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Engineering Maths First-Aid Kit

Anthony Croft

Pearson Education Ltd

Edinburgh Gate

Harlow

Essex CM20 2JE

England

and Associated Companies around the World.

Visit us on the World Wide Web at:

www.pearsoneduc.com

First edition 2000

c Pearson Education Limited 2000

The right of Anthony Croft to be identiﬁed as the author of this Work has been asserted by him in

accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. Permission is hereby given for the material in this publication to be reproduced

for OHP transparencies and student handouts, without express permission of the Publishers, for

educational purposes only.

In all other cases, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or

transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or

otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting

restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90

Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 0LP. This book may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise

disposed of by way of trade in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published,

without prior consent of the Publishers.

ISBN 0130-87430-2

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book can be obtained from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Croft, Tony, 1957-

Engineering maths ﬁrst-aid kit / Anthony Croft.– 1st ed.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-13-087430-2

1. Mathematics. I. Title.

QA37.2.C72 2000

510–dc21 99-088596

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

04 03 02 01 00

Typeset in Computer Modern by 56.

Printed in Great Britain by Henry Ling Ltd., at the Dorset Press, Dorchester, Dorset.

Contents

1. Arithmetic 1.1.1

1.1 Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1

1.2 Powers and roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1

1.3 Scientiﬁc notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1

1.4 Factorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1

1.5 The modulus of a number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1

2. Algebra 2.1.1

2.1 The laws of indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1

2.2 Negative and fractional powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1

2.3 Removing brackets 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1

2.4 Removing brackets 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1

2.5 Factorising simple expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1

2.6 Factorising quadratics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1

2.7 Simplifying fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7.1

2.8 Addition and subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8.1

2.9 Multiplication and division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9.1

2.10 Rearranging formulas 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10.1

2.11 Rearranging formulas 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.11.1

2.12 Solving linear equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.12.1

2.13 Simultaneous equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.13.1

2.14 Quadratic equations 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.14.1

2.15 Quadratic equations 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.15.1

2.16 Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.16.1

2.17 The modulus symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.17.1

2.18 Graphical solution of inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.18.1

2.19 What is a logarithm? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.19.1

2.20 The laws of logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.20.1

Contents.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

2.21 Bases other than 10 and e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.21.1

2.22 Sigma notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.22.1

2.23 Partial fractions 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.23.1

2.24 Partial fractions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.24.1

2.25 Partial fractions 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.25.1

2.26 Completing the square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.26.1

2.27 What is a surd? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.27.1

3. Functions, coordinate systems and graphs 3.1.1

3.1 What is a function? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1

3.2 The graph of a function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1

3.3 The straight line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1

3.4 The exponential constant e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1

3.5 The hyperbolic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.1

3.6 The hyperbolic identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.1

3.7 The logarithm function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.1

3.8 Solving equations involving logarithms and exponentials . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.1

3.9 Polar coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.1

4. Trigonometry 4.1.1

4.1 Degrees and radians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1

4.2 The trigonometrical ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1

4.3 Graphs of the trigonometric functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1

4.4 Trigonometrical identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1

4.5 Pythagoras’ theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1

4.6 The sine rule and cosine rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1

5. Matrices and determinants 5.1.1

5.1 Determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1

5.2 Cramer’s rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1

5.3 Multiplying matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1

5.4 The inverse of a 2 ×2 matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1

5.5 The inverse of a matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1

5.6 Using the inverse matrix to solve equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1

6. Vectors 6.1.1

6.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1

Contents.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

6.2 The scalar product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1

6.3 The vector product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1

7. Complex numbers 7.1.1

7.1 What is a complex number? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1

7.2 Complex arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1

7.3 The Argand diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1

7.4 The polar form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1

7.5 The form r(cos θ + j sin θ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.1

7.6 Multiplication and division in polar form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.1

7.7 The exponential form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7.1

8. Calculus 8.1.1

8.1 Introduction to diﬀerentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1

8.2 Table of derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1

8.3 Linearity rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1

8.4 Product and quotient rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.1

8.5 The chain rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.1

8.6 Integration as the reverse of diﬀerentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1

8.7 Table of integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7.1

8.8 Linearity rules of integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8.1

8.9 Evaluating deﬁnite integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.9.1

8.10 Integration by parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.10.1

8.11 Integration by substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.11.1

8.12 Integration as summation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.12.1

Contents.3 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

A few words from the author . . .

Over the past three years I have tried to oﬀer mathematical support to many hundreds of

students in the early stages of their degree programmes in engineering.

On many, many occasions I have found that gaps in mathematical knowledge impede progress

both in engineering mathematics and also in some of the engineering topics that the students are

studying. Sometimes these gaps arise because they have long-since forgotten basic techniques.

Sometimes, for a variety of reasons, they seem to have never met certain fundamentals in their

previous studies. Whatever the underlying reasons, the only practical remedy is to have available

resources which can quickly get to the heart of the problem, which can outline a technique or

formula or important results, and, importantly, which students can take away with them. This

Engineering Maths First-Aid Kit is my attempt at addressing this need.

I am well aware that an approach such as this is not ideal. What many students need is a

prolonged and structured course in basic mathematical techniques, when all the foundations

can be properly laid and there is time to practice and develop conﬁdence. Piecemeal attempts

at helping a student do not really get to the root of the underlying problem. Nevertheless I

see this Kit as a realistic and practical damage-limitation exercise, which can provide suﬃcient

sticking plaster to enable the student to continue with the other aspects of their studies which

are more important to them.

I have used help leaﬂets similar to these in the Mathematics Learning Support Centre at Lough-

borough. They are particularly useful at busy times when I may have just a few minutes to

try to help a student, and I would like to revise a topic brieﬂy, and then provide a few simple

practice exercises. You should realise that these leaﬂets are not an attempt to put together a

coherent course in engineering mathematics, they are not an attempt to replace a textbook, nor

are they intended to be comprehensive in their treatment of individual topics. They are what I

say – elements of a First-Aid kit.

I hope that some of your students ﬁnd that they ease the pain!

Tony Croft

December 1999

References.4 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

☛

✡

✟

✠

1.1

Fractions

Introduction

The ability to work conﬁdently with fractions, both number fractions and algebraic fractions, is

an essential skill which underpins all other algebraic processes. In this leaﬂet we remind you of

how number fractions are simpliﬁed, added, subtracted, multiplied and divided.

1. Expressing a fraction in its simplest form

In any fraction

p

q

, say, the number p at the top is called the numerator. The number q at

the bottom is called the denominator. The number q must never be zero. A fraction can

always be expressed in diﬀerent, yet equivalent forms. For example, the two fractions

2

6

and

1

3

are equivalent. They represent the same value. A fraction is expressed in its simplest form

by cancelling any factors which are common to both the numerator and the denominator. You

need to remember that factors are numbers which are multiplied together. We note that

2

6

=

1 ×2

2 ×3

and so there is a factor of 2 which is common to both the numerator and the denominator. This

common factor can be cancelled to leave the equivalent fraction

1

3

. Cancelling is equivalent to

dividing the top and the bottom by the common factor.

Example

12

20

is equivalent to

3

5

since

12

20

=

4 ×3

4 ×5

=

3

5

Exercises

1. Express each of the following fractions in its simplest form:

a)

12

16

, b)

14

21

, c)

3

6

, d)

100

45

, e)

7

9

, f)

15

55

, g)

3

24

.

Answers

1. a)

3

4

, b)

2

3

, c)

1

2

, d)

20

9

, e)

7

9

, f)

3

11

, g)

1

8

.

2. Addition and subtraction of fractions

To add two fractions we ﬁrst rewrite each fraction so that they both have the same denominator.

This denominator is chosen to be the lowest common denominator. This is the smallest

1.1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

number which is a multiple of both denominators. Then, the numerators only are added, and

the result is divided by the lowest common denominator.

Example

Simplify a)

7

16

+

5

16

, b)

7

16

+

3

8

.

Solution

a) In this case the denominators of each fraction are already the same. The lowest common

denominator is 16. We perform the addition by simply adding the numerators and dividing

the result by the lowest common denominator. So,

7

16

+

5

16

=

7+5

16

=

12

16

. This answer can be

expressed in the simpler form

3

4

by cancelling the common factor 4.

b) To add these fractions we must rewrite them so that they have the same denominator. The

lowest common denominator is 16 because this is the smallest number which is a multiple of

both denominators. Note that

3

8

is equivalent to

6

16

and so we write

7

16

+

3

8

=

7

16

+

6

16

=

13

16

.

Example

Find

1

2

+

2

3

+

4

5

.

Solution

The smallest number which is a multiple of the given denominators is 30. We express each

fraction with a denominator of 30.

1

2

+

2

3

+

4

5

=

15

30

+

20

30

+

24

30

=

59

30

Exercises

1. Evaluate each of the following:

a)

2

3

+

5

4

, b)

4

9

−

1

2

, c)

3

4

+

5

6

, d)

1

4

+

1

3

+

1

2

, e)

2

5

−

1

3

−

1

10

, f)

4

5

+

1

3

−

3

4

.

Answers

1. a)

23

12

, b) −

1

18

, c)

19

12

, d)

13

12

, e) −

1

30

, f)

23

60

.

3. Multiplication and division of fractions

Multiplication of fractions is more straightforward. We simply multiply the numerators to give

a new numerator, and multiply the denominators to give a new denominator. For example

5

7

×

3

4

=

5 ×3

7 ×4

=

15

28

Division is performed by inverting the second fraction and then multiplying. So,

5

7

÷

3

4

=

5

7

×

4

3

=

20

21

Exercises

1. Find a)

4

26

×

13

7

, b)

2

11

÷

3

5

, c)

2

1

×

1

2

, d)

3

7

×

2

5

, e)

3

11

×

22

5

, f)

5

6

÷

4

3

.

Answers

1. a)

2

7

, b)

10

33

, c) 1, d)

6

35

, e)

6

5

, f)

5

8

.

1.1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✠

1.2

Powers and roots

Introduction

Powers are used when we want to multiply a number by itself repeatedly.

1. Powers

When we wish to multiply a number by itself we use powers, or indices as they are also called.

For example, the quantity 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 is usually written as 7

4

. The number 4 tells us the

number of sevens to be multiplied together. In this example, the power, or index, is 4. The

number 7 is called the base.

Example

6

2

= 6 ×6 = 36. We say that ‘6 squared is 36’, or ‘6 to the power 2 is 36’.

2

5

= 2 ×2 ×2 ×2 ×2 = 32. We say that ‘2 to the power 5 is 32’.

Your calculator will be pre-programmed to evaluate powers. Most calculators have a button

marked x

y

, or simplyˆ. Ensure that you are using your calculator correctly by verifying that

3

11

= 177147.

2. Square roots

When 5 is squared we obtain 25. That is 5

2

= 25.

The reverse of this process is called ﬁnding a square root. The square root of 25 is 5. This

is written as

2

√

25 = 5, or simply

√

25 = 5.

Note also that when −5 is squared we again obtain 25, that is (−5)

2

= 25. This means that 25

has another square root, −5.

In general, a square root of a number is a number which when squared gives the original number.

There are always two square roots of any positive number, one positive and one negative.

However, negative numbers do not possess any square roots.

Most calculators have a square root button, probably marked

√

. Check that you can use your

calculator correctly by verifying that

√

79 = 8.8882, to four decimal places. Your calculator will

only give the positive square root but you should be aware that the second, negative square root

is −8.8882.

An important result is that the square root of a product of two numbers is equal to the product

of the square roots of the two numbers. For example

√

16 ×25 =

√

16 ×

√

25 = 4 ×5 = 20

1.2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

More generally,

√

ab =

√

a ×

√

b

However, your attention is drawn to a common error which students make. It is not true that

√

a + b =

√

a +

√

b. Substitute some simple values for yourself to see that this cannot be right.

Exercises

1. Without using a calculator write down the value of

√

9 ×36.

2. Find the square of the following: a)

√

2, b)

√

12.

3. Show that the square of 5

√

2 is 50.

Answers

1. 18 (and also −18). 2. a) 2, b) 12.

3. Cube roots and higher roots

The cube root of a number is the number which when cubed gives the original number. For

example, because 4

3

= 64 we know that the cube root of 64 is 4, written

3

√

64 = 4. All numbers,

both positive and negative, possess a single cube root.

Higher roots are deﬁned in a similar way: because 2

5

= 32, the ﬁfth root of 32 is 2, written

5

√

32 = 2.

Exercises

1. Without using a calculator ﬁnd a)

3

√

27, b)

3

√

125.

Answers

1. a) 3, b) 5.

4. Surds

Expressions involving roots, for example

√

2 and 5

3

√

2, are also known as surds. Frequently,

in engineering calculations it is quite acceptable to leave an answer in surd form rather than

calculating its decimal approximation with a calculator.

It is often possible to write surds in equivalent forms. For example,

√

48 can be written as

√

3 ×16, that is

√

3 ×

√

16 = 4

√

3.

Exercises

1. Write the following in their simplest surd form: a)

√

180, b)

√

63.

2. By multiplying numerator and denominator by

√

2 + 1, show that

1

√

2 −1

is equivalent to

√

2 + 1

Answers

1. a) 6

√

5, b) 3

√

7.

1.2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✍

✌

1.3

Scientiﬁc notation

Introduction

In engineering calculations numbers are often very small or very large, for example 0.00000345

and 870,000,000. To avoid writing lengthy strings of numbers a notation has been developed,

known as scientiﬁc notation which enables us to write numbers much more concisely.

1. Scientiﬁc notation

In scientiﬁc notation each number is written in the form

a ×10

n

where a is a number between 1 and 10 and n is a positive or negative whole number.

Some numbers in scientiﬁc notation are

5 ×10

3

, 2.67 ×10

4

, 7.90 ×10

−3

To understand scientiﬁc notation you need to be aware that

10

1

= 10, 10

2

= 100, 10

3

= 1000, 10

4

= 10000, and so on,

and also that

10

−1

=

1

10

= 0.1, 10

−2

=

1

100

= 0.01, 10

−3

=

1

1000

= 0.001, and so on.

You also need to remember how simple it is to multiply a number by powers of 10. For example,

to multiply 3.45 by 10, the decimal point is moved one place to the right to give 34.5. To

multiply 29.65 by 100, the decimal point is moved two places to the right to give 2965. In

general, to multiply a number by 10

n

the decimal point is moved n places to the right if n is

a positive whole number and n places to the left if n is a negative whole number. It may be

necessary to insert additional zeros to make up the required number of digits.

Example

The following numbers are given in scientiﬁc notation. Write them out fully.

a) 5 ×10

3

, b) 2.67 ×10

4

, c) 7.90 ×10

−3

.

Solution

a) 5 ×10

3

= 5 ×1000 = 5000.

1.3.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

b) 2.67 ×10

4

= 26700.

c) 7.90 ×10

−3

= 0.00790.

Example

Express each of the following numbers in scientiﬁc notation.

a) 5670000, b) 0.0098.

Solution

a) 5670000 = 5.67 ×10

6

.

b) 0.0098 = 9.8 ×10

−3

.

Exercises

1. Express each of the following in scientiﬁc notation.

a) 0.00254, b) 82, c) −0.342, d) 1000000.

Answers

1. a) 2.54 ×10

−3

, b) 8.2 ×10, c) −3.42 ×10

−1

, d) 1 ×10

6

or simply 10

6

.

2. Using a calculator

Students often have diﬃculty using a calculator to deal with scientiﬁc notation. You may need to

refer to your calculator manual to ensure that you are entering numbers correctly. You should

also be aware that your calculator can display a number in lots of diﬀerent forms, including

scientiﬁc notation. Usually a MODE button is used to select the appropriate format.

Commonly the EXP button is used to enter numbers in scientiﬁc notation. (EXP stands for

exponent which is another name for a power.) A number like 3.45×10

7

is entered as 3.45EXP 7

and might appear in the calculator window as 3.45

07

. Alternatively your calculator may require

you to enter the number as 3.45E7 and it may be displayed in the same way. You should seek

help if in doubt.

Computer programming languages use similar notation. For example

8.25 ×10

7

may be programmed as 8.25E7

and

9.1 ×10

−3

may be programmed as 9.1E−3

Again, you need to take care and check the required syntax carefully.

A common error is to enter incorrectly numbers which are simply powers of 10. For example,

the number 10

7

is erroneously entered as 10E7 which means 10 ×10

7

, that is 10

8

. The number

10

7

, meaning 1 ×10

7

, should be entered as 1E7.

Check that you are using your calculator correctly by verifying that

(3 ×10

7

) ×(2.76 ×10

−4

) ×(10

5

) = 8.28 ×10

8

1.3.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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1.4

Factorials

Introduction

In many engineering calculations you will come across the symbol ! which you may not have met

before in mathematics classes. This is known as a factorial. The factorial is a symbol which is

used when we wish to multiply consecutive whole numbers together, as you will see below.

1. Factorials

The number 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 is written as 5!, which is read as ‘ﬁve factorial’. If you actually

perform the multiplication you will ﬁnd that 5! = 120. Similarly 7! = 7 ×6 ×5 ×4 ×3 ×2 ×1

which equals 5040. A rather special case is 0!. This is deﬁned to equal 1 and this might seem

somewhat strange. Just learn this!

You will not be required to ﬁnd factorials of negative numbers or fractions.

Factorials are used in combination notation which arises frequently in probability theory.

The notation

_

n

r

_

stands for

n!

(n−r)!r!

. For example

_

6

4

_

=

6!

(6 −4)!4!

=

6!

2!4!

Exercises

1. Without using a calculator evaluate 2!, 3! and 4!.

2. Show that

5!

3!

equals 20.

3. Explain why n! = n ×(n −1)! for any positive whole number n.

4. Explain why

n!

(n −1)!

= n for any positive whole number n.

5. Evaluate a)

_

9

3

_

, b)

_

5

2

_

, c)

_

6

1

_

.

Answers

1. 2! = 2 3! = 6 and 4! = 24. Note that 3! = 3 ×2!, and that 4! = 4 ×3!.

5. a) 84, b) 10, c) 6.

2. Using a calculator to ﬁnd factorials

Your scientiﬁc calculator will be pre-programmed to ﬁnd factorials. Look for a button marked

!, or consult your calculator manual. Check that you can use your calculator to ﬁnd factorials

by verifying that

10! = 3628800

1.4.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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1.5

The modulus of a number

Introduction

In many engineering calculations you will come across the symbol | | . This is known as the

modulus.

1. The modulus of a number

The modulus of a number is its absolute size. That is, we disregard any sign it might have.

Example

The modulus of −8 is simply 8.

The modulus of −

1

2

is

1

2

.

The modulus of 17 is simply 17.

The modulus of 0 is 0.

So, the modulus of a positive number is simply the number.

The modulus of a negative number is found by ignoring the minus sign.

The modulus of a number is denoted by writing vertical lines around the number.

Note also that the modulus of a negative number can be found by multiplying it by −1 since,

for example, −(−8) = 8.

This observation allows us to deﬁne the modulus of a number quite concisely in the following

way

|x| =

_

x if x is positive or zero

−x if x is negative

Example

|9| = 9, | −11| = 11, |0.25| = 0.25, | −3.7| = 3.7

Exercise

1. Draw up a table of values of |x| as x varies between −6 and 6. Plot a graph of y = |x|.

Compare your graph with the graphs of y = x and y = −x.

1.5.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.1

The laws of indices

Introduction

A power, or an index, is used to write a product of numbers very compactly. The plural of

index is indices. In this leaﬂet we remind you of how this is done, and state a number of rules,

or laws, which can be used to simplify expressions involving indices.

1. Powers, or indices

We write the expression

3 ×3 ×3 ×3 as 3

4

We read this as ‘three to the power four’.

Similarly

z ×z ×z = z

3

We read this as ‘z to the power three’ or ‘z cubed’.

In the expression b

c

, the index is c and the number b is called the base. Your calculator will

probably have a button to evaluate powers of numbers. It may be marked x

y

. Check this, and

then use your calculator to verify that

7

4

= 2401 and 25

5

= 9765625

Exercises

1. Without using a calculator work out the value of

a) 4

2

, b) 5

3

, c) 2

5

, d)

_

1

2

_

2

, e)

_

1

3

_

2

, f)

_

2

5

_

3

.

2. Write the following expressions more concisely by using an index.

a) a ×a ×a ×a, b) (yz) ×(yz) ×(yz), c)

_

a

b

_

×

_

a

b

_

×

_

a

b

_

.

Answers

1. a) 16, b) 125, c) 32, d)

1

4

, e)

1

9

, f)

8

125

.

2. a) a

4

, b) (yz)

3

, c)

_

a

b

_

3

.

2. The laws of indices

To manipulate expressions involving indices we use rules known as the laws of indices. The

laws should be used precisely as they are stated – do not be tempted to make up variations of

your own! The three most important laws are given here:

2.1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

First law

a

m

×a

n

= a

m+n

When expressions with the same base are multiplied, the indices are added.

Example

We can write

7

6

×7

4

= 7

6+4

= 7

10

You could verify this by evaluating both sides separately.

Example

z

4

×z

3

= z

4+3

= z

7

Second law

a

m

a

n

= a

m−n

When expressions with the same base are divided, the indices are subtracted.

Example

We can write

8

5

8

3

= 8

5−3

= 8

2

and similarly

z

7

z

4

= z

7−4

= z

3

Third law

(a

m

)

n

= a

mn

Note that m and n have been multiplied to yield the new index mn.

Example

(6

4

)

2

= 6

4×2

= 6

8

and (e

x

)

y

= e

xy

It will also be useful to note the following important results:

a

0

= 1, a

1

= a

Exercises

1. In each case choose an appropriate law to simplify the expression:

a) 5

3

×5

13

, b) 8

13

÷8

5

, c) x

6

×x

5

, d) (a

3

)

4

, e)

y

7

y

3

, f)

x

8

x

7

.

2. Use one of the laws to simplify, if possible, a

6

×b

5

.

Answers

1. a) 5

16

, b) 8

8

, c) x

11

, d) a

12

, e) y

4

, f) x

1

= x.

2. This cannot be simpliﬁed because the bases are not the same.

2.1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.2

Negative and fractional powers

Introduction

Sometimes it is useful to use negative and fractional powers. These are explained in this leaﬂet.

1. Negative powers

Sometimes you will meet a number raised to a negative power. This is interpreted as follows:

a

−m

=

1

a

m

This can be rearranged into the alternative form:

a

m

=

1

a

−m

Example

3

−2

=

1

3

2

,

1

5

−2

= 5

2

, x

−1

=

1

x

1

=

1

x

, x

−2

=

1

x

2

, 2

−5

=

1

2

5

=

1

32

Exercises

1. Write the following using only positive powers:

a)

1

x

−6

, b) x

−12

, c) t

−3

, d)

1

4

−3

, e) 5

−17

.

2. Without using a calculator evaluate a) 2

−3

, b) 3

−2

, c)

1

4

−2

, d)

1

2

−5

, e)

1

4

−3

.

Answers

1. a) x

6

, b)

1

x

12

, c)

1

t

3

, d) 4

3

, e)

1

5

17

.

2. a) 2

−3

=

1

2

3

=

1

8

, b)

1

9

, c) 16, d) 32, e) 64.

2. Fractional powers

To understand fractional powers you ﬁrst need to have an understanding of roots, and in par-

ticular square roots and cube roots. If necessary you should consult leaﬂet 1.2 Powers and

Roots.

When a number is raised to a fractional power this is interpreted as follows:

2.2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

a

1/n

=

n

√

a

So,

a

1/2

is a square root of a

a

1/3

is the cube root of a

a

1/4

is a fourth root of a

Example

3

1/2

=

2

√

3, 27

1/3

=

3

√

27 or 3, 32

1/5

=

5

√

32 = 2,

64

1/3

=

3

√

64 = 4, 81

1/4

=

4

√

81 = 3

Fractional powers are useful when we need to calculate roots using a scientiﬁc calculator. For

example to ﬁnd

7

√

38 we rewrite this as 38

1/7

which can be evaluated using a scientiﬁc calculator.

You may need to check your calculator manual to ﬁnd the precise way of doing this, probably

with the buttons x

y

or x

1/y

.

Check that you are using your calculator correctly by conﬁrming that

38

1/7

= 1.6814 (4 dp)

More generally a

m/n

means

n

√

a

m

, or equivalently (

n

√

a)

m

.

a

m/n

=

n

√

a

m

or equivalently

_

n

√

a

_

m

Example

8

2/3

= (

3

√

8)

2

= 2

2

= 4 and 32

3/5

= (

5

√

32)

3

= 2

3

= 8

Exercises

1. Use a calculator to ﬁnd a)

5

√

96, b)

4

√

32.

2. Without using a calculator, evaluate a) 4

3/2

, b) 27

2/3

.

3. Use the third law of indices to show that

a

m/n

=

n

√

a

m

and equivalently

a

m/n

=

_

n

√

a

_

m

Answers

1. a) 2.4915, b) 2.3784. 2. a) 4

3/2

= 8, b) 27

2/3

= 9.

2.2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.3

Removing brackets 1

Introduction

In order to simplify mathematical expressions it is frequently necessary to ‘remove brackets’.

This means to rewrite an expression which includes bracketed terms in an equivalent form, but

without any brackets. This operation must be carried out according to certain rules which are

described in this leaﬂet.

1. The associativity and commutativity of multiplication

Multiplication is said to be a commutative operation. This means, for example, that 4×5 has

the same value as 5 ×4. Either way the result is 20. In symbols, xy is the same as yx, and so

we can interchange the order as we wish.

Multiplication is also an associative operation. This means that when we want to multiply

three numbers together such as 4 ×3 ×5 it doesn’t matter whether we evaluate 4 ×3 ﬁrst and

then multiply by 5, or evaluate 3 ×5 ﬁrst and then multiply by 4. That is

(4 ×3) ×5 is the same as 4 ×(3 ×5)

where we have used brackets to indicate which terms are multiplied ﬁrst. Either way, the result

is the same, 60. In symbols, we have

(x ×y) ×z is the same as x ×(y ×z)

and since the result is the same either way, the brackets make no diﬀerence at all and we can

write simply x ×y ×z or simply xyz. When mixing numbers and symbols we usually write the

numbers ﬁrst. So

7 ×a ×2 = 7 ×2 ×a through commutativity

= 14a

Example

Remove the brackets from a) 4(2x), b) a(5b).

Solution

a) 4(2x) means 4×(2×x). Because of associativity of multiplication the brackets are unnecessary

and we can write 4 ×2 ×x which equals 8x.

b) a(5b) means a×(5b). Because of commutativity this is the same as (5b)×a, that is (5×b)×a.

Because of associativity the brackets are unnecessary and we write simply 5×b×a which equals

5ba. Note that this is also equal to 5ab because of commutativity.

2.3.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Exercises

1. Simplify

a) 9(3y), b) (5x) ×(5y), c) 3(−2a), d) −7(−9x), e) 12(3m), f) 5x(y).

Answers

1. a) 27y, b) 25xy, c) −6a, d) 63x, e) 36m, f) 5xy.

2. Expressions of the form a(b + c) and a(b −c)

Study the expression 4 ×(2 +3). By working out the bracketed term ﬁrst we obtain 4×5 which

equals 20. Note that this is the same as multiplying both the 2 and 3 separately by 4, and then

adding the results. That is

4 ×(2 + 3) = 4 ×2 + 4 ×3 = 8 + 12 = 20

Note the way in which the ‘4’ multiplies both the bracketed numbers, ‘2’ and ‘3’. We say that

the ‘4’ distributes itself over both the added terms in the brackets – multiplication is distributive

over addition.

Now study the expression 6 ×(8 −3). By working out the bracketed term ﬁrst we obtain 6 ×5

which equals 30. Note that this is the same as multiplying both the 8 and the 3 by 6 before

carrying out the subtraction:

6 ×(8 −3) = 6 ×8 − 6 ×3 = 48 −18 = 30

Note the way in which the ‘6’ multiplies both the bracketed numbers. We say that the ‘6’ dis-

tributes itself over both the terms in the brackets – multiplication is distributive over subtraction.

Exactly the same property holds when we deal with symbols.

a(b + c) = ab + ac a(b −c) = ab −ac

Example

4(5 + x) is equivalent to 4 ×5 + 4 ×x which equals 20 + 4x.

5(a −b) is equivalent to 5 ×a − 5 ×b which equals 5a −5b.

7(x −2y) is equivalent to 7 ×x − 7 ×2y which equals 7x −14y.

−4(5 + x) is equivalent to −4 ×5 + −4 ×x which equals −20 −4x.

−5(a −b) is equivalent to −5 ×a − −5 ×b which equals −5a + 5b.

−(a + b) is equivalent to −a −b.

Exercises

Remove the brackets from each of the following expressions, simplifying your answers where

appropriate.

1. 8(3 + 2y). 2. 7(−x + y). 3. −7(−x + y). 4. −(3 + 2x). 5. −(3 −2x).

6. −(−3 −2x). 7. x(x + 1). 8. 15(x + y). 9. 15(xy). 10. 11(m + 3n).

Answers

1. 24 + 16y. 2. −7x + 7y. 3. 7x −7y. 4. −3 −2x. 5. −3 + 2x. 6. 3 + 2x.

7. x

2

+ x. 8. 15x + 15y. 9. 15xy. 10. 11m + 33n.

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2.4

Removing brackets 2

Introduction

In this leaﬂet we show the correct procedure for writing expressions of the form (a + b)(c + d)

in an alternative form without brackets.

1. Expressions of the form (a + b)(c + d)

In the expression (a +b)(c +d) it is intended that each term in the ﬁrst bracket multiplies each

term in the second.

(a + b)(c + d) = ac + bc + ad + bd

Example

Removing the brackets from (5 + a)(2 + b) gives

5 ×2 + a ×2 + 5 ×b + a ×b

which simpliﬁes to

10 + 2a + 5b + ab

.

Example

Removing the brackets from (x + 6)(x + 2) gives

x ×x + 6 ×x + x ×2 + 6 ×2

which equals

x

2

+ 6x + 2x + 12

which simpliﬁes to

x

2

+ 8x + 12

Example

Removing the brackets from (x + 7)(x −3) gives

x ×x + 7 ×x + x ×−3 + 7 ×−3

which equals

x

2

+ 7x −3x −21

2.4.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

which simpliﬁes to

x

2

+ 4x −21

Example

Removing the brackets from (2x + 3)(x + 4) gives

2x ×x + 3 ×x + 2x ×4 + 3 ×4

which equals

2x

2

+ 3x + 8x + 12

which simpliﬁes to

2x

2

+ 11x + 12

Occasionally you will need to square a bracketed expression. This can lead to errors. Study the

following example.

Example

Remove the brackets from (x + 1)

2

.

Solution

You need to be clear that when a quantity is squared it is multiplied by itself. So

(x + 1)

2

means (x + 1)(x + 1)

Then removing the brackets gives

x ×x + 1 ×x + x ×1 + 1 ×1

which equals

x

2

+ x + x + 1

which simpliﬁes to

x

2

+ 2x + 1

Note that (x + 1)

2

is not equal to x

2

+ 1, and more generally (x + y)

2

is not equal to x

2

+ y

2

.

Exercises

Remove the brackets from each of the following expressions, simplifying your answers

where appropriate.

1. a) (x + 2)(x + 3), b) (x −4)(x + 1), c) (x −1)

2

, d) (3x + 1)(2x −4).

2. a) (2x −7)(x −1), b) (x + 5)(3x −1), c) (2x + 1)

2

, d) (x −3)

2

.

Answers

1. a) x

2

+ 5x + 6, b) x

2

−3x −4, c) x

2

−2x + 1, d) 6x

2

−10x −4.

2. a) 2x

2

−9x + 7, b) 3x

2

+ 14x −5, c) 4x

2

+ 4x + 1, d) x

2

−6x + 9.

2.4.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.5

Factorising simple expressions

Introduction

Before studying this material you must be familiar with the process of ‘removing brackets’ as

outlined in leaﬂets 2.3 & 2.4. This is because factorising can be thought of as reversing the

process of removing brackets. When we factorise an expression it is written as a product of two

or more terms, and these will normally involve brackets.

1. Products and factors

To obtain the product of two numbers they are multiplied together. For example the product

of 3 and 4 is 3×4 which equals 12. The numbers which are multiplied together are called factors.

We say that 3 and 4 are both factors of 12.

Example

The product of x and y is xy.

The product of 5x and 3y is 15xy.

Example

2x and 5y are factors of 10xy since when we multiply 2x by 5y we obtain 10xy.

(x + 1) and (x + 2) are factors of x

2

+ 3x + 2 because when we multiply (x + 1) by (x + 2) we

obtain x

2

+ 3x + 2.

3 and x −5 are factors of 3x −15 because

3(x −5) = 3x −15

2. Common factors

Sometimes, if we study two expressions to ﬁnd their factors, we might note that some of the

factors are the same. These factors are called common factors.

Example

Consider the numbers 18 and 12.

Both 6 and 3 are factors of 18 because 6 ×3 = 18.

Both 6 and 2 are factors of 12 because 6 ×2 = 12.

So, 18 and 12 share a common factor, namely 6.

2.5.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

In fact 18 and 12 share other common factors. Can you ﬁnd them?

Example

The number 10 and the expression 15x share a common factor of 5.

Note that 10 = 5 ×2, and 15x = 5 ×3x. Hence 5 is a common factor.

Example

3a

2

and 5a share a common factor of a since

3a

2

= 3a ×a and 5a = 5 ×a. Hence a is a common factor.

Example

8x

2

and 12x share a common factor of 4x since

8x

2

= 4x ×2x and 12x = 3 ×4x. Hence 4x is a common factor.

3. Factorising

To factorise an expression containing two or more terms it is necessary to look for factors which

are common to the diﬀerent terms. Once found, these common factors are written outside a

bracketed term. It is ALWAYS possible to check your answers when you factorise by simply

removing the brackets again, so you shouldn’t get them wrong.

Example

Factorise 15x + 10.

Solution

First we look for any factors which are common to both 15x and 10. The common factor here

is 5. So the original expression can be written

15x + 10 = 5(3x) + 5(2)

which shows clearly the common factor. This common factor is written outside a bracketed

term, the remaining quantities being placed inside the bracket:

15x + 10 = 5(3x + 2)

and the expression has been factorised. We say that the factors of 15x + 10 are 5 and 3x + 2.

Your answer can be checked by showing

5(3x + 2) = 5(3x) + 5(2) = 15x + 10

Exercises

Factorise each of the following:

1. 10x + 5y. 2. 21 + 7x. 3. xy −8x. 4. 4x −8xy.

Answers

1. 5(2x + y). 2. 7(3 + x). 3. x(y −8). 4. 4x(1 −2y).

2.5.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.6

Factorising quadratics

Introduction

In this leaﬂet we explain the procedure for factorising quadratic expressions such as x

2

+5x+6.

1. Factorising quadratics

You will ﬁnd that you are expected to be able to factorise expressions such as x

2

+ 5x + 6.

First of all note that by removing the brackets from

(x + 2)(x + 3)

we ﬁnd

(x + 2)(x + 3) = x

2

+ 2x + 3x + 6 = x

2

+ 5x + 6

When we factorise x

2

+ 5x + 6 we are looking for the answer (x + 2)(x + 3).

It is often convenient to do this by a process of educated guesswork and trial and error.

Example

Factorise x

2

+ 6x + 5.

Solution

We would like to write x

2

+ 6x + 5 in the form

( + )( + )

First note that we can achieve the x

2

term by placing an x in each bracket:

(x + )(x + )

The next place to look is the constant term in x

2

+6x +5, that is, 5. By removing the brackets

you will see that this is calculated by multiplying the two numbers in the brackets together.

We seek two numbers which multiply together to give 5. Clearly 5 and 1 have this property,

although there are others. So

x

2

+ 6x + 5 = (x + 5)(x + 1)

At this stage you should always remove the brackets again to check.

The factors of x

2

+ 6x + 5 are (x + 5) and (x + 1).

2.6.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

Factorise x

2

−6x + 5.

Solution

Again we try to write the expression in the form

x

2

−6x + 5 = (x + )(x + )

And again we seek two numbers which multiply to give 5. However, this time 5 and 1 will not

do, because using these we would obtain a middle term of +6x as we saw in the last example.

Trying −5 and −1 will do the trick.

x

2

−6x + 5 = (x −5)(x −1)

You see that some thought and perhaps a little experimentation is required.

You will need even more thought and care if the coeﬃcient of x

2

, that is the number in front of

the x

2

, is anything other than 1. Consider the following example.

Example

Factorise 2x

2

+ 11x + 12.

Solution

Always start by trying to obtain the correct x

2

term.

We write

2x

2

+ 11x + 12 = (2x + )(x + )

Then study the constant term 12. It has a number of pairs of factors, for example 3 and 4, 6

and 2 and so on. By trial and error you will ﬁnd that the correct factorisation is

2x

2

+ 11x + 12 = (2x + 3)(x + 4)

but you will only realise this by removing the brackets again.

Exercises

1. Factorise each of the following:

a) x

2

+5x+4, b) x

2

−5x+4, c) x

2

+3x−4, d) x

2

−3x−4, e) 2x

2

−13x−7,

f) 2x

2

+ 13x −7, g) 3x

2

−2x −1, h) 3x

2

+ 2x −1, i) 6x

2

+ 13x + 6.

Answers

1. a) (x+1)(x+4), b) (x−1)(x−4), c) (x−1)(x+4), d) (x+1)(x−4), e) (2x+1)(x−7),

f) (2x −1)(x + 7), g) (3x + 1)(x −1), h) (3x −1)(x + 1), i) (3x + 2)(2x + 3).

2.6.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.7

Simplifying fractions

Introduction

Fractions involving symbols occur very frequently in engineering mathematics. It is necessary

to be able to simplify these and rewrite them in diﬀerent but equivalent forms. In this leaﬂet

we revise how these processes are carried out. It will be helpful if you have already seen leaﬂet

1.1 Fractions.

1. Expressing a fraction in its simplest form

An algebraic fraction can always be expressed in diﬀerent, yet equivalent forms. A fraction

is expressed in its simplest form by cancelling any factors which are common to both the

numerator and the denominator. You need to remember that factors are multiplied together.

For example, the two fractions

7a

ab

and

7

b

are equivalent. Note that there is a common factor of a in the numerator and the denominator

of

7a

ab

which can be cancelled to give

7

b

.

To express a fraction in its simplest form, any factors which are common to both the numerator

and the denominator are cancelled.

Notice that cancelling is equivalent to dividing the top and the bottom by the common factor.

It is also important to note that

7

b

can be converted back to the equivalent fraction

7a

ab

by

multiplying both the numerator and denominator of

7

b

by a.

A fraction is expressed in an equivalent form by multiplying both top and bottom by the same

quantity, or dividing top and bottom by the same quantity.

Example

The two fractions

10y

2

15y

5

and

2

3y

3

are equivalent. Note that

10y

2

15y

5

=

2 ×5 ×y ×y

3 ×5 ×y ×y ×y ×y ×y

2.7.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

and so there are common factors of 5 and y ×y. These can be cancelled to leave

2

3y

3

.

