Supposing the point at which the red indicator reached corresponds to 5 kVAh. At the end of the billing period. a maximum (i. in fact. as in the case of a conventional kWh meter. are partly based on kVA demand. Figure D10 shows a typical kVA demand curve over a period of two hours divided into succeeding periods of 10 minutes. In this case the average kVA for the period will be: 1 5x = 5 x 6 = 30 kVA 1/6 Every point around the dial will be similarly marked i. When the pointer turns it is measuring kVAh and pushing a red indicator before it. Instead of the dial being marked in kilo-VAhours at that point however it can be marked in units of average kVA. i.e. The red indicator will be reset to zero at the beginning of each billing period.e. D10: maximum average value of kVA over an interval of 2 hours.

2. c the method of earthing. Notes: 1. IEC 694 concerns switchgear for nominal voltages exceeding 1. the relevant recommendations must specify the limit to which the normal operation of this equipment can be ensured. etc.. values. in order to feed into lowvoltage networks. in this document.C1 . 3. such as those due to system switching. while systems of power distribution which require one stage of stepdown voltage transformation. will be referred to as HighVoltage systems.. Note: All voltages and currents are r.m. having regard to voltage sensitive characteristics such as losses of capacitors. 1. unless otherwise stated. It is understood that. HV/LV distribution substations .000 V or less are referred to as Low-Voltage systems.The definition for “highest voltage for equipment” given in IEC 38 is identical to that given in IEC 694 for “rated voltage”. c the short-circuit current. In this chapter.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks the main features which characterize a power-supply system include: c the nominal voltage and related insulation levels.000 V only. that occurs under normal operating conditions at any time and at any point on the system. nominal voltage and related insulation levels The nominal voltage of a system or of an equipment is defined in IEC 38 as “the voltage by which a system or equipment is designated and to which certain operating characteristics are referred”.s. particularly for certain nominal system voltages.5 kV.000 V. supply of power at high voltage C At present there is no international agreement on precise limits to define “High” voltage. In such cases. and temporary voltage variations”. normal operation of equipment cannot be ensured up to this highest voltage for equipment. the word “nominal” voltage is used for the network and the word “rated” voltage is used for the equipment. c the rated normal current of items of plant and equipment.It is understood that the equipment to be used in systems having nominal voltage not exceeding 1. distribution networks which operate at voltages of 1. and to which other characteristics may be referred in relevant equipment recommendations. It excludes voltage transients.1.The highest voltage for equipment is indicated for nominal system voltages higher than 1. Voltage levels which are designated as “high” in some countries are referred to as “medium” in others. For economic and technical reasons the upper nominal voltage limit of high-voltage distribution systems. Closely related to the nominal voltage is the “highest voltage for equipment” which concerns the level of insulation at normal working frequency. seldom exceeds 36.000 V should be specified with reference to the nominal system voltage only. magnetizing current of transformers. both for operation and for insulation.. as defined above. The “highest voltage for equipment” is defined in IEC 38 as: “the maximum value of voltage for which the equipment may be used.

etc.4 (2) 36.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) The following Table C1.6 (1) 7. It is recommended that only one of these series should be used in any one country. 2) These systems are generally four-wire systems. values). the other for 60 Hz systems (Series II . The values shown are voltages between phases.5 (2) - nominal system voltage (kV) 4.5 (2) - 1) These values should not be used for public distribution systems.It is recommended that in any one country the ratio between two adjacent nominal voltages should be not less than two. the highest voltage does not differ by more than + 5% and the lowest voltage by more than . series II highest voltage for equipment (kV) 4.8 (1) 24. It is also recommended that only one of the two series of nominal voltages given for Series I should be used in any one country. and the type of overvoltage protection devices. etc. These systems are generally three-wire systems unless otherwise indicated. 2 .47 (2) 13. In order to ensure adequate protection of equipment against abnormally-high shortterm power-frequency overvoltages. C2 . and system fault conditions.HV/LV distribution substations . 3) The unification of these values is under consideration. and relates the nominal voltages to corresponding standard values of “Highest Voltage for Equipment”. taken from IEC 38.3 (1) 3 (1) 6.2 (1) 12 (17.North American practice).5 (3) nominal system voltage (kV) 3. table C1: relating nominal system voltages with corresponding rated system voltages (r. (for further guidance reference should be made to IEC 71).s. * This means basically that List 1 generally applies to switchgear to be used on underground-cable systems while List 2 is chosen for switchgear to be used on overhead-line systems. series I highest voltage for equipement (kV) 3. The choice between List 1 and List 2 values of table C2 depends on the degree of exposure to lightning and switching overvoltages*.97 (2) 14. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. lists the most-commonly used standard levels of high-voltage distribution.2 (2) 13. all HV equipment must be specified to have appropriate Rated Insulation Levels. It is recommended that these values should not be used for new systems to be constructed in future.m. and transient overvoltages caused by lightning. Switchgear Table C2 shown below. Two series of highest voltages for equipment are given below. The values indicated in parentheses should be considered as non-preferred values.5) 24 36 (3) 40. the highest voltage and the lowest voltage do not differ by more than approximately ± 10% from the nominal voltage of the system.40 (1) 13.10% from the nominal voltage of the system.In a normal system of Series I.1.2 (2) 13. is extracted from IEC 694 and lists standard values of “withstand” voltage requirements.94 (2) 34. switching. one for 50 Hz and 60 Hz systems (Series I).52 (1) 26. the type of neutral earthing.16 (1) 12. In a normal system of Series II.6 (1) 6 (1) 11 10 (15) 22 20 33 (3) 35 (3) Notes: 1 .

the choice depends on the degree of exposure to lightning.s.6 7.m.C3 .m.6 7. i. value) rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak value) list 1 list 2 to earth.s. highest voltage for equipment Um (r. and refer to the current practices in countries other than those of North America (Series I) and to those of North America and some other countries (Series II). The significance of list 1 and list 2 in Series I is the same as that for the switchgear table.1 3. Transformers The two tables C3A and C3B shown below have been extracted from IEC 76-3.C Based on current practice in most European and several other countries rated voltage U (r.) (kV) 3 10 20 28 38 50 70 95 140 rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak) list 1 list 2 (kV) (kV) 20 40 40 60 60 75 75 95 95 125 145 170 250 325 table C3A: transformers rated insulation levels in series I (based on current practice other than in the United States of America and some other countries).e. table C2: switchgear rated insulation levels. across the isolating between poles isolating distance and across distance open switching device (kV) (kV) (kV) 46 10 12 70 20 23 85 28 32 110 38 45 145 50 60 195 70 80 290 95 110 375 140 160 (kV) 3.s.2 12 17.m.5 24 36 52 72.2 12 17.5 rated short duration power frequency withstand voltage (r. This is because overvoltages due to switching transients are less severe at these voltage levels than those due to lightning.) (kV) i 1. etc.5 Note: The withstand voltage values “across the isolating distance” are valid only for the switching devices where the clearance between open contacts is designed to meet safety requirements specified for disconnectors (isolators).5 24 36 52 72. HV/LV distribution substations .m. value) across the to earth. across the to earth.s. between poles isolating between poles and across distance and across open open switching switching device device (kV) (kV) (kV) 20 23 40 40 46 60 60 70 75 75 85 95 95 110 125 145 165 170 250 325 rated I min powerfrequency withstand voltage (r. no switching overvoltage ratings are mentioned. It should be noted that. at the voltage levels in question.

m.1. must be compatible with that of the switchgear and transformers noted above.m. Short-circuit current-breaking ratings For circuit breakers in the rated voltage ranges being considered in this chapter. These values refer to a 3-phase short-circuit condition.5 8 12.40 13. Test schedules for these items are given in appropriate IEC publications. short-circuit current A circuit breaker (or fuse switch. e.) rated short duration power frequency withstand voltage (r. over a limited voltage range) is the only form of switchgear capable of safely breaking the very high levels of current associated with short-circuit faults occurring on a power system.20 13. etc. kV kA (r.52 26.c. Other components It is evident that the insulation performance of other HV components associated with these major items. IEC 56 gives standard short-circuit currentbreaking ratings as follows.97 14. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1.5 20 table C4: standard short-circuit current-breaking ratings extracted from table X IEC 56. component of current in each of the three phases. These reflect the diverse practices adopted in countries of different meteorologic. etc.s.5 16 25 40 52 8 12. The national standards of any particular country are normally rationalized to include one or two levels only of voltage. values of the a. porcelain or glass insulators. etc.) (kV) 19 rated lightning impulse withstand voltage (peak) distribution other transformers transformers (kV) (kV) 60 75 95 110 150 200 350 (kV) 4. HV cables. current.2 8 12.5 16 25 40 36 8 12. geographic and economic constraints.m.g. instrument transformers. C4 .4 36.) 3. the national standards of any particular country are normally rationalized to include one or two levels only of voltage.5 16 25 40 24 8 12. Standard values of circuit breaker shortcircuit current-breaking capability are normally given in kilo-amps. a circuit breaker (or fuse switch.5 } 34 50 70 140 table C3B: transformers rated insulation levels in series II (based on current practice in the United States of America and some other countries).5 16 25 40 12 8 12.5 72.s. and fault-levels. and fault-levels.6 10 16 25 40 7.HV/LV distribution substations .s. and are expressed as the average of the r. over a limited voltage range) is the only form of switchgear capable of safely breaking the very high levels of current associated with short-circuit faults occurring on a power system.m.5 16 25 40 50 17.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) highest voltage for equipment Um (r. General note The IEC standards are intended for worldwide application and consequently embrace an extensive range of voltage and current levels.s. current.

value of the a. * A "natural" current zero is essential for the correct functioning of a CB.8 where A and C are measured at t = 0 IAC = peak value of a. component of current at instant EE’ IDC x 100 = percentage value of the d. component of current at instant EE’ IAC = r. expressed in kA of peak current. currentbreaking rating of a circuit breaker (CB).07. The numerical value of this rating is 2.c. component r of current at instant EE’ IDC = d. 10 ms at 50 Hz).c. currentmaking capacity.c. current-making rating. component of current at any instant.c. current-making level will be greater than 2.c.s. C IMC IAC A’ D’ B IDC C’ X t B’ E’ AA' = envelope of current-wave BB’ BX = normal zero line CC’ = displacement of current-wave zeroline at any instant DD’ = r. the a.5 times the s.c.80 % of the motorstarting current) into the fault.m.5 times the short-circuit current-breaking rating of the circuit breaker. HV/LV distribution substations . In the great majority of cases. apart from very exceptional cases. decrement) and the power factor of the fault circuit may be less than 0. value of the a. current-breaking level at the same location.c.c. a CB having an oversized s. while the peak current occurs a half cycle after that instant. time constant value which is representative of average HV distribution systems. In order to ensure an adequate s. producing the so-called “doubling effect”. circuit breakers have a short-circuit current-making rating.5 is derived as follows: shortcircuit current is normally highly inductive so that at least two of the phases will contain a transient d.c.c. component of short-circuit current will diminish rapidly from its initial value (i. and feed current (typically 50 % .c. C5: determination of short-circuit making and breaking currents. In the worst possible case.e.C5 .s. therefore. the value of the d. transient diminishes rapidly from the instant of fault. reproduced from IEC 56. Note: When a short-circuit (s.e.54 Irms which is rounded off for standardization purposes to 2. in the case of s. measured from CC’ EE’ = instant of contact separation (initiation of the arc) IMC = making current = (A-C) 1.c. The form of the fully-offset short-circuit current is shown in figure C5.c. Maximum peak of current Another aspect of short-circuit current stresses that may be imposed on the component parts of a power system.c. the s. component. component. and of percentage d. Such a case would need further investigation along the lines indicated in IEC 56. all electric motors act for a very brief period (1-2 cycles) as generators. it is only necessary to check that the power factor of the faulty circuit is not less than 0.m. For the latter reason.5 Irms.s.c. component by reducing the doubling factor (2) to a value of 1. IAC component fig. value of 3-phase short-circuit current at the point of installation.c. unless especially designed for the purpose.c. since the result could lead to an absence of current zeros for several initial cycles*.c. If there are large concentrations of motors near the point of installation of a CB. It cannot be neglected however. In IEC 56 this reduction is based on an inductive d.C Where the installation of a circuit breaker is electrically remote from a power source. these conditions will be satisfied in a conventional HV distribution network. However. current-breaking capacity is necessary in such circumstances. The peak current value is therefore rIrms x 1. This is due to the collapsing magnetic flux in each motor and is generally significant only for the first power-frequency cycle from the moment of s. In such circumstances.m. concerns the maximum possible peak of current which can occur if a circuit breaker is closed on to a dead circuit which is shortcircuited. the d.c. Allowance is made for the diminution in the d.8 = 2. it is not necessary to take account of its effect on the s.) occurs on a power system.c. the a. it is then only necessary to ensure that the IEC-rated shortcircuit current-breaking capability of the circuit breaker exceeds the r.8.c. For such a possibility.07 and that the minimum operating time of protective relaying is not less than a half cycle of the power-supply frequency (i. component. component in one of the phases will be equal I A E D to the peak value of the a. Where circuit breakers are to be installed close to generating plant. Explanation The value 2.c.

000 A circuit breakers are listed in IEC 56 as standard ratings for incoming-transformer circuits. the most common normal current rating for general-purpose HV distribution switchgear is 400 A. without damage. or in particular cases (depending on equipment specifications) for 3 seconds. such as: c normal current at HV. or in particular cases (depending on equipment specifications) for 3 seconds. 50. In industrial areas and high-load-density urban districts. In such a scheme. the load-break switch must be suitably rated to trip automatically. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. 12. Appendix C1 gives further information on this arrangement.HV/LV distribution substations .5 kA to 25 kA. 31. currentbreaking rating sufficiently high to ensure an adequate s. The actual rating will be given by the switch-fuse manufacturer. according to the fuse characteristics. peak and duration of the transformer energization inrush magnetizing current. bus-section and bus-coupler CBs.m. as applied to HV switch-fuse combination units. circuits rated at 630 A are sometimes required. while at bulk-supply substations which feed into HV networks. at low fault-current levels which must cover (by an appropriate margin) the rated minimum breaking current of the HV fuses. the thermal and mechanical stresses of the maximum short-circuit current for 1 second.5 kA to 25 kA. In this way.s. that cannot be correctly broken by the fuses. At HV/LV substations which include one (or more) transformer(s) with a normal primary current of less than 45 A.600 A. the thermal and mechanical stresses of the maximum short-circuit current for 1 second. 25. All HV equipments connected to the system must be capable of withstanding.5. 16. as a more economic alternative to a CB. All HV equipments connected to the system must be capable of withstanding. 20. C6 .1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) the short-circuit current level of a HV distribution system is frequently limited by design techniques to a predetermined maximum value typically in the range of 12. etc. c off-circuit tapping-switch position.5. c permissible overcurrent and its duration. 800 A. 40. The short-circuit current level of a HV distribution system is frequently limited by design techniques to a pre-determined maximum value typically in the range of 12.1.250 A.500 A and 4. will be cleared by the relay-operated load-break switch. The rated normal current requirements for switchgear are decided at the substation design stage. 1.c. 2. The IEC recommends that the normal-current rating value. and details of the transformer. The most common normal current rating for general-purpose HV distribution switchgear is 400 A. etc. 80 with multiples (or sub-multiples) of 10 as required. current-making performance must be installed. without damage. viz: 10. a CB having a s. assigned to the combination by the manufacturer. and summarized in Appendix C1 of this guide. value of the current which can be carried continuously at rated frequency with a temperature rise not exceeding that specified by the relevant product standard”. c max. 1. by relays.c. a HV switch associated with a set of 3 fuses (or a combination switch-fuse) is generally used to control and protect the transformer. Rated normal current The rated normal current is defined as “the r.g. There are no IEC-recommended normalcurrent rating tables for the combination in these cases. while low fault-current values. In such a case. 63. high values of fault current which are beyond the breaking capability of the load-break switch will be cleared by the fuses. e. be one of the “R10” series of (ISO) preferred numbers. as shown in the example given in Appendix A of IEC 420.