Example

The fractions

(x −1)(x + 3)

(x + 3)(x + 5)

and

(x −1)

(x + 5)

are equivalent. In the ﬁrst fraction, the common factor (x + 3) can be cancelled.

Example

The fractions

2a(3a −b)

7a(a + b)

and

2(3a −b)

7(a + b)

are equivalent. In the ﬁrst fraction, the common factor a can be cancelled. Nothing else can be

cancelled.

Example

In the fraction

a −b

a + b

there are no common factors which can be cancelled. Neither a nor b is a factor of the numerator.

Neither a nor b is a factor of the denominator.

Example

Express

5x

2x + 1

as an equivalent fraction with denominator (2x + 1)(x −7).

Solution

To achieve the required denominator we must multiply both top and bottom by (x −7). That

is

5x

2x + 1

=

(5x)(x −7)

(2x + 1)(x −7)

If we wished, the brackets could now be removed to write the fraction as

5x

2

−35x

2x

2

−13x −7

.

Exercises

1. Express each of the following fractions in its simplest form:

a)

12xy

16x

, b)

14ab

21a

2

b

2

, c)

3x

2

y

6x

, d)

3(x+1)

(x+1)

2

, e)

(x+3)(x+1)

(x+2)(x+3)

, f)

100x

45

, g)

a+b

ab

.

Answers

1. a)

3y

4

, b)

2

3ab

, c)

xy

2

, d)

3

x+1

, e)

x+1

x+2

, f)

20x

9

, g) cannot be simpliﬁed. Whilst both

a and b are factors of the denominator, neither a nor b is a factor of the numerator.

2.7.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.8

Addition and subtraction

Introduction

Fractions involving symbols occur very frequently in engineering mathematics. It is necessary

to be able to add and subtract them. In this leaﬂet we revise how these processes are carried

out. An understanding of writing fractions in equivalent forms is necessary. (See leaﬂet 2.7

Simplifying fractions.)

1. Addition and subtraction of fractions

To add two fractions we must ﬁrst rewrite each fraction so that they both have the same

denominator. The denominator is called the lowest common denominator. It is the simplest

expression which is a multiple of both of the original denominators. Then, the numerators only

are added, and the result is divided by the lowest common denominator.

Example

Express as a single fraction

7

a

+

9

b

Solution

Both fractions must be written with the same denominator. To achieve this, note that if the

numerator and denominator of the ﬁrst are both multiplied by b we obtain

7b

ab

. This is equiv-

alent to the original fraction – it is merely written in a diﬀerent form. If the numerator and

denominator of the second are both multiplied by a we obtain

9a

ab

. Then the problem becomes

7b

ab

+

9a

ab

In this form, both fractions have the same denominator. The lowest common denominator is

ab.

Finally we add the numerators and divide the result by the lowest common denominator:

7b

ab

+

9a

ab

=

7b + 9a

ab

Example

Express as a single fraction

2

x + 3

+

5

x −1

2.8.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Solution

Both fractions can be written with the same denominator if both the numerator and denominator

of the ﬁrst are multiplied by x − 1 and if both the numerator and denominator of the second

are multiplied by x + 3. This gives

2

x + 3

+

5

x −1

=

2(x −1)

(x + 3)(x −1)

+

5(x + 3)

(x + 3)(x −1)

Then, adding the numerators gives

2(x −1) + 5(x + 3)

(x + 3)(x −1)

which, by simplifying the numerator, gives

7x + 13

(x + 3)(x −1)

Example

Find

3

x + 1

+

2

(x + 1)

2

Solution

The simplest expression which is a multiple of the original denominators is (x +1)

2

. This is the

lowest common denominator. Both fractions must be written with this denominator.

3

x + 1

+

2

(x + 1)

2

=

3(x + 1)

(x + 1)

2

+

2

(x + 1)

2

Adding the numerators and simplifying we ﬁnd

3(x + 1)

(x + 1)

2

+

2

(x + 1)

2

=

3x + 3 + 2

(x + 1)

2

=

3x + 5

(x + 1)

2

Exercises

1. Express each of the following as a single fraction:

a)

3

4

+

1

x

, b)

1

a

−

2

5b

, c)

2

x

2

+

1

x

, d) 2 +

1

3x

.

2. Express as a single fraction:

a)

2

x+1

+

3

x+2

, b)

2

x+3

+

5

(x+3)

2

, c)

3x

x−1

+

1

x

, d)

1

x−5

−

3

x+2

, e)

1

2x+1

−

7

x+3

.

Answers

1. a)

3x+4

4x

, b)

5b−2a

5ab

, c)

2+x

x

2

, d)

6x+1

3x

.

2. a)

5x+7

(x+1)(x+2)

, b)

2x+11

(x+3)

2

, c)

3x

2

+x−1

x(x−1)

, d)

17−2x

(x+2)(x−5)

, e) −

13x+4

(x+3)(2x+1)

.

2.8.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.9

Multiplication and division

Introduction

Fractions involving symbols occur very frequently in engineering mathematics. It is necessary

to be able to multiply and divide them. In this leaﬂet we revise how these processes are carried

out. It will be helpful if you have already seen leaﬂet 1.1 Fractions.

1. Multiplication and division of fractions

Multiplication of fractions is straightforward. We simply multiply the numerators to give a new

numerator, and multiply the denominators to give a new denominator.

Example

Find

4

7

×

a

b

Solution

Simply multiply the two numerators together, and multiply the two denominators together.

4

7

×

a

b

=

4a

7b

Example

Find

3ab

5

×

7

6a

Solution

3ab

5

×

7

6a

=

21ab

30a

which, by cancelling common factors, can be simpliﬁed to

7b

10

.

Division is performed by inverting the second fraction and then multiplying.

Example

Find

3

2x

÷

6

5y

.

2.9.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Solution

3

2x

÷

6

5y

=

3

2x

×

5y

6

=

15y

12x

=

5y

4x

Example

Find

3

x + 1

÷

x

(x + 1)

2

.

Solution

3

x + 1

÷

x

(x + 1)

2

=

3

x + 1

×

(x + 1)

2

x

=

3(x + 1)

2

x(x + 1)

=

3(x + 1)

x

Exercises

1. Find a)

1

3

×

x

2

, b)

2

x+1

×

x

x−3

, c) −

1

4

×

3

5

, d)

_

−

1

x

_

×

_

2

5y

_

, e)

x+1

2(x+3)

×

8

x+1

.

2. Simplify

3

x + 2

÷

x

2x + 4

3. Simplify

x + 2

(x + 5)(x + 4)

×

x + 5

x + 2

4. Simplify

3

x

×

3

y

×

1

z

5. Find

4

3

÷

16

x

.

Answers

1. a)

x

6

, b)

2x

(x+1)(x−3)

, c) −

3

20

, d) −

2

5xy

, e)

4

x+3

.

2.

6

x

. 3.

1

x+4

. 4.

9

xyz

. 5.

x

12

.

2.9.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.10

Rearranging formulas 1

Introduction

The ability to rearrange formulas or rewrite them in diﬀerent ways is an important skill in

engineering. This leaﬂet will explain how to rearrange some simple formulas. Leaﬂet 2.11 deals

with more complicated examples.

1. The subject of a formula

Most engineering students will be familiar with Ohm’s law which states that V = IR. Here, V

is a voltage drop, R is a resistance and I is a current. If the values of R and I are known then

the formula V = IR enables us to calculate the value of V . In the form V = IR, we say that

the subject of the formula is V . Usually the subject of a formula is on its own on the left-hand

side. You may also be familiar with Ohm’s law written in either of the forms

I =

V

R

and R =

V

I

In the ﬁrst case I is the subject of the formula whilst in the second case R is the subject. If we

know values of V and R we can use I =

V

R

to ﬁnd I. On the other hand, if we know values of

V and I we can use R =

V

I

to ﬁnd R. So you see, it is important to be able to write formulas

in diﬀerent ways, so that we can make a particular variable the subject.

2. Rules for rearranging, or transposing, a formula

You can think of a formula as a pair of balanced scales. The quantity on the left is equal to

the quantity on the right. If we add an amount to one side of the scale pans, say the left one,

then to keep balance we must add the same amount to the pan on the right. Similarly if we

take away an amount from the left, we must take the same amount away from the pan on the

right. The same applies to formulas. If we add an amount to one side, we must add the same to

the other to keep the formula valid. If we subtract an amount from one side we must subtract

the same amount from the other. Furthermore, if we multiply the left by any amount, we must

multiply the right by the same amount. If we divide the left by any amount we must divide the

right by the same amount. When you are trying to rearrange, or transpose, a formula, keep

these operations clearly in mind.

To transpose or rearrange a formula you may

• add or subtract the same quantity to or from both sides

• multiply or divide both sides by the same quantity.

Later, we shall see that a further group of operations is allowed, but ﬁrst get some practice with

these Examples and Exercises.

2.10.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

Rearrange the formula y = x + 8 in order to make x the subject instead of y.

Solution

To make x the subject we must remove the 8 from the right. So, we subtract 8 from the right,

but we remember that we must do the same to the left. So

if y = x + 8, subtracting 8 yields

y −8 = x + 8 −8

y −8 = x

We have x on its own, although it is on the right. This is no problem since if y −8 equals x, then

x equals y −8, that is x = y −8. We have succeeded in making x the subject of the formula.

Example

Rearrange the formula y = 3x to make x the subject.

Solution

The reason why x does not appear on its own is that it is multiplied by 3. If we divide 3x by 3

we obtain

3x

3

= x. So, we can obtain x on its own by dividing both sides of the formula by 3.

y = 3x

y

3

=

3x

3

= x

Finally x =

y

3

and we have succeeded in making x the subject of the formula.

Example

Rearrange y = 11 + 7x to make x the subject.

Solution

Starting from y = 11 + 7x we subtract 11 from each side to give y − 11 = 7x. Then, dividing

both sides by 7 gives

y−11

7

= x. Finally x =

y−11

7

.

Exercises

1. Transpose each of the following formulas to make x the subject.

a) y = x −7, b) y = 2x −7, c) y = 2x + 7, d) y = 7 −2x, e) y =

x

5

.

2. Transpose each of the following formulas to make v the subject.

a) w = 3v, b) w =

1

3

v, c) w =

v

3

, d) w =

2v

3

, e) w =

2

3

v.

Answers

1. a) x = y + 7, b) x =

y+7

2

, c) x =

y−7

2

, d) x =

7−y

2

, e) x = 5y.

2. a) v =

w

3

, b) v = 3w, c) same as b), d) v =

3w

2

, e) same as d).

2.10.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.11

Rearranging formulas 2

Introduction

This leaﬂet develops the work started in leaﬂet 2.10, and shows how more complicated formulas

can be rearranged.

1. Further transposition

Remember that when you are trying to rearrange, or transpose, a formula, the following

operations are allowed.

• Add or subtract the same quantity to or from both sides.

• Multiply or divide both sides by the same quantity.

A further group of operations is also permissible.

A formula remains balanced if we perform the same operation to both sides of it. For example,

we can square both sides, we can square-root both sides. We can ﬁnd the logarithm of both

sides. Study the following examples.

Example

Transpose the formula p =

√

q to make q the subject.

Solution

Here we need to obtain q on its own. To do this we must ﬁnd a way of removing the square root

sign. This can be achieved by squaring both sides since

(

√

q)

2

= q

So,

p =

√

q

p

2

= q by squaring both sides

Finally, q = p

2

, and we have succeeded in making q the subject of the formula.

Example

Transpose p =

√

a + b to make b the subject.

2.11.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Solution

p =

√

a + b

p

2

= a + b by squaring both sides

p

2

−a = b

Finally, b = p

2

−a, and we have succeeded in making b the subject of the formula.

Example

Make x the subject of the formula v =

k

√

x

.

Solution

v =

k

√

x

v

2

=

k

2

x

by squaring both sides

xv

2

= k

2

by multiplying both sides by x

x =

k

2

v

2

by dividing both sides by v

2

and we have succeeded in making x the subject of the formula.

Example

Transpose the formula T = 2π

_

g

for .

Solution

This must be carried out carefully, in stages, until we obtain on its own.

T = 2π

¸

g

T

2π

=

¸

g

by dividing both sides by 2π

_

T

2π

_

2

=

g

by squaring both sides

= g

_

T

2π

_

2

Exercises

1. Make r the subject of the formula V =

4

3

πr

3

.

2. Make x the subject of the formula y = 4 −x

2

.

3. Make s the subject of the formula v

2

= u

2

+ 2as.

Answers

1. r =

3

_

3V

4π

. 2. x = ±

√

4 −y. 3. s =

v

2

−u

2

2a

.

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2.12

Solving linear equations

Introduction

Equations occur in all branches of engineering. They always involve one or more unknown

quantities which we try to ﬁnd when we solve the equation. The simplest equations to deal

with are linear equations. In this leaﬂet we describe how these are solved.

1. A linear equation

Linear equations are those which can be written in the form

ax + b = 0

where x is the unknown value, and a and b are known numbers. The following are all examples

of linear equations.

3x + 2 = 0, −5x + 11 = 0, 3x −11 = 0

The unknown does not have to have the symbol x, other letters can be used.

3t −2 = 0, 7z + 11 = 0, 3w = 0

are all linear equations.

Sometimes you will come across a linear equation which at ﬁrst sight might not appear to have

the form ax + b = 0. The following are all linear equations. If you have some experience of

solving linear equations, or of transposing formulas, you will be able to check that they can all

be written in the standard form.

x −7

2

+ 11 = 0,

2

x

= 8, 6x −2 = 9

2. Solving a linear equation

To solve a linear equation it will be helpful if you know already how to transpose or rearrange

formulas. (See leaﬂets 2.10 & 2.11 Rearranging formulas for information about this if necessary.)

When solving a linear equation we try to make the unknown quantity the subject of the equation.

To do this we may

• add or subtract the same quantity to or from both sides

• multiply or divide both sides by the same quantity.

2.12.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

Solve the equation x + 7 = 18.

Solution

We try to obtain x on its own on the left-hand side.

x + 7 = 18

x = 18 −7 by subtracting 7 from both sides

x = 11

We have solved the equation and found the solution: x = 11. The solution is that value of x

which can be substituted into the original equation to make both sides the same. You can, and

should, check this. Substituting x = 11 in the left-hand side of the equation x +7 = 18 we ﬁnd

11 + 7 which equals 18, the same as the right-hand side.

Example

Solve the equation 5x + 11 = 22.

Solution

5x + 11 = 22

5x = 22 −11 by subtracting 11 from both sides

x =

11

5

by dividing both sides by 5

Example

Solve the equation 13x −2 = 11x + 17.

Solution

13x −2 = 11x + 17

13x −11x −2 = 17 by subtracting 11x from both sides

2x −2 = 17

2x = 17 + 2 by adding 2 to both sides

2x = 19

x =

19

2

Exercises

1. Solve the following linear equations.

a) 4x +8 = 0, b) 3x −11 = 2, c) 8(x +3) = 64, d) 7(x −5) = −56, e) 3c −5 = 14c −27.

Answers

1. a) x = −2, b) x =

13

3

, c) x = 5, d) x = −3, e) c = 2.

2.12.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.13

Simultaneous equations

Introduction

On occasions you will come across two or more unknown quantities, and two or more equations

relating them. These are called simultaneous equations and when asked to solve them you

must ﬁnd values of the unknowns which satisfy all the given equations at the same time. In this

leaﬂet we illustrate one way in which this can be done.

1. The solution of a pair of simultaneous equations

The solution of the pair of simultaneous equations

3x + 2y = 36, and 5x + 4y = 64

is x = 8 and y = 6. This is easily veriﬁed by substituting these values into the left-hand sides

to obtain the values on the right. So x = 8, y = 6 satisfy the simultaneous equations.

2. Solving a pair of simultaneous equations

There are many ways of solving simultaneous equations. Perhaps the simplest way is elimina-

tion. This is a process which involves removing or eliminating one of the unknowns to leave a

single equation which involves the other unknown. The method is best illustrated by example.

Example

Solve the simultaneous equations

3x + 2y = 36 (1)

5x + 4y = 64 (2)

.

Solution

Notice that if we multiply both sides of the ﬁrst equation by 2 we obtain an equivalent equation

6x + 4y = 72 (3)

Now, if equation (2) is subtracted from equation (3) the terms involving y will be eliminated:

6x + 4y = 72 − (3)

5x + 4y = 64 (2)

x + 0y = 8

2.13.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

So, x = 8 is part of the solution. Taking equation (1) (or if you wish, equation (2)) we substitute

this value for x, which will enable us to ﬁnd y:

3(8) + 2y = 36

24 + 2y = 36

2y = 36 −24

2y = 12

y = 6

Hence the full solution is x = 8, y = 6.

You will notice that the idea behind this method is to multiply one (or both) equations by a

suitable number so that either the number of y’s or the number of x’s are the same, so that

subtraction eliminates that unknown. It may also be possible to eliminate an unknown by

addition, as shown in the next example.

Example

Solve the simultaneous equations

5x −3y = 26 (1)

4x + 2y = 34 (2)

.

Solution

There are many ways that the elimination can be carried out. Suppose we choose to eliminate

y. The number of y’s in both equations can be made the same by multiplying equation (1) by

2 and equation (2) by 3. This gives

10x −6y = 52 (3)

12x + 6y = 102 (4)

If these equations are now added we ﬁnd

10x −6y = 52 + (3)

12x + 6y = 102 (4)

22x + 0y = 154

so that x =

154

22

= 7. Substituting this value for x in equation (1) gives

5(7) −3y = 26

35 −3y = 26

−3y = 26 −35

−3y = −9

y = 3

Hence the full solution is x = 7, y = 3.

Exercises

Solve the following pairs of simultaneous equations:

a)

7x + y = 25

5x −y = 11

, b)

8x + 9y = 3

x + y = 0

, c)

2x + 13y = 36

13x + 2y = 69

, d)

7x −y = 15

3x −2y = 19

.

Answers

a) x = 3, y = 4, b) x = −3, y = 3, c) x = 5, y = 2, d) x = 1, y = −8.

2.13.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.14

Quadratic equations 1

Introduction

This leaﬂet will explain how many quadratic equations can be solved by factorisation.

1. Quadratic equations

A quadratic equation is an equation of the form ax

2

+ bx + c = 0, where a, b and c are

constants. For example, 3x

2

+2x −9 = 0 is a quadratic equation with a = 3, b = 2 and c = −9.

The constants b and c can have any value including 0. The constant a can have any value except

0. This is to ensure that the equation has an x

2

term. We often refer to a as the coeﬃcient

of x

2

, to b as the coeﬃcient of x and to c as the constant term. Usually, a, b and c are known

numbers, whilst x represents an unknown quantity which we will be trying to ﬁnd.

2. The solutions of a quadratic equation

To solve a quadratic equation we must ﬁnd values for x which when substituted into the equation

make the left-hand and right-hand sides equal. These values are also called roots. For example,

the value x = 4 is a solution of the equation x

2

− 3x − 4 = 0 because substituting 4 for x we

ﬁnd

4

2

−3(4) −4 = 16 −12 −4

which simpliﬁes to zero, the same as the right-hand side of the equation. There are several

techniques which can be used to solve quadratic equations. One of these, factorisation, is

discussed in this leaﬂet. You should be aware that not all quadratic equations can be solved by

this method. An alternative method which uses a formula is described in leaﬂet 2.15.

3. Solving a quadratic equation by factorisation

Sometimes, but not always, it is possible to solve a quadratic equation using factorisation. If

you need to revise factorisation you should see leaﬂet 2.6 Factorising quadratics.

Example

Solve the equation x

2

+ 7x + 12 = 0 by factorisation.

Solution

We ﬁrst factorise x

2

+7x +12 as (x +3)(x +4). Then the equation becomes (x +3)(x +4) = 0.

It is important that you realise that if the product of two quantities is zero, then one or both of

the quantities must be zero. It follows that either

x + 3 = 0, that is x = −3 or x + 4 = 0, that is x = −4

2.14.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

The roots of x

2

+ 7x + 12 = 0 are x = −3 and x = −4.

Example

Solve the quadratic equation x

2

+ 4x −21 = 0.

Solution

x

2

+ 4x −21 can be factorised as (x + 7)(x −3). Then

x

2

+ 4x −21 = 0

(x + 7)(x −3) = 0

Then either

x + 7 = 0, that is x = −7 or x −3 = 0, that is x = 3

The roots of x

2

+ 4x −21 = 0 are x = −7 and x = 3.

Example

Find the roots of the quadratic equation x

2

−10x + 25 = 0.

Solution

x

2

−10x + 25 = (x −5)(x −5) = (x −5)

2

Then

x

2

−10x + 25 = 0

(x −5)

2

= 0

x = 5

There is one root, x = 5. Such a root is called a repeated root.

Example

Solve the quadratic equation 2x

2

+ 3x −2 = 0.

Solution

The equation is factorised to give

(2x −1)(x + 2) = 0

so, from 2x − 1 = 0 we ﬁnd 2x = 1, that is x =

1

2

. From x + 2 = 0 we ﬁnd x = −2. The two

solutions are therefore x =

1

2

and x = −2.

Exercises

1. Solve the following quadratic equations by factorisation.

a) x

2

+ 7x + 6 = 0, b) x

2

−8x + 15 = 0, c) x

2

−9x + 14 = 0,

d) 2x

2

−5x −3 = 0, e) 6x

2

−11x −10 = 0, f) 6x

2

+ 13x + 6 = 0.

Answers

a) −1, −6, b) 3, 5, c) 2, 7, d) 3, −

1

2

, e)

5

2

, −

2

3

, f) x = −

3

2

, x = −

2

3

.

2.14.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.15

Quadratic equations 2

Introduction

This leaﬂet will explain how quadratic equations can be solved using a formula.

1. Solving a quadratic equation using a formula

Any quadratic equation can be solved using the quadratic formula.

If

ax

2

+ bx + c = 0

then

x =

−b ±

√

b

2

−4ac

2a

A quadratic equation has two solutions; one obtained using the positive square root in the

formula, and the other obtained using the negative square root. The answers are often referred

to as roots of the equation.

Example.

Solve the quadratic equation

3x

2

+ 9x + 4 = 0

Solution

Here a = 3, b = 9 and c = 4. Putting these values into the quadratic formula gives

x =

−9 ±

_

9

2

−4(3)(4)

2(3)

=

−9 ±

√

81 −48

6

=

−9 ±

√

33

6

=

−9 −

√

33

6

,

−9 +

√

33

6

= −2.4574, −0.5426 (4dp)

The roots of 3x

2

+ 9x + 4 = 0 are x = −2.4574 and x = −0.5426.

2.15.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

Solve the equation 8x

2

+ 3x −4 = 0.

Solution

Care is needed here because the value of c is negative, that is c = −4.

x =

−3 ±

_

3

2

−4(8)(−4)

(2)(8)

=

−3 ±

√

137

16

= 0.5440, −0.9190 (4dp)

Example

Find the roots of the quadratic equation 9x

2

+ 6x + 1 = 0.

Solution

Here a = 9, b = 6 and c = 1. Using the quadratic formula we have

x =

−6 ±

_

6

2

−4(9)(1)

2(9)

=

−6 ±

√

36 −36

18

=

−6 ±

√

0

18

= −

6

18

= −

1

3

In this example there is only one root: x = −

1

3

.

The quantity b

2

− 4ac is called the discriminant of the equation. When the discriminant is

0, as in the previous Example, the equation has only one root. If the discriminant is negative

we are faced with the problem of ﬁnding the square root of a negative number. Such equations

require special treatment using what are called complex numbers.

Exercises

1. Find the roots of the following quadratic equations:

a) x

2

+ 6x −8 = 0, b) 2x

2

−8x −3 = 0, c) −3x

2

+ x + 1 = 0.

Answers

a) x = −3 ±

√

17 = 1.123, −7.123 (3dp),

b) x = 2 ±

√

22

2

= 4.345, −0.345 (3dp),

c) x =

1

6

±

√

13

6

= 0.768, −0.434 (3dp).

2.15.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.16

Inequalities

Introduction

The inequality symbols < and > arise frequently in engineering mathematics. This leaﬂet revises

their meaning and shows how expressions involving them are manipulated.

1. The number line and inequality symbols

A useful way of picturing numbers is to use a number line. The ﬁgure shows part of this line.

Positive numbers are on the right-hand side of this line; negative numbers are on the left.

–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4

a b

Numbers can be represented on a number line. If a < b then equivalently, b > a.

The symbol > means ‘greater than’; for example, since 6 is greater than 4 we can write 6 > 4.

Given any number, all numbers to the right of it on the line are greater than the given number.

The symbol < means ‘less than’; for example, because −3 is less than 19 we can write −3 < 19.

Given any number, all numbers to the left of it on the line are less than the given number.

For any numbers a and b, note that if a is less than b, then b is greater than a. So the following

two statements are equivalent: a < b and b > a. So, for example, we can write 4 < 17 in the

equivalent form 17 > 4.

If a < b and b < c we can write this concisely as a < b < c. Similarly if a and b are both positive,

with b greater than a we can write 0 < a < b.

2. Rules for manipulating inequalities

To change or rearrange statements involving inequalities the following rules should be followed:

Rule 1. Adding or subtracting the same quantity from both sides of an inequality leaves the

inequality symbol unchanged.

Rule 2. Multiplying or dividing both sides by a positive number leaves the inequality symbol

unchanged.

Rule 3. Multiplying or dividing both sides by a negative number reverses the inequality.

This means < changes to >, and vice versa.

So,

if a < b then a + c < b + c using Rule 1

2.16.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

For example, given that 5 < 7, we could add 3 to both sides to obtain 8 < 10 which is still true.

Also, using Rule 2,

if a < b and k is positive, then ka < kb

For example, given that 5 < 8 we can multiply both sides by 6 to obtain 30 < 48 which is still

true.

Using Rule 3

if a < b and k is negative, then ka > kb

For example, given 5 < 8 we can multiply both sides by −6 and reverse the inequality to obtain

−30 > −48, which is a true statement. A common mistake is to forget to reverse the inequality

when multiplying or dividing by negative numbers.

3. Solving inequalities

An inequality will often contain an unknown variable, x, say. To solve means to ﬁnd all values

of x for which the inequality is true. Usually the answer will be a range of values of x.

Example

Solve the inequality 7x −2 > 0.

Solution

We make use of the Rules to obtain x on its own. Adding 2 to both sides gives

7x > 2

Dividing both sides by the positive number 7 gives

x >

2

7

Hence all values of x greater than

2

7

satisfy 7x −2 > 0.

Example

Find the range of values of x satisfying x −3 < 2x + 5.

Solution

There are many ways of arriving at the correct answer. For example, adding 3 to both sides:

x < 2x + 8

Subtracting 2x from both sides gives

−x < 8

Multiplying both sides by −1 and reversing the inequality gives x > −8. Hence all values of

x greater than −8 satisfy x −3 < 2x + 5.

Exercises

In each case solve the given inequality.

1. 2x > 9, 2. x + 5 > 13, 3. −3x < 4, 4. 7x + 11 > 2x + 5, 5. 2(x + 3) < x + 1

Answers

1. x > 9/2, 2. x > 8, 3. x > −4/3, 4. x > −6/5, 5. x < −5.

2.16.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.17

The modulus symbol

Introduction

Inequalities often arise in connection with the modulus symbol. This leaﬂet describes how.

1. The modulus symbol

The modulus symbol is sometimes used in conjunction with inequalities. For example, |x| < 1

means all numbers whose actual size, irrespective of sign, is less than 1. This means any value

between −1 and 1. Thus

|x| < 1 means −1 < x < 1

Similarly, |y| > 2 means all numbers whose actual size, irrespective of sign, is greater than 2.

This means any value greater than 2 and any value less than −2. Thus

|y| > 2 means y > 2 or y < −2

Example

Solve the inequality |2x + 1| < 3.

Solution

This is equivalent to −3 < 2x + 1 < 3. We treat both parts of the inequality separately.

First consider

−3 < 2x + 1

Solving this yields x > −2.

Now consider the second part, 2x + 1 < 3. Solving this yields x < 1.

Putting both results together we see that −2 < x < 1 is the required solution.

Exercises

In each case solve the given inequality.

1. |3x| < 1. 2. |12y + 2| > 5. 3. |1 −y| < 3.

Answers

1. −

1

3

< x <

1

3

. 2. y >

1

4

and y < −

7

12

. 3. −2 < y < 4.

2.17.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.18

Graphical solution of

inequalities

Introduction

Graphs can be used to solve inequalities. This leaﬂet illustrates how.

1. Solving inequalities

We start with a very simple example which could be solved very easily using an algebraic method.

Example

Solve the inequality x + 3 > 0.

Solution

We seek values of x which make x + 3 positive. There are many such values, e.g. try x = 7

or x = −2. To ﬁnd all values ﬁrst let y = x + 3. Then the graph of y = x + 3 is sketched as

shown below. From the graph we see that the y coordinate of any point on the line is positive

whenever x has a value greater than −3. That is, y > 0 when x > −3. But y = x + 3, so we

can conclude that x + 3 will be positive when x > −3. We have used the graph to solve the

inequality.

y is positive when

x is greater than −3

−3

3

y is positive when

x is less than −1

and when x is

greater than 3

−1

3

y = x + 3

y = x

2

−2x −3

x

y

y

x

Example

Solve the inequality x

2

−2x −3 > 0.

Solution

We seek values of x which make x

2

−2x −3 positive. We can ﬁnd these by sketching a graph of

y = x

2

−2x−3. To help with the sketch, note that by factorising we can write y as (x+1)(x−3).

The graph will cross the horizontal axis when x = −1 and when x = 3. The graph is shown

2.18.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

above on the right. From the graph note that the y coordinate of a point on the graph is positive

when either x is greater than 3 or when x is less than −1. That is, y > 0 when x > 3 or x < −1

and so:

x

2

−2x −3 > 0 when x > 3 or x < −1

Example

Solve the inequality (x −1)(x −2)(x −3) > 0.

Solution

We consider the graph of y = (x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3) which is shown below. It is evident from

the graph that y is positive when x lies between 1 and 2 and also when x is greater than 3. The

solution of the inequality is therefore 1 < x < 2 and x > 3.

y is positive when

x lies between 1 and 2

and when x is greater than 3

y = (x −1)(x −2)(x −3)

y

x

3 2 1

Example

For what values of x is

x+3

x−7

positive?

Solution

The graph of y =

x+3

x−7

is shown below. We can see that the y coordinate of a point on the graph

is positive when x < −3 or when x > 7.

x + 3

x −7

> 0 when x < −3 or when x > 7

y is positive when x is

less than −3 and when x is greater

than 7

y =

x+3

x−7

y

x

x = −3

x = 7

5 10 −5

1

For drawing graphs like this one a graphical calculator is useful.

2.18.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.19

What is a logarithm?

Introduction

We use logarithms to write expressions involving powers in a diﬀerent form. If you can work

conﬁdently with powers you should have no problems handling logarithms.

1. Logarithms

Consider the statement

100 = 10

2

In this statement we say that 10 is the base and 2 is the power or index.

Logarithms are simply an alternative way of writing a statement such as this. We rewrite it

as

log

10

100 = 2

This is read as ‘log to the base 10 of 100 is 2’.

As another example, since

2

5

= 32

we can write

log

2

32 = 5

More generally,

if a = b

c

, then log

b

a = c

The only restriction that is placed on the value of the base is that it is a positive real number

excluding the number 1. In practice logarithms are calculated using only a few common bases.

Most frequently you will meet bases 10 and e. The letter e stands for the number 2.718... and is

used because it is found to occur in the mathematical description of many physical phenomena.

Your calculator will be able to calculate logarithms to bases 10 and e. Usually the ‘log’ button

is used for base 10, and the ‘ln’ button is used for base e. (‘ln’ stands for ‘natural logarithm’.)

Check that you can use your calculator correctly by verifying that

log

10

73 = 1.8633 and log

e

5.64 = 1.7299

You may also like to verify the alternative forms

10

1.8633

= 73 and e

1.7299

= 5.64

Occasionally we need to ﬁnd logarithms to other bases. For example, logarithms to the base 2

are used in communications engineering and information technology. Your calculator can still

be used but we need to apply a formula for changing the base. This is dealt with in the leaﬂet

2.21 Bases other than 10 and e.

2.19.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.20

The laws of logarithms

Introduction

There are a number of rules known as the laws of logarithms. These allow expressions

involving logarithms to be rewritten in a variety of diﬀerent ways. The laws apply to logarithms

of any base but the same base must be used throughout a calculation.

1. The laws of logarithms

The three main laws are stated here:

First Law

log A + log B = log AB

This law tells us how to add two logarithms together. Adding log A and log B results in the

logarithm of the product of A and B, that is log AB.

For example, we can write

log

10

5 + log

10

4 = log

10

(5 ×4) = log

10

20

The same base, in this case 10, is used throughout the calculation. You should verify this by

evaluating both sides separately on your calculator.

Second Law

log A −log B = log

A

B

So, subtracting log B from log A results in log

A

B

.

For example, we can write

log

e

12 −log

e

2 = log

e

12

2

= log

e

6

The same base, in this case e, is used throughout the calculation. You should verify this by

evaluating both sides separately on your calculator.

Third Law

log A

n

= nlog A

So, for example

log

10

5

3

= 3 log

10

5

You should verify this by evaluating both sides separately on your calculator.

Two other important results are

2.20.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

log 1 = 0, log

m

m = 1

The logarithm of 1 to any base is always 0, and the logarithm of a number to the same base is

always 1. In particular,

log

10

10 = 1, and log

e

e = 1

Exercises

1. Use the ﬁrst law to simplify the following.

a) log

10

6 + log

10

3,

b) log x + log y,

c) log 4x + log x,

d) log a + log b

2

+ log c

3

.

2. Use the second law to simplify the following.

a) log

10

6 −log

10

3,

b) log x −log y,

c) log 4x −log x.

3. Use the third law to write each of the following in an alternative form.

a) 3 log

10

5,

b) 2 log x,

c) log(4x)

2

,

d) 5 ln x

4

,

e) ln 1000.

4. Simplify 3 log x −log x

2

.

Answers

1. a) log

10

18, b) log xy, c) log 4x

2

, d) log ab

2

c

3

.

2. a) log

10

2, b) log

x

y

, c) log 4.

3. a) log

10

5

3

or log

10

125, b) log x

2

, c) 2 log(4x), d) 20 ln x or ln x

20

,

e) 1000 = 10

3

so ln 1000 = 3 ln 10.

4. log x.

2.20.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.21

Bases other than 10 and e

Introduction

Occasionally you may need to ﬁnd logarithms to bases other than 10 and e. For example,

logarithms to the base 2 are used in communications engineering and information technology.

Your calculator can still be used but we need to apply a formula for changing the base. This

leaﬂet gives this formula and shows how to use it.

1. A formula for change of base

Suppose we want to calculate a logarithm to base 2. The formula states

log

2

x =

log

10

x

log

10

2

So we can calculate base 2 logarithms using base 10 logarithms obtained using a calculator. For

example

log

2

36 =

log

10

36

log

10

2

=

1.556303

0.301030

= 5.170 (3dp)

Check this for yourself.

More generally, for any bases a and b,

log

a

x =

log

b

x

log

b

a

In particular, by choosing b = 10 we ﬁnd

log

a

x =

log

10

x

log

10

a

Use this formula to check that log

20

100 = 1.5372.

Exercises

1. Find a) log

2

15, b) log

2

56.25, c) log

3

16.

Answers

1. a) 3.907 (3dp), b) 5.814 (3dp), c) 2.524 (3dp).

2.21.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.22

Sigma notation

Introduction

Sigma notation,

, provides a concise and convenient way of writing long sums. This leaﬂet

explains how.

1. Sigma notation

The sum

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + . . . + 10 + 11 + 12

can be written very concisely using the capital Greek letter

as

k=12

k=1

k

The

stands for a sum, in this case the sum of all the values of k as k ranges through all whole

numbers from 1 to 12. Note that the lower-most and upper-most values of k are written at the

bottom and top of the sigma sign respectively. You may also see this written as

k=12

k=1

k, or

even as

12

k=1

k.

Example

Write out explicitly what is meant by

k=5

k=1

k

3

Solution

We must let k range from 1 to 5, cube each value of k, and add the results:

k=5

k=1

k

3

= 1

3

+ 2

3

+ 3

3

+ 4

3

+ 5

3

Example

Express

1

1

+

1

2

+

1

3

+

1

4

concisely using sigma notation.

Solution

Each term takes the form

1

k

where k varies from 1 to 4. In sigma notation we could write this

as

k=4

k=1

1

k

2.22.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

The sum

x

1

+ x

2

+ x

3

+ x

4

+ . . . + x

19

+ x

20

can be written

k=20

k=1

x

k

There is nothing special about using the letter k. For example

n=7

n=1

n

2

stands for 1

2

+ 2

2

+ 3

2

+ 4

2

+ 5

2

+ 6

2

+ 7

2

We can also use a little trick to alternate the signs of the numbers between + and −. Note that

(−1)

2

= 1, (−1)

3

= −1 and so on.

Example

Write out fully what is meant by

5

i=0

(−1)

i+1

2i + 1

Solution

5

i=0

(−1)

i+1

2i + 1

= −1 +

1

3

−

1

5

+

1

7

−

1

9

+

1

11

Exercises

1. Write out fully what is meant by

a)

i=5

i=1

i

2

,

b)

4

k=1

(2k + 1)

2

,

c)

4

k=0

(2k + 1)

2

.

2. Write out fully what is meant by

k=3

k=1

(¯ x −x

k

)

3. Sigma notation is often used in statistical calculations. For example the mean, ¯ x, of the n

quantities x

1

, x

2

. . . x

n

is found by adding them up and dividing the result by n. Show that

the mean can be written as

¯ x =

n

i=1

x

i

n

4. Write out fully what is meant by

4

i=1

i

i+1

.

5. Write out fully what is meant by

3

k=1

(−1)

k

k

.

Answers

1. a) 1

2

+ 2

2

+ 3

2

+ 4

2

+ 5

2

, b) 3

2

+ 5

2

+ 7

2

+ 9

2

, c) 1

2

+ 3

2

+ 5

2

+ 7

2

+ 9

2

.

2. (¯ x−x

1

) +(¯ x−x

2

) +(¯ x−x

3

). 4.

1

2

+

2

3

+

3

4

+

4

5

. 5.

−1

1

+

1

2

+

−1

3

which equals −1+

1

2

−

1

3

.

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2.23

Partial fractions 1

Introduction

An algebraic fraction can often be rewritten as the sum of simpler fractions that are called

partial fractions. For example, it can be shown that

8x −12

x

2

−2x −3

can be written in partial fractions as

3

x −3

+

5

x + 1

This leaﬂet explains the procedure for ﬁnding partial fractions.

1. Proper and improper fractions

When the degree of the numerator, that is the highest power on top, is less than the degree of

the denominator, that is the highest power on the bottom, the fraction is said to be proper.

The fraction

8x −12

x

2

−2x −3

satisﬁes this condition and so is proper.

If a fraction is not proper it is said to be improper. For example, the fraction

2x

3

+ 7x

x

2

+ x + 1

is improper because the degree of the numerator, 3, is greater than the degree of the denominator,

2.

The ﬁrst stage in the process of ﬁnding partial fractions is to determine whether the fraction is

proper or improper because proper fractions are simpler to deal with. Improper fractions are

dealt with in leaﬂet 2.25.

2. Finding partial fractions of proper fractions

You should carry out the following steps:

Step 1

Factorise the denominator if it is not already factorised.

Step 2

When you have factorised the denominator the factors can take various forms. You must study

these forms carefully. For example, you may ﬁnd

(3x + 2)(x + 1)

2.23.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

These factors are both referred to as linear factors. Generally a linear factor has the form

ax + b where a and b are numbers.

The factors could be the same, as in

(3x + 2)(3x + 2) that is (3x + 2)

2

This is called a repeated linear factor. Generally, such a factor has the form (ax + b)

2

.

Another possible form is

x

2

+ x + 1

This is a quadratic factor which cannot be factorised into linear factors. Generally such a

factor has the form ax

2

+ bx + c.

It is essential that you examine the factors carefully to see which type you have. The form that

the partial fractions take depends upon the type of factors obtained.

You should examine the factors of the denominator to decide which sorts of partial fraction you

will need. These are summarised in the following box.

Each linear factor, ax + b, produces a partial fraction of the form

A

ax + b

where A represents an unknown constant which must be found.

A repeated linear factor, (ax + b)

2

, produces two partial fractions of the form

A

ax + b

+

B

(ax + b)

2

where A and B represent two unknown constants which must be found.

A quadratic factor ax

2

+ bx + c, which cannot be factorised, produces a partial fraction of

the form

Ax + B

ax

2

+ bx + c

Step 3

Find the unknown constants, A, B, . . . This is done using a method known as equating coef-

ﬁcients, or by substituting speciﬁc values for x, or by a mixture of both methods.

These three steps are illustrated in the examples in leaﬂet 2.24.

2.23.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.24

Partial fractions 2

1. Worked examples

Example

Express

5x −4

x

2

−x −2

as the sum of its partial fractions.

Solution

First we factorise the denominator: x

2

−x −2 = (x +1)(x −2). Next, examine the form of the

factors. The factor (x + 1) is a linear factor and produces a partial fraction of the form

A

x+1

.

The factor (x−2) is also a linear factor, and produces a partial fraction of the form

B

x−2

. Hence

5x −4

x

2

−x −2

=

5x −4

(x + 1)(x −2)

=

A

x + 1

+

B

x −2

(1)

where A and B are constants which must be found. Finally we ﬁnd the constants. Writing the

right-hand side using a common denominator we have

5x −4

(x + 1)(x −2)

=

A(x −2) + B(x + 1)

(x + 1)(x −2)

The denominators on both sides are the same, and so the numerators on both sides must be the

same too. Thus

5x −4 = A(x −2) + B(x + 1) (2)

We shall ﬁrst demonstrate how to ﬁnd A and B by substituting speciﬁc values for x. By

appropriate choice of the value for x, the right-hand side of Equation 2 can be simpliﬁed. For

example, letting x = 2 we ﬁnd 6 = A(0) +B(3), so that 6 = 3B, that is B = 2. Then by letting

x = −1 in Equation 2 we ﬁnd −9 = A(−3) + B(0), from which −3A = −9, so that A = 3.

Substituting these values for A and B into Equation 1 gives

5x −4

x

2

−x −2

=

3

x + 1

+

2

x −2

The constants can also be found by equating coeﬃcients. From Equation 2 we have

5x −4 = A(x −2) + B(x + 1)

= Ax −2A + Bx + B

= (A + B)x + B −2A

2.24.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Comparing the coeﬃcients of x on the left- and right-hand sides gives 5 = A + B. Comparing

the constant terms gives −4 = B−2A. These simultaneous equations in A and B can be solved

to ﬁnd A = 3 and B = 2 as before. Often a combination of the two methods is needed.

Example

Express

2x

2

+ 3

(x + 2)(x + 1)

2

in partial fractions.

Solution

The denominator is already factorised. Note that there is a linear factor (x +2) and a repeated

linear factor (x + 1)

2

. So we can write

2x

2

+ 3

(x + 2)(x + 1)

2

=

A

x + 2

+

B

x + 1

+

C

(x + 1)

2

(3)

The right-hand side is now written over a common denominator to give

2x

2

+ 3

(x + 2)(x + 1)

2

=

A(x + 1)

2

+ B(x + 2)(x + 1) + C(x + 2)

(x + 2)(x + 1)

2

Therefore

2x

2

+ 3 = A(x + 1)

2

+ B(x + 2)(x + 1) + C(x + 2) (4)

A and C can be found by substituting values for x which simplify the right-hand side. For

example if x = −1 we ﬁnd 2(−1)

2

+ 3 = A(0) + B(0) + C from which C = 5. Similarly if we

choose x = −2 we ﬁnd 8 + 3 = A(−1)

2

+ B(0) + C(0) so that A = 11. To ﬁnd B we shall use

the method of equating coeﬃcients, although we could equally have substituted any other

value for x. To equate coeﬃcients we remove the brackets on the right-hand side of Equation 4.

After collecting like terms we ﬁnd that Equation 4 can be written

2x

2

+ 3 = (A + B)x

2

+ (2A + 3B + C)x + (A + 2B + 2C)

By comparing the coeﬃcients of x

2

on both sides we see that (A + B) must equal 2. Since we

already know A = 11, this means B = −9. Finally substituting our values of A, B and C into

Equation 3 we have

2x

2

+ 3

(x + 2)(x + 1)

2

=

11

x + 2

−

9

x + 1

+

5

(x + 1)

2

.

Exercises

1. Show that

x−1

6x

2

+5x+1

=

3

2x+1

−

4

3x+1

. 2. Show that

s+4

s

2

+s

=

4

s

−

3

s+1

.

3. The fraction

5x

2

+ 4x + 11

(x

2

+ x + 4)(x + 1)

has a quadratic factor in the denominator which cannot be

factorised. Thus the required form of the partial fractions is

5x

2

+ 4x + 11

(x

2

+ x + 4)(x + 1)

=

Ax + B

x

2

+ x + 4

+

C

x + 1

Show that

5x

2

+ 4x + 11

(x

2

+ x + 4)(x + 1)

=

2x −1

x

2

+ x + 4

+

3

x + 1

.

2.24.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.25

Partial fractions 3

Introduction

This leaﬂet describes how the partial fractions of an improper fraction can be found.

1. Partial fractions of improper fractions

An algebraic fraction is improper if the degree (highest power) of the numerator is greater than

or equal to that of the denominator. Suppose we let d equal the degree of the denominator, and

n the degree of the numerator. Then, in addition to the partial fractions arising from factors in

the denominator we must include an additional term: this additional term is a polynomial of

degree n −d.

Note that:

a polynomial of degree 0 is: A, a constant

a polynomial of degree 1 is: Ax + B

a polynomial of degree 2 is: Ax

2

+ Bx + C,

and so on.

Example

Express

3x

2

+ 2x

x + 1

as partial fractions.

Solution

This fraction is improper because n = 2 and d = 1 and so n ≥ d. We must include a polynomial

of degree n − d = 1 as well as the normal partial fractions arising from the factors of the

denominator. Thus

3x

2

+ 2x

x + 1

= Ax + B +

C

x + 1

Writing the right-hand side over a common denominator gives

3x

2

+ 2x

x + 1

=

(Ax + B)(x + 1) + C

x + 1

and so

3x

2

+ 2x = (Ax + B)(x + 1) + C

2.25.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

As before we can equate coeﬃcients or substitute values for x to ﬁnd

C = 1, A = 3, and B = −1

Finally

3x

2

+ 2x

x + 1

= 3x −1 +

1

x + 1

Example

Express

s

2

+ 2s + 1

s

2

+ s + 1

in partial fractions.

Solution

Here n = 2, and d = 2. The fraction is therefore improper, with n −d = 0. We must include a

polynomial of degree 0, that is a constant, in addition to the usual partial fractions arising from

the factors of the denominator. In this example the denominator will not factorise and so this

remains a quadratic factor. So,

s

2

+ 2s + 1

s

2

+ s + 1

= A +

Bs + C

s

2

+ s + 1

Writing the right-hand side over a common denominator gives

s

2

+ 2s + 1

s

2

+ s + 1

=

A(s

2

+ s + 1) + (Bs + C)

s

2

+ s + 1

and so

s

2

+ 2s + 1 = A(s

2

+ s + 1) + (Bs + C)

Equating coeﬃcients of s

2

shows that A = 1. Equating coeﬃcients of s shows that B = 1, and

you should check that C = 0. Hence

s

2

+ 2s + 1

s

2

+ s + 1

= 1 +

s

s

2

+ s + 1

Exercises

1. Show that

x

4

+ 2x

3

−2x

2

+ 4x −1

x

2

+ 2x −3

= x

2

+ 1 +

1

x + 3

+

1

x −1

2. Show that

4x

3

+ 12x

2

+ 13x + 7

4x

2

+ 4x + 1

= x + 2 +

2

2x + 1

+

3

(2x + 1)

2

3. Show that

6x

3

+ x

2

+ 5x −1

x

3

+ x

= 6 −

1

x

+

2x −1

x

2

+ 1

2.25.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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2.26

Completing the square

Introduction

In this leaﬂet we explain a procedure called completing the square. This can be used to solve

quadratic equations, and is also important in the calculation of some integrals and when it is

necessary to ﬁnd inverse Laplace transforms.

1. Perfect squares

Some quadratic expressions are perfect squares. For example

x

2

−6x + 9 can be written as (x −3)

2

The equivalence of this pair of expressions is easily veriﬁed by squaring (x −3), as in

(x −3)(x −3) = x

2

−3x −3x + 9 = x

2

−6x + 9

Similarly, x

2

+ 14x + 49 can be written as (x + 7)

2

. Both x

2

− 6x + 9 and x

2

+ 14x + 49 are

perfect squares because they can be written as the square of another expression.

2. Completing the square

In general, a quadratic expression cannot be written in the form (∗ ∗ ∗)

2

and so will not be a

perfect square. Often, the best we can do is to write a quadratic expression as a perfect square,

plus or minus some constant. Doing this is called completing the square.

Example

Show that x

2

+ 8x + 7 can be written as (x + 4)

2

−9.

Solution

Squaring the term (x + 4) we ﬁnd

(x + 4)

2

= (x + 4)(x + 4)

= x

2

+ 8x + 16

So

(x + 4)

2

−9 = x

2

+ 8x + 16 −9

= x

2

+ 8x + 7

We have shown that x

2

+ 8x + 7 can be written as a perfect square minus a constant, that is

(x + 4)

2

−9. We have completed the square.

The following result may help you complete the square, although with practice it is easier to do

this by inspection.

2.26.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

x

2

+ kx + c = (x +

k

2

)

2

−

k

2

4

+ c

You can verify this is true by squaring the term in brackets and simplifying the right-hand side.

Example

Complete the square for the expression x

2

+ 6x + 2.

Solution

Comparing x

2

+ 6x + 2 with the general form in the box we note that k = 6 and c = 2. Then

x

2

+ 6x + 2 = (x +

6

2

)

2

−

6

2

4

+ 2

= (x + 3)

2

−7

and we have completed the square.

Example

Complete the square for the expression x

2

−7x + 3.

Solution

Comparing x

2

−7x +3 with the general form in the box we note that k = −7 and c = 3. Then

x

2

−7x + 3 = (x +

−7

2

)

2

−

(−7)

2

4

+ 3

= (x −

7

2

)

2

−

49

4

+ 3

= (x −

7

2

)

2

−

37

4

and we have completed the square.

Exercises

1. Complete the square for a) x

2

−8x + 5, b) x

2

+ 12x −7.

2. Completing the square can be used in the solution of quadratic equations. Complete the

square for x

2

+ 8x + 1 and use your result to solve the equation x

2

+ 8x + 1 = 0.

3. By ﬁrst extracting a factor of 3, complete the square for 3x

2

+ 6x + 11.

Answers

1. a) (x −4)

2

−11, b) (x + 6)

2

−43.

2. (x+4)

2

−15. Hence the equation can be written (x+4)

2

−15 = 0 from which (x+4)

2

= 15,

(x + 4) = ±

√

15 and ﬁnally x = −4 ±

√

15.

3. 3x

2

+ 6x + 11 = 3[x

2

+ 2x +

11

3

] = 3[(x + 1)

2

+

8

3

].

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2.27

What is a surd?

Introduction

In engineering calculations, numbers are often given in surd form. This leaﬂet explains what

is meant by surd form, and gives some circumstances in which surd forms arise.

1. Surd form

Suppose we wish to simplify

_

1

4

. We can write it as

1

2

. On the other hand, some numbers

involving roots, such as

√

2,

√

3,

3

√

6 cannot be expressed exactly in the form of a fraction. Any

number of the form

n

√

a, which cannot be written as a fraction of two integers is called a surd.

Whilst numbers like

√

2 have decimal approximations which can be obtained using a calculator,

e.g

√

2 = 1.414 . . . , we emphasise that these are approximations, whereas the form

√

2 is

exact.

2. Writing surds in equivalent forms

It is often possible to write surds in equivalent forms. To do this you need to be aware that

√

a ×b =

√

a ×

√

b

However, be warned that

√

a + b is not equal to

√

a +

√

b.

For example

√

48 can be written

√

3 ×16 =

√

3 ×

√

16 = 4

√

3

Similarly,

√

60 can be written

√

4 ×15 =

√

4 ×

√

15 = 2

√

15

3. Applications

Surds arise naturally in a number of applications. For example, by using Pythagoras’ theorem

we ﬁnd the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle shown below to be

√

2.

1

√

2

1

2.27.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Surds arise in the solution of quadratic equations using the formula. For example, the solution

of x

2

+ 8x + 1 = 0 is obtained as

x =

−8 ±

_

8

2

−4(1)(1)

2

=

−8 ±

√

60

2

=

−8 ±

√

4 ×15

2

=

−8 ±2

√

15

2

= −4 ±

√

15

This answer has been left in surd form.

Exercises

1. Write the following in their simplest forms.

a)

√

63, b)

√

180.

2. By multiplying numerator and denominator by

√

2 + 1 show that

1

√

2 −1

is equivalent to

√

2 + 1

The process of rewriting a fraction in this way, so that all surds appear in the numerator only,

is called rationalisation.

3. Rationalise the denominator of a)

1

√

2

, b)

1

√

5

.

4. Simplify

√

18 −2

√

2 +

√

8.

Answers

1. a) 3

√

7, b) 6

√

5. 3. a)

√

2

2

, b)

√

5

5

. 4. 3

√

2.

2.27.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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3.1

What is a function?

Introduction

A quantity whose value can change is known as a variable. Functions are used to describe

the rules which deﬁne the ways in which such a change can occur. The purpose of this leaﬂet is

to explain functions and their notation.

1. The function rule

A function is a rule which operates on an input and produces an output. This can be illus-

trated using a block diagram such as that shown below. We can think of the function as a

mathematical machine which processes the input, using a given rule, in order to produce an

output. We often write the rule inside the box.

input

output rule

function

In order for a rule to be a function it must produce only a single output for any given input.

The function with the rule ‘double the input’ is shown below.

4

8

f

2x

f

x

double

the input

double

the input

Note that with an input of 4 the function would produce an output of 8. With a more general

input, x say, the output will be 2x. It is usual to assign a letter or other symbol to a function

in order to label it. The doubling function pictured in the example above has been given the

symbol f.

A function is a rule which operates on an input and produces a single output from that input.

For the doubling function it is common to use the notation

f(x) = 2x

This indicates that with an input x, the function, f, produces an output of 2x. The input to

the function is placed in the brackets after the function label ‘f’. f(x) is read as ‘f is a function

of x’, or simply ‘f of x’, meaning that the output from the function depends upon the value of

the input x.

3.1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

State the rule of each of the following functions:

a) f(x) = 7x + 9, b) h(t) = t

3

+ 2, c) p(x) = x

3

+ 2.

Solution

a) The rule for f is ‘multiply the input by 7 and then add 9’.

b) The rule for h is ‘cube the input and add 2’.

c) The rule for p is ‘cube the input and add 2’.

Note from parts b) and c) that it is the rule that is important when describing a function and

not the letters being used. Both h(t) and p(x) instruct us to ‘cube the input and add 2’.

The input to a function is called its argument. We can obtain the output from a function if

we are given its argument. For example, given the function f(x) = 3x + 2 we may require the

value of the output when the argument is 5. We write this as f(5). Here, f(5) = 3 ×5 +2 = 17.

Example

Given the function f(x) = 4x + 3 ﬁnd a) f(−1), b) f(6).

Solution

a) Here the argument is −1. We ﬁnd f(−1) = 4 ×(−1) + 3 = −1.

b) f(6) = 4(6) + 3 = 27.

Sometimes the argument will be an algebraic expression, as in the following example.

Example

Given the function y(x) = 5x −3 ﬁnd

a) y(t), b) y(7t), c) y(z + 2).

Solution

The function rule is multiply the input by 5, and subtract 3. We can apply this rule whatever

the argument.

a) To ﬁnd y(t) multiply the argument, t, by 5 and subtract 3 to give y(t) = 5t −3.

b) Now the argument is 7t. So y(7t) = 5(7t) −3 = 35t −3.

c) In this case the argument is z + 2. We ﬁnd y(z + 2) = 5(z + 2) −3 = 5z + 10 −3 = 5z + 7.

Exercises

1. Write down a function which can be used to describe the following rules:

a) ‘cube the input and divide the result by 2’, b) ‘divide the input by 5 and then add 7’.

2. Given the function f(x) = 7x −3 ﬁnd a) f(3), b) f(6), c) f(−2).

3. If g(t) = t

2

write down expressions for a) g(x), b) g(3t), c) g(x + 4).

Answers

1. a) f(x) =

x

3

2

, b) f(x) =

x

5

+ 7. 2. a) 18, b) 39, c) −17.

3. a) g(x) = x

2

, b) g(3t) = (3t)

2

= 9t

2

, c) g(x + 4) = (x + 4)

2

= x

2

+ 8x + 16.

3.1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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3.2

The graph of a function

Introduction

A very useful pictorial representation of a function is the graph. In this leaﬂet we remind you

of important conventions when graph plotting.

1. The graph of a function

Consider the function f(x) = 5x + 4.

We can choose several values for the input and calculate the corresponding outputs. We have

done this for integer values of x between −3 and 3 and the results are shown in the table.

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

f(x) −11 −6 −1 4 9 14 19

To plot the graph we ﬁrst draw a pair of axes – a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. These are

drawn at right-angles to each other and intersect at the origin O as shown below.

–3 –2 –1 1 2 3

5

10

15

O

–5

–10

x

y = 5x + 4

y = f(x)

The point with coordinates (2, 14)

vertical axis

horizontal axis

Each pair of input and output values can be represented on a graph by a single point. The

input values are measured along the horizontal axis and the output values along the vertical

axis. A uniform scale is drawn on each axis suﬃcient to accommodate all the required points.

The points plotted in this way are then joined together, in this case by a straight line. This is

the graph of the function. Each point on the graph can be represented by a pair of coordinates

in the form (x, f(x)). Each axis should be labelled to show its variable.

2. Dependent and independent variables

The horizontal axis is often called the x axis. The vertical axis is commonly referred to as the

y axis. So, we often write the function above, not as f(x) = 5x + 4, but rather as

y = 5x + 4

3.2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Since x and y can have a number of diﬀerent values they are variables. Here x is called the

independent variable and y is called the dependent variable. Knowing or choosing a value

of the independent variable, x, the function allows us to calculate the corresponding value of

the dependent variable, y. To show this dependence we often write y(x). This notation simply

means that y depends upon x. Note that it is the independent variable which is the input to

the function and the dependent variable which is the output.

Example

Consider the function given by y = 2t

2

+ 1, for values of t between −2 and 2.

a) State the independent variable.

b) State the dependent variable.

c) Plot a graph of the function.

Solution

a) The independent variable is t.

b) The dependent variable is y.

c) A table of input and output values should be constructed ﬁrst. Such a table is shown below.

t −2 −1 0 1 2

y 9 3 1 3 9

Each pair of t and y values in the table is plotted as a single point. The points are then joined

with a smooth curve to produce the required graph as shown below.

−2 −1

0

1

2

5

y = 2t

2

+ 1

y

t

1

Exercises

1. Plot a graph of each of the following functions. In each case state the dependent and

independent variables.

a) y = f(x) = 3x +2, for x between −2 and 5, b) y = f(t) = 6 −t

2

, for t between 1 and 5.

Answers

1. a) dependent variable is y, independent variable is x.

b) dependent variable is y, independent variable is t.

3.2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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3.3

The straight line

Introduction

Straight line graphs arise in many engineering applications. This leaﬂet discusses the mathemat-

ical equation which describes a straight line and explains the terms ‘gradient’ and ‘intercept’.

1. The equation of a straight line

Any equation of the form

y = mx + c

where m and c are ﬁxed numbers, (i.e. constants), has a graph which is a straight line.

For example,

y = 3x + 5, y =

2

3

x + 8 and y = −3x −7

all have graphs which are straight lines, but

y = 3x

2

+ 4, y =

2

3x

−7, and y = −14

√

x

have graphs which are not straight lines. The essential feature of a straight line equation is that

x and y occur only to the power 1.

2. The straight line graph

Any straight line graph can be plotted very simply by ﬁnding just two points which lie on the

line and joining them. It is a good idea to ﬁnd a third point just as a check.

Example

Plot a graph of the straight line with equation y = 5x + 4.

Solution

From the equation, note that when x = 0, the value of y is 4. Similarly when x = 3, y = 19. So

the points (0, 4) and (3, 19) lie on the graph. These points are plotted and joined together to

form the straight line graph.

y

x

5

10

15

−1 −2 −3 1 2 3

the point with coordinates (3, 19)

the point with coordinates (0, 4)

y = 5x + 4

3.3.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

3. The gradient and intercept of a straight line

In the equation y = mx +c the value of m is called the gradient of the line. It can be positive,

negative or zero. Lines with a positive gradient slope upwards, from left to right. Lines with a

negative gradient slope downwards from left to right. Lines with a zero gradient are horizontal.

y

x

this line has a positive gradient this line has a negative gradient the gradient of this line is zero

y y

x x

The value of c is called the vertical intercept of the line. It is the value of y when x = 0.

When drawing a line, c gives the position where the line cuts the vertical axis.

x x

the vertical intercept is negative

y

the vertical intercept is positive

y

Example

Determine the gradient and vertical intercept of each line.

a) y = 12x −6, b) y = 5 −2x, c) 4x −y + 13 = 0, d) y = 8, e) y = 4x.

Solution

a) Comparing y = 12x − 6 with y = mx + c we see that m = 12, so the gradient of the line is

12. The fact that this is positive means that the line slopes upwards as we move from left to

right. The vertical intercept is −6. This line cuts the vertical axis below the horizontal axis.

b) Comparing y = 5 −2x with y = mx +c we see that m = −2, so the gradient is −2. The line

slopes downwards as we move from left to right. The vertical intercept is 5.

c) We write 4x −y + 13 = 0 in standard form as y = 4x + 13 and note that m = 4, c = 13.

d) Comparing y = 8 with y = mx + c we see that m = 0 and c = 8. This line is horizontal.

e) Comparing y = 4x with y = mx + c we see that m = 4 and c = 0.

Exercises

1. State the gradient and intercept of each of the following lines.

a) y = 5x + 6, b) y = 3x −11, c) y = −2x + 7, d) y = 9, e) y = 7 −x.

Answers

1. a) gradient 5, intercept 6 b) 3,−11, c) −2,7, d) 0,9, e) −1, 7.

3.3.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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3.4

The exponential constant e

Introduction

The letter e is used in many mathematical calculations to stand for a particular number known

as the exponential constant. This leaﬂet provides information about this important constant,

and the related exponential function.

1. The exponential constant

The exponential constant is an important mathematical constant and is given the symbol e.

Its value is approximately 2.718. It has been found that this value occurs so frequently when

mathematics is used to model physical and chemical phenomena that it is convenient to write

simply e.

It is often necessary to work out powers of this constant, such as e

2

, e

3

and so on. Your scientiﬁc

calculator will be programmed to do this already. You should check that you can use your

calculator to do this. Look for a button marked e

x

, and check that

e

2

= 7.389, and e

3

= 20.086

In both cases we have quoted the answer to three decimal places although your calculator will

give a more accurate answer than this.

You should also check that you can evaluate negative and fractional powers of e such as

e

1/2

= 1.649 and e

−2

= 0.135

2. The exponential function

If we write y = e

x

we can calculate the value of y as we vary x. Values obtained in this way can

be placed in a table. For example:

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y = e

x

0.050 0.135 0.368 1 2.718 7.389 20.086

This is a table of values of the exponential function e

x

. If pairs of x and y values are plotted

we obtain a graph of the exponential function as shown overleaf. If you have never seen this

3.4.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

function before it will be a worthwhile exercise to plot it for yourself.

–3 –2 –1 1 2 3

5

10

15

20

x

y

A graph of the exponential function y = e

x

It is important to note that as x becomes larger, the value of e

x

grows without bound. We write

this mathematically as e

x

→∞ as x →∞. This behaviour is known as exponential growth.

3. The negative exponential function

A related function is the negative exponential function y = e

−x

. A table of values of this

function is shown below together with its graph.

x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3

y = e

−x

20.086 7.389 2.718 1 0.368 0.135 0.050

–3 –2 –1 1 2 3

5

10

15

20

x

y

A graph of the negative exponential function y = e

−x

It is very important to note that as x becomes larger, the value of e

−x

approaches zero. We

write this mathematically as e

−x

→ 0 as x → ∞. This behaviour is known as exponential

decay.

Exercises

A useful exercise would be to draw up tables of values and plot graphs of some related functions:

a) y = e

2x

, b) y = e

0.5x

, c) y = −e

x

, d) y = −e

−x

, e) y = 1 −e

−x

.

3.4.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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3.5

The hyperbolic functions

Introduction

In a number of applications, the exponential functions e

x

and e

−x

occur in particular combina-

tions and these combinations are referred to as the hyperbolic functions. This leaﬂet deﬁnes

these functions and shows their graphs.

1. The hyperbolic functions

The hyperbolic cosine is deﬁned as

cosh x =

e

x

+ e

−x

2

The hyperbolic sine is deﬁned as

sinh x =

e

x

−e

−x

2

These are often referred to as the ‘cosh’ function and the ‘shine’ function. They are nothing

more than combinations of the exponential functions e

x

and e

−x

.

Your scientiﬁc calculator can be used to evaluate these functions. Usually the ‘hyp cos’ and

‘hyp sin’ buttons are used. You may need to refer to your calculator manual. Check that you

can use your calculator by verifying that

sinh 3 = 10.018 and cosh 4.2 = 33.351

You may like to verify that the same values can be obtained by using the exponential functions,

that is

sinh 3 =

e

3

−e

−3

2

and cosh 4.2 =

e

4.2

+ e

−4.2

2

The hyperbolic tangent is deﬁned as

tanh x =

sinh x

cosh x

=

e

x

−e

−x

e

x

+ e

−x

Other hyperbolic functions are

sech x =

1

cosh x

, cosech x =

1

sinh x

, coth x =

cosh x

sinh x

=

1

tanh x

3.5.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

By drawing up tables of values, or indeed by using the properties of the exponential functions,

graphs can be plotted. The graphs of cosh x, sinh x and tanh x are shown below.

2. Graphs of the hyperbolic functions

1 2 3 0 –1 –2 –3

5

10

1

x

cosh x

Some properties of cosh x

• cosh 0 = 1 and cosh x is greater than 1 for all other values of x

• the graph is symmetrical about the y axis. Mathematically this means cosh(−x) = cosh x.

Cosh x is said to be an even function.

• cosh x →+∞ as x →±∞

1 2 3 0 –1 –2 –3

5

–5

x

sinh x

Some properties of sinh x

• sinh 0 = 0, the graph passes through the origin

• sinh(−x) = −sinh x. Sinh x is said to be an odd function – it has rotational symmetry

about the origin.

• sinh x →+∞ as x →+∞, sinh x →−∞ as x →−∞

1 2 3 0 –1 –2 –3

x

1

–1

tanh x

Some properties of tanh x

• tanh 0 = 0 and −1 < tanh x < 1 for all x

• tanh(−x) = −tanh x. Tanh x is said to be an odd function – it has rotational symmetry

about the origin.

• tanh x →+1 as x →+∞, tanh x →−1 as x →−∞

3.5.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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3.6

The hyperbolic identities

Introduction

The hyperbolic functions satisfy a number of identities. These allow expressions involving the

hyperbolic functions to be written in diﬀerent, yet equivalent forms. Several commonly used

identities are given in this leaﬂet.

1. Hyperbolic identities

cosh x =

e

x

+ e

−x

2

, sinh x =

e

x

−e

−x

2

tanh x =

sinh x

cosh x

=

e

x

−e

−x

e

x

+ e

−x

sech x =

1

cosh x

=

2

e

x

+ e

−x

cosech x =

1

sinh x

=

2

e

x

−e

−x

coth x =

cosh x

sinh x

=

1

tanh x

=

e

x

+ e

−x

e

x

−e

−x

cosh

2

x −sinh

2

x = 1

1 −tanh

2

x = sech

2

x

coth

2

x −1 = cosech

2

x

sinh(x ±y) = sinh x cosh y ±cosh x sinh y

cosh(x ±y) = cosh x cosh y ±sinh x sinh y

tanh(x ±y) =

tanh x ±tanh y

1 ±tanh x tanh y

sinh 2x = 2 sinh x cosh x

cosh 2x = cosh

2

x + sinh

2

x

cosh

2

x =

cosh 2x + 1

2

sinh

2

x =

cosh 2x −1

2

3.6.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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3.7

The logarithm function

Introduction

This leaﬂet provides a table of values and graph of the logarithm function y = log

e

x.

1. The logarithm function and its graph

Logarithms have been explained in leaﬂet 2.19 What is a logarithm?. There we showed how

logarithms provide alternative ways of writing expressions involving powers, and we showed how

a calculator can be used to ﬁnd logarithms.

The natural logarithm function is y = log

e

x, also written ln x.

Note that we have chosen to use logarithms to base e as this is the most common base.

Using a calculator it is possible to construct a table of values of y = log

e

x as follows:

x 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

y = log

e

x −0.693 0 0.405 0.693 0.916 1.099 1.253

You should check these values for yourself to make sure that you can obtain them.

If pairs of x and y values are plotted we obtain a graph of the logarithm function as shown.

1 2 3

0.5

1

–0.5

x

y

The graph of the natural logarithm y = log

e

x

Note that the logarithm function is only deﬁned for positive values of x. We cannot ﬁnd the

logarithm of 0, or the logarithm of a negative number.

As an exercise you should draw up a similar table for the function y = log

10

x and plot its graph.

The graph should have the same general shape as the one above although most of the points on

the graph are diﬀerent.

3.7.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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3.8

Solving equations involving

logarithms and exponentials

Introduction

It is often necessary to solve an equation in which the unknown occurs as a power, or exponent.

For example, you may need to ﬁnd the value of x which satisﬁes 2

x

= 32. Very often the base

will be the exponential constant e, as in the equation e

x

= 20. To understand what follows

you must be familiar with the exponential constant. See leaﬂet 3.4 The exponential constant if

necessary.

You will also come across equations involving logarithms. For example you may need to ﬁnd

the value of x which satisﬁes log

10

x = 34. You will need to understand what is meant by a

logarithm, and the laws of logarithms (leaﬂets 2.19 What is a logarithm? and 2.20 The laws of

logarithms). In this leaﬂet we explain how such equations can be solved.

1. Revision of logarithms

Logarithms provide an alternative way of writing expressions involving powers. If

a = b

c

then log

b

a = c

For example: 100 = 10

2

can be written as log

10

100 = 2.

Similarly, e

3

= 20.086 can be written as log

e

20.086 = 3.

The third law of logarithms states that, for logarithms of any base,

log A

n

= n log A

For example, we can write log

10

5

2

as 2 log

10

5, and log

e

7

3

as 3 log

e

7.

2. Solving equations involving powers

Example

Solve the equation e

x

= 14.

Solution

Writing e

x

= 14 in its alternative form using logarithms we obtain x = log

e

14, which can be

evaluated directly using a calculator to give 2.639.

3.8.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

Solve the equation e

3x

= 14.

Solution

Writing e

3x

= 14 in its alternative form using logarithms we obtain 3x = log

e

14 = 2.639. Hence

x =

2.639

3

= 0.880.

To solve an equation of the form 2

x

= 32 it is necessary to take the logarithm of both sides of

the equation. This is referred to as ‘taking logs’. Usually we use logarithms to base 10 or base

e because values of these logarithms can be obtained using a scientiﬁc calculator.

Starting with 2

x

= 32, then taking logs produces log

10

2

x

= log

10

32. Using the third law of

logarithms, we can rewrite the left-hand side to give x log

10

2 = log

10

32. Dividing both sides by

log

10

2 gives

x =

log

10

32

log

10

2

The right-hand side can now be evaluated using a calculator in order to ﬁnd x:

x =

log

10

32

log

10

2

=

1.5051

0.3010

= 5

Hence 2

5

= 32. Note that this answer can be checked by substitution into the original equation.

3. Solving equations involving logarithms

Example

Solve the equation log

10

x = 0.98.

Solution

Rewriting the equation in its alternative form using powers gives 10

0.98

= x. A calculator can

be used to evaluate 10

0.98

to give x = 9.550.

Example

Solve the equation log

e

5x = 1.7.

Solution

Rewriting the equation in its alternative form using powers gives e

1.7

= 5x. A calculator can be

used to evaluate e

1.7

to give 5x = 5.4739 so that x = 1.095 to 3dp.

Exercises

1. Solve each of the following equations to ﬁnd x.

a) 3

x

= 15, b) e

x

= 15, c) 3

2x

= 9, d) e

5x−1

= 17, e) 10

3x

= 4.

2. Solve the equations a) log

e

2x = 1.36, b) log

10

5x = 2, c) log

10

(5x + 3) = 1.2.

Answers

1. a) 2.465, b) 2.708, c) 1, d) 0.767, e) 0.201.

2. a) 1.948 (3dp), b) 20, c) 2.570 (3dp).

3.8.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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3.9

Polar coordinates

Introduction

An alternative to using (x, y), or cartesian coordinates, is to use ‘polar coordinates’. These

are particularly useful for problems involving circular symmetry. This leaﬂet explains polar

coordinates and shows how it is possible to convert between cartesian and polar coordinates.

1. Polar coordinates

When you were ﬁrst introduced to coordinate systems you will have used cartesian coordinates.

These are the standard x and y coordinates of a point, P, such as that shown in Figure 3.9.1a

where the x axis is horizontal, the y axis is vertical and their intersection is the origin, O.

y

x

y

x

P(x ,y )

0

y

x

y

x

P(x,y )

0

r

θ

a) b)

Figure 3.9.1. a) Cartesian coordinates, b) Polar coordinates

The position of any point in the plane can be described uniquely by giving its x and y coordinates.

An alternative way of describing the position of a point is to draw a line from the origin to the

point as shown in Figure 3.9.1b. We can then state the length of this line, r, and the angle, θ,

between the positive direction of the x axis and the line. These quantities are called the polar

coordinates of P. It is conventional to denote the polar coordinates of a point either in the form

(r, θ) or r∠θ, although the latter is preferred to avoid confusion with cartesian coordinates. When

measuring the angle θ we use the convention that positive angles are measured anticlockwise,

and negative angles are measured clockwise. The length of OP is always taken to be positive.

Figure 3.9.2 shows several points and their polar coordinates.

3.9.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

4

3

2

1

–1 1 2 3 4

–1 1 2 3

–1

–2

–3

–1 1 2 3 4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

–2

–1 1 2 3 4

2

90

◦

2

146

◦

3

−π/2

2

−1.75

−π/2

90

◦

−1.75

146

◦

Figure 3.9.2. Some points and their polar coordinates

2. Conversion between cartesian and polar coordinates

Look back at Figure 3.9.1b. From trigonometry note that cos θ =

x

r

so that x = r cos θ. Similarly

sin θ =

y

r

so that y = r sin θ. Hence if we know the polar coordinates of a point r∠θ, we can

ﬁnd its cartesian coordinates.

Alternatively, using Pythagoras’ theorem note that r =

√

x

2

+ y

2

. Further, tan θ =

y

x

so that

θ = tan

−1

_

y

x

_

. However, when calculating θ you should take special care to ensure that θ is

located in the correct quadrant. The result produced by your calculator can be misleading. A

diagram should always be sketched and will help you decide the correct quadrant.

x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ

r =

_

x

2

+ y

2

, tan θ =

y

x

Exercises

In each case sketch a diagram showing the point in question. Angles in degrees are denoted by

the degrees symbol

◦

. Otherwise assume that the angle is measured in radians.

1. Calculate the cartesian coordinates of the following points.

a) 3∠2, b) 4∠0.7, c) 1∠180

◦

.

2. Calculate the polar coordinates of the following points.

a) (3, 4), b) (−2, 1), c) (−2, −3).

Answers

1. a) (−1.25, 2.73), b) (3.06, 2.58), c) (−1, 0). 2. a) 5∠0.927, b)

√

5∠2.678, c)

√

13∠ −2.159

3.9.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✠

4.1

Degrees and radians

Introduction

Angles can be measured in units of either degrees or radians. This leaﬂet explains these units

and shows how it is possible to convert between them.

1. Degrees and radians

Angles can be measured in units of either degrees or radians. The symbol for degree is

◦

. Usually

no symbol is used to denote radians.

A complete revolution is deﬁned as 360

◦

or 2π radians. π stands for the number 3.14159 . . . and

you can work with this if you prefer. However, in many calculations you will ﬁnd that you need

to work directly with multiples of π.

complete revolution = 360

◦

= 2π radians

half a revolution = 180

◦

= π radians

It is easy to use the fact that 360

◦

= 2π radians to convert between the two measures. We have

360

◦

= 2π radians

1

◦

=

2π

360

=

π

180

radians

1 radian =

180

π

degrees ≈ 57.3

◦

Example

a) Convert 65

◦

to radians. b) Convert 1.75 radians to degrees.

4.1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Solution

a)

1

◦

=

π

180

radians

65

◦

= 65 ×

π

180

= 1.134 radians

b)

1 radian =

180

π

degrees

1.75 radians = 1.75 ×

180

π

= 100.268

◦

Note the following commonly met angles:

30

◦

=

π

6

radians 45

◦

=

π

4

radians 60

◦

=

π

3

radians

90

◦

=

π

2

radians 135

◦

=

3π

4

radians 180

◦

= π radians

30

◦

=

π

6

radians

45

◦

=

π

4

radians 60

◦

=

π

3

radians

90

◦

=

π

2

radians

Your calculator should be able to work with angles measured in both radians and degrees.

Usually the MODE button allows you to select the appropriate measure. When calculations

involve calculus you should always work with radians and not degrees.

Exercises

1. Convert each of the following angles given in degrees, to radians. Give your answers correct

to 2 decimal places.

a) 32

◦

, b) 95

◦

, c) 217

◦

.

2. Convert each of the following angles given in radians, to degrees. Give your answers correct

to 2 decimal places.

a) 3 radians, b) 2.4 radians, c) 1 radian.