Such currents passing through an earth electrode will raise its voltage to a high value with respect to “remote earth” (the earth surrounding the electrode will be raised to a high potential. Earth-fault current Earth-fault current levels at high voltage are generally (unless deliberately restricted) comparable to those of a 3-phase shortcircuit. i. The normal-current values recommended by IEC are based on ambient-air temperatures common to temperate climates at altitudes not exceeding 1. This is commonly achieved by earthing the HV system through resistors or reactors at the star points of selected transformers*. earth faults on high-voltage systems can produce dangerous voltage levels on LV installations.5 ohms will raise its voltage to 5. i. and so the following strategy has been adopted in some countries. namely. This is commonly practised in rural systems where the LV neutral-conductor earth electrode is installed at one or two spans of LV distribution line away from the substation.C Influence of the ambient temperature and altitude on the rated current Normal-current ratings are assigned to all current-carrying electrical appliances.000 A of earth-fault current passing through an electrode with an (unusually low) resistance of 0. A particular case of earth-fault current limitation. and the electrode is in the form of (or is connected to) a grid of conductors under the floor of the substation.e. then the equipotential conditions existing in the substation would also exist at the consumer's installation. It will be seen in figure C6 that the neutral point of the LV winding of the HV/LV transformer is also connected to the common substation earth electrode. since this arrangement forms an equipotential “cage” in which all conductive material. to maintain the original IEC rating. The equipotential earthing installation at a consumer's premises represents a remote earth. that the insulation between phase and earth of a cable or some part of an installation would fail. simply because a cooling fan fixed to the shaft of the motor removes the heat at the same rate as it is produced. and dielectric losses in cables and capacitors. The temperature rise above the ambient temperature will depend mainly on the rate at which the heat is removed. at zero potential. 10. be assigned a lower value of normalcurrent rating according to IEC 76-2. Low-voltage distribution cables leaving the substation will transfer this potential to consumers installations. particularly regarding safety of the LV consumer during the occurrence of a shortcircuit to earth on the HV system. then there is no danger to personnel. i. HV/LV distribution substations . It may be noted that there will be no LV insulation failure between phases or from phase to neutral since they are all at the same potential. it is preferable. and so the temperature reaches a stable value below that which could damage the insulation and result in a burnt-out motor. In such cases. so that the neutral conductor. where physically possible. In the case of force-cooled transformers it is generally sufficient to provide sun shields. etc. * the others being unearthed. For example.000 metres. the power of the circulating-oil pumps. A relatively high transferred potential cannot be entirely avoided by this means. however. including personnel. c creating equipotential conditions at the substation and at the consumer's installation.000 metres. Transferred potential A danger exists however from the problem known as Transferred Potential.2. together with the heat produced by magnetic-hysteresis and eddy-current losses in motors.and/or air-cooled transformers are among the most widely known examples of such “forced-cooling” techniques. LV consumers (and substation operating personnel) can be safeguarded against this danger by: c restricting the magnitude of HV earth-fault currents.000 V. Providing that all exposed metal in the substation is “bonded” (connected together) and then connected to the earth electrode. to separate the electrode provided for earthing exposed conductive parts of HV equipment from the electrode intended for earthing the LV neutral conductor. current in amperes and R = the resistance of the conductor in ohms). and increase the oil-cooling radiator surfaces. and upper limits are decided by the acceptable temperature rise caused by the I2R (watts) dissipated in the conductors.m. the equipment has to be derated. “remote earth” is at zero potential). LV consumers (and substation operating personnel) can be safeguarded against this danger by: c restricting the magnitude of HV earth-fault currents. transformers. the amount of cooling oil. Earthing and equipment-bonding earth connections require careful consideration.C7 . is discussed at the end of Sub-clause 3. Solutions A first step in minimizing the obvious dangers of transferred potentials is to reduce the magnitude of HV earth-fault currents. and the size of the aircirculating fans. c creating equipotential conditions at the substation and at the consumer's installation. located at bulk-supply substations. if this earthing installation were to be connected by a low-impedance conductor to the earthelectrode at the substation. by means of a Petersen coil. is raised to the same potential. (where I = r. c reducing the substation earthing resistance to the lowest possible value. there is no possibility of separating a HV electrode sufficiently from a LV electrode to avoid the transference of (possibly dangerous) voltages to the LV system.e. so that items which depend on natural cooling by radiation and air-convection will overheat if operated at rated normal current in a tropical climate and/ or at altitudes exceeding 1. Earth electrodes In general.s. large currents can be passed through electric motor windings without causing them to overheat. In most cases. However. It is probable. however. For example. earthing connections Earth faults on high-voltage systems can produce dangerous voltage levels on LV installations. Oil.e. the limited space available in urban substations precludes this practice. where appropriate. c reducing the substation earthing resistance to the lowest possible value. the LV phase windings and all phase conductors are also raised to the electrode potential.

1. C8 . although the transferred potential will not stress the phase-to-phase insulation of the consumer's equipment. Low-impedance interconnection This low-impedance interconnection is achieved simply by connecting the neutral conductor to the consumer's equipotential installation. the phase-to-earth insulation of all three phases will be subjected to overvoltage. each of which is earthed at regular intervals. results in greatly reduced levels of overvoltage and limited stressing of phase-to-earth insulation during the type of HV earth-fault situation described above. Limitation of the HV earth-fault current and earth resistance of the substation Another widely-used system of earthing is shown in diagram C of figure C7. The strategy in this case. is to: c restrict the value of HV earth-fault currents. such that the standard value of 5-second withstand-voltage-to-earth for LV equipment and appliances will not be exceeded. and the result is recognized as the TN system of earthing (IEC 364-3) as shown in diagram A of figure C7. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1.HV/LV distribution substations . a very effective low-resistance earth electrode. This means that. C6: transferred potential. The TN system is generally associated with a Protective Multiple Earthing (PME) scheme.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) HV LV 1 2 3 N fault If consumer If Rs V=IfRs fig. as previously discussed. c reduce the resistance of the substation earth electrode. together with the substation earthing. It can be seen that the network of neutral conductors radiating from a substation. the consumer's earthing installation (being isolated from that of the substation) constitutes a remote earth. equipotential installations and lowresistance substation earthing. constitutes. It will be seen that in the TT system. The combination of restricted earth-fault currents. in which the neutral conductor is earthed at intervals along its length (every 3rd or 4th pole on a LV overhead-line distributor) and at each consumer's service position.

5 Uo + 750 V. together with the LV neutral point of the transformer are earthed via the substation electrode system. C7: maximum earthing resistance Rs at a HV/LV substation to ensure safety during a short-circuit to earth fault on the high-voltage equipment for different systems of earthing. together with the LV neutral point of the transformer. TN(R) IT(R) A HV LV 1 2 3 N RS B cases C and D 1 2 3 N HV LV Rs i Uw . fig. Uw and Uws are commonly given the (IEC 644) value 1. where Uo is the nominal phase-to-neutral voltage of the LV system concerned. Notes: (R) signifies that the HV and LV exposed conductive parts at the substation and those at the consumer's installations. and it is therefore the substation LV equipment (only) that could be subjected to overvoltage. but the phase-tophase voltage for the IT(s) system Im = maximum value of HV earth-fault current E F In cases E and F the LV protective conductors (bonding exposed conductive parts) in the substation are earthed via the substation earth electrode. are all earthed via the substation electrode system. (N) signifies that the HV and LV exposed conductive parts at the substation. (S) signifies that the LV neutral point of the transformer is separately earthed outside of the area of influence of the substation earth electrode.C HV LV 1 2 3 N HV LV 1 2 3 N cases A and B No particular resistance value for Rs is imposed in these cases.Uo Im Where Uw = the rated normal-frequency withstand voltage for low-voltage equipment at consumer installations Uo = phase to neutral voltage at consumer's installations Im = maximum value of HV earth-fault current TT(N) RS IT(N) RS C HV LV 1 2 3 N HV LV D cases E and F 1 2 3 N Rs i Uws .C9 . HV/LV distribution substations .U Im TT(S) RS RN RS RN IT(S) Where Uws = the normal-frequency withstand voltage for low-voltage equipments in the substation (since the exposed conductive parts of these equipments are earthed via Rs) U = phase to neutral voltage at the substation for the TT(s) system.

In these cases. the high potential of the substation (S/S) earthing system acts on the isolated LV phase and neutral conductors: c through the capacitance between the LV windings of the transformer and the transformer tank.000 A. c through current leakage paths in the insulation. all LV phase and neutral conductors will be raised by electrostatic induction to a potential approaching that of the equipotential conductors. The principle depends on taking a supply from an unearthed source. etc. In these cases. All phase wires and the neutral conductor are “floating” with respect to earth. are routinely provided with an overvoltage limiting device which will automatically connect the neutral point directly to earth if an overvoltage condition approaches the insulation-withstand level of the LV system. or earthed through a high impedance (u 1. The rise in potential at consumers’ installations is not likely therefore to be a problem where the HV earth-fault current level is restricted as previously mentioned. is 300 A. are as follows: c maximum earth-fault current on overheadline distribution systems. in hospitals.e. All IT-earthed transformers. to which they are “connected” via the (normally very high) insulation resistances and (very small) capacitances between the live conductors and earthed metal (conduits. these resistors were removed. e. so that most of the voltage stresses appear at the substation between the transformer tank and the LV winding. The formula required to determine the maximum value of earthing resistance Rs at the substation.1 power-supply characteristics of high voltage distribution networks (continued) Practical values adopted by one national electrical power-supply authority. In addition to the possibilities mentioned above. Assuming perfect insulation. i. or mixed (O/H line and U/G cable) systems.5 Uo + 750 V (IEC 644 (1991)) Uo = phase to neutral voltage (in volts) at the consumer's LV service position Im = maximum earth-fault current on the HV system (in amps). several other ways in which these overvoltages can occur are described in Clause 3. The result is essentially a capacitive voltage divider. c through capacitance between the equipotential conductors in the S/S and the cores of LV distribution cables leaving the S/S.).000 ohms). Diagrams D and F.all cores being raised to the same potential). usually a transformer. If however. Diagrams B. A third form of system earthing referred to as the “IT” system in IEC 364 is commonly used where continuity of supply is essential. LV cable and installation wiring capacitances to earth are much larger.g.Uo Rs = in ohms Im (see cases C and D in figure C7). all conductors will be raised to the potential of the substation earth. is: Uw . supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. system capacitances exist between the conductors and earth at zero potential (capacitances between cores are irrelevant . continuous-process manufacturing. to ensure that the LV withstand voltage will not be exceeded. because of the numerous earth-leakage paths of all live conductors in a number of installations acting in parallel. it is more likely. Diagram B. where each “capacitor” is shunted by (leakage path) resistances. D and F of figure C7 show IT systems in which resistors (of approximately 1. the secondary winding of which is unearthed. and the insulation resistances to earth are much smaller than those of the corresponding parameters at the S/S. etc.000 ohms) are included in the neutralearthing lead. the overvoltage stresses on the LV insulation are small or non-existent. which can be allowed to persist until it is convenient to shut-down the affected circuit to carry out repair work. in each case. Where Uw = the lowest standard value (in volts) of short-term (5 s) withstand voltage for the consumer's installation and appliances = 1.1. In these cases. on its 20 kV distribution systems. an insulation failure to earth in the low-voltage circuits supplied from the secondary windings will result in zero or negligible fault-current flow.1. that the system will behave similarly to the case where a neutral earthing resistor is present. whether the neutral point is isolated or earthed through a high impedance. the following notes apply.HV/LV distribution substations . C10 . so that the system is unearthed. c maximum earth-fault current on underground systems is 1. In practice. At positions outside the area of influence of the S/S earthing. In general.

exceed 50 V in dry conditions. single-line service The substation is supplied by a single circuit tee-off from a HV distributor (cable or line). under any circumstances. the following supply arrangements are commonly adopted. overhead line fig. Protection and switching devices are remote from the transformer. C8: single-line service. and when it does occur is quickly detected and cleared by the automatic tripping of a circuit breaker in a properly designed and constructed installation. Special care should be taken at the boundaries of equipotential areas to avoid steep potential gradients on the surface of the ground which give rise to dangerous “step potentials”. the HV service is connected into a panel containing a load-break/isolating switch with series protective fuses and earthing switches. HV/LV distribution substations . * Copper is cathodic to most other metals and therefore resists corrosion.C This kind of earth-fault is very rare. or 25 V in wet conditions. the basis of which is generally in the form of a widemeshed grid of interconnected bare copper conductors connected to vertically-driven copper-clad* steel rods.1 and in Appendix C2. 1. from which a number of these elementary service lines are tapped. as shown in figure C8. namely: that the potential between any two exposed metal parts which can be touched simultaneously by any parts of the body must never. This question is closely related to the safe earthing of boundary fences and is further discussed in Sub-clause 3.C11 .2 different HV service connections According to the type of high-voltage network. In general. In some countries a pole-mounted transformer with no HV switchgear or fuses (at the pole) constitutes the “substation”. Up to transformer ratings of 160 kVA this type of HV service is very common in rural areas. Safety in situations of elevated potentials depends entirely on the provision of properly arranged equipotential areas. The equipotential criterion to be respected is that which is mentioned in Chapter G dealing with protection against electric shock by indirect contact. and generally control a main overhead-line.

such that one incoming switch only can be closed at a time. or a circuit breaker and isolating switch. The sequence may be carried out manually or automatically.HV/LV distribution substations . thereby reducing considerably any interruption of service due to system faults or operational manœuvres by the supply authority. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. An interconnector is a continuous untapped feeder connecting the busbars of two substations. underground cable ring main fig. All load-break switches and earthing switches are fully rated for short-circuit current-making duty. and each end of the ring is connected to a different section.1. viz: c 2 incoming compartments. The main operational difference between this arrangement and that of a RMU is that the two incoming panels are mutually interlocked. a similar HV switchboard to that of a RMU is commonly used (figure C10). its closure prevents the closure of the other. which originates and terminates on one set of busbars. containing a load-break switch and HV fuses. or a combined load-break/fuse switch. etc. * A ring main is a continuous distributor in the form of a closed loop. such that the RMU busbars carry the full ring-main or interconnector current (figure C9). c 1 outgoing and general protection compartment. paralleled underground-cable distributors fig. The RMU consists of three compartments. together with a circuit-earthing switch in each case. Each end of the loop is controlled by its own circuit breaker. In order to improve operational flexibility the busbars are often divided into two sections by a normallyclosed bus-section circuit breaker. On the loss of power supply. C9: ring-main service. parallel feeders Where a HV supply connection to two lines or cables originating from the same busbar of a substation is possible. This type of switchboard is used particularly in networks of high-load density and in rapidly-expanding urban areas supplied by HV underground cable systems. C12 . each containing a load-break/isolating switch and a circuit earthing switch. i. integrated to form a single assembly. the closed incoming switch must be opened and the (formerly open) switch can then be closed.2 different HV service connections (continued) ring-main principle Ring-main units (RMU) are normally connected to form a HV ring main* or interconnector-distributor*. C10: duplicated supply service. Each end of the interconnector is usually controlled by a circuit beaker.e. This arrangement provides the user with a two-source supply. The main application for RMUs is in publicsupply HV underground-cable networks in urban areas. An interconnector-distributor is an interconnector which supplies one or more distribution substations along its length.

1-cycle RR + 1SR If In Io fault 0.3s 2-cycle 2SR a-fault on main distributor If In Io fault 0. In the meantime. (See Chapter F section 2) * Interrupteur Aérien à ouverture dans le Creux de Tension (used by EDF. and supply is restored to those consumers connected to the remaining section. re-establishes its insulating properties.e. can cause the conductors of overhead lines to touch each other. HV/LV distribution substations . The IACT scheme. the fault is assumed to be permanent. make their own arrangements to counter the effects of momentary interruptions to supply (between reclosures). The passage of fault current almost invariably takes the form of an electric arc. provides the possibility of restoration of supplies to some consumers in the event of a permanent fault. can result in a short-circuit to earth. in dry conditions. i. with adjustable time delays between successive attempts (to allow de-ionization of the air at the fault) before a final lock-out of the circuit breaker occurs. and to some extent.45s SR2 opening of IACT O = circuit breaker opening / RR = rapid reclosing / SR = slow reclosing / In = normal load current / If = fault current / I0 = zero current fig. where considered necessary.g. The principle is as follows: If. etc. ice formation. heavily polluted insulator surfaces.C13 . broken insulators can very often remain in service undetected. There are then two possibilities: 1) the fault is on the section which is isolated by IACT. etc. C11: automatic reclosing cycles of a circuit breaker controlling a radial HV distributor. the consumers must. to a metal supporting structure) during a rainstorm. restoration of supply by replacing fuses or by re-closing a circuit breaker will be successful.C 1. careless use of shot-guns. but are likely to flashover to earth (e.. and. the IACT opens to isolate a section of the network. or again. the circuit breaker trips. for example: c uninterruptible standby emergency power. For this reason it has been possible to considerably improve the continuity of service on HV overhead-line distribution networks by the application of automatic circuit breaker reclosing schemes at the origin of the circuits concerned. fuses have blown or a circuit breaker has tripped. before the third (and final) reclosure takes place. the French supply authority). These automatic schemes permit a number of reclosing operations if a first attempt fails.e. Moreover.3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks overhead lines High winds. after all (generally three) attempts fail. Many of these faults are self-clearing. caused by air-borne debris. after two reclosing attempts.4s 0. This last scheme is exemplified by the final sequence shown in figure C11.4s b-fault on section supplied through IACT If In Io fault 0..3s 0. or 2) the fault is on the section upstream of IACT and the circuit breaker will trip and lock out. protective devices have usually operated to clear the fault. Insulation failure due to broken ceramic or glass insulators. polluted surfaces generally cause a flashover to earth only in damp conditions. c lighting that requires no cooling down before re-striking. For example. While these measures have greatly improved the reliability of supplies from HV overhead line systems.3s 0. the intense heat of which dries the current path. not permanent) short-circuit fault.4s 0. where the isolating switch is referred to as IACT* (voltage-drop-operated outdoor switch). therefore. while the distributor is dead. thereby causing a momentary (i.4s 15 to 30s 15 to 30s O1 RR O2 SR1 O3 Other improvements in service continuity are achieved by the use of remotely-controlled section switches and by automatic isolating switches which operate in conjunction with an auto-reclosing circuit breaker. Experience has shown that in the large majority of cases. O1 RR O2 SR O3 15 to 30s permanent fault 0.4s O1 RR O2 SR1 O3 SR2 O4 15 to 30s 15 to 30s permanent fault 0.