3. Convert each of the following angles given in radians, to degrees. Do not use a calculator.

a)

π

15

, b)

π

5

.

4. Convert the following angles given in degrees, to radians. Do not use a calculator and give

your answers as multiples of π.

a) 90

◦

, b) 72

◦

, c) −45

◦

.

Answers

1. a) 0.56 radians, b) 1.66 radians, c) 3.79 radians. 2. a) 171.89

◦

, b) 137.51

◦

, c) 57.30

◦

.

3. a) 12

◦

, b) 36

◦

. 4. a)

π

2

radians, b)

2π

5

radians, c) −

π

4

radians.

4.1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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4.2

The trigonometrical ratios

Introduction

The trigonometrical ratios sine, cosine and tangent appear frequently in many engineering prob-

lems. This leaﬂet revises the meaning of these terms.

1. Sine, cosine and tangent ratios

Study the right-angled triangle ABC shown below.

A B

C

θ

hypotenuse

side opposite to θ

side adjacent tο θ

The side opposite the right-angle is called the hypotenuse. The side opposite to θ is BC.

The remaining side, AB, is said to be adjacent to θ.

Suppose we know the lengths of each of the sides as in the ﬁgure below.

6

8

10

A B

C

θ

We can then divide the length of one side by the length of one of the other sides.

The ratio

BC

AC

is known as the sine of angle θ. This is abbreviated to sin θ. In the triangle shown

we see that

sin θ =

8

10

= 0.8

The ratio

AB

AC

is known as the cosine of angle θ. This is abbreviated to cos θ. In the triangle

shown we see that

cos θ =

6

10

= 0.6

The ratio

BC

AB

is known as the tangent of angle θ. This is abbreviated to tan θ. In the triangle

shown we see that

tan θ =

8

6

= 1.3333

In any right-angled triangle we deﬁne the trigonometrical ratios as follows:

4.2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

sin θ =

opposite

hypotenuse

=

BC

AC

cos θ =

adjacent

hypotenuse

=

AB

AC

tan θ =

opposite

adjacent

=

BC

AB

2. Some standard, or common, triangles

1

1

√2

45°

30°

60°

√3

2

1

sin 45

◦

=

1

√

2

, cos 45

◦

=

1

√

2

, tan 45

◦

= 1

sin 30

◦

=

1

2

, cos 30

◦

=

√

3

2

, tan 30

◦

=

1

√

3

sin 60

◦

=

√

3

2

, cos 60

◦

=

1

2

, tan 60

◦

=

√

3

3. Using a calculator

If we know the angles in a right-angled triangle the trigonometrical ratios can be found using a

scientiﬁc calculator. Look for the sine, cosine and tangent buttons on your calculator and make

sure that you can use them by verifying that

sin 50

◦

= 0.7660, cos 32

◦

= 0.8480

Your calculator will be able to handle angles measured in either radians or degrees. It will be

necessary for you to choose the appropriate units. Study your calculator manual to learn how

to do this. Check that

sin 0.56 radians = 0.5312, tan 1.4 radians = 5.7979

4. Finding an angle when a trigonometrical ratio is known

If we are given, or know, a value for sin θ, cos θ or tan θ we may want to work out the corre-

sponding angle θ. This process is known as ﬁnding the inverse sine, inverse cosine or inverse

tangent. Your calculator will be pre-programmed for doing this. The buttons will be labelled

invsin, or sin

−1

, and so on.

Check that you can use your calculator to show that if sinθ = 0.75 then θ = 48.59

◦

.

Mathematically we write this as follows:

if sin θ = 0.75, then θ = sin

−1

0.75 = 48.59

◦

4.2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✌

4.3

Graphs of the trigonometric

functions

Introduction

The trigonometric functions play a very important role in engineering mathematics. Familiarity

with the graphs of these functions is essential. Graphs of the trigonometric functions sine, cosine

and tangent, together with some tabulated values are shown here for reference.

1. The sine function

Using a scientiﬁc calculator a table of values of sin θ can be drawn up as θ varies from 0 to 360

◦

.

θ 0

◦

30

◦

60

◦

90

◦

120

◦

150

◦

sin θ 0 0.5000 0.8660 1 0.8660 0.5000

θ 180

◦

210

◦

240

◦

270

◦

300

◦

360

◦

sin θ 0 −0.5000 −0.8660 −1 −0.8660 0

Using the table, a graph of the function y = sin θ can be plotted and is shown below on the left.

sinθ

1

−1

90

◦

270

◦

360

◦

θ −180

◦

θ

sinθ

1

−1

90

◦

270

◦

450

◦

If further values, outside the range 0

◦

to 360

◦

, are calculated we ﬁnd that the wavy pattern

repeats itself as shown on the right. We say that the sine function is periodic with period 360

◦

.

Some values are particularly important and should be remembered:

sin 0

◦

= 0, sin 90

◦

= 1, sin 180

◦

= 0, sin 270

◦

= −1

The maximum value of sin θ is 1, and the minimum value is −1.

2. The cosine function

4.3.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

θ 0

◦

30

◦

60

◦

90

◦

120

◦

150

◦

cos θ 1 0.8660 0.5000 0 −0.5000 −0.8660

θ 180

◦

210

◦

240

◦

270

◦

300

◦

360

◦

cos θ −1 −0.8660 −0.5000 0 0.5000 1

Using a scientiﬁc calculator a table of values of cos θ can be drawn up as θ varies from 0 to 360

◦

.

Using the table, a graph of the function y = cos θ can be plotted as shown on the left.

cosθ

1

-1

90

◦

360

◦

θ

cosθ

1

-1

θ

90

◦

360

◦

If further values are calculated outside the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360

◦

we ﬁnd that the wavy pattern

repeats itself as shown on the right. We say that the cosine function is periodic with period

360

◦

. Some values are particularly important and should be remembered:

cos 0

◦

= 1, cos 90

◦

= 0, cos 180

◦

= −1, cos 270

◦

= 0

The maximum value of cos θ is 1, and the minimum value is −1.

3. The tangent function

Using a scientiﬁc calculator a table of values of tanθ can be drawn up as θ varies from 0 to 180

◦

although when θ = 90

◦

you will ﬁnd that this function is not deﬁned.

θ 0 45

◦

90

◦

135

◦

180

◦

tan θ 0 1 ∞ −1 0

Using the table, a graph of the function y = tan θ can be plotted and is shown below on the left.

tanθ

θ

tanθ

0

◦

180

◦

180

◦

360

◦

θ

If further values are calculated outside the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 180

◦

we ﬁnd that the pattern repeats

itself as shown on the right. We say that the tangent function is periodic with period 180

◦

.

Some values are particularly important and should be remembered:

tan 0

◦

= 0, tan 45

◦

= 1

There is no maximum value of tan θ because it increases without bound. There is no minimum

value. However there are certain values where tan θ is not deﬁned, including −90

◦

, 90

◦

, 270

◦

and so on. Here the graph shoots oﬀ to inﬁnity.

4.3.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

☛

✡

✟

✠

4.4

Trigonometrical identities

Introduction

Very often it is necessary to rewrite expressions involving sines, cosines and tangents in alter-

native forms. To do this we use formulas known as trigonometric identities. A number of

commonly used identities are listed here.

1. The identities

tan A =

sin A

cos A

sec A =

1

cos A

cosec A =

1

sin A

cot A =

cos A

sin A

=

1

tan A

sin(A ±B) = sin Acos B ±cos Asin B

cos(A ±B) = cos Acos B ∓sin Asin B

tan(A ±B) =

tan A ±tan B

1 ∓tan Atan B

2 sin Acos B = sin(A + B) + sin(A −B)

2 cos Acos B = cos(A −B) + cos(A + B)

2 sin Asin B = cos(A −B) −cos(A + B)

sin

2

A + cos

2

A = 1

1 + cot

2

A = cosec

2

A, tan

2

A + 1 = sec

2

A

cos 2A = cos

2

A −sin

2

A = 2 cos

2

A −1 = 1 −2 sin

2

A

sin 2A = 2 sin Acos A

4.4.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

sin

2

A =

1 −cos 2A

2

, cos

2

A =

1 + cos 2A

2

sin A + sin B = 2 sin

_

A + B

2

_

cos

_

A −B

2

_

sin A −sin B = 2 cos

_

A + B

2

_

sin

_

A −B

2

_

cos A + cos B = 2 cos

_

A + B

2

_

cos

_

A −B

2

_

cos A −cos B = 2 sin

_

A + B

2

_

sin

_

B −A

2

_

Note: sin

2

A is the notation used for (sin A)

2

. Similarly cos

2

A means (cos A)

2

and so on.

4.4.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

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✌

4.5

Pythagoras’ theorem

Introduction

Pythagoras’ theorem relates the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle. This leaﬂet

reminds you of the theorem and provides some revision examples and exercises.

1. Pythagoras’ theorem

Study the right-angled triangle shown.

hypotenuse

A

B C

a

b

c

In any right-angled triangle, ABC, the side opposite the right-angle is called the hypotenuse.

Here we use the convention that the side opposite angle A is labelled a. The side opposite B is

labelled b and the side opposite C is labelled c.

Pythagoras’ theorem states that the square of the hypotenuse, (c

2

), is equal to the sum of

the squares of the other two sides, (a

2

+ b

2

).

Pythagoras’ theorem: c

2

= a

2

+ b

2

Example

A

B C

c

9

5

Suppose AC = 9 cm and BC = 5 cm as shown. Find the length of the hypotenuse, AB.

4.5.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Solution

Here, a = BC = 5, and b = AC = 9. Using the theorem

c

2

= a

2

+ b

2

= 5

2

+ 9

2

= 25 + 81

= 106

c =

√

106 = 10.30 (2dp.)

The hypotenuse has length 10.30 cm.

Example

In triangle ABC shown, suppose that the length of the hypotenuse is 14 cm and that a = BC = 3

cm. Find the length of AC.

A

B C

b

14

3

Solution

Here a = BC = 3, and c = AB = 14. Using the theorem

c

2

= a

2

+ b

2

14

2

= 3

2

+ b

2

196 = 9 + b

2

b

2

= 196 −9

= 187

b =

√

187 = 13.67 (2dp)

The length of AC is 13.67 cm.

Exercises

1. In triangle ABC in which C = 90

◦

, AB = 25 cm and AC = 17 cm. Find the length BC.

2. In triangle ABC, the angle at B is the right-angle. If AB = BC = 5 cm ﬁnd AC.

3. In triangle CDE the right-angle is E. If CD = 55 cm and DE = 37 cm ﬁnd EC.

Answers

1. 18.33 cm. (2dp)

2. AC =

√

50 = 7.07 cm. (2dp)

3. EC =

√

1656 = 40.69 cm. (2dp)

4.5.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

✍

✌

4.6

The sine rule and cosine rule

Introduction

To solve a triangle is to ﬁnd the lengths of each of its sides and all its angles. The sine rule

is used when we are given either a) two angles and one side, or b) two sides and a non-included

angle. The cosine rule is used when we are given either a) three sides or b) two sides and the

included angle.

1. The sine rule

Study the triangle ABC shown below. Let B stands for the angle at B. Let C stand for the

angle at C and so on. Also, let b = AC, a = BC and c = AB.

b = AC

c = AB

a = BC

A

B

C

The sine rule:

a

sin A

=

b

sin B

=

c

sin C

Example

In triangle ABC, B = 21

◦

, C = 46

◦

and AB = 9 cm. Solve this triangle.

Solution

We are given two angles and one side and so the sine rule can be used. Furthermore, since

the angles in any triangle must add up to 180

◦

then angle A must be 113

◦

. We know that

c = AB = 9. Using the sine rule

a

sin 113

◦

=

b

sin 21

◦

=

9

sin 46

◦

So,

b

sin 21

◦

=

9

sin 46

◦

from which

b = sin 21

◦

×

9

sin 46

◦

= 4.484 cm (3dp)

4.6.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Similarly

a = sin 113

◦

×

9

sin 46

◦

= 11.517 cm (3dp)

2. The cosine rule

Refer to the triangle shown below.

b = AC

c = AB

a = BC

A

B

C

The cosine rule:

a

2

= b

2

+ c

2

−2bc cos A, b

2

= a

2

+ c

2

−2ac cos B, c

2

= a

2

+ b

2

−2ab cos C

Example

In triangle ABC, AB = 42 cm, BC = 37 cm and AC = 26 cm. Solve this triangle.

Solution

We are given three sides of the triangle and so the cosine rule can be used. Writing a = 37,

b = 26 and c = 42 we have

a

2

= b

2

+ c

2

−2bc cos A

from which

37

2

= 26

2

+ 42

2

−2(26)(42) cos A

cos A =

26

2

+ 42

2

−37

2

(2)(26)(42)

=

1071

2184

= 0.4904

and so

A = cos

−1

0.4904 = 60.63

◦

You should apply the same technique to verify that B = 37.76

◦

and C = 81.61

◦

. You should

also check that the angles you obtain add up to 180

◦

.

Exercises

1. Solve the triangle ABC in which AC = 105 cm, AB = 76 cm and A = 29

◦

.

2. Solve the triangle ABC given C = 40

◦

, b = 23 cm and c = 19 cm.

Answers

1. a = 53.31cm, B = 72.72

◦

, C = 78.28

◦

. 2. A = 11.09

◦

, B = 128.91

◦

, a = 5.69 cm.

or A = 88.91

◦

, B = 51.09

◦

, BC = 29.55 cm.

4.6.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

✍

✌

5.1

Determinants

Introduction

Determinants are mathematical objects which have applications in engineering mathematics.

For example, they can be used in the solution of simultaneous equations, and to evaluate vector

products. This leaﬂet will show you how to calculate the value of a determinant.

1. Evaluating a determinant

The symbol

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a b

c d

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

represents the expression ad −bc and is called a determinant.

For example

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 2

1 4

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

means 3 ×4 − 2 ×1 = 12 −2 = 10

Because

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a b

c d

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

has two rows and two columns we describe it as a ‘2 by 2’ or second-order

determinant. Its value is given by

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a b

c d

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= ad −bc

If we are given values for a, b, c and d we can use this to calculate the value of the determinant.

Note that, once we have worked it out, a determinant is a single number.

Exercises

Evaluate the following determinants:

a)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 4

6 5

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

b)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

2 −2

1 4

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, c)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

8 5

−2 4

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, d)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

6 10

−3 −5

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, e)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

x 5

y 2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

.

Answers

a) 15 −24 = −9, b) 8 −(−2) = 10, c) 32 −(−10) = 42, d) −30 −(−30) = 0, e) 2x −5y.

2. Third-order determinants

A third-order or ‘3 by 3’ determinant can be written

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

b

1

c

1

a

2

b

2

c

2

a

3

b

3

c

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

5.1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

One way in which it can be evaluated is to use second-order determinants as follows:

a

1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

b

2

c

2

b

3

c

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−b

1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

2

c

2

a

3

c

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

+ c

1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

2

b

2

a

3

b

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

Note in particular the way that the signs alternate between + and −.

For example

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

1 2 1

−1 3 4

5 1 2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 4

1 2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−1 4

5 2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

+ 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−1 3

5 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 1(2) −2(−22) + 1(−16)

= 2 + 44 −16

= 30

Exercises

1. Evaluate each of the following determinants.

a)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

2 4 1

1 0 4

5 −1 3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, b)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

0 −3 2

−9 4 1

6 0 2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, c)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

7 −2 3

−1 −4 −4

6 −2 12

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, d)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a 0 0

0 b 0

0 0 c

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

.

2. Evaluate each of the following determinants.

a)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

9 12 1

1 4 1

1 5 3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, b)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 12 1

−3 4 1

4 5 3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, c)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 9 1

−3 1 1

4 1 3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, d)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 9 12

−3 1 4

4 1 5

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

.

Answers

1. a) 75, b) −120, c) −290, d) abc. 2. a) 40, b) 146, c) 116, d) 198.

3. Fourth-order determinants

These are evaluated using third-order determinants. Once again note the alternating plus and

minus sign.

Example

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

5 2 6 3

3 9 12 1

−3 1 4 1

4 1 5 3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 5

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

9 12 1

1 4 1

1 5 3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 12 1

−3 4 1

4 5 3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

+ 6

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 9 1

−3 1 1

4 1 3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 9 12

−3 1 4

4 1 5

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 5(40) −2(146) + 6(116) −3(198)

= 200 −292 + 696 −594

= 10

Determinants can be used in the solution of simultaneous equations using Cramer’s rule – see

the leaﬂet 5.2 Cramer’s rule.

5.1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

✍

✌

5.2

Cramer’s rule

Introduction

Cramer’s rule is a method for solving linear simultaneous equations. It makes use of determinants

and so a knowledge of these is necessary before proceeding.

1. Cramer’s rule – two equations

If we are given a pair of simultaneous equations

a

1

x + b

1

y = d

1

a

2

x + b

2

y = d

2

then x and y can be found from

x =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

d

1

b

1

d

2

b

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

b

1

a

2

b

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

y =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

d

1

a

2

d

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

b

1

a

2

b

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

Example

Solve the equations

3x + 4y = −14

−2x −3y = 11

Solution

Using Cramer’s rule we can write the solution as the ratio of two determinants.

x =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−14 4

11 −3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 4

−2 −3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

−2

−1

= 2, y =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 −14

−2 11

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

3 4

−2 −3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

5

−1

= −5

The solution of the simultaneous equations is then x = 2, y = −5.

5.2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

2. Cramer’s rule – three equations

For the case of three equations in three unknowns: If

a

1

x + b

1

y + c

1

z = d

1

a

2

x + b

2

y + c

2

z = d

2

a

3

x + b

3

y + c

3

z = d

3

then x, y and z can be found from

x =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

d

1

b

1

c

1

d

2

b

2

c

2

d

3

b

3

c

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

b

1

c

1

a

2

b

2

c

2

a

3

b

3

c

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

y =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

d

1

c

1

a

2

d

2

c

2

a

3

d

3

c

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

b

1

c

1

a

2

b

2

c

2

a

3

b

3

c

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

b

1

d

1

a

2

b

2

d

2

a

3

b

3

d

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

b

1

c

1

a

2

b

2

c

2

a

3

b

3

c

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

Exercises

Use Cramer’s rule to solve the following sets of simultaneous equations.

a)

7x + 3y = 15

−2x + 5y = −16

b)

x + 2y + 3z = 17

3x + 2y + z = 11

x −5y + z = −5

Answers

a) x = 3, y = −2, b) x = 1, y = 2, z = 4.

5.2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

✍

✌

5.3

Multiplying matrices

Introduction

One of the most important operations carried out with matrices is matrix multiplication. At

ﬁrst sight this is done in a rather strange way. The reason for this only becomes apparent when

matrices are used to solve equations.

1. Some simple examples

To multiply

_

3 7

_

by

_

2

9

_

perform the following calculation.

_

3 7

_

_

2

9

_

= 3 ×2 + 7 ×9 = 6 + 63 = 69

Note that we have paired elements in the row of the ﬁrst matrix with elements in the column

of the second matrix, multiplied the paired elements together and added the results.

Another, larger example:

_

4 2 5

_

_

_

_

3

6

8

_

_

_ = 4 ×3 + 2 ×6 + 5 ×8 = 12 + 12 + 40 = 64

Exercises

1. Evaluate the following:

a)

_

4 5

_

_

2

9

_

, b)

_

−3 7

_

_

2

9

_

, c)

_

1 3 5

_

_

_

_

3

7

8

_

_

_, d)

_

−4 2 5

_

_

_

_

3

6

−8

_

_

_.

Answers

1. a) 53, b) 57, c) 64, d) −40.

2. More general matrix multiplication

When we multiplied matrices in the previous section the answers were always single numbers.

Usually however, the result of multiplying two matrices is another matrix. Two matrices can

only be multiplied together if the number of columns in the ﬁrst matrix is the same as the

number of rows in the second. So, if the ﬁrst matrix has size p × q, that is, it has p rows and

q columns, and the second has size r × s, that is, it has r rows and s columns, we can only

multiply them together if q = r. When this is so, the result of multiplying them together is a

p ×s matrix.

5.3.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Two matrices can only ever be multiplied together if

the number of columns in the ﬁrst is the same as the number of rows in the second.

Example

Find

_

3 7

4 5

__

2

9

_

.

Solution

The ﬁrst matrix has size 2 × 2. The second has size 2 × 1. Clearly the number of columns in

the ﬁrst is the same as the number of rows in the second. So, multiplication is possible and the

result will be a 2 ×1 matrix. The calculation is performed using the same operations as in the

examples in the previous section.

_

3 7

4 5

__

2

9

_

=

_

∗

∗

_

To obtain the ﬁrst entry in the solution, ignore the second row of the ﬁrst matrix. You have

already seen the required calculations.

_

3 7

__

2

9

_

=

_

69

_

To obtain the second entry in the solution, ignore the ﬁrst row of the ﬁrst matrix.

_

4 5

__

2

9

_

=

_

53

_

Putting it all together

_

3 7

4 5

__

2

9

_

=

_

69

53

_

Example

Find

_

2 4

5 3

__

3 6

−1 9

_

.

Solution

The ﬁrst matrix has size 2×2. The second matrix has size 2×2. Clearly the number of columns

in the ﬁrst is the same as the number of rows in the second. The multiplication can be performed

and the result will be a 2 ×2 matrix.

_

2 4

5 3

__

3 6

−1 9

_

=

_

2 ×3 + 4 ×(−1) 2 ×6 + 4 ×9

5 ×3 + 3 ×(−1) 5 ×6 + 3 ×9

_

=

_

2 48

12 57

_

Exercises

1. Evaluate the following.

a)

_

−3 2

3 11

__

3

−1

_

, b)

_

4 2

5 11

__

3 10

−1 9

_

, c)

_

2 1

1 9

__

2 0 2

5 13 1

_

.

Answers

1. a)

_

−11

−2

_

, b)

_

10 58

4 149

_

, c)

_

9 13 5

47 117 11

_

.

5.3.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

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✌

5.4

The inverse of a 2 ×2 matrix

Introduction

Once you know how to multiply matrices it is natural to ask whether they can be divided. The

answer is no. However, by deﬁning another matrix called the inverse matrix it is possible to

work with an operation which plays a similar role to division. In this leaﬂet we explain what is

meant by an inverse matrix and how the inverse of a 2 ×2 matrix is calculated.

1. The inverse of a 2 ×2 matrix

The inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix, A, is another 2 × 2 matrix denoted by A

−1

with the property

that

AA

−1

= A

−1

A = I

where I is the 2 × 2 identity matrix

_

1 0

0 1

_

. That is, multiplying a matrix by its inverse

produces an identity matrix. Note that in this context A

−1

does not mean

1

A

.

Not all 2 × 2 matrices have an inverse matrix. If the determinant of the matrix is zero, then

it will not have an inverse, and the matrix is said to be singular. Only non-singular matrices

have inverses.

2. A simple formula for the inverse

In the case of a 2 ×2 matrix

_

a b

c d

_

a simple formula exists to ﬁnd its inverse:

if A =

_

a b

c d

_

then A

−1

=

1

ad −bc

_

d −b

−c a

_

Example

Find the inverse of the matrix A =

_

3 1

4 2

_

.

Solution

Using the formula

A

−1

=

1

(3)(2) −(1)(4)

_

2 −1

−4 3

_

=

1

2

_

2 −1

−4 3

_

5.4.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

This could be written as

_

1 −

1

2

−2

3

2

_

You should check that this answer is correct by performing the matrix multiplication AA

−1

.

The result should be the identity matrix I =

_

1 0

0 1

_

.

Example

Find the inverse of the matrix A =

_

2 4

−3 1

_

.

Solution

Using the formula

A

−1

=

1

(2)(1) −(4)(−3)

_

1 −4

3 2

_

=

1

14

_

1 −4

3 2

_

This can be written

A

−1

=

_

1/14 −4/14

3/14 2/14

_

=

_

1/14 −2/7

3/14 1/7

_

although it is quite permissible to leave the factor

1

14

at the front of the matrix.

Exercises

1. Find the inverse of A =

_

1 5

3 2

_

.

2. Explain why the inverse of the matrix

_

6 4

3 2

_

cannot be calculated.

3. Show that

_

3 4

2 3

_

is the inverse of

_

3 −4

−2 3

_

.

Answers

1. A

−1

=

1

−13

_

2 −5

−3 1

_

=

_

−

2

13

5

13

3

13

−

1

13

_

.

2. The determinant of the matrix is zero, that is, it is singular and so has no inverse.

5.4.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✠

5.5

The inverse of a matrix

Introduction

In this leaﬂet we explain what is meant by an inverse matrix and how it is calculated.

1. The inverse of a matrix

The inverse of a square n ×n matrix, A, is another n ×n matrix denoted by A

−1

such that

AA

−1

= A

−1

A = I

where I is the n × n identity matrix. That is, multiplying a matrix by its inverse produces

an identity matrix. Not all square matrices have an inverse matrix. If the determinant of the

matrix is zero, then it will not have an inverse, and the matrix is said to be singular. Only

non-singular matrices have inverses.

2. A formula for ﬁnding the inverse

Given any non-singular matrix A, its inverse can be found from the formula

A

−1

=

adj A

|A|

where adj A is the adjoint matrix and |A| is the determinant of A. The procedure for ﬁnding

the adjoint matrix is given below.

3. Finding the adjoint matrix

The adjoint of a matrix A is found in stages:

(1) Find the transpose of A, which is denoted by A

T

. The transpose is found by interchanging

the rows and columns of A. So, for example, the ﬁrst column of A is the ﬁrst row of the

transposed matrix; the second column of A is the second row of the transposed matrix, and so

on.

(2) The minor of any element is found by covering up the elements in its row and column and

ﬁnding the determinant of the remaining matrix. By replacing each element of A

T

by its minor,

we can write down a matrix of minors of A

T

.

(3) The cofactor of any element is found by taking its minor and imposing a place sign

according to the following rule

_

_

_

_

_

_

+ − + . . .

− + − . . .

+ − + . . .

. . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

5.5.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

This means, for example, that to ﬁnd the cofactor of an element in the ﬁrst row, second column,

the sign of the minor is changed. On the other hand to ﬁnd the cofactor of an element in the

second row, second column, the sign of the minor is unaltered. This is equivalent to multiplying

the minor by ‘+1’ or ‘−1’ depending upon its position. In this way we can form a matrix of

cofactors of A

T

. This matrix is called the adjoint of A, denoted adj A.

The matrix of cofactors of the transpose of A is called the adjoint matrix, adj A

This procedure may seem rather cumbersome, so it is illustrated now by means of an example.

Example

Find the adjoint, and hence the inverse, of A =

_

_

_

1 −2 0

3 1 5

−1 2 3

_

_

_.

Solution

Follow the stages outlined above. First ﬁnd the transpose of A by taking the ﬁrst column of A

to be the ﬁrst row of A

T

, and so on:

A

T

=

_

_

_

1 3 −1

−2 1 2

0 5 3

_

_

_

Now ﬁnd the minor of each element in A

T

. The minor of the element ‘1’ in the ﬁrst row, ﬁrst

column, is obtained by covering up the elements in its row and column to give

_

1 2

5 3

_

and

ﬁnding the determinant of this, which is −7. The minor of the element ‘3’ in the second column

of the ﬁrst row is found by covering up elements in its row and column to give

_

−2 2

0 3

_

which

has determinant −6. We continue in this fashion and form a new matrix by replacing every

element of A

T

by its minor. Check for yourself that this process gives

matrix of minors of A

T

=

_

_

_

−7 −6 −10

14 3 5

7 0 7

_

_

_

Then impose the place sign. This results in the matrix of cofactors, that is, the adjoint of A.

adj A =

_

_

_

−7 6 −10

−14 3 −5

7 0 7

_

_

_

Notice that to complete this last stage, each element in the matrix of minors has been multiplied

by 1 or −1 according to its position.

It is a straightforward matter to show that the determinant of A is 21. Finally

A

−1

=

adj A

|A|

=

1

21

_

_

_

−7 6 −10

−14 3 −5

7 0 7

_

_

_

Exercise

1. Show that the inverse of

_

_

_

1 3 2

0 5 1

−1 3 0

_

_

_ is

1

4

_

_

_

−3 6 −7

−1 2 −1

5 −6 5

_

_

_.

5.5.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✌

5.6

Using the inverse matrix to

solve equations

Introduction

One of the most important applications of matrices is to the solution of linear simultaneous

equations. In this leaﬂet we explain how this can be done.

1. Writing simultaneous equations in matrix form

Consider the simultaneous equations

x + 2y = 4

3x −5y = 1

Provided you understand how matrices are multiplied together you will realise that these can

be written in matrix form as

_

1 2

3 −5

__

x

y

_

=

_

4

1

_

Writing

A =

_

1 2

3 −5

_

, X =

_

x

y

_

, and B =

_

4

1

_

we have

AX = B

This is the matrix form of the simultaneous equations. Here the unknown is the matrix X,

since A and B are already known. A is called the matrix of coeﬃcients.

2. Solving the simultaneous equations

Given

AX = B

we can multiply both sides by the inverse of A, provided this exists, to give

A

−1

AX = A

−1

B

But A

−1

A = I, the identity matrix. Furthermore, IX = X, because multiplying any matrix by

an identity matrix of the appropriate size leaves the matrix unaltered. So

X = A

−1

B

5.6.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

if AX = B, then X = A

−1

B

This result gives us a method for solving simultaneous equations. All we need do is write them

in matrix form, calculate the inverse of the matrix of coeﬃcients, and ﬁnally perform a matrix

multiplication.

Example

Solve the simultaneous equations

x + 2y = 4

3x −5y = 1

Solution

We have already seen these equations in matrix form:

_

1 2

3 −5

__

x

y

_

=

_

4

1

_

We need to calculate the inverse of A =

_

1 2

3 −5

_

.

A

−1

=

1

(1)(−5) −(2)(3)

_

−5 −2

−3 1

_

= −

1

11

_

−5 −2

−3 1

_

Then X is given by

X = A

−1

B = −

1

11

_

−5 −2

−3 1

__

4

1

_

= −

1

11

_

−22

−11

_

=

_

2

1

_

Hence x = 2, y = 1 is the solution of the simultaneous equations.

Exercises

1. Solve the following sets of simultaneous equations using the inverse matrix method.

a)

5x + y = 13

3x + 2y = 5

, b)

3x + 2y = −2

x + 4y = 6

.

Answers

1. a) x = 3, y = −2, b) x = −2, y = 2 .

5.6.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

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✌

6.1

Vectors

Introduction

This leaﬂet explains notations in common use for describing vectors, and shows how to calculate

the modulus of vectors given in cartesian form.

1. Vectors

Vectors are quantities which possess a magnitude and a direction. As such, we often represent

them by directed line segments such as those shown below.

−−→

AB

−−→

CD

a

c

A

B

C

D

The arrow on the line indicates the intended direction whilst the length of the line represents

the magnitude. The magnitude is also called the modulus or the length of the vector.

It is important when writing vectors that we distinguish them from scalars (or numbers) and

so various notations are used to do this. We can write the vector from A to B as

−→

AB. In

printed work vectors are often shown with a bold typeface, as in a. In handwritten work we

usually underline vectors, as in a. Whichever way you choose it is important that vectors can

be distinguished from scalars. The magnitude of a vector a =

−→

AB is written as |a| or |

−→

AB|. The

magnitude is represented by the length of the directed line segment.

2. Unit vectors

A unit vector is a vector of length 1. To obtain a unit vector in the direction of any vector a

we divide by its modulus. To show a vector is a unit vector we give it a ‘hat’, as in ˆ a.

ˆ a =

a

|a|

6.1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

3. Cartesian components

i represents a unit vector in the direction of the positive x axis

j represents a unit vector in the direction of the positive y axis

x axis

y axis

r = ai + bj

ai

bj

i

j

Any vector in the xy plane can be written r = ai + bj where a and b are numbers.

Its modulus can be found using Pythagoras’ theorem:

|r| =

√

a

2

+ b

2

4. Three dimensions

To work in three dimensions we introduce an additional unit vector k which points in the

direction of the positive z axis.

Any vector in three dimensions can be written r = ai + bj + ck.

Its modulus can be found using Pythagoras’ theorem:

|r| =

√

a

2

+ b

2

+ c

2

r = ai + bj + ck

i

j

k

O

a

b

c

x

y

z

6.1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✌

6.2

The scalar product

Introduction

In this leaﬂet we describe how to ﬁnd the scalar product of two vectors.

1. Deﬁnition of the scalar product

Consider the two vectors a and b shown below. Note that the tails of the two vectors coincide

and that the angle between the vectors has been labelled θ.

a

b

θ

Their scalar product, denoted a · b, is deﬁned as |a| |b| cos θ. It is very important to use the

dot in the formula. The dot is the symbol for the scalar product, and is the reason why the

scalar product is also known as the dot product. You should never use a × sign in this

context because this symbol is reserved for a quantity called the vector product which is quite

diﬀerent.

scalar product : a · b = |a| |b| cos θ

Example

Vectors a and b are shown in the ﬁgure above. Suppose the vector a has modulus 8 and the

vector b has modulus 7. Suppose also that the angle, θ, between these vectors is 30

◦

. Calculate

a · b.

Solution

a · b = |a| |b| cos θ

= (8)(7) cos 30

◦

= 48.5

The scalar product of a and b is equal to 48.5. Note that when ﬁnding a scalar product the

result is always a scalar, that is a number, and not a vector.

6.2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

2. A formula for ﬁnding the scalar product

A simple formula exists for ﬁnding a scalar product when the vectors are given in cartesian form.

if a = a

1

i + a

2

j + a

3

k and b = b

1

i + b

2

j + b

3

k then

a · b = a

1

b

1

+ a

2

b

2

+ a

3

b

3

Example

If a = 5i + 3j −2k and b = 8i −9j + 11k, ﬁnd a · b.

Solution

Respective components are multiplied together and the results are added.

a · b = (5)(8) + (3)(−9) + (−2)(11) = 40 −27 −22 = −9

Note again that the result is a scalar not a vector. The answer cannot contain i, j, or k.

Exercises

1. If a = 2i + j + 3k, b = 7i + j + 2k and c = −i + 4j + 2k show a · b = 21, b · c = 1 and

a · c = 8.

3. Using the scalar product to ﬁnd the angle between two vectors

The scalar product is useful when you need to calculate the angle between two vectors.

Example

Find the angle between the vectors a = 2i + 3j + 5k and b = i −2j + 3k.

Solution

Their scalar product is easily shown to be 11. The modulus of a is

√

2

2

+ 3

2

+ 5

2

=

√

38. The

modulus of b is

_

1

2

+ (−2)

2

+ 3

2

=

√

14. Using the formula for the scalar product we ﬁnd

a · b = |a| |b| cos θ

11 =

√

38

√

14 cos θ

from which

cos θ =

11

√

38

√

14

= 0.4769 so that θ = cos

−1

(0.4769) = 61.5

◦

In general, the angle between two vectors can be found from the following formula:

cos θ =

a · b

|a| |b|

Exercise

1. Show that the angle between the vectors a = 5i + 3j −2k and b = 8i −9j + 11k is 95.14

◦

.

6.2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✍

✌

6.3

The vector product

Introduction

In this leaﬂet we describe how to ﬁnd the vector product of two vectors.

1. Deﬁnition of the vector product

The result of ﬁnding the vector product of two vectors, a and b, is a vector of modulus |a| |b| sin θ

in the direction of ˆ e, where ˆ e is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane containing a and b in

a sense deﬁned by the right-handed screw rule as shown below. The symbol used for the vector

product is the times sign, ×. Do not use a dot, ·, because this is the symbol used for a scalar

product.

b

a

a ×b

|a| |b| sin θ length

θ

vector product: a ×b = |a| |b| sin θ ˆ e

2. A formula for ﬁnding the vector product

A formula exists for ﬁnding the vector product of two vectors given in cartesian form:

If a = a

1

i + a

2

j + a

3

k and b = b

1

i + b

2

j + b

3

k then

a ×b = (a

2

b

3

−a

3

b

2

)i −(a

1

b

3

−a

3

b

1

)j + (a

1

b

2

−a

2

b

1

)k

Example

Evaluate the vector product a ×b if a = 3i −2j + 5k and b = 7i + 4j −8k.

Solution

By inspection a

1

= 3, a

2

= −2, a

3

= 5, b

1

= 7, b

2

= 4, b

3

= −8, and so

a ×b = ((−2)(−8) −(5)(4))i −((3)(−8) −(5)(7))j + ((3)(4) −(−2)(7))k

= −4i + 59j + 26k

6.3.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

3. Using determinants to evaluate a vector product

Evaluation of a vector product using the previous formula is very cumbersome. There is a more

convenient and easily remembered method for those of you who are familiar with determinants.

The vector product of two vectors a = a

1

i + a

2

j + a

3

k and b = b

1

i + b

2

j + b

3

k can be found by

evaluating the determinant:

a ×b =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i j k

a

1

a

2

a

3

b

1

b

2

b

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

To ﬁnd the i component of the vector product, imagine crossing out the row and column con-

taining i and ﬁnding the determinant of what is left, that is

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

2

a

3

b

2

b

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= a

2

b

3

−a

3

b

2

The resulting number is the i component of the vector product. The j component is found by

crossing out the row and column containing j and evaluating

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

a

3

b

1

b

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= a

1

b

3

−a

3

b

1

and then changing the sign of the result. Finally the k component is found by crossing out the

row and column containing k and evaluating

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

a

1

a

2

b

1

b

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= a

1

b

2

−a

2

b

1

If a = a

1

i + a

2

j + a

3

k and b = b

1

i + b

2

j + b

3

k then

a ×b =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i j k

a

1

a

2

a

3

b

1

b

2

b

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= (a

2

b

3

−a

3

b

2

)i −(a

1

b

3

−a

3

b

1

)j + (a

1

b

2

−a

2

b

1

)k

Example

Find the vector product of a = 3i −4j + 2k and b = 9i −6j + 2k.

Solution

The two given vectors are represented in the determinant

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i j k

3 −4 2

9 −6 2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

Evaluating this determinant we obtain

a ×b = (−8 −(−12))i −(6 −18)j + (−18 −(−36))k = 4i + 12j + 18k

Exercises

1. If a = 8i + j − 2k and b = 5i − 3j + k show that a × b = −5i − 18j − 29k. Show also that

b ×a is not equal to a ×b, but rather that b ×a = 5i + 18j + 29k.

6.3.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✟

✠

7.1

What is a complex number?

Introduction

This leaﬂet explains how the set of real numbers with which you are already familiar is enlarged

to include further numbers called imaginary numbers. This leads to a study of complex

numbers which are useful in a variety of engineering applications, especially alternating current

circuit analysis.

1. Finding the square root of a negative number

It is impossible to ﬁnd the square root of a negative number such as −16. If you try to ﬁnd this

on your calculator you will probably obtain an error message. Nevertheless it becomes useful to

construct a way in which we can write down square roots of negative numbers.

We start by introducing a symbol to stand for the square root of −1. Conventionally this symbol

is j. That is j =

√

−1. It follows that j

2

= −1. Using real numbers we cannot ﬁnd the square

root of a negative number, and so the quantity j is not real. We say it is imaginary.

j is an imaginary number such that j

2

= −1

Even though j is not real, using it we can formally write down the square roots of any negative

number as shown in the following example.

Example

Write down expressions for the square roots of a) 9, b) −9.

Solution

a)

√

9 = ±3.

b) Noting that −9 = 9 ×−1 we can write

√

−9 =

√

9 ×−1

=

√

9 ×

√

−1

= ±3 ×

√

−1

Then using the fact that

√

−1 = j we have

√

−9 = ±3j

7.1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

Use the fact that j

2

= −1 to simplify a) j

3

, b) j

4

.

Solution

a) j

3

= j

2

×j. But j

2

= −1 and so j

3

= −1 ×j = −j.

b) j

4

= j

2

×j

2

= (−1) ×(−1) = 1.

Using the imaginary number j it is possible to solve all quadratic equations.

Example

Use the formula for solving a quadratic equation to solve 2x

2

+ x + 1 = 0.

Solution

We use the formula x =

−b±

√

b

2

−4ac

2a

. With a = 2, b = 1 and c = 1 we ﬁnd

x =

−1 ±

_

1

2

−(4)(2)(1)

2(2)

=

−1 ±

√

−7

4

=

−1 ±

√

7j

4

= −

1

4

±

√

7

4

j

Exercises

1. Simplify a) −j

2

, b) (−j)

2

, c) (−j)

3

, d) −j

3

.

2. Solve the quadratic equation 3x

2

+ 5x + 3 = 0.

Answers

1. a) 1, b) −1, c) j, d) j. 2. −

5

6

±

√

11

6

j.

2. Complex numbers

In the previous example we found that the solutions of 2x

2

+x+1 = 0 were −

1

4

±

√

7

4

j. These are

complex numbers. A complex number such as −

1

4

+

√

7

4

j is made up of two parts, a real part,

−

1

4

, and an imaginary part,

√

7

4

. We often use the letter z to stand for a complex number and

write z = a + bj, where a is the real part and b is the imaginary part.

z = a + bj

where a is the real part and b is the imaginary part of the complex number.

Exercises

1. State the real and imaginary parts of: a) 13 −5j, b) 1 −0.35j, c) cos θ + j sin θ.

Answers

1. a) real part 13, imaginary part −5, b) 1, −0.35, c) cos θ, sin θ.

7.1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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7.2

Complex arithmetic

Introduction.

This leaﬂet describes how complex numbers are added, subtracted, multiplied and divided.

1. Addition and subtraction of complex numbers

Given two complex numbers we can ﬁnd their sum and diﬀerence in an obvious way.

If z

1

= a

1

+ b

1

j and z

2

= a

2

+ b

2

j then

z

1

+ z

2

= (a

1

+ a

2

) + (b

1

+ b

2

)j

z

1

−z

2

= (a

1

−a

2

) + (b

1

−b

2

)j

So, to add the complex numbers we simply add the real parts together and add the imaginary

parts together.

Example

If z

1

= 13 + 5j and z

2

= 8 −2j ﬁnd a) z

1

+ z

2

, b) z

2

−z

1

.

Solution

a) z

1

+ z

2

= (13 + 5j) + (8 −2j) = 21 + 3j.

b) z

2

−z

1

= (8 −2j) −(13 + 5j) = −5 −7j

2. Multiplication of complex numbers

To multiply two complex numbers we use the normal rules of algebra and also the fact that

j

2

= −1. If z

1

and z

2

are the two complex numbers their product is written z

1

z

2

.

Example

If z

1

= 5 −2j and z

2

= 2 + 4j ﬁnd z

1

z

2

.

Solution

z

1

z

2

= (5 −2j)(2 + 4j) = 10 + 20j −4j −8j

2

Replacing j

2

by −1 we obtain

z

1

z

2

= 10 + 16j −8(−1) = 18 + 16j

In general we have the following result:

7.2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

If z

1

= a

1

+ b

1

j and z

2

= a

2

+ b

2

j then

z

1

z

2

= (a

1

+ b

1

j)(a

2

+ b

2

j) = a

1

a

2

+ a

1

b

2

j + b

1

a

2

j + b

1

b

2

j

2

= (a

1

a

2

−b

1

b

2

) + j(a

1

b

2

+ a

2

b

1

)

3. Division of complex numbers

To divide complex numbers we need to make use of the complex conjugate. Given a complex

number, z, its conjugate, written ¯ z, is found by changing the sign of the imaginary part. For

example, the complex conjugate of z = 3 + 2j is ¯ z = 3 − 2j. Division is illustrated in the

following example.

Example

Find

z

1

z

2

when z

1

= 3 + 2j and z

2

= 4 −3j.

Solution

We require

z

1

z

2

=

3 + 2j

4 −3j

Both numerator and denominator are multiplied by the complex conjugate of the denominator.

Overall, this is equivalent to multiplying by 1 and so the fraction remains unaltered, but it will

have the eﬀect of making the denominator purely real, as you will see.

3 + 2j

4 −3j

=

3 + 2j

4 −3j

×

4 + 3j

4 + 3j

=

(3 + 2j)(4 + 3j)

(4 −3j)(4 + 3j)

=

12 + 9j + 8j + 6j

2

16 + 12j −12j −9j

2

=

6 + 17j

25

(the denominator is now seen to be real)

=

6

25

+

17

25

j

Exercises

1. If z

1

= 1 + j and z

2

= 3 + 2j ﬁnd a) z

1

z

2

, b) z

1

, c) z

2

, d) z

1

z

1

, e) z

2

z

2

.

2. If z

1

= 1 + j and z

2

= 3 + 2j ﬁnd a)

z

1

z

2

, b)

z

2

z

1

, c) z

1

/z

1

, d) z

2

/z

2

.

3. Find a)

7−6j

2j

, b)

3+9j

1−2j

, c)

1

j

.

Answers

1. a) 1 + 5j, b) 1 −j, c) 3 −2j, d) 2, e) 13.

2. a)

5

13

+

j

13

, b)

5

2

−

j

2

, c) j, d)

5

13

+

12

13

j.

3. a) −3 −

7

2

j, b) −3 + 3j, c) −j.

7.2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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7.3

The Argand diagram

Introduction

Engineers often ﬁnd a pictorial representation of complex numbers useful.

Such a representation is known as an Argand diagram. This leaﬂet explains how to draw an

Argand diagram.

1. The Argand diagram

The complex number z = a +bj is plotted as a point with coordinates (a, b) as shown. Because

the real part of z is plotted on the horizontal axis we often refer to this as the real axis. The

imaginary part of z is plotted on the vertical axis and so we refer to this as the imaginary

axis. Such a diagram is called an Argand diagram.

O

imaginary axis

real axis

(a, b)

z = a + bj

a

b

The complex number z = a + bj is plotted as the point with coordinates (a, b).

Example

Plot the complex numbers 2 + 3j, −3 + 2j, −3 −2j, 2 −5j, 6, j on an Argand diagram.

Solution

The ﬁgure below shows the Argand diagram. Note that purely real numbers lie on the real axis.

Purely imaginary numbers lie on the imaginary axis. Note that complex conjugate pairs such

as −3 ±2j lie symmetrically on opposite sides of the real axis.

imaginary axis

real axis

2 + 3j

−3 + 2j

−3 −2j

2 −5j

6 j

0

−5

7.3.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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7.4

The polar form

Introduction

From an Argand diagram the modulus and the argument of a complex number can be deﬁned.

These provide an alternative way of describing complex numbers known as the polar form. This

leaﬂet explains how to ﬁnd the modulus and argument.

1. The modulus and argument of a complex number

The Argand diagram below shows the complex number z = a + bj. The distance of the point

(a, b) from the origin is called the modulus, or magnitude, of the complex number and has

the symbol r. Alternatively, r is written as |z|. The modulus is never negative. The modulus

can be found using Pythagoras’ theorem, that is

|z| = r =

√

a

2

+ b

2

The angle between the positive x axis and a line joining (a, b) to the origin is called the argument

of the complex number. It is abbreviated to arg(z) and has been given the symbol θ.

a

b

z = a + bj

(a, b)

0

r

θ

We usually measure θ so that it lies between −π and π (that is, between −180

◦

and 180

◦

).

Angles measured anticlockwise from the positive x axis are conventionally positive, whereas

angles measured clockwise are negative. Knowing values for a and b, trigonometry can be used

to determine θ. Speciﬁcally,

tan θ =

b

a

so that θ = tan

−1

_

b

a

_

but care must be taken when using a calculator to ﬁnd an inverse tangent that the solution

obtained is in the correct quadrant. Drawing an Argand diagram will always help to identify

the correct quadrant. The position of a complex number is uniquely determined by giving its

modulus and argument. This description is known as the polar form. When the modulus and

argument of a complex number, z, are known we write the complex number as z = r∠θ.

7.4.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Polar form of a complex number with modulus r and argument θ:

z = r∠θ

Example

Plot the following complex numbers on an Argand diagram and ﬁnd their moduli.

a) z

1

= 3 + 4j, b) z

2

= −2 + j, c) z

3

= 3j.

Solution

The complex numbers are shown in the ﬁgure below. In each case we can use Pythagoras’

theorem to ﬁnd the modulus.

a) |z

1

| =

√

3

2

+ 4

2

=

√

25 = 5, b) |z

2

| =

_

(−2)

2

+ 1

2

=

√

5 or 2.236, c) |z

3

| =

√

3

2

+ 0

2

= 3.

•

•

•

3 + 4j

3j

−3 O

−2 + j

3

4

Example

Find the arguments of the complex numbers in the previous example.

Solution

a) z

1

= 3 +4j is in the ﬁrst quadrant. Its argument is given by θ = tan

−1 4

3

. Using a calculator

we ﬁnd θ = 0.927 radians, or 53.13

◦

.

b) z

2

= −2 + j is in the second quadrant. To ﬁnd its argument we seek an angle, θ, in the

second quadrant such that tan θ =

1

−2

. To calculate this correctly it may help to refer to the

ﬁgure below in which α is an acute angle with tan α =

1

2

. From a calculator α = 0.464 and so

θ = π −0.464 = 2.678 radians. In degrees, α = 26.57

◦

so that θ = 180

◦

−26.57

◦

= 153.43

◦

.

•

−3 O

−2 + j

1

θ

α

3 −2

c) z

3

= 3j is purely imaginary. Its argument is

π

2

, or 90

◦

.

Exercises

1. Plot the following complex numbers on an Argand diagram and ﬁnd their moduli and

arguments.

a) z = 9, b) z = −5, c) z = 1 + 2j, d) z = −1 −j, e) z = 8j, f) −5j.

Answers

1. a) |z| = 9, arg(z) = 0, b) |z| = 5, arg(z) = π, or 180

◦

, c) |z| =

√

5, arg(z) = 1.107

or 63.43

◦

, d) |z| =

√

2, arg(z) = −

3π

4

or −135

◦

, e) |z| = 8, arg(z) =

π

2

or 90

◦

, f) |z| = 5,

arg(z) = −

π

2

or −90

◦

.

7.4.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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7.5

The form r(cos θ + j sin θ)

Introduction

Any complex number can be written in the form z = r(cos θ + j sin θ) where r is its modulus

and θ is its argument. This leaﬂet explains this form.

1. The form r(cos θ + j sin θ)

Consider the ﬁgure below which shows the complex number z = a + bj = r∠θ.

a

b

z = a + bj

(a, b)

0

r

θ

Using trigonometry we can write

cos θ =

a

r

and sin θ =

b

r

so that, by rearranging,

a = r cos θ and b = r sin θ

We can use these results to ﬁnd the real and imaginary parts of a complex number given in

polar form:

if z = r∠θ, the real and imaginary parts of z are:

a = r cos θ and b = r sin θ, respectively

Using these results we can then write z = a + bj as

z = a + bj = r cos θ + jr sin θ

= r(cos θ + j sin θ)

This is an alternative way of expressing the complex number with modulus r and argument θ.

7.5.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

z = a + bj = r∠θ = r(cos θ + j sin θ)

Example

State the modulus and argument of a) z = 9(cos 40

◦

+j sin 40

◦

), b) z = 17(cos 3.2 +j sin 3.2).

Solution

a) Comparing the given complex number with the standard form r(cos θ + j sin θ) we see that

r = 9 and θ = 40

◦

. The modulus is 9 and the argument is 40

◦

.

b) Comparing the given complex number with the standard form r(cos θ + j sin θ) we see that

r = 17 and θ = 3.2 radians. The modulus is 17 and the argument is 3.2 radians.

Example

a) Find the modulus and argument of the complex number z = 5j.

b) Express 5j in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ).

Solution

a) On an Argand diagram the complex number 5j lies on the positive vertical axis a distance 5

from the origin. Thus 5j is a complex number with modulus 5 and argument

π

2

.

b)

z = 5j = 5(cos

π

2

+ j sin

π

2

)

Using degrees we would write

z = 5j = 5(cos 90

◦

+ j sin 90

◦

)

Example

a) State the modulus and argument of the complex number z = 4∠(π/3).

b) Express z = 4∠(π/3) in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ).

Solution

a) Its modulus is 4 and its argument is

π

3

.

b) z = 4(cos

π

3

+ j sin

π

3

).

Noting cos

π

3

=

1

2

and sin

π

3

=

√

3

2

the complex number can be written 2 + 2

√

3j.

Exercises

1. By ﬁrst ﬁnding the modulus and argument express z = 3j in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ).

2. By ﬁrst ﬁnding the modulus and argument express z = −3 in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ).

3. By ﬁrst ﬁnding the modulus and argument express z = −1 −j in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ).

Answers

1. 3(cos

π

2

+ j sin

π

2

). 2. 3(cos π + j sin π).

3.

√

2(cos(−135

◦

) + j sin(−135

◦

)) =

√

2(cos 135

◦

−j sin 135

◦

).

7.5.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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7.6

Multiplication and division in

polar form

Introduction

When two complex numbers are given in polar form it is particularly simple to multiply and

divide them. This is an advantage of using the polar form.

1. Multiplication and division of complex numbers in polar form

If z

1

= r

1

∠θ

1

and z

2

= r

2

∠θ

2

then

z

1

z

2

= r

1

r

2

∠(θ

1

+ θ

2

),

z

1

z

2

=

r

1

r

2

∠(θ

1

−θ

2

)

Note that to multiply the two numbers we multiply their moduli and add their arguments.

To divide, we divide their moduli and subtract their arguments.

Example

If z

1

= 5∠(π/6), and z

2

= 4∠(−π/4) ﬁnd a) z

1

z

2

, b)

z

1

z

2

, c)

z

2

z

1

.

Solution

a) To multiply the two complex numbers we multiply their moduli and add their arguments.

Therefore

z

1

z

2

= 20∠

_

π

6

+

_

−

π

4

__

= 20∠

_

−

π

12

_

b) To divide the two complex numbers we divide their moduli and subtract their arguments.

z

1

z

2

=

5

4

∠

_

π

6

−

_

−

π

4

__

=

5

4

∠

5π

12

c)

z

2

z

1

=

4

5

∠

_

−

π

4

−

π

6

_

=

4

5

∠

_

−

5π

12

_

Exercises

1. If z

1

= 7∠

π

3

and z

2

= 6∠

π

2

ﬁnd a) z

1

z

2

, b)

z

1

z

2

, c)

z

2

z

1

, d) z

2

1

, e) z

3

2

.

Answers

1. a) 42∠

5π

6

, b)

7

6

∠ −

π

6

, c)

6

7

∠

π

6

, d) 49∠

2π

3

, e) 216∠

3π

2

.

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7.7

The exponential form

Introduction

In addition to the cartesian and polar forms of a complex number there is a third form in which

a complex number may be written – the exponential form. In this leaﬂet we explain this

form.

1. Euler’s relations

Two important results in complex number theory are known as Euler’s relations. These link

the exponential function and the trigonometric functions. They state:

Euler’s relations:

e

jθ

= cos θ + j sin θ, e

−jθ

= cos θ −j sin θ

The derivation of these relations is beyond the scope of this leaﬂet. By ﬁrstly adding, and then

subtracting, Euler’s relations we can obtain expressions for the trigonometric functions in terms

of exponential functions. Try this!

cos θ =

e

jθ

+ e

−jθ

2

, sin θ =

e

jθ

−e

−jθ

2j

2. The exponential form of a complex number

Using the polar form, a complex number with modulus r and argument θ may be written

z = r(cos θ + j sin θ)

It follows immediately from Euler’s relations that we can also write this complex number in

exponential form as z = re

jθ

.

Exponential form

z = r e

jθ

When using this form you should ensure that all angles are measured in radians and not degrees.

Example

State the modulus and argument of the following complex numbers:

a) z = 5e

jπ/6

, b) z = 0.01e

0.02j

, c) 3e

−jπ/2

, d) 5e

2

.

7.7.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Solution

In each case compare the given number with the standard form z = re

jθ

to identify the modulus

r and the argument θ.

a) The modulus and argument of 5e

jπ/6

are 5 and

π

6

respectively.

b) The modulus and argument of 0.01e

0.02j

are 0.01 and 0.02 respectively.

c) The modulus and argument of 3e

−jπ/2

are 3 and −

π

2

respectively.

d) The number 5e

2

is purely real, and can be evaluated using a calculator. Its modulus is 36.95

and its argument is zero.

Example

Find the real and imaginary parts of z = 5e

2j

.

Solution

Recall that e

jθ

= cos θ + j sin θ. Then

5e

2j

= 5(cos 2 + j sin 2)

= 5 cos 2 + (5 sin 2)j

The real part is 5 cos 2 which equals −2.08. The imaginary part is 5 sin 2, that is 4.55 (to 2dp).

Example

Express the number z = 3 + 3j in exponential form.

Solution

To express a number in exponential form we must ﬁrst ﬁnd its modulus and argument. The

modulus of 3 + 3j is

√

3

2

+ 3

2

=

√

18. The complex number lies in the ﬁrst quadrant of the

Argand diagram and so its argument θ is given by θ = tan

−1 3

3

=

π

4

. Thus

z = 3 + 3j =

√

18e

jπ/4

Exercises

1. State the modulus and argument of each of the following complex numbers:

a) 5e

0.3j

, b) 4e

−j2π/3

, c) e

2πj

, d) 0.35e

−0.2j

.

2. Express each of the following in the form re

jθ

.

a) 3∠(π/3), b)

√

2∠(π/4), c) 3∠(−π/4), d) 5∠0, e) 17∠(π/2).

3. Express each of the following in the form a + bj.

a) 13e

jπ/3

, b) 13e

−jπ/3

, c) 4e

2πj

, d) 7e

0.2j

.

4. Show that e

1+3j

is equal to e

1

e

3j

. Hence deduce e

1+3j

= −2.69 + 0.38j.

Answers

1. a) 5, 0.3 radians, b) 4, −2π/3 radians, c) 1, 2π radians, d) 0.35, −0.2 radians.

2. a) 3e

jπ/3

, b)

√

2e

jπ/4

, c) 3e

−jπ/4

, d) 5e

0

= 5, e) 17e

jπ/2

.

3. a) 6.5 + 11.3j, b) 6.5 −11.3j, c) 4, d) 6.86 + 1.39j.

7.7.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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8.1

Introduction to differentiation

Introduction

This leaﬂet provides a rough and ready introduction to diﬀerentiation. This is a technique

used to calculate the gradient, or slope, of a graph at diﬀerent points.

1. The gradient function

Given a function, for example, y = x

2

, it is possible to derive a formula for the gradient of its

graph. We can think of this formula as the gradient function, precisely because it tells us the

gradient of the graph. For example,

when y = x

2

the gradient function is 2x

So, the gradient of the graph of y = x

2

at any point is twice the x value there. To understand

how this formula is actually found you would need to refer to a textbook on calculus. The

important point is that using this formula we can calculate the gradient of y = x

2

at diﬀerent

points on the graph. For example,

when x = 3, the gradient is 2 ×3 = 6.

when x = −2, the gradient is 2 ×(−2) = −4.

How do we interpret these numbers? A gradient of 6 means that values of y are increasing at

the rate of 6 units for every 1 unit increase in x. A gradient of −4 means that values of y are

decreasing at a rate of 4 units for every 1 unit increase in x.

Note that when x = 0, the gradient is 2 ×0 = 0.

Below is a graph of the function y = x

2

. Study the graph and you will note that when x = 3 the

graph has a positive gradient. When x = −2 the graph has a negative gradient. When x = 0

the gradient of the graph is zero. Note how these properties of the graph can be predicted from

knowledge of the gradient function, 2x.

When x = 3 the gradient is positive

and equal to 6

When x = −2 the gradient is negative

and equal to −4.

When x = 0 the gradient is zero.

x

y

−

4 −

3

−

2

−

1 0 1 2 3 4

5

10

15

8.1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

When y = x

3

, its gradient function is 3x

2

. Calculate the gradient of the graph of y = x

3

when

a) x = 2, b) x = −1, c) x = 0.

Solution

a) When x = 2 the gradient function is 3(2)

2

= 12.

b) When x = −1 the gradient function is 3(−1)

2

= 3.

c) When x = 0 the gradient function is 3(0)

2

= 0.

2. Notation for the gradient function

You will need to use a notation for the gradient function which is in widespread use.

If y is a function of x, that is y = f(x), we write its gradient function as

dy

dx

.

dy

dx

, pronounced ‘dee y by dee x’, is not a fraction even though it might look like one! This

notation can be confusing. Think of

dy

dx

as the ‘symbol’ for the gradient function of y = f(x).

The process of ﬁnding

dy

dx

is called diﬀerentiation with respect to x.

Example

For any value of n, the gradient function of x

n

is nx

n−1

. We write:

if y = x

n

, then

dy

dx

= nx

n−1

You have seen speciﬁc cases of this result earlier on. For example, if y = x

3

,

dy

dx

= 3x

2

.

3. More notation and terminology

When y = f(x) alternative ways of writing the gradient function,

dy

dx

, are y

, pronounced ‘y

dash’, or

df

dx

, or f

**, pronounced ‘f dash’. In practice you do not need to remember the formulas
**

for the gradient functions of all the common functions. Engineers usually refer to a table known

as a Table of Derivatives. A derivative is another name for a gradient function. Such a table

is available in leaﬂet 8.2. The derivative is also known as the rate of change of a function.

Exercises

1. Given that when y = x

2

,

dy

dx

= 2x, ﬁnd the gradient of y = x

2

when x = 7.

2. Given that when y = x

n

,

dy

dx

= nx

n−1

, ﬁnd the gradient of y = x

4

when a) x = 2, b) x = −1.

3. Find the rate of change of y = x

3

when a) x = −2, b) x = 6.

4. Given that when y = 7x

2

+ 5x,

dy

dx

= 14x + 5, ﬁnd the gradient of y = 7x

2

+ 5x when x = 2.

Answers

1. 14. 2. a) 32, b) −4. 3. a) 12, b) 108. 4. 33.

8.1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✌

8.2

Table of derivatives

Introduction

This leaﬂet provides a table of common functions and their derivatives.

1. The table of derivatives

y = f(x)

dy

dx

= f

(x)

k, any constant 0

x 1

x

2

2x

x

3

3x

2

x

n

, any constant n nx

n−1

e

x

e

x

e

kx

ke

kx

ln x = log

e

x

1

x

sin x cos x

sin kx k cos kx

cos x −sin x

cos kx −k sin kx

tan x =

sin x

cos x

sec

2

x

tan kx k sec

2

kx

cosec x =

1

sin x

−cosec x cot x

sec x =

1

cos x

sec x tan x

cot x =

cos x

sin x

−cosec

2

x

sin

−1

x

1

√

1−x

2

cos

−1

x

−1

√

1−x

2

tan

−1

x

1

1+x

2

cosh x sinh x

sinh x cosh x

tanh x sech

2

x

sech x −sech x tanh x

cosech x −cosech xcothx

coth x −cosech

2

x

cosh

−1

x

1

√

x

2

−1

sinh

−1

x

1

√

x

2

+1

tanh

−1

x

1

1−x

2

8.2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Exercises

1. In each case, use the table of derivatives to write down

dy

dx

.

a) y = 8

b) y = −2

c) y = 0

d) y = x

e) y = x

5

f) y = x

7

g) y = x

−3

h) y = x

1/2

i) y = x

−1/2

j) y = sin x

k) y = cos x

l) y = sin 4x

m) y = cos

1

2

x

n) y = e

4x

o) y = e

x

p) y = e

−2x

q) y = e

−x

r) y = ln x

s) y = log

e

x

t) y =

√

x

u) y =

3

√

x

v) y =

1

√

x

w) y = e

x/2

2. You should be able to use the table when other variables are used. Find

dy

dt

if

a) y = e

7t

, b) y = t

4

, c) y = t

−1

, d) y = sin 3t.

Answers

1. a) 0, b) 0, c) 0, d) 1, e) 5x

4

, f) 7x

6

, g) −3x

−4

, h)

1

2

x

−1/2

, i) −

1

2

x

−3/2

, j) cos x,

k) −sin x, l) 4 cos 4x, m) −

1

2

sin

1

2

x, n) 4e

4x

, o) e

x

, p) −2e

−2x

, q) −e

−x

, r)

1

x

, s)

1

x

t)

1

2

x

−1/2

=

1

2x

1/2

=

1

2

√

x

, u)

1

3

x

−2/3

=

1

3x

2/3

=

1

3

3

√

x

2

, v) −

1

2

x

−3/2

, w)

1

2

e

x/2

.

2. a) 7e

7t

, b) 4t

3

, c) −

1

t

2

, d) 3 cos 3t.

8.2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✌

8.3

Linearity rules

Introduction

There are two rules known as linearity rules which, when used with a Table of Derivatives,

enable us to diﬀerentiate a wider range of functions. These rules are summarised here.

1. Some notation

Before we look at the rules, we need to be clear about the meaning of the notation

d

dx

.

When we are given a function y(x) and are asked to ﬁnd

dy

dx

we are being instructed to carry

out an operation on the function y(x). The operation is that of diﬀerentiation. A notation for

this operation is used widely:

d

dx

stands for the operation: ‘diﬀerentiate with respect to x’

For example,

d

dx

(x

3

) = 3x

2

and

d

dx

(sin x) = cos x.

2. Differentiation of a function multiplied by a constant

If k is a constant and f is a function of x, then

d

dx

(kf) = k

df

dx

This means that a constant factor can be brought outside the diﬀerentiation operation.

Example

Given that

d

dx

(x

3

) = 3x

2

, then it follows that

d

dx

(7x

3

) = 7 ×

d

dx

(x

3

) = 7 ×3x

2

= 21x

2

Given that

d

dx

(sin x) = cos x, then it follows that

d

dx

(8 sin x) = 8 ×

d

dx

(sin x) = 8 cos x

8.3.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

3. Differentiation of the sum or difference of two functions

If f and g are functions of x, then

d

dx

(f + g) =

df

dx

+

dg

dx

d

dx

(f −g) =

df

dx

−

dg

dx

This means that to diﬀerentiate a sum of two functions, simply diﬀerentiate each separately and

then add the results. Similarly, to diﬀerentiate the diﬀerence of two functions, diﬀerentiate each

separately and then ﬁnd the diﬀerence of the results.

Example

Find

dy

dx

when y = x

2

+ x.

Solution

We require

d

dx

(x

2

+ x). The sum rule tells us to diﬀerentiate each term separately. Thus

d

dx

(x

2

+ x) =

d

dx

(x

2

) +

d

dx

(x) = 2x + 1

So

dy

dx

= 2x + 1.

Example

Find

dy

dx

when y = e

2x

−sin 3x.

Solution

The diﬀerence rule tells us to diﬀerentiate each term separately.

d

dx

(e

2x

−sin 3x) =

d

dx

(e

2x

) −

d

dx

(sin 3x) = 2e

2x

−3 cos 3x

So

dy

dx

= 2e

2x

−3 cos 3x

Exercises

In each case use a Table of Derivatives and the rules on this leaﬂet to ﬁnd

dy

dx

.

1. y = e

5x

+ cos 2x

2. y = x

2

−sin x

3. y = 3x

2

+ 7x + 2

4. y = 5

5. y = 8e

−9x

Answers

1. 5e

5x

−2 sin 2x, 2. 2x −cos x, 3. 6x + 7, 4. 0, 5. −72e

−9x

.

8.3.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✌

8.4

Product and quotient rules

Introduction

As their names suggest, the product rule and the quotient rule are used to diﬀerentiate

products of functions and quotients of functions. This leaﬂet explains how.

1.The product rule

It is appropriate to use this rule when you want to diﬀerentiate two functions which are multiplied

together. For example

y = e

x

sin x is a product of the functions e

x

and sin x

In the rule which follows we let u stand for the ﬁrst of the functions and v stand for the second.

If u and v are functions of x, then

d

dx

(uv) = u

dv

dx

+ v

du

dx

Example

If y = 7xe

2x

ﬁnd

dy

dx

.

Solution

Comparing the given function with the product rule we let

u = 7x, v = e

2x

It follows that

du

dx

= 7, and

dv

dx

= 2e

2x

Thus, using the product rule,

d

dx

(7xe

2x

) = 7x(2e

2x

) + e

2x

(7) = 7e

2x

(2x + 1)

8.4.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

2. The quotient rule

It is appropriate to use this rule when you want to diﬀerentiate a quotient of two functions, that

is, one function divided by another. For example

y =

e

x

sin x

is a quotient of the functions e

x

and sin x

In the rule which follows we let u stand for the function in the numerator and v stand for the

function in the denominator.

If u and v are functions of x, then

d

dx

_

u

v

_

=

v

du

dx

−u

dv

dx

v

2

Example

If y =

sin x

3x

2

ﬁnd

dy

dx

.

Solution

Comparing the given function with the quotient rule we let

u = sin x, and v = 3x

2

It follows that

du

dx

= cos x and

dv

dx

= 6x

Applying the quotient rule gives

dy

dx

=

3x

2

cos x −sin x (6x)

9x

4

=

3x(x cos x −2 sin x)

9x

4

=

x cos x −2 sin x

3x

3

Exercises

Choose an appropriate rule in each case to ﬁnd

dy

dx

.

1. y = x

2

sin x

2. y = e

x

cos x

3. y =

e

x

x

2

+1

4. y =

x

2

+1

e

x

5. y = 7x log

e

x

6. y =

x−1

sin 2x

Answers

1. x

2

cos x + 2x sin x. 2. −e

x

sin x + e

x

cos x = e

x

(cos x −sin x). 3.

e

x

(x

2

−2x+1)

(x

2

+1)

2

.

4.

2x−x

2

−1

e

x

. 5. 7(1 + log

e

x). 6.

sin 2x−2(x−1) cos 2x

sin

2

2x

.

8.4.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✌

8.5

The chain rule

Introduction

The chain rule is used when it is necessary to diﬀerentiate a function of a function.

This rule is summarised here.

1. The chain rule

Consider the function y = (sin x)

3

. This process involves cubing the function sin x.

Consider also the function y = log

e

(x

3

+5x). Here we are ﬁnding the logarithm of the function

x

3

+ 5x.

In both cases we are ﬁnding a function of a function.

The chain rule is used to diﬀerentiate such composite functions and is illustrated in the examples

which follow.

Example

Find

dy

dx

when y = sin(5x + 3).

Solution

Notice that 5x + 3 is a function of x, so sin(5x + 3) is a function of a function.

To simplify the problem we can introduce a new variable z and write z = 5x + 3 so that y

becomes

y = sin z

Then, diﬀerentiating this with respect to z,

dy

dz

= cos z

Now, in fact, we want

dy

dx

. The chain rule states

dy

dx

=

dy

dz

×

dz

dx

So

dy

dx

= cos z × 5 since

dz

dx

= 5

Then, ﬁnally

dy

dx

= 5 cos z = 5 cos(5x + 3)

8.5.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

The chain rule: if y(z) is a function of z and z(x) is a function of x, then

dy

dx

=

dy

dz

×

dz

dx

Example

Find

dy

dx

when y = e

(x

2

)

.

Solution

x

2

is a function, so e

(x

2

)

is a function of a function. If we let z = x

2

, then y = e

z

. Then

dz

dx

= 2x and

dy

dz

= e

z

so that, using the chain rule,

dy

dx

=

dy

dz

×

dz

dx

= e

z

×2x = 2xe

(x

2

)

Example

If y = sin

3

x ﬁnd

dy

dx

.

Solution

First of all note that sin

3

x means (sin x)

3

. Therefore y can be written y = (sin x)

3

, so that this

is a function of a function.

If we let z = sin x then y = z

3

. It follows that

dz

dx

= cos x and

dy

dz

= 3z

2

Then, using the chain rule,

dy

dx

=

dy

dz

×

dz

dx

= 3z

2

×cos x = 3 sin

2

x cos x

Exercises

In each case ﬁnd

dy

dx

.

1. y = sin(x

2

)

2. y = (sin x)

2

3. y = log

e

(x

2

+ 1)

4. y = (2x + 7)

8

5. y = e

2x−3

Answers

1. 2x cos(x

2

). 2. 2 sin x cos x. 3.

2x

x

2

+1

. 4. 16(2x + 7)

7

. 5. 2e

2x−3

.

8.5.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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8.6

Integration as the reverse of

differentiation

Introduction

Integration can be introduced in several diﬀerent ways. One way is to think of it as diﬀeren-

tiation in reverse. This approach is described in this leaﬂet.

1. Differentiation in reverse

Suppose we diﬀerentiate the function y = x

3

. We obtain

dy

dx

= 3x

2

. Integration reverses this

process and we say that the integral of 3x

2

is x

3

. Pictorially we can think of this as follows:

x

3

3x

differentiate

integrate

The situation is just a little more complicated because there are lots of functions we can diﬀer-

entiate to give 3x

2

. Here are some of them:

x

3

+ 14, x

3

+ 7, x

3

−0.25, x

3

−

1

2

Each of these functions has the same derivative, 3x

2

, because when we diﬀerentiate the constant

term we obtain zero. Consequently, when we try to reverse the process, we have no idea what the

original constant term might have been. Because of this we include in our answer an unknown

constant, c say, called the constant of integration. We state that the integral of 3x

2

is x

3

+c.

The symbol for integration is

_

, known as an integral sign. Formally we write

_

3x

2

dx = x

3

+ c

Along with the integral sign there is a term ‘dx’, which must always be written, and which

indicates the name of the variable involved, in this case x. Technically, integrals of this sort are

called indeﬁnite integrals, to distinguish them from deﬁnite integrals which are dealt with

in a subsequent leaﬂet. When asked to ﬁnd an indeﬁnite integral your answer should always

contain a constant of integration.

8.6.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Common integrals are usually found in a ‘Table of Integrals’ such as that shown here. A more

complete table is available in leaﬂet 8.7 Table of integrals.

Table of integrals

Function Indeﬁnite integral

f(x)

_

f(x)dx

constant, k kx + c

x

x

2

2

+ c

x

2 x

3

3

+ c

x

n x

n+1

n+1

+ c n = −1

sin x −cos x + c

cos x sin x + c

sin kx

−cos kx

k

+ c

cos kx

sin kx

k

+ c

tan kx

1

k

ln | sec kx|+c

e

x

e

x

+ c

e

−x

−e

−x

+ c

e

kx e

kx

k

+ c

x

−1

=

1

x

ln |x| + c

When dealing with the trigonometric functions the variable x must always be measured in

radians.

Example

Use the table above to ﬁnd a)

_

x

8

dx, b)

_

x

−4

dx.

Solution

From the table note that

_

x

n

dx =

x

n+1

n + 1

+ c

a) With n = 8 we ﬁnd

_

x

8

dx =

x

8+1

8 + 1

+ c =

x

9

9

+ c

b) With n = −4 we ﬁnd

_

x

−4

dx =

x

−4+1

−4 + 1

+ c =

x

−3

−3

+ c

Note that the ﬁnal answer can be written in a variety of equivalent ways, for example

−

1

3

x

−3

+ c, or −

1

3

·

1

x

3

+ c, or −

1

3x

3

+ c

Exercises

1. Integrate each of the following functions:

a) x

9

, b) x

1/2

, c) x

−3

, d)

1

x

4

, e) 4, f)

√

x, g) e

4x

, h) 17, i) cos 5x.

Answers

1. a)

x

10

10

+ c, b)

2x

3/2

3

+ c, c) −

1

2

x

−2

+ c, d) −

1

3

x

−3

+ c,

e) 4x + c, f) same as b), g)

e

4x

4

+ c, h) 17x + c, i)

sin 5x

5

+ c.

8.6.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

✍

✌

8.7

Table of integrals

Engineers usually refer to a table of integrals when performing calculations involving integration.

This leaﬂet provides such a table. Sometimes restrictions need to be placed on the values of

some of the variables. These restrictions are shown in the third column.

1. A table of integrals

f(x)

_

f(x) dx

k, any constant kx + c

x

x

2

2

+ c

x

2 x

3

3

+ c

x

n x

n+1

n+1

+ c n = −1

x

−1

=

1

x

ln |x| + c

e

x

e

x

+ c

e

kx 1

k

e

kx

+ c

cos x sin x + c

cos kx

1

k

sin kx + c

sin x −cos x + c

sin kx −

1

k

cos kx + c

tan x ln(sec x) + c −

π

2

< x <

π

2

sec x ln(sec x + tan x) + c −

π

2

< x <

π

2

cosec x ln(cosec x−cot x) + c 0 < x < π

cot x ln(sin x) + c 0 < x < π

cosh x sinh x + c

sinh x cosh x + c

tanh x ln cosh x + c

coth x ln sinh x + c x > 0

1

x

2

+a

2

1

a

tan

−1 x

a

+ c a > 0

1

x

2

−a

2

1

2a

ln

x−a

x+a

+ c |x| > a > 0

1

a

2

−x

2

1

2a

ln

a+x

a−x

+ c |x| < a

1

√

x

2

+a

2

sinh

−1 x

a

+ c a > 0

1

√

x

2

−a

2

cosh

−1 x

a

+ c x a > 0

1

√

x

2

+k

ln(x +

√

x

2

+ k) + c

1

√

a

2

−x

2

sin

−1 x

a

+ c −a x a

8.7.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Exercises

1. In each case, use the Table of Integrals to integrate the given function with respect to x.

a) x

b) x

6

c) x

−2

d) x

−3

e) x

−1

(be careful!)

f) x

1/2

g) x

−1/2

h) e

3x

i) e

7x

j) e

−2x

k) e

0.5x

l) e

x

m) e

−x

n) cos x

o) sin x

p) sin 3x

q) cos 2x

r) 5

2. You should be able to use the table when variables other than x are involved. Use the table

to integrate each of the following functions with respect to t.

a) e

t

, b) e

5t

, c) t

7

, d)

√

t, e) cos 5t, f) e

−t

.

Answers

1. a)

x

2

2

+ c, b)

x

7

7

+ c, c)

x

−1

−1

+ c = −x

−1

+ c, or −

1

x

+ c, d)

x

−2

−2

+ c = −

1

2

x

−2

+ c, or

−

1

2x

2

+ c, e) ln |x| + c, f)

x

3/2

3/2

+ c =

2

3

x

3/2

+ c, g)

x

1/2

1/2

+ c = 2x

1/2

+ c, h)

1

3

e

3x

+ c,

i)

1

7

e

7x

+ c, j) −

1

2

e

−2x

+ c, k) 2e

0.5x

+ c, l) e

x

+ c, m) −e

−x

+ c, n) sin x + c,

o) −cos x + c, p) −

1

3

cos 3x + c, q)

1

2

sin 2x + c, r) 5x + c.