. is becoming more and more common in countries in which the complexity of highlyinterconnected systems justifies the expenditure. but are almost invariably permanent faults. which require more time for localization and repair than those on O/H lines. centralized remote control. Where a cable fault occurs on a ring main.1.3 some operational aspects of HV distribution networks (continued) underground cable networks Faults on underground cable networks are sometimes the result of careless workmanship by cable jointers or by cablelaying contractors. an installation. particularly at points in a HV system where an overhead line is connected to an underground cable. while similar control facilities are also available from the console of a mobile control centre. such as lightning arresters. remote control of HV networks Remote control of HV circuit breakers and switchgear. pneumatic drills and trench excavating machines.HV/LV distribution substations . etc. Faults occurring in cable networks are less frequent than those on overhead (O/H) line systems. and tapchangers. C14 . In any case. and electromagnetic-wave reflection effects at the joint box (where the natural impedance of the circuit changes abruptly) can result in overstressing of the cable-box insulation to the point of failure. the delay in locating the fault and carrying out repair work can amount to several hours. Overvoltage protection devices.1. etc. and so on. Insulation failures sometimes occur in cableterminating boxes due to overvoltage. however. but are more commonly due to damage from tools such as pick-axes. Standby power equipment is described in Chapter F section 2. the fault occurs on a radial distributor. if supply continuity is essential on all. supply of power at high voltage (continued) C 1. supplies can be quickly restored to all consumers when the faulty section of cable has been determined. from a central control room is possible. based on SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems and recent developments in IT (Information Technology) techniques. a standby source must be provided. are frequently installed at these locations. or part of. and will affect all consumers downstream of the fault position. used by other utilities. The overvoltage in such a case is generally of atmospheric origin. If.

there are two widely-followed methods of proceeding. On LV systems operating at 120/208 V (3-phase 4-wires). The tariff structure will cover an agreed part of the expenditure required to provide the service. Both systems of LV distribution are common in many parts of the world. fire walls and ceilings. or parallel feeders. oil drains. and earthing systems. v power (kVA) limit and fault current level. v safety of personnel and equipment. c the nominal voltage and rated voltage (Highest voltage for equipment) Existing or future. (1) The power-supplier constructs a standard substation close to the consumer’s premises. The distance over which the load has to be transmitted is a further factor in considering an HV or LV service. v the simultaneity factor (ks). the cable(s) to the transformer(s). project studies From the information provided by the consumer. When a decision to supply power at HV has been made. ventilation. the power-supply organization must give specific information to the prospective consumer. Whichever procedure is followed. depending on the development of the system. As a matter of interest. c degree of supply continuity required The consumer must estimate the consequences of a supply failure in terms of its duration. (2) The consumer constructs and equips his own substation on his own premises. preliminary information Before any negotiations or discussions can be initiated with the supply authorities. to which the power supplier makes the HV connection. but the HV/LV transformer(s) is (are) located in transformer chamber(s) inside the premises. HV/LV distribution substations . Services to small but isolated rural consumers are obvious examples..g. close to the load centre. while on a 240/415 V 3-phase system a “large” consumer could have a load in excess of 100 kVA. and must take into account the possibility of future additional load requirements. the IEC recommends a “world” standard of 230/400 V for 3-phase 4-wire systems. The decision of a HV or LV supply will depend on local circumstances and considerations such as those mentioned above.1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation the consumer must provide certain data to the power-supply organization at the earliest stage of the project. and so on. keeping in mind that: v the power-supply personnel must have free and unrestricted access to the HV equipment in the substation at all times. a load of 50 kVA might be considered to be “large”. Factors to evaluate at this stage are: v the utilization factor (ku). v loss of production. together with possible load (weight) bearing limits. with dimensions of possible restrictions. the power-supplier must indicate: c the type of power supply proposed and define: v the kind of power-supply system: overheadline or underground-cable network. the same principles apply in the conception and realization of the project. This is a compromise level and will allow existing systems which operate at 220/380 V and at 240/415 V. The following notes refer to procedure (2). or close to these values. v tariff details (consumption and standing charges). In method (1) the power supplier owns the substation. v service connection details: single-line service. consumers HV substations C Large consumers of electricity are invariably supplied at HV.C15 . c metering details which define: v the cost of connection to the power network. e. The transformer chamber(s) is (are) constructed by the consumer (to plans and regulations provided by the supplier) and include plinths. etc. c layout plans and elevations showing location of proposed substation Plans should indicate clearly the means of access to the proposed substation. to which he has unrestricted access. 2. the following basic elements must be established: c maximum anticipated power (kVA) demand Determination of this parameter is described in Chapter B. and will generally be imposed by the power-supply authority for the district concerned. the transformer(s) and the transformer chamber(s).2. to comply with the proposed standard simply by adjusting the off-circuit tapping switches of standard distribution transformers. all to be approved by the supply authority. lighting. ring-main installation. v only qualified and authorized consumer’s personnel are allowed access to the substation. entrances corridors and ceiling height.

c checks on all interlocks (mechanical key and electrical) and on all automatic sequences. consumers HV substations (continued) C 2. When finally the substation is operational: c the substation and all equipment belongs to the consumer. such that any properly executed operational manœuvre can be carried out in complete safety.g. C16 . c the installation contractor is responsible for testing and connection of the LV installation. c insulation checks of HV equipment. The power supplier must issue a signed permit-to-work to the consumers maintenance personnel. implementation Before any installation work is started. c inspection and testing of the LV installation in the substation.HV/LV distribution substations . c checks on correct protective-relay operation and settings. c dielectric strength test of transformer oil (and switchgear oil if appropriate). largely based on the preliminary exchanges noted above: c location of the proposed substation. c inspection and testing of all HV components. It is also imperative to check that all equipment is provided. at which the isolation has been carried out. and must request the power-supply authority to isolate and earth the switchgear to allow maintenance work to proceed. etc. c layout of equipment and provision for metering components. commissioning Commissioning tests must be successfully completed before authority is given to energize the installation from the powersupply system. the official agreement of the power-supplier must be obtained. the two incoming load-break switches and the transformer HV switch (or CB) in the case of a RMU. including performance characteristics.1 procedures for the establishment of a new substation (continued) the power-supply organization must give official approval of the equipment to be installed in the substation. c the power-supply authority has operational control over all HV switchgear in the substation. after testing and checking of the installation by an independent test authority. a certificate is granted which permits the substation to be put into service. c the consumer is responsible for the maintenance of all substation equipment. e. c arrangements provided for emergency standby power plant (HV or LV) if eventually required. together with earthing-circuit proposals. c the power-supply personnel has unrestricted access to the HV equipment. On receipt of the certificate of conformity: c personnel of the power-supply authority will energize the HV equipment and check for correct operation of the metering.2. c arrangements for power-factor improvement if eventually required. and of proposed methods of installation. c continuity of all equipotential earth-and safety bonding conductors. together with all associated HV earthing switches. c one-line diagram of power circuits and connections. The request for approval must include the following information. c the consumer has independent control of the HV switch (or CB) of the transformer(s) only. The verification tests include the following: c measurement of earth-electrode resistances. c full details of electrical equipment to be installed. together with keys of locked-off isolators.

reference is made to a related Appendix. and equipment. fire. HV/LV distribution substations . Touching the fence would cause shock current to pass through the hand and both feet (Appendix C2).3. Where some technical explanation is necessary to simplify an understanding of the text. 3.) have well-defined operating limits. It may be noted that a third type of shock hazard can exist in the proximity of HV or LV (or mixed) earth electrodes which are passing earth-fault currents. but it is hoped that the following sections will prove to be useful through a discussion of general principles.) to the protective-earthing conductor. shock current enters one foot and leaves by the other foot. explosions. by the use of electrical and mechanical interlocking. as defined in Sub-clause 1.for example structural steelwork. etc. known as a “touch voltage” hazard can occur. atmospheric surges (lightning) and power-system instability (loss of synchronism) etc. Potential-gradient problems of the kind mentioned above are not normally encountered in electrical installations of buildings. descriptions generally will be confined to those in common use on HV and LV systems only. and so on. c contact with a conductive part of an apparatus which is normally dead.C17 .. but which has become alive due to insulation failure in the apparatus. It is beyond the scope of a guide to describe in full technical detail the numerous schemes of protection available to power-systems engineers. Interlocking keys and analogous electrical control circuits are frequently used to ensure strict compliance with correct operating sequences. This means that the order in which the different kinds of switching device can be safely closed or opened is vitally important. for example. substation protection schemes C The subject of protection in the electricalpower industry is vast: it covers all aspects of safety for personnel. Animals with a relatively long front-to-hind legs span are particularly sensitive to stepvoltage hazards and cattle have been killed by the potential gradients caused by a low voltage (240/415 V) neutral earth electrode of insufficiently low resistance. While some of the protective devices mentioned are of universal application. c protection of the plant.e. i.e. providing that equipotential conductors properly bond all exposed metal parts of equipment and all extraneous metal (i.1 of this Chapter. These different aspects of protection can be broadly classified according to the following objectives: c protection of personnel and animals against the dangers of overvoltages and electric shock. etc. equipment and components of a power system against the stresses of short-circuit faults. c protection of personnel and plant from the dangers of incorrect power-system operation. and protection against damage or destruction of property. which is alive with respect to earth in normal circumstances.. All classes of switchgear (including. A variation of this danger.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages protection against electric shocks and overvoltages is closely related to the achievement of efficient (low resistance) earthing and effective application of the principles of equipotential environments. This is referred to as an “indirect contact” hazard. Potential gradients on the surface of the ground can be reduced to safe values by measures such as those shown in Appendix C2. where an earthed metal fence is situated in an area in which potential gradients exist.. and toxic gases. and is particular dangerous for four-legged animals. for instance. plant. protection against electric shocks Protective measures against electric shock are based on two common dangers: c contact with an active conductor. This is referred to as a “direct contact” hazard. tap-position selector switches on transformers. not part of an electrical apparatus or the installation .. This hazard is due to potential gradients on the surface of the ground and is referred to as a “step-voltage” hazard.

no danger exists. switching surges are generally less severe than lightning surges. it may not be possible to limit the touch voltage to the safe value of 50 V*. unidirectional surges. The solution is to create an equipotent-situation as described in Sub-clause 1. etc. c energization of capacitor banks. C18 . lightning-discharge electrodes (Franklin type) and shield wires should be installed and connected to the substation earthing system. c ferro-resonance. c indirect-contact hazard in the case of a HV fault. An indirect contact is characterized by the fact that a current path to earth exists (through the protective earthing (PE) conductor) in parallel with the shock current through the person concerned. c a short-circuit earth fault on an unearthed (or high-impedance earthed) 3-phase system. which are sometimes connected in series with a device for automatic tripping of a circuit breaker) (see Chapter L) and/or by c the reduction of the substation-earthing resistance to the lowest possible value to avoid (as far as possible) a breakdown of LV insulation due to the rise in potential of the earthing system when discharging the surge current. c case of fault on L. Extensive tests have shown that. protection against overvoltages The situation mentioned immediately above. Methods of eliminating danger to personnel in such a case are described in Sub-clause 1. c circuit breaker opening or fuse melting to break short-circuit current. simply by reducing the earthing resistance to a low value. Where insulated live parts are housed in a metal envelope. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3.3. Other situations which can cause overvoltages to occur on HV and LV systems include: c surges of atmospheric origin.1 "Earthing connections". can (depending on the ratio of the resistance of the leakage path through the insulation. For consumers' substations.1.1 “Earthing connections”. in the case of a HV fault to a metallic enclosure. is one of a number of ways in which an abnormal overvoltage condition can occur. as described in Sub-clause 1. If the insulation failure in an apparatus is between a HV conductor and the metal envelope. to the resistance from the metal envelope to earth) raise the voltage of the envelope to a dangerous level.HV/LV distribution substations . as close to the point of entry into the substation as possible. transient. the metal envelope is connected to the installation protective earthing system. For LV appliances this is achieved through the third pin of a 3-pin plug and socket. Total or even partial failure of insulation to the metal. for example transformers. Overvoltages of atmospheric origin Protection against this kind of danger must be provided when a substation is supplied directly from an overhead-line system. * in dry locations. Indirect-contact protection A person touching the metal envelope of an apparatus of which the insulation is faulty. at the voltage levels being considered (i 35 kV). describing an indirect-contact hazard resulting from faulty HV insulation. high frequency. by placing out of reach (behind insulated barriers or at the top of poles) or by means of obstacles. The most common protective device used at present is a non-linear resistor-type of lightning arrester. temporary. harmonics of industrial frequency. electric motors and many domestic appliances.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages (continued) Direct-contact protection The main form of protection against direct contact hazards is to contain all live parts in housings of insulating material. 25 V in wet locations (bathrooms.). Overvoltages created by the causes listed above can be divided according to characteristies such as: c duration: permanent. system. and so devices which are suitable for satisfactory lightning protection are adequate to protect against overvoltages due to switching surges. Where it is advisable to protect a substation against direct strokes. as described above. which is connected (one for each phase) between a phase conductor and the substation earthing system. The solution in this case is to create an equipotential situation. this protection is achieved by: c lightning arresters (one per phase conductor. c frequency: industrial frequency. is said to be making an indirect contact. it is not generally possible to limit the rise of voltage of the envelope to 50 V or less.V. It may be noted that. or to any conductive material within reaching distance. providing the potential of the metal envelope is not greater than 50 V* with respect to earth.

As indicated above. HV/LV distribution substations . the phase-tophase voltage values and their phase displacement relationships however. and the neutral point of the transformer isolated: c the neutral point will rise to phase volts above earth. and transformers. c the other two phases will rise to etimes the phase voltage. unearthed secondary winding of power transformer 1 insulation resistance conductor capacitance together with the fact that current passing through the earth-fault path will be too small to constitute a hazard. are the reasons for adopting the IT system. this is a 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) stable (i. will remain unchanged.C Earth faults on IT-earthed systems In normal conditions the phase conductors of a 3-phase IT system are all approximately at phase volts with respect to earth. The exact values depend on the capacitance and insulation resistance of each conductor to earth. cabling and all appliances must be suitably insulated with respect to earth. This latter feature. when used on IT systems. N 2 3 fault current normally restricted to several milli-amps depending on the size of the installation V1 3 I(C+R) √3 I(C+R)2 V1 I(C+R)1 I(C+R)2 <90° √3 I(C+R)1 VNE V3 I(C+R)3 V2 V3 = 0 V2 normal voltages and capacitive / resistive currents voltage conditions and current flowing in an earth fault on an IT system fig.e. C12: earth fault on IT-earthed systems. with respect to earth. where supply continuity must be maintained even in “firstfault” conditions. and the neutral point of the transformer secondary winding will be at approximately zero volts with respect to earth. With one phase short-circuited to earth. c the faulty phase conductor will be at zero volts with respect to earth. permanent) condition.C19 . A short-circuit to earth on one phase will change the values of phase conductor voltages with respect to earth. On an unfaulted system these parameters are sensibly equal in all three phases so that the vector relationship of phase voltages will be as shown below in figure C12.

In C14 (a1) the three capacitances and the three inductances each form an independent balanced 3-phase star-connected group. and may be provoked by a transitory* overvoltage condition such as that described above and shown in figure C12. behaves overall as a capacitance K (because the capacitive reactance < inductive reactance) suddenly changes character to that of an inductance. * for example. and can be a parallel or series resonance. etc. there is no exchange of current between them. The condition is due to the saturation of two (of the three) single-phase cores of a voltage transformer. C20 . and falling clear of the line.e.3. before the phenomenon was identified). The parallel combination of phase-to-earth capacitance and phase-to-earth inductance which. Apart from the obvious problems presented by false signals given by instrument transformers. but average) inductance which is much lower than its normal value. including instrument voltage transformers. in which the potential of the neutral point becomes displaced (from approx. etc. as shown in the vector diagram of figure C13. the capacitor-type VT (not normally used at the HV levels considered in this guide) is especially prone to sub-harmonic resonance (1/3 of the fundamental frequency). c incorporating damping resistors in the transformer secondary or tertiary circuits. Moreover. i. The problem concerns IT-earthed systems. under normal conditions. viz: before saturation and during saturation are shown in figure C14 (a) and (b) respectively.HV/LV distribution substations . V1E V1N N V3N V3E E V2N V2E fig. earth potential) with the result that excessive values of phase voltage with respect to earth occur on two phases. The two states. when their magnetic circuits are in a highly-saturated state (generally due to an abnormal system disturbance). The overvoltage saturates the two singlephase VT cores. Electro-magnetic VTs (which are very commonly used at HV levels covered by this guide) counter the possibility of resonance by: c designing the transformer cores to operate at low levels of flux density. The resonant condition may be at any frequency. C13: vector diagram of a displaced neutral due to ferro-resonance at 50 Hz.1 protection against electric shocks and overvoltages (continued) Ferro-resonance Ferro-resonance is a spontaneous condition which occurs due to a complex interaction between intrinsic power-system capacitances and the non-linear voltage-dependent inductances of transformers or reactors. not corresponding exactly to the classical formulae for LC resonant circuits (which are based on assumed linearity of the LC components). as shown in figure C14. Unless the precautions mentioned above are taken. a bird causing a brief short-circuit to earth. permanent overvoltage conditions can be established. resonance may occur on one or two phases only of a 3-phase system. the following situation may arise (and often did in the past. chokes. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. which then present a (nonlinear. or wind-blown debris. All types of transformer can be affected. the windings of which are connected between phase and earth.

picture of the actual phenomenon. the power-frequency values are predominant. and justifies an approximate representation by vectors. constitute an unbalanced 3-phase group. C14: equivalent circuits for ferro-resonant condition. The circuit behaviour therefore. is mainly governed by these power-frequency quantities. 1 = = N 3 source 2 (a1) (a2) L L L C C C K K K (a) circuits in normal operation K<C at normal system frequency = (b1) source N (b2) H<L H H K XH > XK at a resonant frequency (b) circuits with phase 1 and phase 2 VT cores saturated fig. together with one capacitance. since harmonic voltages and currents are also present. For interested readers. A simple calculation in Appendix C3 shows how the vector diagram of figure C13 was determined. However.C In C14 (b2) however. but qualitatively useful. Note: it should be appreciated that the vector representation shown in figure C13 gives an approximate. Field measurements have confirmed the validity of such a representation. It is clear that an unbalanced 3-phase load on a 3-wire system will displace the “floating” neutral point of the source. HV/LV distribution substations . the star point of which is the earth. it will be seen that the two inductances. in the 50 Hz (or 60 Hz) resonant condition.C21 . further information on ferroresonance can be found in Cahier Technique No. 31 : "Ferroresonance" published by Merlin Gerin.

Sub-clause 4. v gas-detection relays (Buchholz. overload protection Overloading is frequently due to the coincidental demand of a number of small loads. and the role of protective schemes is to ensure that these withstand limits can never be exceeded. c transformer faults. All equipments normally used in power-system installations have (standardized) short-time withstand ratings for overcurrent and overvoltage conditions. v pressure-operated relays (pressostats). substation protection schemes (continued) C 3.e. etc. These devices cause the faulty circuit to be cut-off electrically from the power supply. which opens an associated threephase load-break switch.e.3. c detection and trip-initiating devices which are integral parts of the transformer.HV/LV distribution substations . c direct-acting tripping coils which form part of a LV circuit breaker.). excessive currents not due to faults). together with that of the transformer. damage or destruction. C22 . v temperature-operated relays (thermostats). In addition to the protection against overvoltages mentioned in section 3. but are commonly provided on the upstream side in public-supply substations. and are operated by the fault (or overload) current passing through them. The choice and sophistication of the protective schemes will depend on the characteristics of the substation.1. electrical protection is routinely provided against the following abnormal conditions: c overloading (i. general The circuits and equipment in a substation must be protected so that excessive currents and/or voltages are rapidly removed from the system before causing danger. When the temperature exceeds the normal design limits of the equipment involved. c a circuit breaker or fuses (with or without an associated load-break switch) upstream of the transformer. and the working life of the equipment is correspondingly reduced.-Load increases raise the temperature of the circuit conductors concerned. the deterioration rate (ageing) of the insulation materials is increased.6. and is commonly realized by: c a circuit breaker downstream of the transformer. v oil-surge operated relays. c short-circuit faults between phases. In general. and are discussed later. c relays which act indirectly such as: v electrical relays supplied from current and/or voltage transformers.2 electrical protection overcurrents due to overloading or to short-circuit faults (between phases and/or to earth) are detected by protective devices up-stream and down-stream of the power transformer(s). with consequent building extensions. this means that fault conditions must be cleared as fast as possible within the limits set by considerations of the highest attainable reliability. an inverse-time/current characteristic). The devices may be: c fuses which clear the faulty circuit directly. or together with a mechanical tripping attachment. Overload protection devices are usually located downstream of the transformer in consumer-type substations. Protective devices upstream of the transformer must be co-ordinated with downstream devices. due to expansion of an enterprise. as noted in Chapter H2. Overcurrents due to overloading can normally be tolerated for longer periods than those of short-circuits and some protective devices are designed to operate with increasing speed as the degree of overloading increases (i. or to an increase in the apparent power (kVA) demand of an installation. and so on. c short-circuit faults to earth.

Such relays artificially simulate the temperature of the transformer windings with an accuracy which is sufficient to safeguard the insulation. The time delay inherent in this relay ensures that the transformer will not be unnecessarily tripped for overloads of short duration. A full description of these transformers is given in Sub-clause 4. which limits the maximum pressure to a value well below that at which the transformer tank will rupture. fig. a modern counterpart has been developed however. C16: total-fill transformer.C transformer protection Overloads The protection against overloading of a transformer is provided by a time-delayed overload relay (either a thermal bi-metal strip device or an electronic device) which acts to trip the downstream-side circuit breaker. The device. “totally filled” types of transformer as large as 10 MVA are now currently available. Evidently the Buchholz devices mentioned above cannot be applied to this design. An oil-surge detection feature of the Buchholz relay will trip the upstream circuit breaker "instantaneously" if a surge of oil occurs in the pipe connecting the main tank with the conservator tank. while c larger oil-immersed transformers frequently have thermostats with two settings. Other alternatives are: c for pole-mounted transformers “thermalimage” relays are frequently used. HV/LV distribution substations . C15: transformer with conservator tank.C23 . generated by an arc of short-circuit current under the oil. which measures: c the accumulation of gas. Pressure and Temperature) is mentioned further in 4. Internal faults The protection of transformers by transformer-mounted devices. fig. and the third condition trips the downstream circuit breaker of the transformer. by the classical Buchholz mechanical relay. Expansion of the oil is accommodated without an excessive rise in pressure by the “bellows” effect of the radiator elements.4 (see figure C16). under "Liquid-filled transformers".4. This first level of detection generally gives an alarm. a second level of detection will trip the upstream circuit breaker. one for alarm purposes and the other for tripping. is provided on transformers which are fitted with airbreathing conservator tanks (see figure C15). These relays can detect a slow accumulation of gases which results from the arcing of incipient faults in the winding insulation or from the ingress of air due to an oil leak. referred to as a "DGPT" unit (Detection of Gas. All transformers are fitted with some kind over-pressure relief device. c overtemperature. but if the condition deteriorates further. c dry-type transformers use heat sensors embedded in the hottest part of the windings insulation for alarm and/or tripping. By specially designing the cooling-oil radiator elements to perform a concertina action. the first two conditions trip the upstream circuit breaker. c overpressure. against the effects of internal faults. Such a surge can only occur due to the displacement of oil caused by a rapidlyformed bubble of gas.

c virtual elimination of the dangers of Transferred Potential (because of its instantaneous operation).g. Note: where short-circuit fault levels are low. These overcurrent relays afford protection against overloading and short-circuit faults downstream of the CTs. HV 1 2 3 LV 1 2 3 N E/F relay fig. Earth faults on the HV winding present a particular danger to personnel. which is generally the case. Unearthed star-connected LV secondary windings of IT-system transformers have an overvoltage device which will operate in these circumstances to connect the LV neutral point of the transformer directly to earth. The advantages of the scheme include: c simplicity and low cost. etc. simply a loadbreak switch. c high sensitivity. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. v in the case of metering at high voltage: the sum of the nominal rated currents of transformers and other HV plant (e. C24 . c the minimum value of HV 3-phase shortcircuit current at the installation. but must be carefully co-ordinated with LV overcurrent protective devices. it is recommended to use 3 overcurrent relays (rather than 2) since on delta/star transformers a phase/phase short-circuit at LV gives a 2:1:1 fault-current distribution at HV (see fig. between a phase conductor and earth. the choice is made according to two current values: c the reference current Ib. thereby being undetected by the REF relay (see fig. LV earth faults appear as phase/phase faults on the HV side of the transformer. there is no CB on the LV side. * There is no equivalent IEC standard. c no problems of coordination with downstream protection. In view of the effectiveness of REF protection against the hazards of transferred potentials. Overcurrent protective relays (2 only) are connected in series with the REF current transformers. c instantaneous operation.1: “Earthing connections”. high-speed sensitive earthfault protection is standard on the HV side of power transformers in many public-supply distribution and consumer-type substations. C17: protection against earth fault on the HV winding. The scheme is shown below in figure C17 and can be applied to transformers having delta or unearthed-star primary windings. AC1-2(c) of Appendix C1).). it is strongly recommended to be included in any protection scheme which includes a HV circuit breaker.3.HV/LV distribution substations . AC1-2(b) of Appendix C1). This arrangement is called a “Restricted Earth-Fault" (REF) protection because it will detect earth faults only on the HV windings or on the circuit downstream of the CTs (current transformers) to the winding terminals. in public-supply systems in general. the value of which will be: v in the case of metering at low voltage: the nominal rated current of the transformer. The (extremely unlikely) occurrence of a shortcircuit fault between the high-voltage windings and the low-voltage windings will constitute a short-circuit-to-earth fault on the HV winding if the secondary winding is earthed. For this reason. as shown dotted in figure C17 (see note).2 electrical protection (continued) protection against short-circuits Short-circuits may occur between phase conductors. and its uncomplicated application. motors. Again. due to the Transferred Potential hazard mentioned in Sub-clause 1. or in any combination of these conditions on the three phases. choice of protective devices on the upstream side of the transformer in a consumer-type substation In certain national standards*.

150 table C18: power limits of transformers with a maximum primary current not exceeding 45 A.6 10 11 13. or when there is more than one transformer. and the short-circuit current Ic at the primary terminals of the transformer.5 500 800 1.2 maximum IEC standard ratings for transformers (kVA) 250 12 17.8 15 20 22 33 36.3 4. Ic = the minimum current at the primary side of the transformer when the secondarywinding terminals are short-circuited. The maximum IEC standard kVA ratings of transformers corresponding to a HV full-load current not exceeding 45 A are given in the table C18. Ib = rated primary current of the transformer. as defined above.16 5.600 2. v when the substation is supplied from an overlead line. the protection may be by fuses or by a circuit breaker. the rated current In of the fuse must satisfy the following relationships: In > 1. are determined according to the national standards previously referred to.C25 . the protection will be by a circuit breaker. by automatic tripping of the HV load-break switch (i.5 6 6. HV/LV distribution substations . When the reference current is equal to or greater than 45 A.C When the reference current is less than 45 A and there is only one transformer. it is recommended that the failure of a fuse causes all three phases to be cut off. as follows: v when the substation consists of a single HV/LV transformer.250 1. c protection by fuses The relationships between the reference current Ib.6 7.500 3.5 nominal 3 3.5 24 36 40. Standard current ratings for fuses according to IEC 282-1 are listed in table C19. a combined switch-fuse).e. the rated current In of the fuse. or when the installation is sensitive to unbalanced-voltage conditions (for example three-phase motor loads).4 Ib and In < Ic/6 Where: In = rated current of the fuse. primary voltage (kV) rated 3.

c short-circuit fault between any 2 phases. shown dotted in figure C17.16 5.5 25 1.e. due to the passage of excessive current during the disturbance.or unearthed-star connection. because a short-circuit on the LV terminals or windings of the transformer will not produce sufficient current on the HV side to cause the relay to operate.5 6.500 250 200 160 160 100 100 80 80 63 50 40 31. c short-circuit fault of any 2 phases to earth. provided that the transformer HV winding is a delta. a constraint which generally is satisfied only by protective relays at the HV circuit breaker. all three fuses be replaced.3 6.8 15 24 20 22 36 33 40.5 40 50 10 16 25 31. the transformer can also be achieved very simply by devices which are sometimes referred to as “high-set” relays.5 25 25 16 16 400 100 100 80 63 63 63 50 40 31.3 10 16 25 25 6. The high-set relays (2 or 3 as noted in Subclause "protection against short-circuits") will each be connected in series with one of the inverse-time/overcurrent relays.5 31. REF. To ensure correct operation of the protective devices.HV/LV distribution substations .3 6. It is strongly recommended that. Overcurrent. following the operation of a fuse (or fuses) to clear a fault or overload condition. no disturbance occurring within the installation shall cause the operation of any protective relaying in the power-supply network.3 200 63 63 50 40 40 40 31.6 3 3.5 10 16 25 25 31.3 10 16 25 25 6. earth faults on the LV system will then appear as phase-to-phase faults on the HV system.3 6. To ensure that this condition can be complied with. if the current is sufficiently high to operate the relay.5 250 200 200 125 125 100 80 80 63 50 40 250 250 160 160 160 100 80 80 63 50 200 200 160 160 160 160 80 63 table C19: rated current (A) of HV fuses for transformer protection according to IEC 282-1. In extreme cases. c short-circuit fault of one phase to earth.3 7.000 250 250 200 160 125 125 80 80 63 63 50 50 31. when energizing the transformer). the REF scheme being very sensitive).3 10 10 16 6. since. this is the HV circuit breaker. there is no co-ordination problem. the minimum value of 3-phase short-circuit current must also be stated by the supply authority. When planning the protection scheme for the installation. instantaneous clearance of shortcircuit faults on the HV side of a transformer can be achieved.3 6.5 31. it will be a contractual condition that no disturbance occurring within the installation shall cause the operation of any protective relaying in the power-supply network. c protection by circuit breaker When the substation is supplied through a HV circuit breaker.3 10 16 25 6.5 25 25 25 25 16 16 315 80 80 80 63 50 50 40 31.5 31.3. without affecting the coordination scheme for downstream protection.6 12 10 11 17. In the present case. as already mentioned.3 10 10 10 6. where the difference between maximum and minimum fault levels is very large.2 4. the high-set scheme may not be sufficiently sensitive. Such protection will provide adequate sensitivity with high-speed tripping.3 10 16 16 6.3 6.5 16 16 630 160 160 125 100 80 80 63 63 50 50 40 31. it may be necessary to provide a differential-protection scheme for the transformer. however. exceed that given by the supply authority. high-set and differential protection schemes are stabilized against false operation due to CT saturation (for example.3 6.5 31.3 6.250 1.3 6. This longest tripping time must not.3 6. Instantaneous tripping for phase-to-phase short-circuit faults occurring on the HV side of C26 . the general principle of coordination is that the circuit breaker closest to the power source will have the longest tripping time.5 31.5 nominal transformer ratings (kVA) 25 50 100 125 160 16 25 40 50 50 16 25 40 50 50 10 25 31. At periods of the lowest levels of short-circuit fault current.5 16 16 800 200 200 160 125 100 100 80 63 63 50 50 40 31.5 40 10 16 25 31. It may be noted that the high-speed relays used for the REF.5 25 1.5 13. in order to purchase adequatelyrated equipment. then the short-circuit must be on the HV side of the transformer.3 6.3 6.3 250 80 80 63 50 50 40 31. HV earth faults occurring in the substation can therefore be cleared instantaneously by a REF scheme. the supply authority must specify the longest times permissible for clearing the following faults on the installation: c short-circuit fault between all 3 phases. to supplement the transformer-mounted protective devices previously mentioned.2 electrical protection (continued) supply voltages (kV) rated nominal 3.5 36. however.3 6. As far as earth faults are concerned. and will not affect co-ordination of downstream protection.3 6. The “high-set” principle depends on the fact that.5 31. since it is possible that the fuse (or fuses) that had not operated may have deteriorated. Differential-protection schemes compare the currents entering the primary windings with those leaving the secondary windings (after correction for current-level and phase changes) and any significant difference will operate the relay.5 6 6. By these simple means therefore.3 6. The maximum level of a 3-phase short-circuit at the installation was known at the outset of the project.5 25 25 25 16 16 6. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. which trips the circuit breakers controlling the transformer. and for distribution-type transformers are generally set to operate at 25 times the full-load current of the transformer.5 31. i. the current may not be high enough to operate the relay (there is no similar problem with earth faults. and high-set relays are commonly contained in a single relay case.000 2.5 25 16 16 500 125 125 100 80 80 80 50 50 40 40 31.600 2.

TT and TNS. transformer rated power (kVA) transformer current Ir (A) oil-immersed transformer Isc (kA) cast-resin transformer Isc (kA) 50 69 1. This question is considered in Appendix C1 (figure AC1-3). The factors 1.4 21.14 1. c have a current rating adequate for the transformer concerned. or vice-versa.8 11. C21: discrimination between HV fuse operation and LV circuit breaker tripping.e. and for TNC.28 160 220 5. at time T. Note: In the simple and widely used case.. c have the correct number of poles according to the earthing scheme of the installation. Both curves have the general inverse-time/current form (with an abrupt discontinuity in the CB curve at the current value above which “instantaneous” tripping occurs). the HV currents must be converted to the equivalent LV currents.g. c have a breaking-current rating where appropriate*. and overload protection must be effected at HV.9 1000 1375 21.4 17. The calibre of the HV fuses will have been chosen according to the characteristics of the transformer.28 2.1 11. high-set and inverse-time/overcurrent relays as previously described.5 8. * where no LV circuit breaker or fuse-switch is installed. where a HV circuit breaker incorporates REF. From these data it can be seen that the short-circuit impedances are in the range of 4% (for the 100 kVA transformer) to 6.1 52. or more.42 2. v 3 poles for IT scheme without neutral conductor. the fuse curve at the same current level I must pass through a point corresponding to 3 seconds.8 33.5 seconds.8 2000 2749 40. etc. v all parts of the fuse curve must be above the CB curve by a factor of 2 or more (e. where.14 100 137 3. that for an overload or short-circuit condition downstream of its location.63 3.38 8.0 40. * Merlin Gerin “catalogue distribution HT/MT 96” page G29. time minimum pre-arcing time of HV fuse B/A u 1.2 21.04 500 687 16. similar separation of the characteristic curves of the HV and LV fuses must be respected.35 and 2 are based on standard maximum manufacturing tolerances for HV fuses and LV circuit breakers.9 49.71 1.45 3.93 9. the breaker will trip sufficiently quickly to ensure that the HV fuses will not be adversely affected by the passage of overcurrent through them.5 22.. The tripping performance curves for HV fuses and LV circuit breakers are given by graphs of time-to-operate against current passing through them. Where an LV fuse-switch is used.63 5. at a current level I the CB curve passes through a point corresponding to 1.9 table C20: 3-phase short-circuit currents of typical distribution transformers.9% (for the 2.* In order to compare the two curves.3 v 4 poles for IT scheme with neutral conductor. or more. The tripping characteristics of the LV circuit breaker must be such.4 27. the fuse curve at the same time T must pass through a point corresponding to 135 A. where. These curves are shown typically in figure C21. the only electrical protection of the LV windings and the LV connections from the transformer terminals to the upstream terminals of the LV circuit breaker is that provided by the HV inversetime/overcurrent relays. a non-automatic LV load-break isolating switch must be provided.000 kVA transformer). and so on. for transformer protection. adequate for the secondary 3-phase short-circuit current. table C20 lists the nominal currents and corresponding shortcircuit currents at the secondary terminals of IEC-standard 20 / 0.35 at any moment in time D/C u 2 at any current value D C circuit breaker tripping characteristic A B current fig.07 7. undamaged): v all parts of the minimum pre-arcing fuse curve must be located to the right of the CB curve by a factor of 1.) and. HV/LV distribution substations .49 5.4 43.4 27. By way of an example.9 17.1 52.5 10.5 22.40 3.5 26.2 1250 1718 26.1 800 1100 17.).5 1600 2199 33.2 13.68 315 433 10. Figure C21 illustrates these requirements. Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA Psc = 250 MVA Psc = 500 MVA 630 866 20.0 2500 3437 49. discrimination (selectivity) between the protective devices on the upstream and downstream sides of the transformer The consumer-type substation with LV metering requires discriminative operation between the HV fuses and the LV circuit breaker or fuses.41 5.4 17.9 14. c in order to leave the fuses unaffected (i.35 or more (e. The device must: c include an isolating switch (for the protection of persons) of which the open switch contacts are clearly visible. the CB curve passes through a point corresponding to 100 A.4 kV transformers. c in order to achieve discrimination: v all parts of the fuse curve must be above and to the right of the CB curve.0 13.7 7.4 43.C choice of downstream protective devices The protective device (circuit breaker or fuse-switch)* downstream of the transformer must include and comply with the following requirements (IEC 364).14 400 550 13.65 250 344 8.4 16.71 1.g.1 34.C27 .1 34.