2. a) e

t

+ c, b)

e

5t

5

+ c, c)

t

8

8

+ c, d)

2t

3/2

3

+ c, e)

sin 5t

5

+ c, f) −e

−t

+ c.

8.7.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

✍

✌

8.8

Linearity rules of integration

Introduction

To enable us to ﬁnd integrals of a wider range of functions than those normally given in a Table

of Integrals we can make use of two rules known as linearity rules.

1. The integral of a constant multiple of a function

A constant factor in an integral can be moved outside the integral sign in the following way.

_

k f(x) dx = k

_

f(x)dx

This is only possible when k is a constant, and it multiplies some function of x.

Example

Find

_

11x

2

dx.

Solution

We are integrating a multiple of x

2

. The constant factor,11, can be moved outside the integral

sign.

_

11x

2

dx = 11

_

x

2

dx = 11

_

x

3

3

+ c

_

=

11x

3

3

+ 11c

where c is the constant of integration. Because 11c is a constant we would normally write the

answer in the form

11x

3

3

+ K where K is another constant.

Example

Find

_

−5 cos x dx.

Solution

We are integrating a multiple of cos x. The constant factor, −5, can be moved outside the

integral sign.

_

−5 cos x dx = −5

_

cos x dx = −5 (sin x + c) = −5 sin x + K

where K is a constant.

8.8.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

2. The integral of the sum or difference of two functions

When we wish to integrate the sum or diﬀerence of two functions, we integrate each term

separately as follows:

_

f(x) + g(x) dx =

_

f(x) dx +

_

g(x) dx

_

f(x) −g(x) dx =

_

f(x) dx −

_

g(x) dx

Example

Find

_

(x

3

+ sin x)dx.

Solution

_

(x

3

+ sin x)dx =

_

x

3

dx +

_

sin x dx =

x

4

4

−cos x + c

Note that only a single constant of integration is needed.

Example

Find

_

e

3x

−x

7

dx.

Solution

_

e

3x

−x

7

dx =

_

e

3x

dx −

_

x

7

dx =

e

3x

3

−

x

8

8

+ c

Exercises

1. Find a)

_

8x

5

+ 3x

2

dx, b)

_

2

3

x dx.

2. Find

_

3 cos x + 7x

3

dx.

3. Find

_

7x

−2

dx.

4. Find

_

5

x

dx.

5. Find

_

x+cos 2x

3

dx.

6. Find

_

5e

4x

dx.

7. Find

_

e

x

−e

−x

2

dx.

Answers

1. a)

4x

6

3

+ x

3

+ c, b)

1

3

x

2

+ c. 2. 3 sin x +

7x

4

4

+ c. 3. −

7

x

+ c. 4. 5 log

e

|x| + c.

5.

x

2

6

+

sin 2x

6

+ c. 6.

5e

4x

4

+ c. 7.

e

x

+e

−x

2

+ c.

8.8.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

✍

✌

8.9

Evaluating deﬁnite integrals

Introduction

Deﬁnite integrals can be recognised by numbers written to the upper and lower right of the

integral sign. This leaﬂet explains how to evaluate deﬁnite integrals.

1. Deﬁnite integrals

The quantity

_

b

a

f(x) dx

is called the deﬁnite integral of f(x) from a to b. The numbers a and b are known as the

lower and upper limits of the integral. To see how to evaluate a deﬁnite integral consider the

following example.

Example

Find

_

4

1

x

2

dx.

Solution

First of all the integration of x

2

is performed in the normal way. However, to show we are

dealing with a deﬁnite integral, the result is usually enclosed in square brackets and the limits

of integration are written on the right bracket:

_

4

1

x

2

dx =

_

x

3

3

+ c

_

4

1

Then, the quantity in the square brackets is evaluated, ﬁrst by letting x take the value of the

upper limit, then by letting x take the value of the lower limit. The diﬀerence between these

two results gives the value of the deﬁnite integral:

_

x

3

3

+ c

_

4

1

= (evaluate at upper limit) −(evaluate at lower limit)

=

_

4

3

3

+ c

_

−

_

1

3

3

+ c

_

=

64

3

−

1

3

= 21

Note that the constants of integration cancel out. This will always happen, and so in future we

can ignore them when we are evaluating deﬁnite integrals.

8.9.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Example

Find

_

3

−2

x

3

dx.

Solution

_

3

−2

x

3

dx =

_

x

4

4

_

3

−2

=

_

(3)

4

4

_

−

_

(−2)

4

4

_

=

81

4

−

16

4

=

65

4

= 16.25

Example

Find

_

π/2

0

cos x dx.

Solution

_

π/2

0

cos x dx = [sin x]

π/2

0

= sin

_

π

2

_

−sin 0

= 1 −0

= 1

Exercises

1. Evaluate

a)

_

1

0

x

2

dx, b)

_

3

2

1

x

2

dx, c)

_

2

1

x

2

dx, d)

_

4

0

x

3

dx, e)

_

1

−1

x

3

dx.

2. Evaluate

_

4

3

x + 7x

2

dx.

3. Evaluate a)

_

1

0

e

2x

dx, b)

_

2

0

e

−x

dx, c)

_

1

−1

x

2

dx, d)

_

1

−1

5x

3

dx.

4. Find

_

π/2

0

sin xdx.

Answers

1. a)

1

3

, b)

1

6

, c)

7

3

, d) 64, e) 0.

2. 89.833 (3dp).

3. a)

e

2

2

−

1

2

= 3.195 (3dp), b) 1 −e

−2

= 0.865 (3dp), c)

2

3

, d) 0.

4. 1.

8.9.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

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✌

8.10

Integration by parts

Introduction

The technique known as integration by parts is used to integrate a product of two functions,

for example

_

e

2x

sin 3x dx and

_

1

0

x

3

e

−2x

dx

This leaﬂet explains how to apply this technique.

1. The integration by parts formula

We need to make use of the integration by parts formula which states:

_

u

_

dv

dx

_

dx = uv −

_

v

_

du

dx

_

dx

Note that the formula replaces one integral, the one on the left, with a diﬀerent integral, that

on the right. The intention is that the latter is simpler to evaluate. Note also that to apply the

formula we must let one function in the product equal u. We must be able to diﬀerentiate this

function to ﬁnd

du

dx

. We let the other function in the product equal

dv

dx

. We must be able to

integrate this function, to ﬁnd v. Consider the following example:

Example

Find

_

3x sin x dx.

Solution

Compare the required integral with the formula for integration by parts: we see that it makes

sense to choose

u = 3x and

dv

dx

= sin x

It follows that

du

dx

= 3 and v =

_

sin x dx = −cos x

(When integrating

dv

dx

to ﬁnd v there is no need to include a constant of integration. When you

become conﬁdent with the method, you may like to think about why this is the case.) Applying

8.10.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

the formula we obtain

_

3x sin x dx = uv −

_

v

_

du

dx

_

dx

= 3x(−cos x) −

_

(−cos x).(3) dx

= −3x cos x + 3

_

cos x dx

= −3x cos x + 3 sin x + c

2. Dealing with deﬁnite integrals

When dealing with deﬁnite integrals (those with limits of integration) the corresponding formula

is

_

b

a

u

_

dv

dx

_

dx = [uv]

b

a

−

_

b

a

v

_

du

dx

_

dx

Example

Find

_

2

0

xe

x

dx.

Solution

We let u = x and

dv

dx

= e

x

. Then

du

dx

= 1 and v = e

x

. Using the formula for integration by

parts we obtain

_

2

0

xe

x

dx = [xe

x

]

2

0

−

_

2

0

e

x

.1dx

= (2e

2

) −(0e

0

) −[e

x

]

2

0

= 2e

2

−[e

2

−1]

= e

2

+ 1 (or 8.389 to 3dp)

Exercises

1. Find a)

_

x sin(2x)dx, b)

_

te

3t

dt, c)

_

x cos x dx.

2. Evaluate the following deﬁnite integrals:

a)

_

1

0

x cos 2x dx, b)

_

π/2

0

x sin 2x dx, c)

_

1

−1

te

2t

dt.

(Remember to set your calculator to radian mode for evaluating the trigonometric functions.)

3. Find

_

2

0

x

2

e

x

dx. (You will need to apply the integration by parts formula twice.)

Answers

1. a)

sin 2x

4

−

xcos 2x

2

+ c, b) e

3t

(

t

3

−

1

9

) + c, c) cos x + x sin x + c.

2. a) 0.1006, b) 0.7854, c) 1.9488.

3. 12.778 (3dp).

8.10.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎

✍

✌

8.11

Integration by substitution

Introduction

This technique involves making a substitution in order to simplify an integral before evaluating

it. We let a new variable, u say, equal a more complicated part of the function we are trying to

integrate. The choice of which substitution to make often relies upon experience: don’t worry

if at ﬁrst you cannot see an appropriate substitution. This skill develops with practice.

1. Making a substitution

Example

Find

_

(3x + 5)

6

dx.

Solution

First look at the function we are trying to integrate: (3x + 5)

6

. Suppose we introduce a new

variable, u, such that u = 3x+5. Doing this means that the function we must integrate becomes

u

6

. This certainly looks a much simpler function to integrate than (3x + 5)

6

. There is a slight

complication however. The new function of u must be integrated with respect to u and not with

respect to x. This means that we must take care of the term dx correctly. From the substitution

u = 3x + 5

note, by diﬀerentiation, that

du

dx

= 3

It follows that we can write

dx =

du

3

The required integral then becomes

_

(3x + 5)

6

dx =

_

u

6

du

3

The factor of

1

3

, being a constant, means that we can write

_

(3x + 5)

6

dx =

1

3

_

u

6

du

=

1

3

u

7

7

+ c

=

u

7

21

+ c

8.11.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

To ﬁnish oﬀ we rewrite this answer in terms of the original variable, x, and replace u by 3x +5:

_

(3x + 5)

6

dx =

(3x + 5)

7

21

+ c

2. Substitution and deﬁnite integrals

If you are dealing with deﬁnite integrals (ones with limits of integration) you must be particularly

careful with the way you handle the limits. Consider the following example.

Example

Find

_

3

2

t sin(t

2

)dt by making the substitution u = t

2

.

Solution

Note that if u = t

2

then

du

dt

= 2t so that dt =

du

2t

. We ﬁnd

_

t=3

t=2

t sin(t

2

)dt =

_

t=3

t=2

t sin u

du

2t

=

1

2

_

t=3

t=2

sin udu

An important point to note is that the original limits of integration are limits on the variable

t, not u. To emphasise this they have been written explicitly as t = 2 and t = 3. When we

integrate with respect to the variable u, the limits must be written in terms of u too. From the

substitution u = t

2

, note that

when t = 2, u = 4 and when t = 3, u = 9

so the integral becomes

1

2

_

u=9

u=4

sin udu =

1

2

[−cos u]

9

4

=

1

2

(−cos 9 + cos 4)

= 0.129

Exercises

1. Use a substitution to ﬁnd

a)

_

(4x + 1)

7

dx, b)

_

2

1

(2x + 3)

7

dx, c)

_

t

2

sin(t

3

+ 1)dt, d)

_

1

0

3t

2

e

t

3

dt.

2. Make a substitution to ﬁnd the following integrals. Can you deduce a rule for integrating

functions of the form

f

(x)

f(x)

?

a)

_

1

x+1

dx, b)

_

2x

x

2

+7

dx, c)

_

3x

2

x

3

+17

dx.

Answers

1. a)

(4x+1)

8

32

+ c, b) 3.3588 ×10

5

, c) −

cos(t

3

+1)

3

+ c, d) 1.7183.

2. a) ln(x + 1) + c, b) ln(x

2

+ 7) + c, c) ln(x

3

+ 17) + c.

8.11.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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✌

8.12

Integration as summation

Introduction

In this leaﬂet we explain integration as an inﬁnite sum.

1. Integration as summation

The ﬁgure below on the left shows an area bounded by the x axis, the lines x = a and x = b,

and the curve y = f(x). Note that the area lies entirely above the x axis.

P

δx

a

b

x

y

(x y) ,

y=f(x)

y f(x) =

δx

δA

y = f(x)

a

b

x

y

There are several ways in which this area can be estimated. Suppose we split the area into thin

vertical strips, like the one shown, and treat each strip as being approximately rectangular. The

sum of the areas of the rectangular strips then gives an approximate value for the area under

the curve. The thinner the strips, the better will be the approximation. A typical strip is shown

drawn from the point P(x, y). The width of the strip is labelled δx. We label it like this because

the symbol δ is used to indicate a small increase in the variable being considered, in this case

x. The height of the strip is equal to the y value on the curve at point P, that is f(x). So the

area of the strip shown is approximately f(x) δx. Suppose we let the area of this small strip be

δA. We use the delta notation again, because this strip makes a small contribution, δA, to the

total area, A, under the curve. Then

δA ≈ f(x) δx

Now if we add up the areas of all such thin strips from a to b, which we denote by

b

x=a

δA, we

obtain the total area under the curve.

total area =

b

x=a

δA ≈

b

x=a

f(x) δx

To make this approximation more accurate we must let the thickness of each strip become very

small indeed, that is, we let δx →0, giving

total area = lim

δx→0

b

x=a

f(x)δx

8.12.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

The notation lim

δx→0

means that we consider what happens to the expression following it as δx

gets smaller and smaller. This is known as the limit of a sum. If this limit exists we write it

formally as

_

b

a

f(x) dx

thus deﬁning a deﬁnite integral as the limit of a sum. Thus we have the important result that

_

b

a

f(x) dx = lim

δx→0

b

x=a

f(x) δx

Integration can therefore be regarded as a process of adding up, that is as a summation. When-

ever we wish to ﬁnd areas under curves, volumes etc., we can do this by ﬁnding the area or

volume of a small portion, and then summing over the whole region of interest. The calculation

can then be performed using the technique of deﬁnite integration.

Example

E

t

En

C

δs

E

Suppose a unit charge moves along a curve C in an electric ﬁeld E. At any point on the curve

the electric ﬁeld vector can be resolved into two perpendicular components, E

t

say, along the

curve, and E

n

perpendicular, or normal, to the curve. In moving the charge a small distance δs

along the curve the electric ﬁeld does work equal to E

t

δs, because only the tangential component

does work. To ﬁnd the total work done as the charge moves along the length of the curve we

must sum all such small contributions, i.e.

total work done =

E

t

δs, in the limit as δs →0

that is

total work done = lim

δs→0

E

t

δs

which deﬁnes the integral

_

C

E

t

ds. The symbol

_

C

tells us to sum the contributions along the

curve C. This is an example of a line integral because we integrate along the line (curve) C.

Exercises

1. Write down, but do not calculate, the integral which is deﬁned by the limit as δx →0, of the

following sums.

a)

x=5

x=3

7x

2

δx, b)

x=7

x=1

4

3

πx

3

δx.

Answers

1. a)

_

5

3

7x

2

dx, b)

_

7

1

4

3

πx

3

dx.

8.12.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Index

adjacent 4.2

adjoint matrix 5.5

angles

in degrees 4.1

in radians 4.1

Argand diagram 7.3

argument

of a complex number 7.4

of a function 3.1

associativity 2.3

base 1.2, 2.1, 2.19

bases other than 10 and e 2.21

brackets

removing 2.3, 2.4

chain rule 8.5

cofactor 5.5

combination notation 1.4

common factor 2.5, 2.7

commutativity 2.3

completing the square 2.26

complex

arithmetic 7.2

conjugate 7.2

number 7.1

conjugate 7.2

constant of integration 8.6

coordinates

cartesian 3.2

polar 3.9

cosh 3.5

cosine 4.2, 4.3

inverse 4.2

rule 4.6

Cramer’s rule 5.2

cube roots 1.2

degrees 4.1

denominator, 1.1

lowest common 2.8

dependent variable 3.2

derivative 8.1

table of, 8.2

determinant 5.1

to ﬁnd a vector product 6.3

diﬀerentiation

chain rule 8.5

introduction 8.1

product rule 8.4

quotient rule 8.4

rules 8.3, 8.4

distributive 2.3

dot product 6.2

elimination

solving simultaneous equations by, 2.13

equating coeﬃcients 2.23, 2.24

equation

involving logarithms and exponentials 3.8

linear 2.12

quadratic 2.14, 2.15

straight line 3.3

Euler’s relations 7.7

exponential

constant 3.4

decay 3.4

form of a complex number 7.7

function 3.4

growth 3.4

factor 2.5

common 2.5, 2.7

linear 2.23

quadratic 2.23

repeated linear 2.23

factorial 1.4

factorising

quadratics 2.6

simple expressions 2.5

solving quadratic equations by, 2.14

formula for solving a quadratic equation 2.15

formulas 2.10, 2.11

rearranging 2.10, 2.11

transposing 2.10, 2.11

fractions, 1.1

addition 1.1, 2.8

division 1.1, 2.9

equivalent forms 1.1, 2.7

multiplication 1.1, 2.9

partial 2.23, 2.24, 2.25

simplest form 1.1

simplifying 2.7

subtraction 1.1, 2.8

fractional powers 2.2

function 3.1

argument of, 3.1

Index.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

graph of 3.2

exponential 3.4

hyperbolic 3.5

logarithm 3.7

natural logarithm 3.7

notation 3.1

trigonometric 4.3

function of a function 8.5

gradient

of a curve 8.1

function 8.1

of a straight line 3.3

graphs

of a function 3.2

of hyperbolic functions 3.5

of trigonometric functions 4.3

hyperbolic

cosine 3.5

function 3.5

identities 3.6

sine 3.5

tangent 3.5

hypotenuse 4.2, 4.5

imaginary number 7.1

imaginary part 7.1

identities

hyperbolic 3.6

trigonometric 4.4

independent variable 3.2

index 1.2, 2.1, 2.19

indices 1.2

fractional 2.2

laws of 2.1

negative 2.2

inequality 2.16

inequalities,

graphical solution of, 2.18

solving 2.16, 2.18

integral

deﬁnite 8.9

indeﬁnite 8.6

line 8.12

sign 8.6

table, 8.7

integration

constant of, 8.6

by parts 8.10

as reverse of diﬀerentiation 8.6

by substitution 8.11

as summation 8.12

table 8.7

laws of indices 2.1

laws of logarithms 2.20

limit of a sum 8.12

linearity

diﬀerentiation 8.3

integration 8.8

logarithm 2.19

to bases other than 10 and e, 2.21

function 3.7

laws of, 2.20

lowest common denominator 2.8

matrix

adjoint 5.5

identity 5.4

inverse 5.4, 5.5

multiplication 5.3

singular 5.4

minor 5.5

modulus 1.5

modulus and inequalities 2.17

negative powers 2.2

number line 2.16

partial fractions 2.23, 2.24, 2.25

of improper fractions 2.25

of proper fractions 2.23, 2.24

perfect square 2.26

periodic function 4.3

polar

coordinates 3.9

form of a complex number 7.4, 7.5

powers 1.2

product rule 8.4

proper fraction 2.23

product 2.5

Pythagoras’ theorem 4.5

and vectors 6.1

quadratic equation 2.14, 2.15

quadratic formula 2.15

quotient rule 8.4

radians 4.1

rate of change 8.1

rationalisation 2.27

real part of a complex number 7.1

repeated root 2.14

right-hand screw rule 6.3

roots 1.2, 2.14

repeated 2.14

scalar product 6.2

to ﬁnd the angle between vectors 6.2

Index.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

scientiﬁc notation 1.3

sigma notation 2.22

simultaneous equations 2.13

solving using Cramer’s rule 5.2

solving using inverse matrix 5.6

sine 4.2, 4.3

inverse 4.2

rule 4.6

singular matrix 5.5

sinh 3.5, 3.6

solving

equations by Cramer’s rule 5.2

equations using inverse matrix 5.6

an inequality 2.16

a linear equation 2.12

a quadratic equation 2.14, 2.15

a quadratic equation by factorisation 2.14

a quadratic equation by formula 2.15

simultaneous equations 2.13

square roots 1.2

straight line 3.3

summation

integration as 8.12

surd form 2.27

surds 1.2, 2.27

table

of derivatives 8.2

of integrals 8.7

tangent 4.2, 4.3

inverse 4.2

transpose 2.10, 2.11

transposing formulas 2.10, 2.11

trigonometrical

functions 4.3

identities 4.4

ratios 4.2

vector 6.1

cartesian components 6.1

direction of, 6.1

length of, 6.1

magnitude of, 6.1

product 6.2, 6.3

unit 6.1

vectors

scalar product of, 6.2

vector product of, 6.3

vertical intercept 3.3

Index.3 copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

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Engineering Maths First-Aid Kit

Anthony Croft

cm. photocopying. This book may not be lent. no part of this publication may be reproduced. ISBN 0130-87430-2 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book can be obtained from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Croft.– 1st ed. without prior consent of the Publishers. or transmitted in any form or by any means. at the Dorset Press. 99-088596 .. Mathematics. ISBN 0-13-087430-2 1. London W1P 0LP. electronic. Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.C72 2000 510–dc21 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 04 03 02 01 00 Typeset in Computer Modern by 56. QA37. 1957Engineering maths ﬁrst-aid kit / Anthony Croft. Permission is hereby given for the material in this publication to be reproduced for OHP transparencies and student handouts. Printed in Great Britain by Henry Ling Ltd. stored in a retrieval system. Includes bibliographical references and index. p. Dorchester. In all other cases. recording or otherwise. All rights reserved. Dorset. Title. Designs and Patents Act 1988. Tony.Pearson Education Ltd Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies around the World. resold. 90 Tottenham Court Road. without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd. I.2. without express permission of the Publishers.pearsoneduc. hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published.com First edition 2000 c Pearson Education Limited 2000 The right of Anthony Croft to be identiﬁed as the author of this Work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright. for educational purposes only. mechanical.

. . . . . . Simplifying fractions . . . .10 Rearranging formulas 1 . . . . 2. .12 Solving linear equations . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16. . . . . . . . . . . . . .19. . . . . . . . . .1 2. .13. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . .1 2. .1 2.2 1. . . . . . .18 Graphical solution of inequalities . . . . . .16 Inequalities . . . .1 2. . . Addition and subtraction . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 2. . . . The modulus of a number . . . . . . .1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . .1 2. Removing brackets 1 . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 2. . . . 2.1 2.15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 What is a logarithm? . .7. . . . . 2000 . . . . . . .1 2. . .4.11 Rearranging formulas 2 . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 The laws of logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 2. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . .8. . . .15 Quadratic equations 2 . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. .1.11. . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents 1.17 The modulus symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Factorising simple expressions .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . Arithmetic 1. . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . .1 1.18. . . . . . Contents. . .1 2. 1. . . . . . . Scientiﬁc notation . . . . . . . .5. . . Factorising quadratics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Algebra 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removing brackets 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Simultaneous equations . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. .6 2.5 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . .1 2. . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . .4. . .1 1. . . .9 The laws of indices .1 2. . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . Multiplication and division . . . . . . . . .20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factorials . .1 2. . . . Powers and roots . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. . . . . .17. . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . .10. . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2.1 2. . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . .1 2. . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . .14 Quadratic equations 1 . . . . . Negative and fractional powers . . .14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3 1. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . .27. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Vectors . . . 3.6. . .3 4. . . . . .25. . . . . . . .1 3. . . . .5. . .4 5. . . . .1 3.26 Completing the square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . Graphs of the trigonometric functions .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 . . .8. . . . .22. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . .1 5. . . . Using the inverse matrix to solve equations . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. .1 5. . . . . . .1 3. .7 3. . . . . .1 2. .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . .1. . . Contents. .3. .2. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .1. . . Cramer’s rule . . . . .5 4. . . . . . .6 Degrees and radians . . . . . .27 What is a surd? . . .6. . . . .5. . 2. Vectors 6. . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The logarithm function .2 4. . . . . . Multiplying matrices . . . . . .1 The trigonometrical ratios . . . . . . . .24 Partial fractions 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . The graph of a function . . . . . . . 5. . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 5.21 Bases other than 10 and e . . . .1 6.1 4. .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23. . . . . . . . . coordinate systems and graphs 3. . . . . . . . . . . .9 What is a function? .4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The sine rule and cosine rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .1 3.2 3. . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .25 Partial fractions 3 . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . .23 Partial fractions 1 . . . . . . .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. . . . .1. . . . . . 2.22 Sigma notation . The hyperbolic identities . 2. .1 5. . . . . . . . .1 4. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The straight line . . . . . .1.24. 2. .1 5. . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . The hyperbolic functions . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . The inverse of a matrix .1. 4. . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .21. . . . . . . . . . The inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix . . . . . .4. . . . Solving equations involving logarithms and exponentials . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . Functions. . . . Trigonometrical identities . . Trigonometry 4. . . . . . .1 5.1 Polar coordinates .3. . .8 3.1 2. . . . . .26. . .1 5.1 4. . . . . . . . .2 5. Pythagoras’ theorem .1 6. . .1 3. . . .1 3. The exponential constant e . . . 2. . . . .6 Determinants . . . . .3 5. . . .4. . Matrices and determinants 5. . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .6 3. . . . . .1 3. . .5 5. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .12 Integration as summation . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. .6. . . . . . Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . 8. .3 7. . . .7. . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . .4 7. . . . . .7. . . . . . . . .3. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table of integrals . . . . . . . . .11 Integration by substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1 8. . Evaluating deﬁnite integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Integration by parts .10.2 6. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . .3. .1 7. . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . 8. . . . .6. . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 What is a complex number? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The scalar product . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . Complex numbers 7. . .1 8. . . . The exponential form . . .2 7. . .4 8. . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1 7. . . . . .7 8.9 Introduction to diﬀerentiation . . . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . The chain rule .12. . . . . . . . .1 7.3 8.1. .1 8.1 8. . . . .1 8. . The Argand diagram .8. . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiplication and division in polar form . . . . .3 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . .1 7. . . .1. 2000 . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . Calculus 8. . . . . . . .5. .1 6. . . . . . . . . Product and quotient rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linearity rules . .4. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integration as the reverse of diﬀerentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . The form r(cos θ + j sin θ) . . . The vector product . . . . Linearity rules of integration . The polar form . . . . . . . .5 7. . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Complex arithmetic . . 8.1 8. . . . . Table of derivatives . .1 8. . .2 8. .2. . . . . . .

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nor are they intended to be comprehensive in their treatment of individual topics. when all the foundations can be properly laid and there is time to practice and develop conﬁdence. 2000 . . which can outline a technique or formula or important results. I hope that some of your students ﬁnd that they ease the pain! Tony Croft December 1999 References. Sometimes these gaps arise because they have long-since forgotten basic techniques. I am well aware that an approach such as this is not ideal. On many. Sometimes. and.A few words from the author . which students can take away with them. which can provide suﬃcient sticking plaster to enable the student to continue with the other aspects of their studies which are more important to them. and I would like to revise a topic brieﬂy. They are particularly useful at busy times when I may have just a few minutes to try to help a student. the only practical remedy is to have available resources which can quickly get to the heart of the problem. What many students need is a prolonged and structured course in basic mathematical techniques. importantly. many occasions I have found that gaps in mathematical knowledge impede progress both in engineering mathematics and also in some of the engineering topics that the students are studying. they are not an attempt to replace a textbook. I have used help leaﬂets similar to these in the Mathematics Learning Support Centre at Loughborough. they seem to have never met certain fundamentals in their previous studies.4 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Over the past three years I have tried to oﬀer mathematical support to many hundreds of students in the early stages of their degree programmes in engineering. Nevertheless I see this Kit as a realistic and practical damage-limitation exercise. for a variety of reasons. They are what I say – elements of a First-Aid kit. and then provide a few simple practice exercises. This Engineering Maths First-Aid Kit is my attempt at addressing this need. You should realise that these leaﬂets are not an attempt to put together a coherent course in engineering mathematics. Piecemeal attempts at helping a student do not really get to the root of the underlying problem. . Whatever the underlying reasons.

is an essential skill which underpins all other algebraic processes. both number fractions and algebraic fractions. yet equivalent forms. subtracted. A fraction can always be expressed in diﬀerent. 2 d) d) 20 . Cancelling is equivalent to 3 dividing the top and the bottom by the common factor. You need to remember that factors are numbers which are multiplied together.1 ✟ ✠ Fractions Introduction The ability to work conﬁdently with fractions. 2000 . 55 g) 3 . We note that In any fraction 2 1×2 = 6 2×3 and so there is a factor of 2 which is common to both the numerator and the denominator. multiplied and divided. 8 15 . 24 Answers 1. 11 f) g) 1 . added. This common factor can be cancelled to leave the equivalent fraction 1 . Addition and subtraction of fractions To add two fractions we ﬁrst rewrite each fraction so that they both have the same denominator. Express each of the following fractions in its simplest form: a) 12 .1. 9 2. 16 b) 14 . 1. say. This is the smallest 1. 45 e) 7 . A fraction is expressed in its simplest form 3 by cancelling any factors which are common to both the numerator and the denominator. 4 b) 2 . The number q must never be zero. the two fractions 2 and 6 1 are equivalent. The number q at q the bottom is called the denominator.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Example 12 is equivalent to 20 3 5 since 12 4×3 3 = = 20 4×5 5 Exercises 1. 21 c) 3 . They represent the same value.☛ ✡ 1. 6 c) 1 . Expressing a fraction in its simplest form p . a) 3 . For example. In this leaﬂet we remind you of how number fractions are simpliﬁed. the number p at the top is called the numerator. 3 e) 7 . This denominator is chosen to be the lowest common denominator. 9 f) 3 . 9 100 .

4 b) 4 9 − 1. f) 3. So. b) 7 1. We perform the addition by simply adding the numerators and dividing 7 5 the result by the lowest common denominator. and the result is divided by the lowest common denominator. 8 Solution a) In this case the denominators of each fraction are already the same. 8 d) 3 7 × 2. b) − 18 . 3 Answers 1. 16 b) 7 16 + 3. 1 2 4 15 20 24 59 + + = + + = 2 3 5 30 30 30 30 Exercises 1. 5 6 . and multiply the denominators to give a new denominator. 5 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Evaluate each of the following: a) 2 3 + 5. a) 23 . Note that 3 is equivalent to 16 and so we write 16 + 3 = 16 + 16 = 13 . 2 3 5 Solution The smallest number which is a multiple of the given denominators is 30. We express each fraction with a denominator of 30. 10 f) 4 5 + 1 − 3. 3 2 23 . 35 c) 2 1 × 1.number which is a multiple of both denominators. 16 + 16 = 7+5 = 12 . We simply multiply the numerators to give a new numerator. 2 f) 5 . For example 5 3 5×3 15 × = = 7 4 7×4 28 Division is performed by inverting the second fraction and then multiplying. Find a) 4 26 × 13 . 7 b) 2 11 ÷ 3. 5 4 20 5 3 ÷ = × = 7 4 7 3 21 Exercises 1. So. 3 4 Answers 1 1. The lowest common denominator is 16. Example Simplify a) 7 16 + 5 . 2000 .2 10 . 12 c) d) 1 e) − 30 . 12 d) 1 4 + 1 + 1. a) 2 . 12 c) 3 4 + 5. 33 c) 1. Multiplication and division of fractions Multiplication of fractions is more straightforward. The lowest common denominator is 16 because this is the smallest number which is a multiple of 6 7 7 6 both denominators. d) e) 6 . Then. 60 e) 2 5 −1− 3 1 . 8 8 16 Example Find 1 + 2 + 4 . This answer can be 16 16 expressed in the simpler form 3 by cancelling the common factor 4. 2 19 .1. the numerators only are added. 5 e) 3 11 × 22 . 6 13 . 4 b) To add these fractions we must rewrite them so that they have the same denominator. 5 f) 5 6 ÷ 4.

Your calculator will only give the positive square root but you should be aware that the second. or ‘6 to the power 2 is 36’. √ Most calculators have a square root button. The number 7 is called the base. For example.8882. marked xy . This means that 25 has another square root. This √ √ is written as 2 25 = 5. −5. the quantity 7 × 7 × 7 × 7 is usually written as 74 . However. probably marked .8882. Powers When we wish to multiply a number by itself we use powers. The square root of 25 is 5. For example √ √ √ 16 × 25 = 16 × 25 = 4 × 5 = 20 1. that is (−5)2 = 25. Example 62 = 6 × 6 = 36. the power. 1. is 4. That is 52 = 25. Note also that when −5 is squared we again obtain 25. We say that ‘2 to the power 5 is 32’. a square root of a number is a number which when squared gives the original number. negative square root is −8. or simply ˆ Ensure that you are using your calculator correctly by verifying that 11 3 = 177147. to four decimal places.2 ✟ ✠ Powers and roots Introduction Powers are used when we want to multiply a number by itself repeatedly. We say that ‘6 squared is 36’. Your calculator will be pre-programmed to evaluate powers. The number 4 tells us the number of sevens to be multiplied together. An important result is that the square root of a product of two numbers is equal to the product of the square roots of the two numbers. or simply 25 = 5. or indices as they are also called. 2.2. Check that you can use your √ calculator correctly by verifying that 79 = 8.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Square roots When 5 is squared we obtain 25. There are always two square roots of any positive number. In general. 2000 . negative numbers do not possess any square roots. or index. 25 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 32. Most calculators have a button . In this example.☛ ✡ 1. one positive and one negative. The reverse of this process is called ﬁnding a square root.

48 can be written as √ √ √ 3 × 16. Answers 1. 2000 . your attention is drawn to a common error which students make. the ﬁfth root of 32 is 2. 3. a) 2. written 3 64 = 4. √ ab = √ a× √ b However. Answers 1. √ 3 b) 125. Cube roots and higher roots The cube root of a number is the number which when cubed gives the√ original number. All numbers. possess a single cube root. because 43 = 64 we know that the cube root of 64 is 4. b) 63. b) 12. show that √ 1 2−1 is equivalent to √ 2+1 4. √ √ Expressions involving roots. a) 6 5. 1. for example 2 and 5 3 2. Show that the square of 5 2 is 50. Higher roots are deﬁned in a similar way: because 25 = 32. It is not true that √ √ √ a + b = a + b. b) 3 7. √ 3. Without using a calculator ﬁnd a) 3 27.2. written √ 5 32 = 2. √ √ 2. a) 3. both positive and negative. By multiplying numerator and denominator by 2 + 1. b) 5. Without using a calculator write down the value of 9 × 36. For example.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Frequently. b) 12. in engineering calculations it is quite acceptable to leave an answer in surd form rather than calculating its decimal approximation with a calculator. that is 3 × 16 = 4 3. Exercises √ 1. Substitute some simple values for yourself to see that this cannot be right. 18 (and also −18). Surds Answers √ √ 1. √ It is often possible to √ write surds in equivalent forms. are also known as surds. 2. √ 2. Exercises √ √ 1. Exercises √ 1. Write the following in their simplest surd form: a) 180. For example. Find the square of the following: a) 2.More generally.

1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.01. 10 10−2 = 1 = 0.000. to multiply 3. Some numbers in scientiﬁc notation are 5 × 103 . known as scientiﬁc notation which enables us to write numbers much more concisely.67 × 104 . To multiply 29. for example 0. 100 10−3 = 1 = 0.90 × 10−3 To understand scientiﬁc notation you need to be aware that 101 = 10.45 by 10. 1. You also need to remember how simple it is to multiply a number by powers of 10. It may be necessary to insert additional zeros to make up the required number of digits. the decimal point is moved one place to the right to give 34. 7. and also that 10−1 = 1 = 0.3. Scientiﬁc notation In scientiﬁc notation each number is written in the form a × 10n where a is a number between 1 and 10 and n is a positive or negative whole number.00000345 and 870.90 × 10−3 . the decimal point is moved two places to the right to give 2965.65 by 100. and so on. a) 5 × 103 . 104 = 10000.5.000.001. 103 = 1000. 102 = 100.67 × 104 . 1. b) 2. Example The following numbers are given in scientiﬁc notation. c) 7. Solution a) 5 × 103 = 5 × 1000 = 5000. 2000 . 2.3 ✌ Scientiﬁc notation Introduction In engineering calculations numbers are often very small or very large. In general. Write them out fully. to multiply a number by 10n the decimal point is moved n places to the right if n is a positive whole number and n places to the left if n is a negative whole number. 1000 and so on.✎ ✍ 1. For example.1. To avoid writing lengthy strings of numbers a notation has been developed.

25E7 may be programmed as 9.42 × 10−1 . a) 2.1 × 10−3 may be programmed as 8. Alternatively your calculator may require you to enter the number as 3. Usually a MODE button is used to select the appropriate format. The number 107 .76 × 10−4 ) × (105 ) = 8. should be entered as 1E7. Exercises 1. Commonly the EXP button is used to enter numbers in scientiﬁc notation. c) −3. 2000 .90 × 10−3 = 0.2 × 10.54 × 10−3 .45E7 and it may be displayed in the same way. Computer programming languages use similar notation.8 × 10−3 .00254. d) 1 × 106 or simply 106 . c) 7. Answers 1. b) 0. You should also be aware that your calculator can display a number in lots of diﬀerent forms.67 × 106 . b) 8. including scientiﬁc notation. d) 1000000. a) 5670000.00790. For example.67 × 104 = 26700.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.3.b) 2.1E−3 Again. (EXP stands for exponent which is another name for a power. meaning 1 × 107 . Example Express each of the following numbers in scientiﬁc notation.0098.342.28 × 108 1.45 07 . A common error is to enter incorrectly numbers which are simply powers of 10.0098 = 9. c) −0. 2. you need to take care and check the required syntax carefully.45EXP 7 and might appear in the calculator window as 3. that is 108 .45 × 107 is entered as 3. Using a calculator Students often have diﬃculty using a calculator to deal with scientiﬁc notation. You should seek help if in doubt. Solution a) 5670000 = 5.) A number like 3. You may need to refer to your calculator manual to ensure that you are entering numbers correctly. For example 8. b) 0. Check that you are using your calculator correctly by verifying that (3 × 107 ) × (2. a) 0. the number 107 is erroneously entered as 10E7 which means 10 × 107 . Express each of the following in scientiﬁc notation.25 × 107 and 9. b) 82.

Explain why 5. Just learn this! You will not be required to ﬁnd factorials of negative numbers or fractions. and that 4! = 4 × 3!. 3! = 6 and b) 10. a) 84. 1. Explain why n! = n × (n − 1)! for any positive whole number n.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 4! = 24. 2. This is known as a factorial. 4. Factorials are used in combination notation which arises frequently in probability theory. The factorial is a symbol which is used when we wish to multiply consecutive whole numbers together. Show that 5! 3! equals 20. or consult your calculator manual. as you will see below. Evaluate a) Answers 1. c) 6. which is read as ‘ﬁve factorial’. c) 6 1 . n! = n for any positive whole number n. Look for a button marked !. If you actually perform the multiplication you will ﬁnd that 5! = 120. A rather special case is 0!. Factorials The number 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 is written as 5!.4. Using a calculator to ﬁnd factorials Your scientiﬁc calculator will be pre-programmed to ﬁnd factorials. n! The notation n stands for (n−r)!r! . 3! and 4!. For example r 6! 6 6! = = 4 (6 − 4)!4! 2!4! Exercises 1. 2.4 ✟ ✠ Factorials Introduction In many engineering calculations you will come across the symbol ! which you may not have met before in mathematics classes. Check that you can use your calculator to ﬁnd factorials by verifying that 10! = 3628800 1. . Note that 3! = 3 × 2!. Without using a calculator evaluate 2!. Similarly 7! = 7 × 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 which equals 5040. (n − 1)! 9 3 3.☛ ✡ 1. 2! = 2 5. b) 5 2 . This is deﬁned to equal 1 and this might seem somewhat strange. 2000 .