e. e. since a short-circuit on the upstream or downstream side of the LV breaker would result in a total loss of supply. . absolute cancellation of fault current is not possible. then this value will be reduced to approximately 8-14 times full-load current on the HV side of the transformer and will flow in two lines only. As a result of this. the capacitive current from each phase to earth has practically the same magnitude (Ic) and the three currents summate in the earth to give the so-called “residual” current. in consequence. The conventional solution to the problem is to make these LV connections “fault-free” by enclosing the (generously-insulated) conductors in vermin-proof metal bus-ducts. This resistor current is in phase with the voltage of the faulted phase (the voltage vector being reversed during the fault period) as shown in the vector diagram of figure C22. the residual current in all circuits affected by the voltage changes will no longer approximate to zero. These coils are associated mainly with isolated O/H line power networks in the HV voltage ranges covered by this guide. especially if the supply is by underground cable. a safety factor of 2). thereby minimizing the damage to insulation at the fault position. and the HV nominal voltage is high. as already mentioned in “Earth faults on ITearthed systems” (Sub-clause 3. will trip the circuit breaker of the unfaulted circuit. These effects prevent perfect mutual cancellation of the opposing currents. it was shown that the current through the earth fault is the sum of the residual capacitive currents of the system and the current which flows through the resistor. and reducing the risk of fire. leads conveniently to an explanation of the principle of the Petersen coil.1) will cause: c the voltage of the faulted conductor. the residual current will. to fall to practically zero volts. therefore. c the voltage of the two healthy phase conductors over the same area to increase by (up to) etimes their original value with respect to earth. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. as provided by the differential protective scheme previously described. the circuit on which the relay is installed being (perfectly) healthy (unfaulted).g. The tripping time of the inverse-time/overcurrent relays may. In general. A conventional minimum value of earth-faultcurrent setting intended to avoid this problem. This false operation is due to the inherent capacitance to earth of the power-system phase conductors and connected loads. be in phase opposition to the residual capacitive current. which. to avoid increasing the sensitivity (by reducing the operating-current setting) to a point where the relay can be caused to operate when an earth fault occurs on a nearby circuit. amount to almost 3 Ic. i. In normal circumstances. Care must be taken however.e. in this case. and is especially likely to occur on impedanceearthed systems (which are common at the HV levels covered by this guide). owing to conductorand fault. the reactor current will lag the (reversed) faulted phase voltage by 90 degrees and will. and to the impracticality of precise coil tuning at all times. a method which. and can. The phase displacement between the resistor current and the residual capacitive current is practically 90 degrees. This phenomenon is only of interest to a HV installation-design engineer in cases where the HV circuit breaker and protective relays C28 . in fact. HV earth-fault relay settings Earth-fault relays have low current-setting ranges.path resistances. System earthing on overhead-line HV systems by means of a Petersen coil In the resistance-earthed system described above. Petersen coils are provided with a number of tapping steps on the coil to cover a range of system capacitance values. On healthy circuits close to the fault position. This is the principle of Petersen Coil operation. A 100 % solution would be to install overall protection from the HV circuit breaker to the LV circuit breaker. be exactly cancelled.HV/LV distribution substations are some distance from the transformer. a 3-phase short-circuit at the LV terminals of a distribution transformer will cause a current of 14-25 times the transformer full-load current to flow in the LV and HV circuits (at times of maximum shortcircuit fault levels on the system). as illustrated in figure C22. i. the fault current can be reduced to very small values. be unacceptably long. The foregoing discussion of the presence of residual capacitive components in the earthfault current of impedance-earthed systems. In practice. commonly adopted in the power-distribution industry. By a suitable choice of reactance value the residual capacitive current through the fault can. is 6 Ic (i. u 20 kV.2 electrical protection (continued) There is no compelling need for discrimination between these HV relays and the LV circuit breaker protection. but providing the fault-path resistance is low. as shown in figure C23. If a healthy circuit has a significant capacitance to earth (a long overhead line or a section of underground cable) then 3 Ic will be detected by its earth-fault relay which. in principle. the resistor is replaced by a reactor. if given an oversensitive setting. in either case. they are sensitive instruments. there will be no fault current flowing to earth.e. immediately upstream of the LV circuit breaker however. and that of all conductors of the faulty phase over a wide area surrounding the fault location.3. because of the balanced conditions (in this case) is theoretically zero. in view of the location (in an area prohibited to all except authorized personnel) is generally considered to be satisfactory. A short-circuit of one phase to earth. If now. If the fault is a short-circuit of one phase to earth. act to clear a developing short-circuit fault in its early stages.

earth-fault protection relays of the healthy circuits A and C will detect an apparent earth fault A eIC2A eIC1A 1 2 3 0 V3 0 c damage at the fault position is limited. 3ICA B eIC2B eIC1B 1 2 3 IF IF IF 3ICB 0 V3 0 power supply source IF C I’F eIC1C eIC2C 1 2 3 0 V3 0 3ICC power supply eIc1 eIc2 IF IF I’F I’F eIC1 + eIC2 = 3IC simplified diagram showing current division IF I’F >> 3IC IF = I’F + 3IC V1 IC2 IC1 V3 = 0 V1 3IC VNE V2 √3IC2 3IC V1 √3IC2 V1 I'F √3IC1 VNE V2 V3 IC3 V2 √3IC1 V3 = 0 V2 normal voltages and capacitive currents voltages during short-circuit to earth on phase 3 residual current on healthy circuits during fault fault current IF is the vector sum of the neutral resistor current I’F and the residual capacitive currents of the system 3IC fig.C29 . HV/LV distribution substations . C22: earth-fault diagram. the system can operate indefinitely with an earth fault on one phase.C Operational advantages Advantages of the system include: c continuity of supply in the (common) event of an earth fault. c disturbance to neighbouring systems at the instant of fault is practically non-existent. owing to the restricted current level. In principle.

2 electrical protection (continued) power supply eIc1 eIc2 Petersen coil L IF = 0 0 I’F 0 I’F = 3IC I’F = eIC1 + eIC2 = 3IC simplified diagram showing current division when XC / XL = 3 (where XC = capacitive reactance of one phase to earth) 3IC eIC2 V1 VNE eIC1 E V2 I’F vector diagram for condition I’F = 3 IC V1 IC2 IC1 V3 = 0 V1 3IC VNE V2 eIC2 V1 V3 IC3 V2 √3IC1 V3 = 0 V2 normal voltages and capacitive currents fig. C30 .HV/LV distribution substations voltages during short-circuit to earth on phase 3 residual current on healthy circuits during fault . substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. C23: earth fault diagram (with Petersen coil).3.

C 3. and the earthing switch(es) is (are) open. as well as for the equipment concerned. v access to the HV fuses of a substation supplied by two incomers from parallel feeders if the two isolating switches are open and the two earthing switches in the panel are closed. HV/LV distribution substations .and protection panel .if the door of the panel is closed.3: “choice of HV/LV transformers”.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres Mechanical and electrical interlocks are included on mechanisms and in the control circuits of apparatus installed in substations. v access to the compartment(s) occupied by the VT(s) if the HV isolating switch is open. * if the earthing switch is on an incoming circuit. with assured compatibility of keys and locking devices. c a transformer switchgear-and-protection panel. or a circuit breaker and lineisolating switch together with an earthing switch. The principle is based on the possibility of freeing or trapping one or several keys. Where an installation includes one or several liquid-insulated transformers. and . c a transformer compartment interlocks allow manœuvres and access to different panels in the following conditions: v operation of the load-break/isolating switch if the panel door is closed and the associated earthing switch is open.if the circuit breaker is open. the regulations and arrangements relative to the protection and construction details must be fully respected. v closure of an earthing switch if the associated isolating switch(es) is (are) open*. Non-observance of the correct sequence of manœuvres in either case may have extremely serious consequences for the operating personnel. interlocks in substations equipped with metalclad switchgear In a HV/LV distribution substation which includes: c a single incoming HV panel or two incoming panels (from parallel feeders) or two incoming/outgoing ring-main panels. which can include a load-break/ isolating switch with HV fuses and an earthing switch. v operation of the line-isolating switch of the transformer switchgear . These conditions can be combined in unique and obligatory sequences. For example. key interlocking The most widely-used form of locking/ interlocking depends on the principle of keytransfer. The prefabricated equipments are conceived and manufactured in a way that avoids excessive temperature rise in normal use. and these should be suitably interlocked.3 protection against thermal effects The risk and consequences of a fire are particularly serious. v access to the interior of each panel if the isolating switch for the panel is open and the earthing switch(es) in the panel is (are) closed. 3. access to a HV panel requires a certain number of operations which must be carried out in a pre-determined order. and if the LV isolating device is open. the associated isolating switches are those at both ends of the circuit. an interlocking scheme is intended to prevent any operational manœuvre which would expose operating personnel to danger. the apparatuses concerned will be equipped during manufacture in a coherent manner. In this way. thereby guaranteeing the safety of personnel by the avoidance of an incorrect operational procedure. Note: It is important to provide for a scheme of interlocking in the basic design stage of planning a HV/LV substation. according to whether or not the conditions of safety are satisfied. v operation of the isolating switches in the VT panel if the door of the panel is closed. It is necessary to carry out manœuvres in the reverse order to restore the system to its former condition. and are described in Subclause 4. Mechanical protection is afforded by: c compartments enclosing specific parts of equipment in pre-fabricated HV cells. c key-transfer interlocking. as a measure of protection against an incorrect sequence of manœuvres by operating personnel.C31 . v closure of the door of each panel or compartment if the earthing switch(es) in the panel is (are) closed.

e. Note: The transformer in this example is provided with plug-on type HV terminal connectors which can only be removed by unlocking a retaining device common to all three phase connectors*. The aim of the interlocking is: c to prevent access to the transformer compartment if the earthing switch has not been previously closed. v turn key “S” to lock the HV switch in the open position. and is illustrated by the diagrams of figure C24. The HV load-break / isolating switch is mechanically linked with the HV earthing switch such that only one of the switches can be closed. v key “S” is now released. c to prevent the closure of the earthing switch in a transformer switchgear-and-protection panel. Access to the HV or LV terminals of a transformer. as the case may be. * or may be provided with a common protective cover over the three terminals. and a HV earthing switch) must comply with the strict procedure described below. containing a HV load-break / isolating switch. exposure of one or more terminals will trap key “S” in the interlock. if the LV circuit breaker of the transformer has not been previously locked “open” or “withdrawn”. c step 4: v the access panel to the HV fuses can now be removed (i. v key “O” is trapped in the LV circuit breaker as long as that circuit breaker is closed. and removal of the HV plug-type shrouded terminal connections (or protective cover). closure of one switch automatically blocks the closure of the other.HV/LV distribution substations . v check that the “voltage presence” neon indicators extinguish when the HV switch is opened. C24: example of HV/LV/TR interlocking. v key “O” is then released. is released by closure of the HV earthing switch). c initial conditions: v HV load-break/isolating switch and LV circuit breaker are closed. In either case. c step 2: v open the HV switch. c step 5: v key “S” allows removal of the common locking device of the plug-type HV terminal connectors on the transformer or of the common protective cover over the terminals. HV switch and LV CB closed O S O S HV fuses accessible S O S O transformer HV terminals accessible legend key absent key free key trapped panel or door fig.e. substation protection schemes (continued) C 3. i. v HV earthing switch locked in the open position by key “O”. c step 3: v unlock the HV earthing switch with key “O” and close the earthing switch. S S Procedure for the isolation and earthing of the power transformer. C32 . Key “S” is located in this panel. v key “O” is now trapped. and is trapped when the HV switch is closed. HV fuses.3. protected upstream by a HV switchgear-and-protection panel. c step 1: v open LV CB and lock it open with key “O”.4 interlocks and conditioned manœuvres (continued) practical example In a consumer-type substation with LV metering. the interlocking scheme most commonly used is HV/LV/TR (high voltage/ low voltage/transformer).

c the envelope containing the switch is moulded from insulating material. In the general case. which is trapped by the closed HV earthing switch. c) the LV CB is locked open by key “O”.C The result of the foregoing procedure is that: a) the HV switch is locked in the open position by key “S”. There are three reasons for this: c the terminals in question are located in a separate inaccessible compartment in the particular switchgear under discussion. and an earthing switch will be provided. i. It may be noted that the upstream terminal of the load-break switch may remain alive in the procedure described. a padlock is generally used to lock the earthing switch in the closed position.e. The transformer is therefore safely isolated and earthed. along similar lines to those described above. may be opened or closed. the key of the padlock being held by the engineer supervizing the work. interlocked mechanically with a line-isolating switch. it may be necessary (depending on the type of switchgear) to isolate and lock off the incoming supply cable at its remote end. Any scheme of interlocking must evidently include appropriate procedures. Or again. Key “S” is trapped at the transformer terminals interlock as long as the terminals are exposed. and sealed for life. filled with SF6 gas. When carrying out maintenance work. c the open contacts of the switch have an earthed screen interposed between them. the upstream terminals of such a switch (or circuit breaker) will be exposed within the compartment. before closing the local earthing switch. HV/LV distribution substations .C33 . b) the HV earthing switch is in the closed position but not locked.

and includes a single HV/LV transformer generally not exceeding 1. c via two load-break switches of a ring-main unit. buildings receiving the public. c LV protective and distribution functions. e. c HV protective functions and HV/LV transformation. or. * polychlorinated biphenyl. LV installation circuits A low-voltage circuit breaker. c dry-type. c zones of access for interested parties. v single-circuit (for later change to ring-main service).HV/LV distribution substations .g. and so on. v ring-main service. Connection to the HV network Connection at HV can be: c either by a single service cable or overhead line.250 kVA. one-line diagrams The diagrams on the following page (figure C25) represent: c the different methods of HV service connection. the preferred available technologies are: c oil-immersed transformers for substations located outside premises. c protect the transformer against overloading and the downstream circuits against shortcircuit faults.. c via two mechanically interlocked load-break switches with two service cables from duplicate supply feeders. v duplicate service (interlocked mechanically). The transformer Since the use of PCB*-filled transformers is prohibited in most countries. Most tariff structures take account of transformer losses. functions The substation All component parts of the substation are located in one chamber. which may be one of four types: v single-circuit service. to: c supply a distribution board..4. either in an existing building. Metering Metering at low voltage allows the use of small metering transformers at modest cost. C34 . or. vacuum-cast-resin transformers for locations inside premises. c LV metering and general isolation functions.35 kV.1 general A consumer substation with LV metering is an electrical installation connected to a publicsupply system at a nominal voltage of 1 kV . suitable for isolation duty with visible contacts and locking off facilities. the consumer substation with LV metering C 4. multistoreyed buildings. or in the form of a prefabricated housing exterior to the building.

C35 . C25: consumer substation with LV metering. HV/LV distribution substations .C power supply system service connection HV protection and HV/LV transformation LV metering and isolation LV distribution and protection supplier/consumer interface transformer LV terminals downstream terminals of LV isolator protection protection single-line service (permitted if IHV nominal i 45 A and one transformer ) single-line service (equipped for extension to form a ring main) protection duplicatesupply service (permitted if IHV nominal i 45 A and one transformer ) protection + auto-changeover switch ring-main service protection automatic LV standby source (always permitted) authorized access limits consumer testing authority power-supply authority consumer fig.

24 kV systems and conform to the following international and national standards: c international: IEC 56-1.2 choice of panels standards and specifications The SF6 switchgear and equipments described below are rated for 1 kV . c busbars: modular. c national: French: UTE. 265-1. This “all . The units are connected electrically by means of prefabricated sections of busbars. C26: compartmented SF6 HV load-break isolating switch. The technology of these switchgear units is essentially based on operational safety.SF6” equipment is distinguished by its reduced dimensions. ease of installation and low maintenance requirements. such that any number of panels may be assembled side-by-side to form a continuous switchboard. c extendibility and flexibility. 298. its integrated functions and by its operational flexibility. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued) C 4. c control and indication: a control and instrument compartment which can accommodate automatic control and relaying equipment. c connections: by cable at terminals located on the molded load-break switch unit. c insufficient space for “classical” switchboards. operational safety of compartmented metalclad panels Description The following notes describe a “state-of-theart” load-break / isolating-switch panel (see figure C26) incorporating the most modern developments for ensuring: c operational safety. and provisions for later extensions are easily realized.HV/LV distribution substations . Each panel includes 4 compartments: c switchgear: the load-break switch is incorporated in an SF6-filled hermetically sealed (for life) molded epoxy-resin unit.4. German: VDE. 694. EDF. fig. British: BS. An additional compartment may be mounted above the existing one if required. Operation of the switchgear is simplified by the grouping of all controls and indications on a control panel at the front of each unit. C36 . Site erection is effected by following the assembly instructions. Cable connections Cable connections are provided inside a cable-terminating compartment at the front of the unit. Compact substations of modular panels are particularly applicable in the following cases: c ring-main substations (a 3-function monobloc assembly). to which access is gained by removal of the front panel of the compartment. 129. American: ANSI. c minimum space requirements. type of material All kinds of switchgear arrangements are possible when using modular compartmented panels. c severe climatic or heavily-polluted conditions (integral insulation). c minimum maintenance requirements.