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✎ ✍ 1. Note also that the modulus of a negative number can be found by multiplying it by −1 since.25. 1. The modulus of 0 is 0. Plot a graph of y = |x|. That is. we disregard any sign it might have. Compare your graph with the graphs of y = x and y = −x. The modulus of a negative number is found by ignoring the minus sign. This observation allows us to deﬁne the modulus of a number quite concisely in the following way |x| = x −x if x is positive or zero if x is negative Example |9| = 9. 1. This is known as the modulus. 2000 . for example. Draw up a table of values of |x| as x varies between −6 and 6. | − 3. the modulus of a positive number is simply the number.5 ✌ The modulus of a number Introduction In many engineering calculations you will come across the symbol | | . The modulus of a number The modulus of a number is its absolute size. The modulus of a number is denoted by writing vertical lines around the number.25| = 0. 2 2 The modulus of 17 is simply 17. | − 11| = 11. The modulus of − 1 is 1 .1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.5. |0.7| = 3. So. Example The modulus of −8 is simply 8. −(−8) = 8.7 Exercise 1.

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b) 125. Check this. Answers 1.1 ✟ ✠ The laws of indices Introduction A power. 9 f) 8 . The laws should be used precisely as they are stated – do not be tempted to make up variations of your own! The three most important laws are given here: 2. a) a4 . 2000 . Write the following expressions more concisely by using an index.☛ ✡ 2. is used to write a product of numbers very compactly. b) 53 . It may be marked xy . c) 32.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. In this leaﬂet we remind you of how this is done. 125 b) (yz)3 . or an index. Similarly z × z × z = z3 We read this as ‘z to the power three’ or ‘z cubed’. c) . The laws of indices To manipulate expressions involving indices we use rules known as the laws of indices. 1. or indices We write the expression 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 as 34 We read this as ‘three to the power four’. b) (yz) × (yz) × (yz). The plural of index is indices. d) 1 . and then use your calculator to verify that 74 = 2401 and 255 = 9765625 Exercises 1. a b f) × a b 2 5 3 . c) 25 . In the expression bc . 2. 4 a b 3 e) 1 . c) × . Without using a calculator work out the value of a) 42 . the index is c and the number b is called the base. which can be used to simplify expressions involving indices. a b 2. 2. or laws. d) 1 2 2 . Your calculator will probably have a button to evaluate powers of numbers. e) 1 3 2 . a) a × a × a × a. Powers. a) 16. and state a number of rules.1.

2000 . x7 2. a6 × b5 .First law am × an = am+n When expressions with the same base are multiplied. c) x11 . Use one of the laws to simplify. Example (64 )2 = 64×2 = 68 and (ex )y = exy and similarly z7 = z 7−4 = z 3 z4 It will also be useful to note the following important results: a0 = 1. the indices are subtracted. In each case choose an appropriate law to simplify the expression: a) 53 × 513 . a) 516 . a1 = a Exercises 1. f) x1 = x. y3 f) x8 . d) a12 . Example We can write 76 × 74 = 76+4 = 710 You could verify this by evaluating both sides separately. e) y7 . if possible.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. d) (a3 )4 . This cannot be simpliﬁed because the bases are not the same. b) 88 . c) x6 × x5 . 2. b) 813 ÷ 85 . 2. e) y 4 .1. Example We can write 85 = 85−3 = 82 83 Third law (am )n = amn Note that m and n have been multiplied to yield the new index mn. the indices are added. Answers 1. Example z 4 × z 3 = z 4+3 = z 7 Second law am = am−n an When expressions with the same base are divided.

2. e) 5−17 . a) x6 . 9 d) 43 . Negative powers Sometimes you will meet a number raised to a negative power. This is interpreted as follows: a−m = 1 am This can be rearranged into the alternative form: am = 1 a−m Example 3−2 = 1 . These are explained in this leaﬂet. d) 4−3 . When a number is raised to a fractional power this is interpreted as follows: 2. 517 d) 32. b) 2. 32 1 = 52 .2 ✟ ✠ Negative and fractional powers Introduction Sometimes it is useful to use negative and fractional powers. 1. x2 2−5 = 1 1 = 25 32 Exercises 1. a) 2−3 = c) 1 . c) 16. −2 5 x−1 = 1 1 = . 2. x12 1 = 1. b) x−12 . 2000 . Fractional powers To understand fractional powers you ﬁrst need to have an understanding of roots.☛ ✡ 2. a) −6 . x b) 3−2 .1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Write the following using only positive powers: 1 1 c) t−3 . e) 64. 4−3 1 . 4−2 d) 1 . t3 b) 1 . and in particular square roots and cube roots. Without using a calculator evaluate a) 2−3 . x1 x x−2 = 1 . 2. If necessary you should consult leaﬂet 1. Answers 1. 23 8 c) 1 . e) 1 .2 Powers and Roots. 2−5 e) 1 .

You may need to check your calculator manual to ﬁnd the precise way of doing this. or equivalently ( n a)m . evaluate a) 43/2 . Use the third law of indices to show that am/n = and equivalently am/n = Answers 1.a1/n = So. Check that you are using your calculator correctly by conﬁrming that 381/7 = 1. 2. a1/2 a1/3 a1/4 Example 31/2 = √ 2 √ n a is a square root of a is the cube root of a is a fourth root of a 3.4915. b) √ 4 32. √ √ 3 4 = 64 = 4. b) 2. 2000 .3784. a) 43/2 = 8. √ n am or equivalently √ n a m am/n = Example √ 3 82/3 = ( 8)2 = 22 = 4 Exercises 1. b) 272/3 . 811/4 = 81 = 3 Fractional powers are useful when we need to calculate roots using a scientiﬁc calculator. 2. am m a b) 272/3 = 9. For √ example to ﬁnd 7 38 we rewrite this as 381/7 which can be evaluated using a scientiﬁc calculator. 321/5 = 32 = 2. Use a calculator to ﬁnd a) √ 5 96. 3. probably with the buttons xy or x1/y . √ n √ n and √ 5 323/5 = ( 32)3 = 23 = 8 2. a) 2. 641/3 √ √ 3 5 271/3 = 27 or 3.6814 (4 dp) More generally am/n means √ n √ am .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.2. Without using a calculator.

In symbols. we have (x × y) × z is the same as x × (y × z) and since the result is the same either way. xy is the same as yx. or evaluate 3 × 5 ﬁrst and then multiply by 4. 1. that is (5×b)×a. Note that this is also equal to 5ab because of commutativity. the brackets make no diﬀerence at all and we can write simply x × y × z or simply xyz. 2000 . This means that when we want to multiply three numbers together such as 4 × 3 × 5 it doesn’t matter whether we evaluate 4 × 3 ﬁrst and then multiply by 5.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. That is (4 × 3) × 5 is the same as 4 × (3 × 5) where we have used brackets to indicate which terms are multiplied ﬁrst. In symbols. and so we can interchange the order as we wish.✎ ✍ 2. b) a(5b). Multiplication is also an associative operation. that 4 × 5 has the same value as 5 × 4.3 ✌ Removing brackets 1 Introduction In order to simplify mathematical expressions it is frequently necessary to ‘remove brackets’.3. b) a(5b) means a×(5b). Because of associativity of multiplication the brackets are unnecessary and we can write 4 × 2 × x which equals 8x. 60. 2. Because of associativity the brackets are unnecessary and we write simply 5 × b × a which equals 5ba. Solution a) 4(2x) means 4×(2×x). This means. When mixing numbers and symbols we usually write the numbers ﬁrst. the result is the same. for example. This operation must be carried out according to certain rules which are described in this leaﬂet. Either way. Either way the result is 20. This means to rewrite an expression which includes bracketed terms in an equivalent form. The associativity and commutativity of multiplication Multiplication is said to be a commutative operation. So 7×a×2 = 7×2×a = 14a through commutativity Example Remove the brackets from a) 4(2x). Because of commutativity this is the same as (5b)×a. but without any brackets.

By working out the bracketed term ﬁrst we obtain 6 × 5 which equals 30. −(a + b) is equivalent to −a − b. d) −7(−9x). simplifying your answers where appropriate. 4. x(x + 1). Answers 1. We say that the ‘4’ distributes itself over both the added terms in the brackets – multiplication is distributive over addition. −5(a − b) is equivalent to −5 × a − −5 × b which equals −5a + 5b. Note that this is the same as multiplying both the 8 and the 3 by 6 before carrying out the subtraction: 6 × (8 − 3) = 6 × 8 − 6 × 3 = 48 − 18 = 30 Note the way in which the ‘6’ multiplies both the bracketed numbers. −3 − 2x. 15xy. 15x + 15y. f) 5x(y). Expressions of the form a(b + c) and a(b − c) Study the expression 4 × (2 + 3). 7. Now study the expression 6 × (8 − 3). a) 27y. e) 12(3m). Exactly the same property holds when we deal with symbols. 2. b) 25xy. 7(−x + y). Note that this is the same as multiplying both the 2 and 3 separately by 4. c) −6a. Exercises Remove the brackets from each of the following expressions. 8(3 + 2y). 6.Exercises 1. 10.3. f) 5xy. −4(5 + x) is equivalent to −4 × 5 + −4 × x which equals −20 − 4x. 6. and then adding the results. c) 3(−2a). x2 + x. 7(x − 2y) is equivalent to 7 × x − 7 × 2y which equals 7x − 14y.2 5. 9. 3 + 2x. a(b + c) = ab + ac a(b − c) = ab − ac Example 4(5 + x) is equivalent to 4 × 5 + 4 × x which equals 20 + 4x. 15(xy). 3. 2. 7x − 7y. 3. −(3 − 2x). 4. 1. −(−3 − 2x). 11(m + 3n). b) (5x) × (5y). By working out the bracketed term ﬁrst we obtain 4 × 5 which equals 20. 8. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. That is 4 × (2 + 3) = 4 × 2 + 4 × 3 = 8 + 12 = 20 Note the way in which the ‘4’ multiplies both the bracketed numbers. 9. 11m + 33n. −7x + 7y. 15(x + y). e) 36m. 24 + 16y. 10. 5. 5(a − b) is equivalent to 5 × a − 5 × b which equals 5a − 5b. −3 + 2x. d) 63x. 2. We say that the ‘6’ distributes itself over both the terms in the brackets – multiplication is distributive over subtraction. Simplify a) 9(3y). 7. 2. −(3 + 2x). ‘2’ and ‘3’. Answers 1. 2000 . −7(−x + y). 8.

☛ ✡ 2. Example Removing the brackets from (x + 6)(x + 2) gives x×x + 6×x + x×2 + 6×2 which equals x2 + 6x + 2x + 12 which simpliﬁes to x2 + 8x + 12 Example Removing the brackets from (x + 7)(x − 3) gives x × x + 7 × x + x × −3 + 7 × −3 which equals x2 + 7x − 3x − 21 2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 2000 .4. 1. (a + b)(c + d) = ac + bc + ad + bd Example Removing the brackets from (5 + a)(2 + b) gives 5×2 + a×2 + 5×b + a×b which simpliﬁes to 10 + 2a + 5b + ab . Expressions of the form (a + b)(c + d) In the expression (a + b)(c + d) it is intended that each term in the ﬁrst bracket multiplies each term in the second.4 ✟ ✠ Removing brackets 2 Introduction In this leaﬂet we show the correct procedure for writing expressions of the form (a + b)(c + d) in an alternative form without brackets.

1. d) (3x + 1)(2x − 4). c) 4x2 + 4x + 1. a) (x + 2)(x + 3). and more generally (x + y)2 is not equal to x2 + y 2 . 2. means (x + 1)(x + 1) b) x2 − 3x − 4.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. b) (x − 4)(x + 1). 2. Solution You need to be clear that when a quantity is squared it is multiplied by itself. d) 6x2 − 10x − 4. c) (2x + 1)2 . c) x2 − 2x + 1. a) x2 + 5x + 6. d) (x − 3)2 .4. b) 3x2 + 14x − 5. 2000 . 2. Example Remove the brackets from (x + 1)2 . b) (x + 5)(3x − 1). c) (x − 1)2 . a) (2x − 7)(x − 1). This can lead to errors. So (x + 1)2 Then removing the brackets gives x×x + 1×x + x×1 + 1×1 which equals x2 + x + x + 1 which simpliﬁes to x2 + 2x + 1 Note that (x + 1)2 is not equal to x2 + 1. Answers 1. Exercises Remove the brackets from each of the following expressions. d) x2 − 6x + 9. Study the following example. a) 2x2 − 9x + 7. simplifying your answers where appropriate.which simpliﬁes to x2 + 4x − 21 Example Removing the brackets from (2x + 3)(x + 4) gives 2x × x + 3 × x + 2x × 4 + 3 × 4 which equals 2x2 + 3x + 8x + 12 which simpliﬁes to 2x2 + 11x + 12 Occasionally you will need to square a bracketed expression.

and these will normally involve brackets. (x + 1) and (x + 2) are factors of x2 + 3x + 2 because when we multiply (x + 1) by (x + 2) we obtain x2 + 3x + 2. Example The product of x and y is xy. 2. The product of 5x and 3y is 15xy. we might note that some of the factors are the same.5. 2000 .5 ✌ Factorising simple expressions Introduction Before studying this material you must be familiar with the process of ‘removing brackets’ as outlined in leaﬂets 2.4. These factors are called common factors. Products and factors To obtain the product of two numbers they are multiplied together. Both 6 and 3 are factors of 18 because 6 × 3 = 18.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.3 & 2. So. For example the product of 3 and 4 is 3×4 which equals 12. We say that 3 and 4 are both factors of 12. namely 6. Example 2x and 5y are factors of 10xy since when we multiply 2x by 5y we obtain 10xy. Common factors Sometimes. Example Consider the numbers 18 and 12. 3 and x − 5 are factors of 3x − 15 because 3(x − 5) = 3x − 15 2. 1. 18 and 12 share a common factor. When we factorise an expression it is written as a product of two or more terms. Both 6 and 2 are factors of 12 because 6 × 2 = 12. This is because factorising can be thought of as reversing the process of removing brackets.✎ ✍ 2. The numbers which are multiplied together are called factors. if we study two expressions to ﬁnd their factors.

In fact 18 and 12 share other common factors. Hence a is a common factor. We say that the factors of 15x + 10 are 5 and 3x + 2.2 2. 2. Example 3a2 and 5a share a common factor of a since 3a2 = 3a × a and 5a = 5 × a. 2. Example Factorise 15x + 10. 4. Once found. x(y − 8). Hence 4x is a common factor.5. so you shouldn’t get them wrong. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. This common factor is written outside a bracketed term. Hence 5 is a common factor. and 15x = 5 × 3x. Your answer can be checked by showing 5(3x + 2) = 5(3x) + 5(2) = 15x + 10 Exercises Factorise each of the following: 1. 4x(1 − 2y). 4. these common factors are written outside a bracketed term. 5(2x + y). Factorising To factorise an expression containing two or more terms it is necessary to look for factors which are common to the diﬀerent terms. 3. 10x + 5y. So the original expression can be written 15x + 10 = 5(3x) + 5(2) which shows clearly the common factor. 2000 . Answers 1. xy − 8x. Can you ﬁnd them? Example The number 10 and the expression 15x share a common factor of 5. 3. It is ALWAYS possible to check your answers when you factorise by simply removing the brackets again. 3. Solution First we look for any factors which are common to both 15x and 10. 7(3 + x). Example 8x2 and 12x share a common factor of 4x since 8x2 = 4x × 2x and 12x = 3 × 4x. 4x − 8xy. the remaining quantities being placed inside the bracket: 15x + 10 = 5(3x + 2) and the expression has been factorised. Note that 10 = 5 × 2. The common factor here is 5. 21 + 7x.

Clearly 5 and 1 have this property. First of all note that by removing the brackets from (x + 2)(x + 3) we ﬁnd (x + 2)(x + 3) = x2 + 2x + 3x + 6 = x2 + 5x + 6 When we factorise x2 + 5x + 6 we are looking for the answer (x + 2)(x + 3). Example Factorise x2 + 6x + 5.✎ ✍ 2. So x2 + 6x + 5 = (x + 5)(x + 1) At this stage you should always remove the brackets again to check. Factorising quadratics You will ﬁnd that you are expected to be able to factorise expressions such as x2 + 5x + 6. that is. 2. It is often convenient to do this by a process of educated guesswork and trial and error. By removing the brackets you will see that this is calculated by multiplying the two numbers in the brackets together. 2000 . 1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. The factors of x2 + 6x + 5 are (x + 5) and (x + 1).6. Solution We would like to write x2 + 6x + 5 in the form ( + )( + ) First note that we can achieve the x2 term by placing an x in each bracket: (x + )(x + ) The next place to look is the constant term in x2 + 6x + 5.6 ✌ Factorising quadratics Introduction In this leaﬂet we explain the procedure for factorising quadratic expressions such as x2 + 5x + 6. We seek two numbers which multiply together to give 5. although there are others. 5.

b) (x − 1)(x − 4). We write 2x2 + 11x + 12 = (2x + )(x + ) Then study the constant term 12. c) (x − 1)(x + 4). g) 3x2 − 2x − 1. e) (2x + 1)(x − 7).6. x2 + 3x − 4. 2000 . because using these we would obtain a middle term of +6x as we saw in the last example. You will need even more thought and care if the coeﬃcient of x2 . Exercises 1. g) (3x + 1)(x − 1). for example 3 and 4. b) x2 − 5x + 4. d) x2 − 3x − 4. i) 6x2 + 13x + 6. 2. h) (3x − 1)(x + 1). 6 and 2 and so on. It has a number of pairs of factors. h) 3x2 + 2x − 1. Factorise each of the following: a) f) x2 + 5x + 4. e) 2x2 − 13x − 7. Answers 1. f) (2x − 1)(x + 7). Trying −5 and −1 will do the trick. d) (x + 1)(x − 4). Solution Always start by trying to obtain the correct x2 term. i) (3x + 2)(2x + 3).Example Factorise x2 − 6x + 5. Consider the following example. this time 5 and 1 will not do.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. x2 − 6x + 5 = (x − 5)(x − 1) You see that some thought and perhaps a little experimentation is required. is anything other than 1. However. that is the number in front of the x2 . c) 2x2 + 13x − 7. a) (x + 1)(x + 4). Example Factorise 2x2 + 11x + 12. Solution Again we try to write the expression in the form x2 − 6x + 5 = (x + )(x + ) And again we seek two numbers which multiply to give 5. By trial and error you will ﬁnd that the correct factorisation is 2x2 + 11x + 12 = (2x + 3)(x + 4) but you will only realise this by removing the brackets again.

In this leaﬂet we revise how these processes are carried out. b A fraction is expressed in an equivalent form by multiplying both top and bottom by the same quantity. the two fractions 7a 7 and ab b are equivalent.7. Note that there is a common factor of a in the numerator and the denominator 7 7a which can be cancelled to give . any factors which are common to both the numerator and the denominator are cancelled. For example. Example The two fractions 10y 2 15y 5 and 2 3y 3 are equivalent. 1.☛ ✡ 2. It will be helpful if you have already seen leaﬂet 1. Expressing a fraction in its simplest form An algebraic fraction can always be expressed in diﬀerent.7 ✟ ✠ Simplifying fractions Introduction Fractions involving symbols occur very frequently in engineering mathematics. yet equivalent forms. Notice that cancelling is equivalent to dividing the top and the bottom by the common factor. of ab b To express a fraction in its simplest form. 7a 7 can be converted back to the equivalent fraction by It is also important to note that b ab 7 multiplying both the numerator and denominator of by a. 2000 2.1 Fractions. A fraction is expressed in its simplest form by cancelling any factors which are common to both the numerator and the denominator. Note that 2×5×y×y 10y 2 = 15y 5 3×5×y×y×y×y×y copyright c Pearson Education Limited. It is necessary to be able to simplify these and rewrite them in diﬀerent but equivalent forms. You need to remember that factors are multiplied together. or dividing top and bottom by the same quantity.1 .

g) cannot be simpliﬁed. the brackets could now be removed to write the fraction as Exercises 1. a) 3y . Example The fractions 2a(3a − b) 7a(a + b) and 2(3a − b) 7(a + b) are equivalent.7. f) 20x . (x+2)(x+3) f) 100x . 45 g) a+b . Whilst both 4 2 x+2 9 a and b are factors of the denominator. ab Answers 2 3 1. Example Express 5x as an equivalent fraction with denominator (2x + 1)(x − 7). These can be cancelled to leave Example The fractions 2 . 6x d) 3(x+1) . Neither a nor b is a factor of the numerator. neither a nor b is a factor of the numerator. 21a2 b2 c) 3x2 y . the common factor a can be cancelled. Example In the fraction a−b a+b there are no common factors which can be cancelled. 3y 3 (x − 1)(x + 3) (x + 3)(x + 5) and (x − 1) (x + 5) are equivalent. the common factor (x + 3) can be cancelled. d) x+1 . e) x+1 . 2000 . 16x 5x2 − 35x . In the ﬁrst fraction. Neither a nor b is a factor of the denominator. Nothing else can be cancelled. 2x2 − 13x − 7 b) 14ab . That is 5x (5x)(x − 7) = 2x + 1 (2x + 1)(x − 7) If we wished. c) xy .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. b) 3ab . 2. Express each of the following fractions in its simplest form: a) 12xy . In the ﬁrst fraction.and so there are common factors of 5 and y × y. (x+1)2 e) (x+3)(x+1) . 2x + 1 Solution To achieve the required denominator we must multiply both top and bottom by (x − 7).

The denominator is called the lowest common denominator. It is the simplest expression which is a multiple of both of the original denominators.8. This is equivab alent to the original fraction – it is merely written in a diﬀerent form. Finally we add the numerators and divide the result by the lowest common denominator: 7b + 9a 7b 9a + = ab ab ab Example Express as a single fraction 5 2 + x+3 x−1 2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. (See leaﬂet 2. If the numerator and 9a denominator of the second are both multiplied by a we obtain .) 1.8 ✌ Addition and subtraction Introduction Fractions involving symbols occur very frequently in engineering mathematics. and the result is divided by the lowest common denominator. Addition and subtraction of fractions To add two fractions we must ﬁrst rewrite each fraction so that they both have the same denominator. The lowest common denominator is ab. An understanding of writing fractions in equivalent forms is necessary. the numerators only are added. To achieve this. In this leaﬂet we revise how these processes are carried out. Then the problem becomes ab 7b 9a + ab ab In this form. Then.7 Simplifying fractions. note that if the 7b numerator and denominator of the ﬁrst are both multiplied by b we obtain . Example Express as a single fraction 7 9 + a b Solution Both fractions must be written with the same denominator. both fractions have the same denominator. 2000 . It is necessary to be able to add and subtract them.✎ ✍ 2.

(x+2)(x−5) 13x+4 e) − (x+3)(2x+1) . 3x 2. Express each of the following as a single fraction: a) 3 4 1 + x. x+3 Answers 1. 2000 .8. 5b c) 2 x2 1 + x. a) b) 5b−2a . 3x 5x+7 . (x+1)(x+2) b) 2x+11 . 3 3(x + 1) 2 2 = + + 2 2 x + 1 (x + 1) (x + 1) (x + 1)2 Adding the numerators and simplifying we ﬁnd 2 3x + 3 + 2 3x + 5 3(x + 1) + = = 2 2 2 (x + 1) (x + 1) (x + 1) (x + 1)2 Exercises 1. x(x−1) d) 17−2x . 2.Solution Both fractions can be written with the same denominator if both the numerator and denominator of the ﬁrst are multiplied by x − 1 and if both the numerator and denominator of the second are multiplied by x + 3. 5ab c) 2+x . x+2 1 a − b) 2 . b) 3 . (x+3)2 c) d) 1 x−5 − 3 . d) 2 + 3x x−1 1 + x. 4x 2. adding the numerators gives 2(x − 1) + 5(x + 3) (x + 3)(x − 1) which. Express as a single fraction: a) 2 x+1 + 2 x+3 + 5 . Both fractions must be written with this denominator. a) 3x+4 . by simplifying the numerator. x2 d) 6x+1 . This is the lowest common denominator.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. gives 7x + 13 (x + 3)(x − 1) Example 2 3 + Find x + 1 (x + 1)2 Solution The simplest expression which is a multiple of the original denominators is (x + 1)2 . (x+3)2 c) 3x2 +x−1 . 1 . This gives 2 5 2(x − 1) 5(x + 3) + = + x+3 x−1 (x + 3)(x − 1) (x + 3)(x − 1) Then. x+2 e) 1 2x+1 − 7 .

and multiply the two denominators together.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 2000 . which. In this leaﬂet we revise how these processes are carried out. It will be helpful if you have already seen leaﬂet 1. Multiplication and division of fractions Multiplication of fractions is straightforward. by cancelling common factors. Example Find 4 a × 7 b Solution Simply multiply the two numerators together. 10 Division is performed by inverting the second fraction and then multiplying.1 Fractions.9.✎ ✍ 2. It is necessary to be able to multiply and divide them. and multiply the denominators to give a new denominator. 2x 5y 2. 1. can be simpliﬁed to Example 3 6 Find ÷ . 4 a 4a × = 7 b 7b Example Find 3ab 7 × 5 6a Solution 7 21ab 3ab × = 5 6a 30a 7b .9 ✌ Multiplication and division Introduction Fractions involving symbols occur very frequently in engineering mathematics. We simply multiply the numerators to give a new numerator.

b) 6 2. 1 .Solution 3 6 3 5y ÷ = × 2x 5y 2x 6 15y = 12x 5y = 4x Example x 3 ÷ . 12 2. Find a) 1 × x . x+1 3. 6 . x . 3 2 2. (x+1)(x−3) 3 c) − 20 . 4 5 x 3 ÷ x + 2 2x + 4 1 d) − x × 2 5y .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. x−3 c) − 1 × 3 . Simplify 3 3 1 × × x y z 5. x 3. Simplify b) 2 x+1 × x . e) x+1 2(x+3) × 8 . 2000 . 9 . 2 d) − 5xy . 3 x 2x . a) x . e) 4 . x+4 4. Find x + 1 (x + 1)2 Solution 3 x (x + 1)2 3 ÷ × = x + 1 (x + 1)2 x+1 x 2 3(x + 1) = x(x + 1) 3(x + 1) = x Exercises 1. Simplify x+5 x+2 × (x + 5)(x + 4) x + 2 4. x+3 Answers 1.9. xyz 5. Find 4 16 ÷ .

Rules for rearranging.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. To transpose or rearrange a formula you may • add or subtract the same quantity to or from both sides • multiply or divide both sides by the same quantity. You may also be familiar with Ohm’s law written in either of the forms V V I= and R= R I In the ﬁrst case I is the subject of the formula whilst in the second case R is the subject. If we add an amount to one side. then to keep balance we must add the same amount to the pan on the right. If the values of R and I are known then the formula V = IR enables us to calculate the value of V . If we add an amount to one side of the scale pans. Furthermore. if we multiply the left by any amount. In the form V = IR. The quantity on the left is equal to the quantity on the right. The subject of a formula Most engineering students will be familiar with Ohm’s law which states that V = IR. On the other hand.11 deals with more complicated examples. a formula.✎ ✍ 2. we must add the same to the other to keep the formula valid. 2. V is a voltage drop. or transpose. If we know values of V and R we can use I = V to ﬁnd I. 2. we must multiply the right by the same amount. say the left one. When you are trying to rearrange. if we know values of R V and I we can use R = V to ﬁnd R.10 ✌ Rearranging formulas 1 Introduction The ability to rearrange formulas or rewrite them in diﬀerent ways is an important skill in engineering. but ﬁrst get some practice with these Examples and Exercises. The same applies to formulas.10. This leaﬂet will explain how to rearrange some simple formulas. we say that the subject of the formula is V . so that we can make a particular variable the subject. R is a resistance and I is a current. it is important to be able to write formulas I in diﬀerent ways. we must take the same amount away from the pan on the right. a formula You can think of a formula as a pair of balanced scales. or transposing. Leaﬂet 2. Later. 2000 . Here. If we divide the left by any amount we must divide the right by the same amount. If we subtract an amount from one side we must subtract the same amount from the other. So you see. 1. keep these operations clearly in mind. we shall see that a further group of operations is allowed. Similarly if we take away an amount from the left. Usually the subject of a formula is on its own on the left-hand side.

a) y = x − 7.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 3 y = 3x 3x y = 3 3 = x Finally x = y 3 and we have succeeded in making x the subject of the formula. subtracting 8 yields y−8 = x+8−8 y−8 = x We have x on its own. e) w = 2 v. 2000 . Solution To make x the subject we must remove the 8 from the right. Solution Starting from y = 11 + 7x we subtract 11 from each side to give y − 11 = 7x. Transpose each of the following formulas to make x the subject. So. that is x = y − 8. 2. 3 d) y = 7 − 2x. then x equals y − 8. 2 3w . we can obtain x on its own by dividing both sides of the formula by 3. 2. dividing both sides by 7 gives y−11 = x. 2 e) x = 5y. but we remember that we must do the same to the left. If we divide 3x by 3 we obtain 3x = x. Answers 1. 3 e) y = x . we subtract 8 from the right. 7 7 Exercises 1. 2v . 2 c) x = y−7 . e) same as d). 2 d) x = d) v = b) v = 3w. 7−y .Example Rearrange the formula y = x + 8 in order to make x the subject instead of y. c) w = v . So if y = x + 8. c) same as b). Transpose each of the following formulas to make v the subject. Solution The reason why x does not appear on its own is that it is multiplied by 3. Example Rearrange the formula y = 3x to make x the subject. Finally x = y−11 . 3 d) w = b) x = y+7 . 5 2. b) w = 1 v. 3 b) y = 2x − 7. a) w = 3v. a) x = y + 7. a) v = w . Then. 3 c) y = 2x + 7. So.10. This is no problem since if y − 8 equals x. We have succeeded in making x the subject of the formula. although it is on the right. Example Rearrange y = 11 + 7x to make x the subject.

we can square both sides. • Add or subtract the same quantity to or from both sides. 1. Solution Here we need to obtain q on its own. Example √ Transpose p = a + b to make b the subject. √ q p = 2 p = q by squaring both sides Finally.☛ ✡ 2. we can square-root both sides. A further group of operations is also permissible. • Multiply or divide both sides by the same quantity. Study the following examples. Further transposition Remember that when you are trying to rearrange.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. and shows how more complicated formulas can be rearranged. 2000 .11 ✟ ✠ Rearranging formulas 2 Introduction This leaﬂet develops the work started in leaﬂet 2. the following operations are allowed. Example √ Transpose the formula p = q to make q the subject. This can be achieved by squaring both sides since √ ( q)2 = q So. and we have succeeded in making q the subject of the formula. To do this we must ﬁnd a way of removing the square root sign. q = p2 . or transpose. 2.11.10. a formula. For example. We can ﬁnd the logarithm of both sides. A formula remains balanced if we perform the same operation to both sides of it.

Solution √ p = a+b p2 = a + b p2 − a = b by squaring both sides Finally. 3 2. 3. g by dividing both sides by 2π by squaring both sides 2 g g = T = g 2π Exercises 1. b = p2 − a. Answers 1. Example Make x the subject of the formula v = Solution k v = √ x 2 k v2 = x 2 xv = k 2 k2 x = 2 v k √ . until we obtain T = 2π T = 2π T 2π 2 on its own. 4π 2. Make r the subject of the formula V = 4 πr3 . in stages. 3. s = v 2 −u2 .2 √ 2. x = ± 4 − y. r = 3 3V . Solution This must be carried out carefully. and we have succeeded in making b the subject of the formula. 2000 .11. Make x the subject of the formula y = 4 − x2 . x by squaring both sides by multiplying both sides by x by dividing both sides by v 2 and we have succeeded in making x the subject of the formula. Example Transpose the formula T = 2π g for . 2a copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Make s the subject of the formula v 2 = u2 + 2as.

12 ✟ ✠ Solving linear equations Introduction Equations occur in all branches of engineering. x−7 + 11 = 0. are all linear equations. 1. Solving a linear equation To solve a linear equation it will be helpful if you know already how to transpose or rearrange formulas.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. The following are all linear equations. 3x + 2 = 0.12. 2 2 = 8. A linear equation Linear equations are those which can be written in the form ax + b = 0 where x is the unknown value. 3w = 0 2.10 & 2. 2. or of transposing formulas. In this leaﬂet we describe how these are solved. other letters can be used.) When solving a linear equation we try to make the unknown quantity the subject of the equation.☛ ✡ 2. The following are all examples of linear equations. The simplest equations to deal with are linear equations. x 6x − 2 = 9 7z + 11 = 0.11 Rearranging formulas for information about this if necessary. 3x − 11 = 0 The unknown does not have to have the symbol x. and a and b are known numbers. To do this we may • add or subtract the same quantity to or from both sides • multiply or divide both sides by the same quantity. They always involve one or more unknown quantities which we try to ﬁnd when we solve the equation. −5x + 11 = 0. If you have some experience of solving linear equations. 3t − 2 = 0. 2000 . you will be able to check that they can all be written in the standard form. Sometimes you will come across a linear equation which at ﬁrst sight might not appear to have the form ax + b = 0. (See leaﬂets 2.

check this. You can. b) x = 2.Example Solve the equation x + 7 = 18. and should. the same as the right-hand side. x + 7 = 18 x = 18 − 7 x = 11 by subtracting 7 from both sides We have solved the equation and found the solution: x = 11. b) 3x − 11 = 2. Solution 13x − 2 13x − 11x − 2 2x − 2 2x 2x 11x + 17 17 by subtracting 11x from both sides 17 17 + 2 by adding 2 to both sides 19 19 x = 2 = = = = = Exercises 1. Example Solve the equation 5x + 11 = 22. 3 c) x = 5. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. a) 4x + 8 = 0. Solution 5x + 11 = 22 5x = 22 − 11 by subtracting 11 from both sides 11 x = by dividing both sides by 5 5 Example Solve the equation 13x − 2 = 11x + 17. d) 7(x − 5) = −56.2 c) 8(x + 3) = 64. Solve the following linear equations. e) c = 2. The solution is that value of x which can be substituted into the original equation to make both sides the same. a) x = −2. d) x = −3. Substituting x = 11 in the left-hand side of the equation x + 7 = 18 we ﬁnd 11 + 7 which equals 18. 13 . Solution We try to obtain x on its own on the left-hand side. Answers 1. 2000 . e) 3c − 5 = 14c − 27.12.

13. and two or more equations relating them. This is easily veriﬁed by substituting these values into the left-hand sides to obtain the values on the right. The method is best illustrated by example. Solving a pair of simultaneous equations There are many ways of solving simultaneous equations. 2. The solution of a pair of simultaneous equations The solution of the pair of simultaneous equations 3x + 2y = 36. In this leaﬂet we illustrate one way in which this can be done. 2000 (3) (2) . This is a process which involves removing or eliminating one of the unknowns to leave a single equation which involves the other unknown.13 ✌ Simultaneous equations Introduction On occasions you will come across two or more unknown quantities. and 5x + 4y = 64 is x = 8 and y = 6. Perhaps the simplest way is elimination. These are called simultaneous equations and when asked to solve them you must ﬁnd values of the unknowns which satisfy all the given equations at the same time. (2) Solution Notice that if we multiply both sides of the ﬁrst equation by 2 we obtain an equivalent equation 6x + 4y = 72 (3) Now. y = 6 satisfy the simultaneous equations. So x = 8.✎ ✍ 2. Example Solve the simultaneous equations 3x + 2y = 36 5x + 4y = 64 (1) .1 = 72 − 64 8 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 1. if equation (2) is subtracted from equation (3) the terms involving y will be eliminated: 6x + 4y = 5x + 4y = x + 0y 2.

c) x = 5. y = 4. which will enable us to ﬁnd y: 3(8) + 2y 24 + 2y 2y 2y y = = = = = 36 36 36 − 24 12 6 Hence the full solution is x = 8. b) x = −3. Exercises Solve the following pairs of simultaneous equations: a) 7x + y = 25 . as shown in the next example. x = 8 is part of the solution. y = 3.So. equation (2)) we substitute this value for x. The number of y’s in both equations can be made the same by multiplying equation (1) by 2 and equation (2) by 3. You will notice that the idea behind this method is to multiply one (or both) equations by a suitable number so that either the number of y’s or the number of x’s are the same. d) x = 1. y = 2. This gives 10x − 6y = 52 12x + 6y = 102 If these equations are now added we ﬁnd 10x − 6y = 52 + 12x + 6y = 102 22x + 0y = 154 so that x = 154 22 (3) (4) (3) (4) = 7. 2. y = 3. Taking equation (1) (or if you wish. so that subtraction eliminates that unknown. x+y = 0 c) 2x + 13y = 36 . 13x + 2y = 69 d) 7x − y = 15 . Substituting this value for x in equation (1) gives = = = = = 26 26 26 − 35 −9 3 5(7) − 3y 35 − 3y −3y −3y y Hence the full solution is x = 7. y = 6. Suppose we choose to eliminate y.13. 2000 . (2) Solution There are many ways that the elimination can be carried out. Example Solve the simultaneous equations 5x − 3y = 26 4x + 2y = 34 (1) .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 3x − 2y = 19 Answers a) x = 3. It may also be possible to eliminate an unknown by addition. y = −8. 5x − y = 11 b) 8x + 9y = 3 .