c all closing-operation levers are identical on all units (except those containing a circuit breaker). etc. Interlocks c closure of the switch is not possible unless the earth switch is open and the access panel to the cable-terminations compartment* is closed.m.16 65 70 90 75 85 105 85 90 115 110 120 150 135 150 190 165 180 227 for nominal system voltages 5 110 125 140 180 230 275 5.4 415 555 610 915 16 545 20 25 31. required for switching manœuvres are grouped together on a clearly illustrated panel. c opening or closing of a load-break/isolating switch can be by lever or by push-button for automatic switches. Operation of the earthing switch is then possible.s. Closed.5 375 500 550 825 14.C37 . by means of: c a position indicator accurately reflecting the open state of the contacts. c 5 predrilled sets of fixing holes for possible future interlocking locks. each switchgear panel includes: c built-in padlocking facilities.C state of isolation clearly apparent The load-break/isolating switch fully satisfies the requirement of “isolation clearly apparent" as defined in IEC 129. c conditions of switches (Open.(1) Isc(2) 15 20 22 33 (kA) r. are clearly indicated. c operation of a closing lever requires very little effort.5 40 50 62.8 300 345 385 500 ITH/1 sec. Apart from the functional interlocks noted above. Manœuvres c operating handles.6 145 165 185 240 300 360 10 215 250 280 365 455 11 240 275 305 400 500 13. Choice of short-circuit withstand ratings short-circuit (MVA) (kV) 3 3. c the load-break/isolating switch is blocked in the open position when the above-mentioned access panel is open.5 79 table C27: standard short-circuit MVA and current ratings at different levels of nominal voltage.3 4. * where HV fuses are used they are located in this compartment. Spring-charged). (1) I /1 sec: thermal withstand current for 1 second (2) Isc: short-circuit current (3) I : peak rated closing current TH CL HV/LV distribution substations .5 ICL(3) (kA) peak 31.5 36. levers. 325 435 475 715 12. c opening of the access panel to the cableterminations compartment* is only possible if the earthing switch is closed. c an earthed metal barrier interposed between the open contacts.5 120 135 150 200 250 300 6 130 150 165 220 275 330 6. c closure of the earthing switch is only possible if the load-break/isolating switch is open.

overvoltages caused by HV switching operations are generally less severe than those due to lightning. on-load tap-changers are available (e. All combinations of delta. as noted in Sub-clause 1. so that no separate tests for switching-surge withstand capability are made. IEC 76-4 describes the “clock code” in detail. e.000 m is standard). etc. phase 1 secondary voltage is at “11 o’clock” when phase 1 of the primary voltage is at “12 o’clock”. as determined in B. 4. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued) C 4. but also by its technology and its conditions of use. the first letter refers to the highest voltage winding. and by high-voltage impulse tests which simulate lightning discharges.1 "Influence of the Ambient temperature and altitude on the rated current". which has a delta HV winding with a star-connected secondary winding the neutral point of which is brought out to a terminal. The insulating medium is: v liquid (mineral oil) or. star and zigzag windings produce a phase change which (if not zero) is either 30 degrees or a multiple of 30 degrees. The transformer must be de-energized before this switch is operated. as shown in figure C36. characteristic parameters of a transformer A transformer is characterized in part by its electrical parameters.1 of this Chapter. The phase change through the transformer is +30 degrees. Seven parameters influence the optimum choice: c the primary current of the transformer. Characteristics related to the technology and utilization of the transformer This list is not exhaustive: c choice of technology. i. v maximum ambient air: 40 °C. c load-break switch/HV fuses combination. the second letter to the next highest. a kVA rating corresponding to each level must be given. delta and inter-connected-star windings. c circuit breaker. Note: the fuses used in the load-break/fuseswitch combination have striker-pins which ensure tripping of the 3-pole switch on the operation of one (or more) fuse(s). IEC standards define the rated (powerfrequency) voltage and the “highest voltage for equipment” in exactly the same terms. c rated insulation levels: are given by overvoltage-withstand test values at power frequency.5%) where circumstances require it. If a neutral terminal is available then the number appears after the N (or n). c the insulating medium of the transformer. For non-standard operating conditions. c for interior or exterior installation. v solid (epoxy resin and air). At the voltage levels discussed in this guide. Manufacturing tests and guarantees are referred to this rating. and so on.3 choice of HV switchgear panel for a transformer circuit Three types of HV switchgear panel are generally available: c load-break switch and separate HV fuses in the panel. however.4. Electrical characteristics c rated power (Pn): the conventional apparent-power in kVA on which other design-parameter values and the construction of the transformer are based. c winding configurations: are indicated in diagrammatic form by standard symbols for star. but also by its technology and its conditions of use.g. A very common winding configuration used for distribution transformers is that of a Dyn 11 transformer. ± 12. refer to C1. c temperature (IEC 76-2). c rated primary and secondary voltages: for a primary winding capable of operating at more than one voltage level. c the position of the substation with respect to the load centre. c the kVA rating of the transformer.4 choice of HV/LV transformer a transformer is characterized in part by its electrical parameters.HV/LV distribution substations . (and combinations of these for special duty. c altitude (i 1. corresponding to those. the frequency will be 50 Hz or 60 Hz. c the distance from switchgear to the transformer. v daily maximum average ambient air: 30 °C. c off-circuit tap-selector switch: generally allows a choice of up to ± 2. This code is read from left-toright.6. The secondary rated voltage is its opencircuit value. v annual maximum average ambient air: 20 °C.4.g.5 % and ± 5 % level about the rated voltage of the highest voltage winding. c frequency: for power distribution systems of the kind discussed in this guide.) and in an IEC-recommended alphanumeric code. v capital letters refer to the highest voltage winding D = delta Y = star Z = interconnected-star (or zigzag) N = neutral connection brought out to a terminal v lower-case letters are used for tertiary and secondary windings d = delta y = star z = interconnected-star (or zigzag) n = neutral connection brought out to a terminal v a number from 0 to 11. C38 . c the use of separate protection relays (as opposed to direct-acting trip coils). on a clock dial (“O” is used instead of “12”) follows any pair of letters to indicate the phase change (if any) which occurs during the transformation. six-or twelve-phase rectifier transformers. the rated power of the transformer is chosen according to the maximum apparent power.e.

The mouldings of the windings contain no halogen compounds (chlorine. The DGPT unit (Detection of Gas. Pyralène.C39 . by adapting the transformer. c pulverulent additive composed of trihydrated alumina Al (OH)3 and silica which enhances its mechanical and thermal properties. Liquid-filled transformers The most common insulating/cooling liquid used in transformers is mineral oil. The encapsulation of a winding uses three components: c epoxy-resin based on biphenol A with a viscosity that ensures complete impregnation of the windings. HV/LV distribution substations . it expands as the load and/or the ambient temperature increases. safety measures are obligatory in many countries. as required. Dry type transformers The windings of these transformers are insulated by resin cast under vacuum (which is patented by major manufacturers). and taking appropriate additional precautions if necessary. especially for indoor substations. It is recommended that the transformer be chosen according to the CENELEC standards documents HD 46451. See figure C28. notably in the event of a fire. These transformers are therefore classified as nonflammable. This three-component system of encapsulation gives Class F insulation (∆θ = 100 K) with excellent fire-resisting qualities and immediate self-extinction. The following description refers to the process developed by a leading European manufacturer in this field. fig. Mineral oil is bio-degradable and does not contain PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl). transport and stockage down to -25 °C). thereby guaranteeing a high degree of safety to personnel in emergency situations. Pyrolio. c climatic conditions class C2 (utilization. c liquid filled (oil-immersed). which was the reason for banning askerel.) or other compounds capable of producing corrosive or toxic pollutants. On request. humidity. essential to avoid the development of cracks during the temperature cycles occurring in normal operation. Being flammable..e. In the event of an anomaly. Pyroline.C description of insulation techniques There are two basic classes of distribution transformer presently available: c dry type (cast in resin). Mineral oils are specified in IEC 296. Pressure and Temperature) ensures the protection of oil-filled transformers. etc. mineral oil can be replaced by an alternative insulating liquid. the DGPT causes the HV supply to the transformer to be cut off very rapidly. etc. c fire resistance (transformers exposed to fire risk with low flammability and selfextinguishing in a given time). as well as giving exceptional intrinsic qualities to the insulation in the presence of heat. as follows: c environment class E2 (frequent condensation and/or high level of pollution). i. C28: dry-type transformer. The insulating fluid also acts as a cooling medium. c anhydride hardener modified to introduce a degree of resilience in the moulding. before the situation becomes dangerous. It also performs exceptionally well in hostile industrial atmospheres of dust. so that all liquid-filled transformers must be designed to accommodate the extra volume of liquid without the pressure in the tank becoming excessive.. bromine.

The space above the liquid in the conservator may be filled with air which is drawn in when the level of liquid falls. When the air is drawn in from the surrounding atmosphere it is admitted through an oil seal. v no need for an air-drying device. The air enters and exits from the deformable bag through an oil seal and dessicator. C29: hermetically-sealed totally-filled tank. v no need for dielectric-strength test of the liquid for at least 10 years. this method was adopted by the national power authority in 1972. before passing through a dessicating device (generally containing silica-gel crystals) before entering the conservator. water cannot enter the tank. and is now in world-wide service. C40 . In some designs of larger transformers the space above the oil is occupied by an impermeable air bag so that the insulation liquid is never in contact with the atmosphere. mounted above the transformer main tank.4 choice of HV/LV transformer (continued) There are two ways in which this pressure limitation is commonly achieved: c hermetically-sealed totally-filled tank (up to 10 MVA at the present time) Developed by a leading French manufacturer in 1963. v immediate detection of (even small) oil leaks.4. A conservator expansion tank is obligatory for transformers rated above 10 MVA (which is presently the upper limit for “total-fill” type transformers). fig. v simplicity of installation: lighter and lower profile (than tanks with a conservator) and access to the HV and LV terminals is unobstructed. The “total-fill” technique has many important advantages over other methods: v oxydation of the dielectric liquid (with atmospheric oxygen) is entirely precluded. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued) C 4. as shown is figure C30. fig. Expansion of the liquid is compensated by the elastic deformation of the oil-cooling passages attached to the tank. C30: air-breathing conservator-type tank at atmosphere pressure. and is partially expelled when the level rises.HV/LV distribution substations . as previously described. and so no consequent maintenance (inspection and changing of saturated dessicant). v simplified protection against internal faults by means of a DGPT device is possible. c air-breathing conservator-type tank at atmospheric pressure Expansion of the insulating liquid is taken up by a change in the level of liquid in an expansion (conservator) tank.

c economic considerations. Regulations affecting the choice c dry-type transformer: v in some countries a dry-type transformer is obligatory in high apartment blocks. The principal categories are shown in Table C31 in which a classification code is used for convenience. c for dielectrics of classes 01 and K1 the measures indicated are applicable only if there are more than 25 litres of dielectric liquid in the transformer. A choice depends on a number of considerations. the minimum measures to be taken against the risk of fire. The national standard is aimed at ensuring the safety of persons and property and recommends. c some countries in which the use of liquid dielectrics is highly developed. vary according to the class of insulation used. including: c safety of persons in proximity to the transformer. and the minimum calorific power. code O1 K1 K2 K3 L3 dielectric fluid mineral oil high-density hydrocarbons esters silicones insulating halogen liquids flash-point (°C) < 300 > 300 > 300 > 300 minimum calorific power (MJ/kg) 48 34 . National standards exist which define the conditions for the installation of liquid-filled transformers. v for different kinds of insulation liquids. taking account of the relative advantages of each technique. or minimum protectagainst fire risk.C41 . The main precautions to observe are indicated in Table C32. This latter is assessed according to two criteria: the flash-point temperature. HV/LV distribution substations . v dry-type transformers impose no constraints in other situations. No equivalent IEC standard has yet been established.28 12 table C31: categories of dielectric fluids. For ratings up to 10 MVA. notably. classify the several categories of liquid according to their fire performance. installation restrictions. Local regulations and official recommendations may have to be respected. c for dielectrics of classes K2 and K3 the measures indicated are applicable only if there are more than 50 litres of dielectric liquid in the transformer.37 27 . totally-filled units are available as an alternative to conservator-type transformers. the choice of transformer is between liquid-filled or drytype.C choice of technology As discussed above. c for liquid dielectrics of class L3 there are no special measures to be taken. c transformers with liquid insulation: v this type of transformer is generally forbidden in high apartment blocks.

the fire-proof characteristics of which are not rated for 2 hours. K2 or K3. during construction). in the event of liquid ignition there is no possibility of the fire spreading (any combustible material must be moved to a distance of at least 4 metres from the transformer. Notes: (a) a fire-proof door (rated at 2 hours) is not considered to be an opening. the consumer substation with LV metering (continued) C 4. Measure 4: automatic fire-detection devices in close proximity to the transformer. and by blocking of cable trenches.) in the walls and ceiling of the substation chamber. ducts and so on. for cutting off primary power supply. K1. C42 . Measure 1A: in addition to measure 1. and giving an alarm.HV/LV distribution substations . if gas appears in the transformer tank.transformer chamber adjoining a workshop and separated from it by walls. etc.areas situated in the middle of workshops the material being placed (or not) in a protective container. by sills around the transformer. or at least 2 metres from it if a fire-proof screen [of 1 hour rating] is interposed). and giving an alarm. the only orifices being those necessary for ventilation purposes. (c) it is indispensable that the equipment be enclosed in a chamber.4 choice of HV/LV transformer (continued) class of dielectric fluid no. of litres above which measures must be taken 25 locations chamber or enclosed area reserved to qualified and authorized personnel. arrange that. the walls of which are solid. and separated from any other building by a distance D D>8m 4m<D<8m D < 4 m (a) in the direction of occupied areas no special measures interposition of a fire-proof screen (1 hour rating) fire-proof wall (2 hour rating) against adjoining building interposition of a fire-proof screen (1 hour rating) reserved to trained personnel and isolated from work areas by fire-proof walls (2 hours rating) no openings with opening(s) measures (1 + 2) or 3 or 4 no special measures other chambers or locations (b) O1 K1 measures (1 + 2 + 5) measures or 3 (1A + 2 + 4)(c) or (4 + 5) or 3 measures 1A or 3 or 4 measures 1 or 3 or 4 K2 K3 L3 50 no special measures no special measures Measure 1: arrangements such that if the dielectric escapes from the transformer. Measure 5: automatic closure by fire-proof panels (1/2 hour minimum rating) of all openings (ventilation louvres. Measure 3: an automatic device (DGPT or Buchholz) for cutting off the primary power supply. it will be completely contained (in a sump. (b) . . table C32: safety measures recommended in electrical installations using dielectric liquids of classes 01. Measure 2: arrange that burning liquid will extinguish rapidly and naturally (by providing a pebble bed in the containment sump).4.

on maximum kVA demand. if overheating of the transformer causes protective relays to trip the controlling circuit breaker. The fan can be controlled by thermostat. HV/LV distribution substations . if justified.70% full load) so that the optimum loading is not achieved. but. in order to: v reduce cost penalties in tariffs based.e.081 P. v reduce the value of declared load (P(kVA) = P (kW)/cos ø).C the determination of optimal power Oversizing a transformer results in: c excessive investment and unecessarily high no-load losses. c select. It is important to note that any restriction to the free flow of a sufficient volume of air will result in a reduction of power available from the transformer. or if the chamber is badly ventilated. owing to the premature ageing of the windings insulation.18 P/√H and S’ = 1.000 m. Recommended air-flow rate.C43 . c dry-type Class F transformer: 0. The formulae are valid for a mean ambient temperature of 20 °C and up to an altitude of 1. A good system of ventilation allows cool air to enter through an orifice of sectional area S at floor level. resulting in failure of insulation and loss of the transformer. Natural ventilation The formulae for calculating the sectional area of the ventilation orifices are as follows: S = 0. Definition of optimal power In order to select an optimal power (kVA) rating for a transformer. v the installation. Forced ventilation Forced (i. the following factors must be taken into account: c list the power of installed power-consuming equipment as described in Chapter B.. and so on. C33: natural ventilation.1 S Where: P = the sum of the no-load losses and the full-load losses expressed in kW S = the sectional area of the incoming-air orifice (area of louvres or grill to be deducted) expressed in mm2 S’ = the sectional area of the outgoing-air orifice (area of louvres or grill to be deducted) expressed in mm2 H = height (centre to centre) of the outgoing air orifice above the incoming-air orifice. and to leave the chamber through an orifice of sectional area S' on the opposite wall to that of the air entry and at a height H above the incoming-air orifice. electric-fan assisted) ventilation of the chamber is necessary for ambient temperatures exceeding 20 °C. serious consequences for: v the transformer.05 P where P = total losses in kW. (the highest efficiency is attained in the range 50% . causes: c a reduced efficiency when fully loaded. It is important to ensure that cooling arrangements for the transformer are adequate. the chamber is ventilated by natural convection or forced ventilation. ventilation orifices In the general case of cooling by natural air circulation (AN) the ventilation of the chamber is arranged to remove the heat (produced by losses in the transformer) by natural convection. as shown in figure C33. expressed in metres. Undersizing a transformer. c arrange for power-factor correction. c determine the load cycle of the installation. if the rated temperature limit is not to be exceeded. frequent overloading of the transformer. noting the duration of loads and overloads. in part. in cubic metres per second at 20 °C: c totally-filled transformer: 0. and in extreme cases. c lower on-load losses. c on long-term overload. S' H S fig. taking into account all possible future extensions to the installation. c decide the utilization (or demand) factor for each individual item of load. among the range of standard transformer ratings available..

Local emergency generators Emergency standby generators are intended to maintain a power supply to essential loads. supplied at HV from switchgear in a main substation. 3-panel ring-main units will be required at each transformer room. either: c inside a building. C44 . which may be one of four types: v single-circuit service. having the necessary metering accuracy. HV supplies from the main substation may be by simple radial feeders connected directly to the transformers. or for parallel operation. similar to that described above. Metering Before the installation project begins. transformers may be arranged for automatic changeover operation. according to the degree of supply security desired. or several smaller transformers. c general protection at HV. Voltage transformers and current transformers. c protection of LV distribution circuits. These substations may be installed. a consumer substation with HV metering C 5. In the two latter cases. c or might supply one or more transformer rooms.250 kVA. Connection to the HV network Connection at HV can be: c either by a single service cable or overhead line. c protection of outgoing HV circuits. or again. in the event of failure of the power supply system. v duplicate service (interlocked mechanically). may be included in the main incoming circuit breaker panel or (in the case of the voltage transformer) may be installed separately in the metering panel. Transformers For additional supply-security reasons. v single-circuit (for later change to ring-main service). which include local LV distribution boards. A metering panel will be incorporated in the HV switchboard.1 general A consumer substation with HV metering is an electrical installation connected to a public supply system at a nominal voltage of 1 kV 35 kV and generally includes a single HV/LV transformer which exceeds 1. or c at LV in transformer rooms. or c outdoors in prefabricated housings. Transformer rooms If the installation includes a number of transformer rooms. the substation: c might include one room containing the HV switchboard and metering panel(s). functions The substation According to the complexity of the installation and the manner in which the load is divided. or by duplicate feeders to each room.5. The rated current of the HV switchgear does not normally exceed 400 A. or c via two mechanically interlocked load-break switches with two service cables from duplicate supply feeders. according to requirements: c in stepped HV banks at the main substation. by a ring-main. one-line diagrams The diagrams shown in figure C34 represent: c the different methods of HV service connection. together with the transformer(s) and low-voltage main distribution board(s). or c via two load-break switches of a ring-main unit. Capacitors Capacitors will be installed. and HV metering functions.HV/LV distribution substations . the agreement of the power-supply authority regarding metering arrangements must be obtained. v ring-main service.

C34: consumer substation with HV metering.C45 . HV/LV distribution substations .C power supply system service connection HV protection and metering HV distribution and protection of outgoing circuits downstream terminals of HV isolator for the installation LV terminals of transformer LV distribution and protection supplier/consumer interface single-line service protection LV I nominal of transformer u 45 A single-line service (equipped for extension to form a ring main) a single transformer HV LV automatic LV/HV standby source duplicatesupply service protection + automatic changeover feature protection ring-main service automatic LV standby source authorized access limits consumer testing authority power-supply authority fig.

metering and general protection These two functions are achieved by the association of two panels: c one panel containing the VT. The standard states that operation of the standby plant must not. Both schemes use protective relays which are sealed by the power-supply authority. which will trip the paralleling circuit breaker in the event of a short-circuit. This means that. The tripping supply and switchgear-control switch(es) must also be inaccessible to the consumer. result in perturbations on the power-supply network.5. HV distribution panels for which standby supply is required automatic changeover panel busbar transition panel to remainder of the HV switchboard In the second case. or on the installation. in any circumstances. C36: section of HV switchboard including standby supply panel. or other anomaly. in addition to the panels described in 4. power-supply changeover schemes Some national standards recommend a supplementary protection when an installation includes an emergency automatic changeover to a local generator.2 choice of panels A substation with HV metering includes. Setting of protection relays is carried out by the power-supply authority and made inaccessible to the consumer by sealing. containing the CTs for measurement and protection. apart from protective devices intended to protect the generator: c either a scheme of interlocking must preclude any possibility of parallel operation of the generator with the power system. c the main HV circuit breaker panel. from standby generator P i 20. or c a suitable automatic de-coupling scheme agreed with the power-supply authority. occurring on the power supply system. if required.HV/LV distribution substations .2. C46 . or some equivalent means. The general protection is usually against overcurrent (overload and short-circuit) and earth faults. for automatic or manual changeover from one source to another. C35: typical arrangement of switchgear panels for HV metering. a consumer substation with HV metering (continued) C 5. metering VT panel main HV CB panel with metering and protection CTs HV distribution panels power-supply network fig. the tripping command to the decoupling circuit breaker must operate reliably on undervoltage and reverse-power protection. panels specifically designed for metering and.000 kVA fig.

HV/LV distribution substations . so that. Note: The problem is essentially that of a “small” generator and a “large” system. but it is recommended that facilities for both kinds of control be specified when purchasing the generator sets. the AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) is switched to “parallel operation” in which the AVR control circuit is slightly modified (compounded) to ensure satisfactory sharing of kvars with the other parallel machines. In the event that the alternator becomes decoupled from the power-system. the short-circuit fault level is low) then constant-voltage control may be satisfactory. In highly-developed networks where the short-circuit fault levels are high.C47 . Instead of raising the voltage.C small generators operating in parallel with public supply networks The following notes indicate some basic considerations to be taken into account when parallel operation of consumer’s generators with the public power-supply networks is planned. such that the load power factor requirements are satisfied. An AVR set to maintain the voltage within ± 3% (for example) will immediately attempt to raise the voltage by increasing the excitation current of the alternator. A technical discussion with the power-supply authority will be necessary to resolve the question. as before. and will continue to do so. then constant-power-factor operation is generally obligatory. To be more specific. for example. until the voltage is restored to normal. and therefore more current) than before. By making this selection. The terms “small” and “large” are relative. The power factor of all the other machines will automatically improve. even a small generator at the end of a long line could probably operate satisfactorily on constant-voltage control. while at the same time maintaining the power factor of the alternator constant at the pre-set value (selected on the AVR control unit). the AVR will automatically adjust the excitation current to match whatever voltage exists on the power system. When it is intended that the alternator should operate in parallel with others. This is a well-known problem and is usually overcome by the provision of a “constantpower-factor” control switch on the AVR unit. or even more. if the system impedance viewed from the generator location is high (i. the alternator in question will simply operate at a lower power factor (more kVA. When a number of alternators are operating in parallel under AVR control. the alternator will simply operate at a lower power factor than before. In fact. until it is eventually tripped out by its overcurrent protective relays. which is operating in parallel with all the generation of the public power supply system. Consider now the case of a standby generator at a consumer’s substation. carried out manually after switching its AVR to Manual control) will have practically no effect on the voltage level. an increase in the excitation current of one of them (for example. where load-flow patterns require it). A voltage regulator controlling an alternator is generally arranged to respond to a reduction of voltage at its terminals by automatically increasing the excitation current of the alternator.e. Supposing the power system voltage is reduced for operational reasons (it is common to operate HV systems within a range of ± 5% of nominal voltage. thereby increasing its current output. the AVR must be automatically (rapidly) switched back to “constant-voltage” control.

3 parallel operation of transformers The need for operation of two or more transformers in parallel often arises due to: c load growth. c the phase displacement of the secondary phase voltages with respect to the corresponding primary phase voltages. As previously noted. zigzag star) of the several transformers have the same phase change between primary and secondary voltages. is equal to the sum of the individual ratings.4%.. viz type of windings and connection (i. v all possible information on the conditions of use. providing that the voltage ratios are identical and the per-centage impedances (at their own kVA rating) are identical. The inevitable circulating currents exchanged between the secondary circuits of paralleled transformers will be negligibly small providing that: c secondary cabling from the transformers to the point of paralleling have approximately equal lengths and characteristics. a star winding will produce voltages which are 180° displaced with respect to those produced if the opposite ends had been joined to form the star point. secondary.5.4 “Electrical characteristics winding configurations” the relationships between primary. c lack of space (height) for one large transformer. which exceeds the capactiy of an existing transformer. Similar 180° changes occur in the two possible ways of connecting phaseto-phase coils to form delta windings. v voltage differences between corresponding phases must not exceed 0. In these cases. so that: v the winding configurations (star. should be given to the manufacturer with a view to optimizing load and no-load losses. should not be operated permanently in parallel. Transformers of unequal kVA ratings will share a load practically (but not exactly) in proportion to their ratings. c the transformer manufacturer is fully informed of the duty intended for the transformers. total power (kVA) The total power (kVA) available when two or more transformers of the same kVA rating are connected in parallel. etc. or differ by less than 10%. polarity) of the phase windings. V12 N 3 2 3 1 1 2 N 2 windings correspondence 2 3 3 V12 on the primary winding produces V1N in the secondary winding and so on . zigzag). C48 . It is recommended that transformers. voltage vectors 1 1 common winding arrangements As described in 4.. delta. star. a total of more than 90% of the sum of the two ratings is normally available. By far the most common type of distribution transformer winding configuration is the Dyn 11 connection. conditions necessary for parallel operation All paralleled units must be supplied from the same network. or very nearly so. while four different combinations of zigzag connections are possible.HV/LV distribution substations . c a measure of security (the probability of two transformers failing at the same time is very small). a consumer substation with HV metering (continued) C 5. Depending on which ends of the windings form the star point (for example). c connection of the phase windings. fig. this displacement (if not zero) will always be a multiple of 30° and will depend on the two factors mentioned above. providing that the percentage impedances are all equal and the voltage ratios are identical. v the short-circuit per-centage impedances are equal. the kVA ratings of which differ by more than 2: 1. expected load cycles. C37: phase change through a Dyn 11 transformer.e. c the adoption of a standard size of transformer throughout an installation. and tertiary windings depend on: c type of windings (delta.

. or poles. rapid and competitive choice. etc. Prefabricated housings mounted on a concrete base provide a particularly simple. C38: typical arrangment of switchgear panels for LV metering. such as parks. etc. HV/LV distribution substations . constitution of HV/LV distribution substations C HV/LV substations are constructed according to the magnitude of the load and the kind of power system in question. This is normally assured by locating the substation.2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear conception Figure C38 shows a typical equipment layout recommended for a LV metering substation. or on private premises. 6. or incorporated in an apartment block. Substations may be built in public places. Remark: the use of a cast-resin dry-type transformer would obviate the need for a fireprotection oil sump. with or without a cable trench transformer oil sump LV cable trench fig. coincides with the boundary of the consumers premises and the public way.1 different types of substation Substations may be classified according to metering arrangements (HV or LV) and type of supply (O/H ou U/G). such that one of its walls. The substations may be installed: c either indoors in chambers specially built for the purpose. concrete or prefabricated housing. or c an outdoor installation mounted on a pole. in which case the power supply authority must have unrestricted access. HV connections to transformer (included in a panel or free-standing) LV connections from transformer LV switchgear 2 incoming HV panels HV switching and protection panel current transformers provided by power-supply authority connection to the power-supply network by single-core or three-core cables.6. 6. which includes an access door. residential districts.C49 . (“H” structure or 4-pole arrangement) or in a brick-built.

and not higher than 1. 100 common earth busbar for the substation 800 mini safety accessories meters fig. not lower than 0. At low voltage c connections between the LV terminals of the transformer and the LV switchgear may be: v single-core unarmoured cables.8 m. c alternatively.6. c connections between the HV switchgear and the transformers may be: v by short copper bars where the transformer is housed in a panel forming part of the HV switchboard. above floor level. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations (continued) C 6. c the meters are mounted on a panel which is completely free from vibrations. and are the responsibility of the power-supply authority. c placed as close to the current transformers as possible. Metering c metering current transformers are generally installed in the protective cover of the power transformer LV terminals. C50 . v solid copper bars (circular or rectangular section) with heat-shrinkable insulation. and c are accessible only to the power-supply authority.65 m.HV/LV distribution substations . the cover being sealed by the supply authority. v single-core unarmoured cables to 250 A (or more) plug-in type terminals at the transformer. v by single-core unarmoured cables with synthetic insulation.2 indoor substations equipped with metal-enclosed switchgear (continued) service connections and equipment interconnections At high voltage c connections to the HV system are made by. C39: plan view of typical substation with LV metering. The dials and graduations of the meters should be at a height of approximately 1.7 m. the current transformers are installed in a sealed compartment within the main LV distribution cabinet.

v the common point of all current-transformer secondary windings. can be easily read. Operating switches. etc. substation lighting Supply to the lighting circuits can be taken from a point upstream or downstream of the main incoming LV circuit breaker. pushbuttons. c removable links at strategic points for measuring continuity and the resistances of individual electrodes. notices and safety alarms: v on the external face of all access doors. appropriate overcurrent protection must be provided. together with instructions for first-aid care for victims of electrical accidents. v earthing attachments (according to type of switchgear). HV/LV distribution substations . A separate automatic circuit (or circuits) is (are) recommended for emergency lighting purposes.C earthing circuits The substation must include: c an earth electrode for all exposed conductive parts of electrical equipment in the substation and exposed extraneous metal including: v protective metal screens. c warning signs.1 of this Chapter. * in small areas. Lighting fittings are arranged such that: c switchgear operating handles and positionindication markings are adequately illuminated. Note: Metal doors and ventilation louvres are not connected to earth. materials for operation and safety The substation must be provided with: c materials for assuring safe exploitation of the equipment including: v a wooden stool and/or an insulating mat (rubber or synthetic). In such cases all electrodes are interconnected to form a common earthing system for HV and LV equipments. c an earth electrode for the LV neutral point of the transformer*. In either case. v a DANGER plaque (skull and cross-bones. v reinforcing rods in the concrete base of the substation. c an earth electrode for the installation*. c all metering dials and instruction plaques and so on. or a local equivalent sign) on each removable panel providing access to live parts. v a voltage-detecting device for use on the HV equipment. a DANGER warning plaque and prohibition of entry notice. c fire-extinguishing devices of the powder or CO2 type. v a pair of insulated gloves stored in an envelope provided for the purpose. v inside the substation: a first-aid panel as noted above. as discussed in “Earthing connections” in Sub-clause 1.C51 . the resistance zones of earth electrodes overlap. are normally located immediately adjacent to entrances.

C42: separated earth electrodes.3 outdoor substations pole-top public distribution substations Field of application These substations are mainly used to supply isolated rural consumers from HV overhead line distribution systems: c at voltage levels between 1 . c circuit breaker D2 is the main LV circuit breaker for the installation. for example) and the manœuvring of heavy vehicles. RB < 3 ohms to limit the voltage appearing at the consumer's installation in the event of a breakdown of HV/LV insulation due to back-flashover. c with low-voltage metering. with no local switchgear or fuses at the HV side of the transformer. and sealed. the settings to be made by the power-supply authority. or may be tripped by a thermal-image relay monitoring the transformer-windings temperature. Constitution These substations are commonly supplied by a single 3-wire line. not only for personnel but for equipment handling (raising the transformer. Rp RB installation RA Rp must have a maximum value derived in the same way as that shown for Rs of case "E" in figure C7. Earthing electrodes are commonly separated as discussed in Sub-clause 1. C41: diagram showing the principles of a pole-mounted transformer substation. LV circuit breaker at the transformer D1 remote pole-mounted load-break/ isolating switch lightning arresters metering pole-mounted transformer installation main circuit breaker D2 fig.6. lightning arresters LV circuit breaker D1 earthing conductor 25 mm2 copper protective conductor cover safety earth mat fig.24 kV. shown in figure C41: c circuit breaker D1 protects the transformer against overloading and the LV service connection against short-circuit faults. Protection of the LV circuit is generally provided by two LV circuit breakers (D1) and (D2).HV/LV distribution substations . to protect the transformer and consumers as shown in figure C40. however. Lightning arresters are provided. C40: pole-mounted transformer substation.1 of this Chapter. c from a single transformer not exceeding 160 kVA and at a preferred LV voltage level of 230/400 V (3-phase 4-wires). General arrangement of equipment As previously noted the location of the substation must allow easy access. fig. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations (continued) C 6. Tripping discrimination between these two circuit breakers must be established. This circuit breaker is mounted on the pole and has inverse-time/current-relay tripping characteristics. See figure C42. C52 . or other causes.

C prefabricated housings for outdoor substations For more elaborate substations requiring the use of ring-main units or a switchboard of several circuit breakers. which consists only of the provision of a reinforced-concrete plinth. These prefabricated units require the minimum civil work. and are used for both urban and rural substations. Among the advantages offered by these units. c greatly simplified equipment installation and connection. are: c an optimization of materials and safety by: v an appropriate choice from a wide range of available housings. by: v minimal co-ordination between the several disciplines of building construction and site works. being mounted on a simple concrete base. compact weatherproof and vermin-proof housings are commonly used. independent of the main building construction. HV/LV distribution substations . v conformity with all existing and foreseeable international standards. c a reduction in study and design time. v obviating the need for a temporary “hookup” at the beginning of the site preparation work. C43: cut-away view of typical HV/LV substation using a prefabricated housing. fig.C53 . v realization. and in the cost of implementation. v simplification of civil work.

HV/LV distribution substations . and for these reasons have been largely supplanted by prefabricated housings and indoor-type equipment in many countries. cable boxes. and c for one or more LV distribution pillar(s). and by an adverse visual impact. or one or more switchfuse or circuit breaker unit(s). c for one or more transformer(s). These comprise a fenced area in which three or more concrete plinths are installed: c for a ring-main unit. etc. constitution of HV/LV distribution substations (continued) C 6. The simplicity of this arrangement is countered by the high cost of weatherproof switchgear.6. This class of substation is not favoured in residential areas or in other locations where visual amenities are important. C54 . based on weatherproof equipment exposed to the elements.3 outdoor substations (continued) Other kinds of outdoor substation are common in some countries.

the maximum short-circuit primary currrent (based on 5% transformer reactance) is greater than the transfer current (current at which the switch operates concurrently with the fuse(s))* when the combination includes the recommended 40 A fuses. Appendix C1 . * transfer current is defined below.5 x 1. To justify this choice. To ensure discrimination in this case. i. i. The following example is based on a 400 kVA. 2. or calculations based on such tests. 4. This is generally the worst condition for discrimination. c the ambient-air temperature at site is 45 °C. assumed in this case to be 1.1 second (Clause 4a of IEC 787).. and will recommend those fuses necessary for this particular application. and/or in consultation with the fuse manufacturer. and/or in consultation with the fuse manufacturer.5% tap. Discrimination between HV fuses and LV circuit breakers has been covered in Chapter C Sub-clause 3. c the magnetizing in-rush current surge is: 21 x 12 = 252 A maximum for a duration of 0. c the permissible periodic overload is 150% F. and is intended to clarify some of the operational features of these combination units.05 = 33 A. Such a rating is evidently satisfactory for this application. The choice of the manufacturer will be based on factory type-tests to the appropriate IEC specifications covering this class of HV switch-fuse combination.L.1 . 5. may indicate a normal current rating of (for example) 35 A at 45 °C. Figure AC1-1 shows that the transfer current in this case is 280 A. The normal current rating of the combination when using the recommended fuses is adequate to carry 33 A periodically in an ambient-air temperature of 45 °C. The installation designers must check that the fuse discriminates with the highest rating of a LV fuse (if existing) in the event of a phaseto-phase fault on the LV system. 3. The fuse can withstand the 252 A of inrush current for 0. particularly in the abovestandard ambient temperature conditions. c the off-circuit tapping switch is selected to the .2 (figure C21) and Chapter H2 Sub-clause 4.87 Isc3 while one HV fuse (only) passes Isc3. 40 A. Note: the normal current rating of the combination when fitted with the recommended 40 A fuses may. since the LV fuses pass 0. as shown in figure AC1-3. 16 kA (at least) fuse of a given type from a certain fuse manufacturer.e. The transfer current of the combination when fitted with the 40 A fuses concerned is less than its rated transfer current. in fact.1 second. 11 kV/LV transformer with a maximum fault level at its HV terminals of 16 kA. as shown in figure AC1-2 (b). the manufacturer will have ascertained that: 1.7.6 (figures H2-56 and H2-57). example in coordination of the characteristics of an HV switch-fuse combination protecting an HV/LV transformer C This appendix is based on Appendices A and B of IEC 420. from the fuse characteristic curves. This will be done by reference to the timecurrent characteristic of the fuse.000 A. The manufacturer will provide a list of fuses which are suitable for use in the combination.e. i. The pre-arcing current in the fuse is low enough in the 10-second region of the fuse time-current characteristic. without any modification to its subsequent performance. so that the primary current in the overload condition is: 21 x 1. The user has selected a 12 kV switch-fuse combination from a certain manufacturer to protect the transformer. This information will be obtained by the switch-fuse manufacturer. 5 °C higher than the IEC standard. it matches the transformer overload capability. the timecurrent characteristics of the HV and LV fuses should intersect at a current value which is greater than that of the maximum possible short-circuit current on the LV system. Suppose the manufacturer recommends a 12 kV.e. to ensure satisfactory protection of the transformer (Clause 4c of IEC 787). c the full-load current is 21 A. Temperature-rise tests carried out by the switch-fuse manufacturer. be less than 40 A. The fuses alone will clear a solid 3-phase short-circuit fault at the LV terminals of the transformer.

7 kA 10. and takes no account of maximum and minimum tolerances in the fuse pre-arcing curves.0 248 A (c) 1 .C. is taken into account when calculating the operating time of the second fuse.C 7.Appendix C1 . For this to occur. 430 A 430 A 10. 2 . The two remaining poles are then passing a reduced current (87%).) 10 full-load current 50% overload current 1. the switch will be tripped by striker-pin action. not to scale minimum rated breaking current of fuse take-over current level overload relay characteristic 40 A fuse characteristic 0. AC1-1: principles of HV/LV transformer protection by HV switch-fuse combination. time (secs.1 transfer current level rated transfer current of the combination 0. 0 248 A 10. AC1-2: short-circuit currents for the transformer of the example.phase S.1 transfer current and take-over current transfer current The transfer current of a combination depends on both the fuse-initiated (striker) opening time of the switch. reference should be made to IEC 420. following operation of the first fuse. The transfer point is that at which the switch opens and one or both remaining fuses melt simultaneously. fig. from the take-over current level up to and beyond the transfer current level.7 kA 430 A (a) 3 . which will be interrupted by the switch or by the fuses.e. the second fuse must melt at the instant of switch opening (by striker action of the first fuse to operate). etc.7 kA take-over current The take-over current of the combination is the level of overcurrent at which the fuses take over the duty of protection from overload relays. 430 A 215 A 9.045 secs.C. during a LV 3-phase short-circuit (at the transformer terminals). is that corresponding to a period of 0.045 seconds after fault initiation. Figure AC1-1 is intended only to show the basic principles involved.C. For greater detail.phase-to-earth S. * this is the transfer-current value.3 kA 215 A (b) phase-to-phase S. i. fault current (amps) 0. assuming a 242-420 V secondary winding. Its reduction to 87%. Near the transfer-current level. the fastest fuse to melt clears one pole and operates its striker pin. and the timecurrent characteristic of the fuse. By calculation (demonstrated in Appendix B of IEC 420) it is shown that the level of 3-phase fault current* which will cause the second fuse to melt at a time (equal to the switch-opening time) after the operation of the first fuse.01 10 21 33 100 252 420 1000 280 faults cleared by fuses only faults cleared overload cleared by (strikers operate but fault is cleared switch only on operation by fuses and switch through striker action before switch contacts open) of overload relay fig. as shown on the time-current fuse-characteristic curve.7 kA 10.

non-arcing) 3-phase faults is associated with severe TRV values which the switch in the combination is not designed to interrupt. but will be in direct phase opposition around the fault-current loop. with the advantage of enhanced switchgear performance noted above. before the striker-operated switch opens its contacts. The primary short-circuit currents arising from solid short-circuits at the transformer secondary terminals are shown in figure AC1-2. The fuse of that phase will clear rapidly.2 types of faults involved in the transfer region Primary-side protective devices are particularly concerned with faults in the secondary-terminals zone of the transformer.3 . the fault current will reduce to a very low value. The switch contacts breaking this low-valued (but highly-inductive) current. i.C 7. diagram (c) of figure AC1-2 shows that the HV fault current is less than the calculated value (280 A) for the transfer-current limit. AC1-3: discrimination between HV and LV fuses. This feature improves the switch performance for breaking current which is (in the present case) mainly transformer-magnetizing current. * because the LV voltages induced in the faulted phases will then be sensibly equal in magnitude. the current in the two remaining phases will then reduce to practically zero*.e. It is necessary therefore. following the operation of one fuse (assuming that both fuses do not clear simultaneously). upstream of the LV protection devices. then 3-phase short-circuit transfer currents correspond to faults for which LV arc impedance reduces the magnitude of both the current and TRV values. As in the previous case. This condition being fulfilled. that the transfercurrent limit (280 A in the example) shall always be lower than that of a 3-phase LV-terminals short-circuit (430 A at HV). Appendix C1 .e. The breaking of solid (i. For a phase-to-phase LV terminal fault. This type of fault therefore must be cleared by the fuses only. the diagram (b) of figure AC1-2 shows that the HV fault current of one phase is equal to that of a 3-phase LV short-circuit. time (seconds) minimum time-current characteristic of HV fuse maximum fault current at LV (referred to HV side) maximum operating time of LV fuse (referred to HV side) 430 A HV fault current (amps) fig. and be cleared in the transfer-current region by two of the switch contacts acting in series. as well as improving the power factor of the fault current. For a phase-to-earth LV terminal fault. as shown in figure AC1-1. are acting in series.

0. "remote-earth" and "local-earth" zero-potential references In classical theory "remote-earth" is an earthreference point at zero potential.6 + 0.5 + 0.4 . The resulting measured values correspond closely to those calculated by the classical theory. current-flow lines equipotential contours fig.3 +0.4 -0.3 . 0. a single-rod electrode is taken as an example in the following notes. thereby creating a perfectly symmetrical current-flow between the electrode and the surrounding soil. there exists (at some point between the two electrodes) an equipotential vertical-plane surface of infinite area.1 + 0.0 zero B (c) voltage profile not to scale RI VI -1 (d) measured resistance for different locations of electrode P zero A VI = (V . Close to the location of the buried electrode. either singly. AC2-1: idealized current-flow pattern and associated equipotential contours of a single-rod vertically-driven earth electrode.0. The current flow and associated potential contours associated with a rod electrode are shown in figure AC2-1.7 0.e. Earth rod at 1.4 -0.0.8 ground surface 0.0 pu 0 B (a) plan view of ground-surface equipotential contours ground-surface -1. both in the soil and on the ground surface.1 -0.vp) V in zone A O VI = (V + vp) in zone B B Vg distance from A of test-electrode P Vg = voltage of test-instrument generator RI = resistance in ohms indicated by an electrode-resistance measuring instrument VI = voltage applied to test instrument V = voltage at electrode A with respect to local-earth reference Vp = voltage at probe P with respect to local-earth reference For an accurate measurement of resistance of electrode A. perpendicular to the flow lines of the fault current. fig.2 +0.3 + 0.9 0. where a current circulates between two electrodes.1 typical current-flow (b) equipotential surfaces in the earth positive potential region vp A negative potential region vp + 1. F52 Chapter F).2 . Note: current-flow lines are identical to the lines of the electric field.0 pu (per unit) volts with respect to remote-earth. AC2-2: zero-voltage local-earth reference for two electrodes. potential gradients exist in the soil and on the ground surface.0. or in interconnected groups.4 nature of the potential gradients A vertical-rod electrode is very commonly used. i. test-electrode P must be located at 0. are generally at their maximum values and are therefore (for the ground-surface gradients) the most dangerous.2 + 0.8.5 +0. a shortcircuit to earth) is at an infinite distance from the electrode. typical current-flow electrode A electrode B lines +0.1 . the position of which is not known exactly (see text for fig. the power-source electrode and the electrode of an installation at which an earth fault occurs. c the origin of the fault current (i.3 -0.4 + 0.0 pu . When two electrodes exchange fault current.5 0. which can be used in practical electrode-resistance tests.5 0 "local-earth" zero-voltage equipotential reference plane A + 1. located at an infinite distance from the electrode concerned.0. Appendix C2 . the potential gradients. as shown in figure AC2-2.e.2 -0.1 +0. and are based on the following simplifying assumptions: c perfectly homogeneous soil. a local zero-potential-earth reference is available.6 0.6 lines . ground-surface potential gradients due to earth-fault currents C When earth-fault current flows between an earthing electrode and the surrounding soil.0. The following notes show that.5 .

it can be seen that the zero-voltage equipotential surface is also the boundary of the two "zones of influence" of the two electrodes. It therefore constitutes an equipotential surface at zero volts with respect to the two electrodes. l/a must be constant) and this results in progressively lower potential gradients. Investigations have shown that. are concentric circles around the rod location (in the idealized conditions assumed). Vpu 0. From the foregoing description.5 0. so that the voltage gradients are smaller and smaller with distance from the rod. So that. in which the equipotential contours are shown at 0. * Since a. and the voltage drops across equally-spaced intervals become less and less. AC2-3: voltage profile of the single-rod electrode of figure AC2-1. shown in figure F52 (Chapter F) are essentially similar to those mentioned above. reason for potential gradients The resistance to a flow of current in a conducting medium is given in ohms by the ρl formula R = where a ρ is the resistivity coefficient of the medium. l is the length in metres of the conducting path (in the direction of the current-flow lines). For equal lengths of current-flow path. a is the cross-sectional area in square metres through which the current flows.e.5 position 1 metres fig. the area close to such an electrode will be dangerous. sometimes also referred to as "zones of resistance". between 0. as shown in figure AC2-3.e. the lengths of the current paths between successive surfaces must increase for R to remain constant (reminder R = ρl/a).c. the current passes through increasingly-large areas. Measures taken to reduce such dangers are described later in this appendix.0 pu 0. the resistance of the mass of soil between any two adjacent equipotential surfaces will have the same value. systems are being considered. potential gradients of a vertical-rod electrode It will be seen in figure AC2-1 that the high current density at the (pointed) tip of the rod results in steep potential gradients in the soil beneath the buried extremity of the electrode. it refers to a point on the ground at which the edge of this plane surface is located.1 pu voltage intervals. It can also be seen that the gradient at the ground surface is less severe than those below the surface. Note: the equipotential contours on the surface of the ground. It is clear therefore.8 pu of the voltage at the rod is measured between the rod and a point on the ground at 1 metre from it (i. respectively. the resistance becomes progressively lower and lower. The spacing between successive surfaces must therefore be greater (i. and that the maximum gradient at the surface occurs immediately adjacent to the point at which the rod emerges from the soil.32 pu step voltage local-earth datum (zero volts) 1 0. expressed in ohm-metres.C The vertical plane surface is the locus at which the strength of the positive* electric field from one electrode (A) is exactly equal to the strength of the negative field of the other electrode (B).e.5 pu and 0.8 m step length ground surface maximum gradient at the rod-soil interface 1. while at points progressively further from the rod. when viewed from above. Another way of considering the formation of potential gradients is shown in figure AC2-1.5 rod 0. This means that. When "local-earth" is mentioned in these notes. in a homogeneous soil. as the areas of successive surfaces are larger. for a given distance (l) along. that. The location of local-earth in each of the diagrams of F52 (and of diagram (d) in AC2-2) is indicated by 0 (i. as indicated by the close proximity of adjacent equipotential contours in that region. 2 . zero). each electrode will change its polarity at every half cycle. As a matter of interest. Since the same current is passing through all the equipotential surfaces. as shown in figure AC2-3. the electric fields of the two electrodes (X) and (C) for the electrode-resistance test. the current-flow lines R ∝ 1 a The soil in contact with the rod has an area (a) equal to that of the rod surface.Appendix C2 . This means that the resultant polarity at the plane is neither positive nor negative. where earth-fault currents are high. therefore. approximately the length of a step) for very long-rod and very short-rod electrodes.

This figure also shows that connecting a metallic boundary fence to the earthing grid can be dangerous. v where transformers or generators (according to the case) operate permanently in parallel. the whole of the earthing grid and all metallic parts connected to it (together with any personal present) may be raised to several hundreds (or thousands) of volts. (b) α gradient α with original soil β gradient β with special earth fill reducing potential gradients due to earth faults Some of the methods commonly employed in the reduction of potential gradients include: c reduction of earth-fault-current levels: v by using resistance. and using "grading electrodes" at the grid boundaries. boundary fences.e. not too large). Appendix C2 .C voltage gradients associated with earthing grids The purpose of an earthing grid (or mat) is to provide a close approximation to an equipotential condition at the ground surface over a large area. must also be insulated. S2 and S3 are strip grading electrodes running parallel to the fence and connected to it at frequent intervals. and therefore that of both "touch" and "step" voltages. some of them are left unearthed. AC2-4: voltage profile and potential gradients of an earthing grid. from the surface of the ground to a depth of approximately 1 m. the permissible maximum values of gradient at the highest anticipated levels of earth-fault current will not be exceeded. AC2-5: voltage profiles and methods of reducing maximum potential gradients in some common earthing arrangements. Potential gradients in the grid meshes will have the general form shown in figure AC2-4. generally that of a switchyard or substation. c for electrodes generally (figure AC2-5) by: (a) increasing the length and/or number of rods to reduce the electrode resistance and therefore the voltage rise at the electrode. potential gradients will always occur when earth-fault currents are flowing.e. and connected to an insulated connecting lead. Note: the connection at the top of the rod. fence special low-resistance earth fill (c) metal fence fence is out of reach S1 grid voltage with respect to local-earth α zero voltage profiles at the ground surface S2 S3 β with grading without grading S1.or reactance-earthed sources (generators or transformers as appropriate). etc. During an earth fault. (d) without insulation α voltage profiles β with insulation insulation ground surface step voltage touch voltage grid voltage with respect to local-earth zero potential fig. An alternative method is to bury the rod completely with the top of the rod below ground level. to reduce the severity of the gradients. as well as the connecting lead.3 . (c) reducing earthing-grid-mesh sizes. unless adequate precautions are taken. (a) α long rod β short rod The resistance of a rod electrode is approximately inversely proportional to its length. The same "grading-electrode" technique is sometimes used around the base of transmission-line towers. but providing the grid meshes are appropriately dimensioned (i. (b) using special low-resistance "soils" in the space surrounding the electrodes. In practice. fig. (d) insulating driven rods from contact with the earth over the upper section. i.

for a given voltage level. a touch-voltage is more dangerous to human beings than a step-voltage (since. between the stones greatly reduces the insulating performance of such surfaces. measures are taken to reduce the current passing through a person's feet by providing an insulated floor covering indoors.. thick layers of asphalt.03 to 0. It is recognized that. Leaf mould. even when wet. At the time of writing. If the gradients are such that the touchvoltage criterion is satisfied.g. safe levels of ground-surface potential gradient There is no IEC-recommended safe value of maximum long-duration (> 10 seconds) touch voltage for HV installations at the time of writing (1994). providing the stones are clean. rubber mats. it is necessary to comply with the appropriate local regulations. but many authorities have adopted the 50 V AC (or 25 V AC in wet conditions) criteria of IEC 364-4-41. More commonly. In the present circumstances.5 seconds) touch voltages. and in certain cases. therefore. or mud etc. highly-resistive surfaces. etc. such as crushed rock. Chapter 9 (according to present proposals) of this future standard will include recommendations for safe touchvoltage/time duration levels. Standards differ in various countries. while there is an even greater difference above the recommended IEC 364 values for allowable short-duration (e. long-duration touch-voltage values which are significantly higher than 50 V AC maximum are permitted. while for outdoor locations.Appendix C2 . 0. or clean gravel or pebbles are frequently used. such as plastic tiles. Cenelec Technical Committee 112 is preparing a European HV installation standard. then the stepvoltage condition is also considered to be satisfactory.C other methods of reducing the dangers of ground-surface potential gradients The easiest method (but wasteful in terms of space) is simply to fence off the area around the electrode(s) with warning notices. Gravel or pebbles provide a very effective high-resistance surface. 4 . in the former case. a substantial part of the current passes through the vital organs in the thorax).

as a result of the particular ferro-resonant condition described. c 1 pu impedance is equal to the normal capacitive reactance of one phase-to-earth at power frequency (i. ≠ and Ž are the power-supply terminals.circuit and vector diagrams.1 + j 0 10 90° 1 -30° I2 = = 0.1 Chapter C shows how the neutral of an unearthed 3-phase source can be displaced from its normal near-zero potential. The vector diagram can be constructed as follows.25 -90° = 1. in the resonant condition.9.j 1.066 pu IC3 N 1 3 E IL2 IL1 + IL2 = 0.e. I1 V2 N V3 VNE I2 I1 + I2 1 VNE = 1. ZN is the impedance of the neutral conductor (zero in the present case).e.375 pu not to scale 1 2 I1 + I2 + I3 = IN fig. K in figure C14 of Chapter C). and XL = j 10 pu. AC3-2: vector diagram for the resonant condition.1 -60° x 1.066 pu IL1 V 3 E = 0. c the source impedance is assumed to be negligible.1 -120° = -0.25 pu ohms.375 pu 210° V1 not to scale complete vector diagram Other values shown in the vector diagram are easily obtained from the above calculations. XL2 and Xc.1 0° = 0.05 .25 j5-j1 j4 ZNE = .5 .375 pu 2.