The constants b and c can have any value including 0.15. factorisation. Quadratic equations A quadratic equation is an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. If you need to revise factorisation you should see leaﬂet 2. Usually. For example. There are several techniques which can be used to solve quadratic equations. where a.14 ✟ ✠ Quadratic equations 1 Introduction This leaﬂet will explain how many quadratic equations can be solved by factorisation. b and c are constants. 3x2 + 2x − 9 = 0 is a quadratic equation with a = 3. but not always.1 or x + 4 = 0. is discussed in this leaﬂet. You should be aware that not all quadratic equations can be solved by this method. One of these. a. the same as the right-hand side of the equation. whilst x represents an unknown quantity which we will be trying to ﬁnd. b = 2 and c = −9. It follows that either x + 3 = 0. Example Solve the equation x2 + 7x + 12 = 0 by factorisation. The solutions of a quadratic equation To solve a quadratic equation we must ﬁnd values for x which when substituted into the equation make the left-hand and right-hand sides equal. 2.6 Factorising quadratics. We often refer to a as the coeﬃcient of x2 . it is possible to solve a quadratic equation using factorisation.14. 1. then one or both of the quantities must be zero. The constant a can have any value except 0. b and c are known numbers. that is x = −4 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Solving a quadratic equation by factorisation Sometimes. Then the equation becomes (x + 3)(x + 4) = 0. Solution We ﬁrst factorise x2 + 7x + 12 as (x + 3)(x + 4). to b as the coeﬃcient of x and to c as the constant term. that is x = −3 2.☛ ✡ 2. the value x = 4 is a solution of the equation x2 − 3x − 4 = 0 because substituting 4 for x we ﬁnd 42 − 3(4) − 4 = 16 − 12 − 4 which simpliﬁes to zero. 2000 . This is to ensure that the equation has an x2 term. 3. It is important that you realise that if the product of two quantities is zero. These values are also called roots. For example. An alternative method which uses a formula is described in leaﬂet 2.

from 2x − 1 = 0 we ﬁnd 2x = 1. 2. − 1 . x = − 2 . f) x = − 3 .14. Solution The equation is factorised to give (2x − 1)(x + 2) = 0 so. − 2 . Solution x2 + 4x − 21 can be factorised as (x + 7)(x − 3). a) x2 + 7x + 6 = 0. Example Solve the quadratic equation x2 + 4x − 21 = 0. 2000 .2 b) x2 − 8x + 15 = 0. that is x = 1 . c) x2 − 9x + 14 = 0. Then x2 + 4x − 21 = 0 (x + 7)(x − 3) = 0 Then either x + 7 = 0. Solution x2 − 10x + 25 = (x − 5)(x − 5) = (x − 5)2 Then x2 − 10x + 25 = 0 (x − 5)2 = 0 x = 5 There is one root. d) 2x2 − 5x − 3 = 0. b) 3. e) 6x2 − 11x − 10 = 0. that is x = −7 or x − 3 = 0.The roots of x2 + 7x + 12 = 0 are x = −3 and x = −4. f) 6x2 + 13x + 6 = 0. c) 2. Answers a) −1. 2 Exercises 1. Solve the following quadratic equations by factorisation. The two 2 solutions are therefore x = 1 and x = −2. Example Find the roots of the quadratic equation x2 − 10x + 25 = 0. 5. e) 5 . −6. x = 5. that is x = 3 The roots of x2 + 4x − 21 = 0 are x = −7 and x = 3. 2 2 3 2 3 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. From x + 2 = 0 we ﬁnd x = −2. 7. Such a root is called a repeated root. Example Solve the quadratic equation 2x2 + 3x − 2 = 0. d) 3.

5426 (4dp) The roots of 3x2 + 9x + 4 = 0 are x = −2. 2000 . Solving a quadratic equation using a formula Any quadratic equation can be solved using the quadratic formula. The answers are often referred to as roots of the equation. Solve the quadratic equation 3x2 + 9x + 4 = 0 Solution Here a = 3. Example.5426. 2. 1. and the other obtained using the negative square root. If ax2 + bx + c = 0 then x= −b ± √ b2 − 4ac 2a A quadratic equation has two solutions.15. Putting these values into the quadratic formula gives −9 ± √ 92 − 4(3)(4) x = = = = = 2(3) −9 ± 81 − 48 6 √ −9 ± 33 6√ √ −9 − 33 −9 + 33 .✎ ✍ 2.4574.15 ✌ Quadratic equations 2 Introduction This leaﬂet will explain how quadratic equations can be solved using a formula. one obtained using the positive square root in the formula.4574 and x = −0. 6 6 −2. −0.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. b = 9 and c = 4.

Example Solve the equation 8x2 + 3x − 4 = 0. Using the quadratic formula we have x = = = = = −6 ± √ 62 − 4(9)(1) 2(9) −6 ± 36 − 36 18 √ −6 ± 0 18 6 − 18 1 − 3 In this example there is only one root: x = − 1 . c) −3x2 + x + 1 = 0. 2000 .434 (3dp). Solution Care is needed here because the value of c is negative. as in the previous Example. When the discriminant is 0. −0. Solution Here a = 9. −0. −0.123 (3dp). b = 6 and c = 1.15.5440.345 (3dp). x = = −3 ± √ 32 − 4(8)(−4) (2)(8) 137 −3 ± 16 = 0. Answers √ a) x = −3 ± 17 = 1. −7. If the discriminant is negative we are faced with the problem of ﬁnding the square root of a negative number.768. = 0.2 1 6 ± 22 2 √ 13 6 √ = 4. Find the roots of the following quadratic equations: a) x2 + 6x − 8 = 0. b) 2x2 − 8x − 3 = 0. that is c = −4. Exercises 1. Such equations require special treatment using what are called complex numbers. the equation has only one root.345.9190 (4dp) Example Find the roots of the quadratic equation 9x2 + 6x + 1 = 0.123. 3 The quantity b2 − 4ac is called the discriminant of the equation. b) x = 2 ± c) x = 2. copyright c Pearson Education Limited.

The number line and inequality symbols A useful way of picturing numbers is to use a number line. Multiplying or dividing both sides by a negative number reverses the inequality. The ﬁgure shows part of this line. all numbers to the left of it on the line are less than the given number. For any numbers a and b. a –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 b 4 Numbers can be represented on a number line. note that if a is less than b. The symbol < means ‘less than’. because −3 is less than 19 we can write −3 < 19. all numbers to the right of it on the line are greater than the given number. Given any number. for example. and vice versa. If a < b then equivalently. Adding or subtracting the same quantity from both sides of an inequality leaves the inequality symbol unchanged. 2. So the following two statements are equivalent: a < b and b > a. for example.16 ✌ Inequalities Introduction The inequality symbols < and > arise frequently in engineering mathematics. This leaﬂet revises their meaning and shows how expressions involving them are manipulated. 1. Positive numbers are on the right-hand side of this line. 2000 . for example. The symbol > means ‘greater than’. Multiplying or dividing both sides by a positive number leaves the inequality symbol unchanged. b > a. then b is greater than a. So. Rule 2. So. Similarly if a and b are both positive. since 6 is greater than 4 we can write 6 > 4. Given any number.✎ ✍ 2. we can write 4 < 17 in the equivalent form 17 > 4. negative numbers are on the left. This means < changes to >. with b greater than a we can write 0 < a < b. if a < b then a + c < b + c 2. Rule 3.16. Rules for manipulating inequalities To change or rearrange statements involving inequalities the following rules should be followed: Rule 1. If a < b and b < c we can write this concisely as a < b < c.1 using Rule 1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.

2x > 9. 3. x > −6/5. say. 7x + 11 > 2x + 5. Example Find the range of values of x satisfying x − 3 < 2x + 5.2 x > −4/3. given that 5 < 7. then ka < kb For example. 2(x + 3) < x + 1 Answers 1. Solution There are many ways of arriving at the correct answer. 5. 3.16. x. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 4. Adding 2 to both sides gives 7x > 2 Dividing both sides by the positive number 7 gives 2 x> 7 2 Hence all values of x greater than 7 satisfy 7x − 2 > 0.For example. 4. Using Rule 3 if a < b and k is negative. For example. x < −5. Also. Solution We make use of the Rules to obtain x on its own. if a<b and k is positive. Usually the answer will be a range of values of x. x > 9/2. 2. 3. 1. Example Solve the inequality 7x − 2 > 0. adding 3 to both sides: x < 2x + 8 Subtracting 2x from both sides gives −x < 8 Multiplying both sides by −1 and reversing the inequality gives x > −8. given that 5 < 8 we can multiply both sides by 6 to obtain 30 < 48 which is still true. A common mistake is to forget to reverse the inequality when multiplying or dividing by negative numbers. x > 8. 2. Solving inequalities An inequality will often contain an unknown variable. 2000 2. Exercises In each case solve the given inequality. given 5 < 8 we can multiply both sides by −6 and reverse the inequality to obtain −30 > −48. 5. . using Rule 2. Hence all values of x greater than −8 satisfy x − 3 < 2x + 5. −3x < 4. which is a true statement. To solve means to ﬁnd all values of x for which the inequality is true. x + 5 > 13. then ka > kb For example. we could add 3 to both sides to obtain 8 < 10 which is still true.

2000 .1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. −2 < y < 4. 3 3 2. Solving this yields x < 1. Thus |x| < 1 means −1<x<1 Similarly. |3x| < 1. Solution This is equivalent to −3 < 2x + 1 < 3. y > 1 4 7 and y < − 12 . This means any value greater than 2 and any value less than −2.17 ✟ ✠ The modulus symbol Introduction Inequalities often arise in connection with the modulus symbol. is greater than 2. 1. The modulus symbol The modulus symbol is sometimes used in conjunction with inequalities. irrespective of sign. First consider −3 < 2x + 1 Solving this yields x > −2. We treat both parts of the inequality separately. 2. 3. Exercises In each case solve the given inequality. Thus |y| > 2 means y > 2 or y < −2 Example Solve the inequality |2x + 1| < 3. Answers 1. Now consider the second part. 2.17. |12y + 2| > 5. 2x + 1 < 3. For example. This means any value between −1 and 1. Putting both results together we see that −2 < x < 1 is the required solution. |1 − y| < 3. This leaﬂet describes how. irrespective of sign. − 1 < x < 1 .☛ ✡ 2. |y| > 2 means all numbers whose actual size. |x| < 1 means all numbers whose actual size. 1. 3. is less than 1.

.

But y = x + 3. e. From the graph we see that the y coordinate of any point on the line is positive whenever x has a value greater than −3. To help with the sketch. 1. Solution We seek values of x which make x2 − 2x − 3 positive. so we can conclude that x + 3 will be positive when x > −3. The graph will cross the horizontal axis when x = −1 and when x = 3.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. This leaﬂet illustrates how.g. y y is positive when x is greater than −3 −3 y =x+3 y is positive when x is less than −1 and when x is greater than 3 x −1 3 y y = x2 − 2x − 3 x 3 Example Solve the inequality x2 − 2x − 3 > 0. The graph is shown 2. That is. To ﬁnd all values ﬁrst let y = x + 3. Solution We seek values of x which make x + 3 positive. There are many such values.✎ ✍ 2. 2000 . note that by factorising we can write y as (x+1)(x−3). y > 0 when x > −3. We can ﬁnd these by sketching a graph of y = x2 −2x−3. try x = 7 or x = −2. Then the graph of y = x + 3 is sketched as shown below.18. Example Solve the inequality x + 3 > 0. We have used the graph to solve the inequality.18 ✌ Graphical solution of inequalities Introduction Graphs can be used to solve inequalities. Solving inequalities We start with a very simple example which could be solved very easily using an algebraic method.

above on the right. From the graph note that the y coordinate of a point on the graph is positive when either x is greater than 3 or when x is less than −1. That is, y > 0 when x > 3 or x < −1 and so: when x > 3 or x < −1 x2 − 2x − 3 > 0 Example Solve the inequality (x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3) > 0. Solution We consider the graph of y = (x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3) which is shown below. It is evident from the graph that y is positive when x lies between 1 and 2 and also when x is greater than 3. The solution of the inequality is therefore 1 < x < 2 and x > 3.

y y = (x − 1)(x − 2)(x − 3)

y is positive when x lies between 1 and 2 and when x is greater than 3 1 2 3

x

Example For what values of x is

x+3 x−7

positive?

Solution The graph of y = x+3 is shown below. We can see that the y coordinate of a point on the graph x−7 is positive when x < −3 or when x > 7. x+3 >0 x−7 when x < −3

y y is positive when x is less than −3 and when x is greater than 7 1 −5 x = −3 5 10 x

or when

y=

x>7

x+3 x−7

x=7

**For drawing graphs like this one a graphical calculator is useful. 2.18.2
**

copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎ ✍

2.19

✌

What is a logarithm?

Introduction

We use logarithms to write expressions involving powers in a diﬀerent form. If you can work conﬁdently with powers you should have no problems handling logarithms.

1. Logarithms

Consider the statement 100 = 102 In this statement we say that 10 is the base and 2 is the power or index. Logarithms are simply an alternative way of writing a statement such as this. We rewrite it as log10 100 = 2 This is read as ‘log to the base 10 of 100 is 2’. As another example, since 25 = 32 we can write log2 32 = 5 More generally, if a = bc , then logb a = c

The only restriction that is placed on the value of the base is that it is a positive real number excluding the number 1. In practice logarithms are calculated using only a few common bases. Most frequently you will meet bases 10 and e. The letter e stands for the number 2.718... and is used because it is found to occur in the mathematical description of many physical phenomena. Your calculator will be able to calculate logarithms to bases 10 and e. Usually the ‘log’ button is used for base 10, and the ‘ln’ button is used for base e. (‘ln’ stands for ‘natural logarithm’.) Check that you can use your calculator correctly by verifying that log10 73 = 1.8633 101.8633 = 73 and loge 5.64 = 1.7299

You may also like to verify the alternative forms and e1.7299 = 5.64

Occasionally we need to ﬁnd logarithms to other bases. For example, logarithms to the base 2 are used in communications engineering and information technology. Your calculator can still be used but we need to apply a formula for changing the base. This is dealt with in the leaﬂet 2.21 Bases other than 10 and e. 2.19.1

copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

For example. A B For example. You should verify this by evaluating both sides separately on your calculator. These allow expressions involving logarithms to be rewritten in a variety of diﬀerent ways. is used throughout the calculation. loge 12 − loge 2 = loge Third Law log An = n log A So. subtracting log B from log A results in log B . Second Law log A − log B = log A So.20 ✌ The laws of logarithms Introduction There are a number of rules known as the laws of logarithms. The laws of logarithms The three main laws are stated here: First Law log A + log B = log AB This law tells us how to add two logarithms together. is used throughout the calculation. Two other important results are 2. 2000 .1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. we can write log10 5 + log10 4 = log10 (5 × 4) = log10 20 The same base. in this case 10. Adding log A and log B results in the logarithm of the product of A and B. we can write 12 = loge 6 2 The same base. The laws apply to logarithms of any base but the same base must be used throughout a calculation. 1.✎ ✍ 2. You should verify this by evaluating both sides separately on your calculator. in this case e. that is log AB. for example log10 53 = 3 log10 5 You should verify this by evaluating both sides separately on your calculator.20.

2000 . c) 2 log(4x). d) log ab2 c3 .20.log 1 = 0. log x. 3. a) log10 6 + log10 3. Answers 1. Use the second law to simplify the following. e) 1000 = 103 so ln 1000 = 3 ln 10. log10 10 = 1. Simplify 3 log x − log x2 . 4. In particular. Use the ﬁrst law to simplify the following. d) log a + log b2 + log c3 . b) log x2 . c) log 4x + log x. d) 5 ln x4 . b) 2 log x. 2. b) log x + log y. 2. Use the third law to write each of the following in an alternative form. c) log(4x)2 . a) log10 53 or log10 125. b) log xy. a) 3 log10 5. and the logarithm of a number to the same base is always 1. b) log x − log y. e) ln 1000. and loge e = 1 Exercises 1. c) log 4.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. a) log10 6 − log10 3. d) 20 ln x or ln x20 . a) log10 2. logm m = 1 The logarithm of 1 to any base is always 0. 2. c) log 4x − log x. a) log10 18. 4. 3. y c) log 4x2 . b) log x .

25. c) 2. c) log3 16. Answers 1. Exercises 1. logarithms to the base 2 are used in communications engineering and information technology. b) 5.21. 2. loga x = logb x logb a In particular. for any bases a and b. More generally. b) log2 56.☛ ✡ 2. The formula states log2 x = log10 x log10 2 So we can calculate base 2 logarithms using base 10 logarithms obtained using a calculator.814 (3dp).21 ✟ ✠ Bases other than 10 and e Introduction Occasionally you may need to ﬁnd logarithms to bases other than 10 and e.301030 Check this for yourself. Find a) log2 15.524 (3dp). For example log10 36 1. 1. This leaﬂet gives this formula and shows how to use it. 2000 .5372. For example.907 (3dp). Your calculator can still be used but we need to apply a formula for changing the base.170 (3dp) log2 36 = log10 2 0. by choosing b = 10 we ﬁnd loga x = log10 x log10 a Use this formula to check that log20 100 = 1.556303 = = 5.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. a) 3. A formula for change of base Suppose we want to calculate a logarithm to base 2.

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in this case the sum of all the values of k as k ranges through all whole numbers from 1 to 12. . or k=1 even as 12 k. Solution Each term takes the form as 1 k where k varies from 1 to 4. + 10 + 11 + 12 can be written very concisely using the capital Greek letter k=12 as k k=1 The stands for a sum.22. provides a concise and convenient way of writing long sums. This leaﬂet 1.22 ✟ ✠ Sigma notation Introduction Sigma notation. . cube each value of k.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Sigma notation The sum 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + .☛ ✡ 2. Note that the lower-most and upper-most values of k are written at the bottom and top of the sigma sign respectively. and add the results: k=5 k 3 = 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 + 53 k=1 Example Express 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 2 3 1 4 concisely using sigma notation. . You may also see this written as k=12 k. k=1 Example Write out explicitly what is meant by k=5 k3 k=1 Solution We must let k range from 1 to 5. In sigma notation we could write this k=4 1 k=1 k 2. explains how. 2000 .

k=1 k b) 32 + 52 + 72 + 92 . 2000 . x.Example The sum x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + . x2 .2 (−1)k 3 . Write out fully what is meant by a) b) c) i=5 2 i=1 i . Example Write out fully what is meant by (−1)i+1 i=0 2i + 1 Solution (−1)i+1 1 1 1 1 1 = −1 + − + − + 3 5 7 9 11 i=0 2i + 1 Exercises 1. For example n=7 n2 n=1 stands for 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + 52 + 62 + 72 We can also use a little trick to alternate the signs of the numbers between + and −. x x x 2. 2 3 2 3 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Sigma notation is often used in statistical calculations. 5 5 2. 3 4 5 + 1 + −1 which equals −1 + 1 − 1 . of the n ¯ quantities x1 . For example the mean. 4 2 k=1 (2k + 1) . 1 2 c) 12 + 32 + 52 + 72 + 92 . 4. . 4 2 k=0 (2k + 1) . + x19 + x20 can be written k=20 xk k=1 There is nothing special about using the letter k. Write out fully what is meant by i=1 i+1 . xn is found by adding them up and dividing the result by n. Note that (−1)2 = 1. . (¯ − x1 ) + (¯ − x2 ) + (¯ − x3 ). Show that the mean can be written as n xi x = i=1 ¯ n 4 i 4. Write out fully what is meant by Answers 1.22. 2. −1 1 + 2 + 3 + 4. Write out fully what is meant by k=3 (¯ − xk ) x k=1 3. 5. a) 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + 52 . . . 5. (−1)3 = −1 and so on.

2. the fraction is said to be proper. For example. If a fraction is not proper it is said to be improper.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 2000 . is less than the degree of the denominator.25. For example.23 ✌ Partial fractions 1 Introduction An algebraic fraction can often be rewritten as the sum of simpler fractions that are called partial fractions. that is the highest power on top. Step 2 When you have factorised the denominator the factors can take various forms. the fraction 2x3 + 7x x2 + x + 1 is improper because the degree of the numerator. 1. 3.23. Improper fractions are dealt with in leaﬂet 2. is greater than the degree of the denominator. The fraction 8x − 12 2 − 2x − 3 x satisﬁes this condition and so is proper.✎ ✍ 2. You must study these forms carefully. you may ﬁnd (3x + 2)(x + 1) 2. The ﬁrst stage in the process of ﬁnding partial fractions is to determine whether the fraction is proper or improper because proper fractions are simpler to deal with. Proper and improper fractions When the degree of the numerator. 2. For example. that is the highest power on the bottom. Finding partial fractions of proper fractions You should carry out the following steps: Step 1 Factorise the denominator if it is not already factorised. it can be shown that x2 8x − 12 − 2x − 3 can be written in partial fractions as 3 5 + x−3 x+1 This leaﬂet explains the procedure for ﬁnding partial fractions.

or by substituting speciﬁc values for x. 2. You should examine the factors of the denominator to decide which sorts of partial fraction you will need.23. These three steps are illustrated in the examples in leaﬂet 2. Another possible form is x2 + x + 1 This is a quadratic factor which cannot be factorised into linear factors. which cannot be factorised. A quadratic factor ax2 + bx + c.These factors are both referred to as linear factors. Each linear factor.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.24. Generally such a factor has the form ax2 + bx + c. The factors could be the same. A. . produces a partial fraction of the form A ax + b where A represents an unknown constant which must be found. or by a mixture of both methods. (ax + b)2 . produces a partial fraction of the form Ax + B ax2 + bx + c Step 3 Find the unknown constants. . . Generally. It is essential that you examine the factors carefully to see which type you have. The form that the partial fractions take depends upon the type of factors obtained. as in (3x + 2)(3x + 2) that is (3x + 2)2 This is called a repeated linear factor. A repeated linear factor. This is done using a method known as equating coefﬁcients. Generally a linear factor has the form ax + b where a and b are numbers. produces two partial fractions of the form B A + ax + b (ax + b)2 where A and B represent two unknown constants which must be found. ax + b. 2000 . such a factor has the form (ax + b)2 . B. These are summarised in the following box.

1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. x2 − x − 2 Solution First we factorise the denominator: x2 − x − 2 = (x + 1)(x − 2). From Equation 2 we have 5x − 4 = A(x − 2) + B(x + 1) = Ax − 2A + Bx + B = (A + B)x + B − 2A 2. and so the numerators on both sides must be the same too. so that 6 = 3B. Thus 5x − 4 = A(x − 2) + B(x + 1) (2) We shall ﬁrst demonstrate how to ﬁnd A and B by substituting speciﬁc values for x. examine the form of the A factors. so that A = 3. the right-hand side of Equation 2 can be simpliﬁed. letting x = 2 we ﬁnd 6 = A(0) + B(3). Worked examples Example Express 5x − 4 as the sum of its partial fractions. that is B = 2. By appropriate choice of the value for x. For example. Next. Substituting these values for A and B into Equation 1 gives 5x − 4 3 2 = + −x−2 x+1 x−2 x2 The constants can also be found by equating coeﬃcients. B The factor (x − 2) is also a linear factor. and produces a partial fraction of the form x−2 . Finally we ﬁnd the constants. from which −3A = −9. 2000 . Writing the right-hand side using a common denominator we have A(x − 2) + B(x + 1) 5x − 4 = (x + 1)(x − 2) (x + 1)(x − 2) The denominators on both sides are the same. Hence 5x − 4 5x − 4 A B = = + −x−2 (x + 1)(x − 2) x+1 x−2 (1) x2 where A and B are constants which must be found.☛ ✡ 2. Then by letting x = −1 in Equation 2 we ﬁnd −9 = A(−3) + B(0). The factor (x + 1) is a linear factor and produces a partial fraction of the form x+1 .24 ✟ ✠ Partial fractions 2 1.24.

although we could equally have substituted any other value for x. Often a combination of the two methods is needed. Example Express 2x2 + 3 in partial fractions. Show that s+4 s2 +s = 4 s − 3 .24.2 . this means B = −9. Since we already know A = 11. 2 + x + 4)(x + 1) (x x +x+4 x+1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 2000 2. s+1 3.Comparing the coeﬃcients of x on the left. Show that x−1 6x2 +5x+1 = 3 2x+1 − 4 . Comparing the constant terms gives −4 = B − 2A. Thus the required form of the partial fractions is Ax + B C 5x2 + 4x + 11 = 2 + 2 + x + 4)(x + 1) (x x +x+4 x+1 Show that 5x2 + 4x + 11 2x − 1 3 = 2 + . These simultaneous equations in A and B can be solved to ﬁnd A = 3 and B = 2 as before. − + 2 (x + 2)(x + 1) x + 2 x + 1 (x + 1)2 Exercises 1. The fraction 5x2 + 4x + 11 has a quadratic factor in the denominator which cannot be (x2 + x + 4)(x + 1) factorised. 3x+1 2. Note that there is a linear factor (x + 2) and a repeated linear factor (x + 1)2 .and right-hand sides gives 5 = A + B. B and C into 2x2 + 3 11 9 5 Equation 3 we have = . To ﬁnd B we shall use the method of equating coeﬃcients. (x + 2)(x + 1)2 Solution The denominator is already factorised. For example if x = −1 we ﬁnd 2(−1)2 + 3 = A(0) + B(0) + C from which C = 5. Finally substituting our values of A. After collecting like terms we ﬁnd that Equation 4 can be written 2x2 + 3 = (A + B)x2 + (2A + 3B + C)x + (A + 2B + 2C) By comparing the coeﬃcients of x2 on both sides we see that (A + B) must equal 2. So we can write 2x2 + 3 A B C = + + (x + 2)(x + 1)2 x + 2 x + 1 (x + 1)2 The right-hand side is now written over a common denominator to give A(x + 1)2 + B(x + 2)(x + 1) + C(x + 2) 2x2 + 3 = (x + 2)(x + 1)2 (x + 2)(x + 1)2 Therefore 2x2 + 3 = A(x + 1)2 + B(x + 2)(x + 1) + C(x + 2) (4) (3) A and C can be found by substituting values for x which simplify the right-hand side. Similarly if we choose x = −2 we ﬁnd 8 + 3 = A(−1)2 + B(0) + C(0) so that A = 11. To equate coeﬃcients we remove the brackets on the right-hand side of Equation 4.

Thus 3x2 + 2x C = Ax + B + x+1 x+1 Writing the right-hand side over a common denominator gives (Ax + B)(x + 1) + C 3x2 + 2x = x+1 x+1 and so 3x2 + 2x = (Ax + B)(x + 1) + C 2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 2000 A. . Suppose we let d equal the degree of the denominator. and n the degree of the numerator. We must include a polynomial of degree n − d = 1 as well as the normal partial fractions arising from the factors of the denominator.✎ ✍ 2. Partial fractions of improper fractions An algebraic fraction is improper if the degree (highest power) of the numerator is greater than or equal to that of the denominator. 1.25. Example 3x2 + 2x Express as partial fractions. a constant Ax + B Ax2 + Bx + C. Then. x+1 Solution This fraction is improper because n = 2 and d = 1 and so n ≥ d. Note that: a polynomial of degree 0 is: a polynomial of degree 1 is: a polynomial of degree 2 is: and so on.25 ✌ Partial fractions 3 Introduction This leaﬂet describes how the partial fractions of an improper fraction can be found. in addition to the partial fractions arising from factors in the denominator we must include an additional term: this additional term is a polynomial of degree n − d.

in addition to the usual partial fractions arising from the factors of the denominator. that is a constant. s2 + 2s + 1 Bs + C =A+ 2 s2 + s + 1 s +s+1 Writing the right-hand side over a common denominator gives A(s2 + s + 1) + (Bs + C) s2 + 2s + 1 = s2 + s + 1 s2 + s + 1 and so s2 + 2s + 1 = A(s2 + s + 1) + (Bs + C) Equating coeﬃcients of s2 shows that A = 1. and you should check that C = 0.25.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Equating coeﬃcients of s shows that B = 1.As before we can equate coeﬃcients or substitute values for x to ﬁnd C = 1. Hence s s2 + 2s + 1 =1+ 2 s2 + s + 1 s +s+1 Exercises 1. Show that 3. In this example the denominator will not factorise and so this remains a quadratic factor. Show that x4 + 2x3 − 2x2 + 4x − 1 1 1 = x2 + 1 + + x2 + 2x − 3 x+3 x−1 4x3 + 12x2 + 13x + 7 2 3 =x+2+ + 2 + 4x + 1 4x 2x + 1 (2x + 1)2 6x3 + x2 + 5x − 1 1 2x − 1 =6− + 2 3+x x x x +1 2. A = 3. The fraction is therefore improper. 2000 . and d = 2. Show that 2. and B = −1 Finally 1 3x2 + 2x = 3x − 1 + x+1 x+1 Example s2 + 2s + 1 in partial fractions. So. We must include a polynomial of degree 0. Express 2 s +s+1 Solution Here n = 2. with n − d = 0.

the best we can do is to write a quadratic expression as a perfect square. 2. that is (x + 4)2 − 9. Doing this is called completing the square.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.✎ ✍ 2. Completing the square In general. Perfect squares Some quadratic expressions are perfect squares. x2 + 14x + 49 can be written as (x + 7)2 .26 ✌ Completing the square Introduction In this leaﬂet we explain a procedure called completing the square. 2000 . a quadratic expression cannot be written in the form (∗ ∗ ∗)2 and so will not be a perfect square. Example Show that x2 + 8x + 7 can be written as (x + 4)2 − 9. Both x2 − 6x + 9 and x2 + 14x + 49 are perfect squares because they can be written as the square of another expression. and is also important in the calculation of some integrals and when it is necessary to ﬁnd inverse Laplace transforms. 1. For example x2 − 6x + 9 can be written as (x − 3)2 The equivalence of this pair of expressions is easily veriﬁed by squaring (x − 3). plus or minus some constant. Solution Squaring the term (x + 4) we ﬁnd (x + 4)2 = (x + 4)(x + 4) = x2 + 8x + 16 So (x + 4)2 − 9 = x2 + 8x + 16 − 9 = x2 + 8x + 7 We have shown that x2 + 8x + 7 can be written as a perfect square minus a constant. as in (x − 3)(x − 3) = x2 − 3x − 3x + 9 = x2 − 6x + 9 Similarly. 2. This can be used to solve quadratic equations.26. The following result may help you complete the square. although with practice it is easier to do this by inspection. Often. We have completed the square.

Answers 1. b) x2 + 12x − 7. b) (x + 6)2 − 43. 2000 . complete the square for 3x2 + 6x + 11. Example Complete the square for the expression x2 − 7x + 3. Then 6 62 +2 x2 + 6x + 2 = (x + )2 − 2 4 = (x + 3)2 − 7 and we have completed the square.k 2 k2 x + kx + c = (x + ) − +c 2 4 2 You can verify this is true by squaring the term in brackets and simplifying the right-hand side. Solution Comparing x2 + 6x + 2 with the general form in the box we note that k = 6 and c = 2. Then x2 − 7x + 3 = (x + −7 2 (−7)2 ) − +3 2 4 7 49 = (x − )2 − +3 2 4 37 7 = (x − )2 − 2 4 and we have completed the square. Complete the square for a) x2 − 8x + 5.26. √ √ (x + 4) = ± 15 and ﬁnally x = −4 ± 15. Complete the square for x2 + 8x + 1 and use your result to solve the equation x2 + 8x + 1 = 0. 3. 3. Completing the square can be used in the solution of quadratic equations. Example Complete the square for the expression x2 + 6x + 2. Hence the equation can be written (x + 4)2 − 15 = 0 from which (x + 4)2 = 15. By ﬁrst extracting a factor of 3. Exercises 1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 2. 2. (x + 4)2 − 15. 3x2 + 6x + 11 = 3[x2 + 2x + 11 ] 3 = 3[(x + 1)2 + 8 ]. Solution Comparing x2 − 7x + 3 with the general form in the box we note that k = −7 and c = 3. 3 2. a) (x − 4)2 − 11.

. we emphasise that these are approximations.g 2 = 1. √ √ e. We can write it as 1 .☛ ✡ 2. Writing surds in equivalent forms It is often possible to write surds in equivalent forms. Applications Surds arise naturally in a number of applications. 1. whereas the form 2 is exact. some numbers 2 √ √ 4√ 3 involving roots. On the other hand.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. To do this you need to be aware that √ √ √ a×b= a× b √ √ √ However. . 60 can be written √ √ √ √ 4 × 15 = 4 × 15 = 2 15 3. 3. 6 cannot be expressed exactly in the form of a fraction. and gives some circumstances in which surd forms arise. Any as number of the form n a. numbers are often given in surd form. Surd form Suppose we wish to simplify 1 . 2000 . √ 1 1 2 2.414 . √ For example 48 can be written √ √ √ √ 3 × 16 = 3 × 16 = 4 3 √ Similarly. √ Whilst numbers like 2 have decimal approximations which can be obtained using a calculator. be warned that a + b is not equal to a + b. . by using Pythagoras’ theorem √ we ﬁnd the length of the hypotenuse of the triangle shown below to be 2. For example. This leaﬂet explains what is meant by surd form. 2.27.27 ✟ ✠ What is a surd? Introduction In engineering calculations. which cannot be written as a fraction of two integers is called a surd. such√ 2.

Answers √ 1. the solution of x2 + 8x + 1 = 0 is obtained as x = = = = = −8 ± 82 − 4(1)(1) √ 2 −8 ± 60 2√ −8 ± 4 × 15 2 √ −8 ± 2 15 2 √ −4 ± 15 This answer has been left in surd form.27. a) 3 7. 3 2. Simplify 18 − 2 2 + 8. 5 3. a) 2 .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.Surds arise in the solution of quadratic equations using the formula. √ 1 √ . b) 180. 2. √ b) 6 5. 2 b) 1 √ . 2 b) √ 5 . 3. Exercises 1. 5 √ 4. 2. Rationalise the denominator of a) √ √ √ 4. By multiplying numerator and denominator by √ 1 2−1 √ 2 + 1 show that √ 2+1 is equivalent to The process of rewriting a fraction in this way. Write the following in their simplest forms. 2000 . √ √ a) 63. For example. is called rationalisation. so that all surds appear in the numerator only.

meaning that the output from the function depends upon the value of the input x. The function rule A function is a rule which operates on an input and produces an output. f 4 double the input f x double the input 2x 8 Note that with an input of 4 the function would produce an output of 8.1 ✌ What is a function? Introduction A quantity whose value can change is known as a variable. The input to the function is placed in the brackets after the function label ‘f ’. function input rule output In order for a rule to be a function it must produce only a single output for any given input. or simply ‘f of x’. produces an output of 2x. We can think of the function as a mathematical machine which processes the input.1. 2000 . We often write the rule inside the box. the output will be 2x. f (x) is read as ‘f is a function of x’.✎ ✍ 3. The doubling function pictured in the example above has been given the symbol f . Functions are used to describe the rules which deﬁne the ways in which such a change can occur. using a given rule. the function. 3. 1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. With a more general input. x say. The purpose of this leaﬂet is to explain functions and their notation. The function with the rule ‘double the input’ is shown below. A function is a rule which operates on an input and produces a single output from that input. in order to produce an output. For the doubling function it is common to use the notation f (x) = 2x This indicates that with an input x. f . It is usual to assign a letter or other symbol to a function in order to label it. This can be illustrated using a block diagram such as that shown below.

x3 .2 b) g(3t) = (3t)2 = 9t2 . b) 39. 3. c) −17. . c) In this case the argument is z + 2. We ﬁnd f (−1) = 4 × (−1) + 3 = −1. a) f (x) = b) ‘divide the input by 5 and then add 7’. a) 18. b) h(t) = t3 + 2. We can apply this rule whatever the argument.1. 2000 3. t. Both h(t) and p(x) instruct us to ‘cube the input and add 2’. a) g(x) = x2 . Here. If g(t) = t2 write down expressions for a) g(x). 2 b) f (x) = x 5 + 7. c) g(x + 4).Example State the rule of each of the following functions: a) f (x) = 7x + 9. b) f (6). given the function f (x) = 3x + 2 we may require the value of the output when the argument is 5. Solution The function rule is multiply the input by 5. b) The rule for h is ‘cube the input and add 2’. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. a) To ﬁnd y(t) multiply the argument. b) f (6). by 5 and subtract 3 to give y(t) = 5t − 3. The input to a function is called its argument. c) The rule for p is ‘cube the input and add 2’. as in the following example. Given the function f (x) = 7x − 3 ﬁnd a) f (3). Write down a function which can be used to describe the following rules: a) ‘cube the input and divide the result by 2’. c) y(z + 2). b) Now the argument is 7t. b) g(3t). So y(7t) = 5(7t) − 3 = 35t − 3. and subtract 3. We can obtain the output from a function if we are given its argument. Answers 1. b) y(7t). We write this as f (5). c) p(x) = x3 + 2. c) g(x + 4) = (x + 4)2 = x2 + 8x + 16. c) f (−2). 3. Note from parts b) and c) that it is the rule that is important when describing a function and not the letters being used. Exercises 1. We ﬁnd y(z + 2) = 5(z + 2) − 3 = 5z + 10 − 3 = 5z + 7. f (5) = 3 × 5 + 2 = 17. 2. Sometimes the argument will be an algebraic expression. For example. Solution a) Here the argument is −1. Example Given the function f (x) = 4x + 3 ﬁnd a) f (−1). Solution a) The rule for f is ‘multiply the input by 7 and then add 9’. Example Given the function y(x) = 5x − 3 ﬁnd a) y(t). b) f (6) = 4(6) + 3 = 27. 2.

The points plotted in this way are then joined together. The input values are measured along the horizontal axis and the output values along the vertical axis.✎ ✍ 3. In this leaﬂet we remind you of important conventions when graph plotting. f (x)). Each axis should be labelled to show its variable. The graph of a function Consider the function f (x) = 5x + 4. we often write the function above. So. x −3 −2 −1 0 1 f (x) −11 −6 −1 4 9 2 14 3 19 To plot the graph we ﬁrst draw a pair of axes – a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. y = f (x) vertical axis 15 10 5 –3 –2 –1 O –5 –10 1 2 3 y = 5x + 4 The point with coordinates (2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. in this case by a straight line. but rather as y = 5x + 4 3. 2000 . not as f (x) = 5x + 4. 14) x horizontal axis Each pair of input and output values can be represented on a graph by a single point. Dependent and independent variables The horizontal axis is often called the x axis. 2. The vertical axis is commonly referred to as the y axis. Each point on the graph can be represented by a pair of coordinates in the form (x. We have done this for integer values of x between −3 and 3 and the results are shown in the table.2 ✌ The graph of a function Introduction A very useful pictorial representation of a function is the graph.2. We can choose several values for the input and calculate the corresponding outputs. 1. A uniform scale is drawn on each axis suﬃcient to accommodate all the required points. This is the graph of the function. These are drawn at right-angles to each other and intersect at the origin O as shown below.

c) Plot a graph of the function. independent variable is t. b) State the dependent variable. Plot a graph of each of the following functions.Since x and y can have a number of diﬀerent values they are variables. t y −2 −1 0 1 2 9 3 1 3 9 Each pair of t and y values in the table is plotted as a single point.2. Example Consider the function given by y = 2t2 + 1. for x between −2 and 5. for values of t between −2 and 2. To show this dependence we often write y(x).2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. y. independent variable is x. a) State the independent variable. b) dependent variable is y. Solution a) The independent variable is t. c) A table of input and output values should be constructed ﬁrst. This notation simply means that y depends upon x. for t between 1 and 5. Knowing or choosing a value of the independent variable. Here x is called the independent variable and y is called the dependent variable. 3. 2000 . a) y = f (x) = 3x + 2. b) y = f (t) = 6 − t2 . In each case state the dependent and independent variables. y y = 2t2 + 1 5 1 −2 −1 0 1 2 t Exercises 1. Such a table is shown below. x. the function allows us to calculate the corresponding value of the dependent variable. Note that it is the independent variable which is the input to the function and the dependent variable which is the output. The points are then joined with a smooth curve to produce the required graph as shown below. Answers 1. a) dependent variable is y. b) The dependent variable is y.

19) 3. y = 19. Similarly when x = 3. y = 3x + 5.e.✎ ✍ 3. but √ 2 y= y = 3x2 + 4. Example Plot a graph of the straight line with equation y = 5x + 4. (i. and y = −14 x 3x have graphs which are not straight lines. 2000 . These points are plotted and joined together to form the straight line graph. The equation of a straight line Any equation of the form y = mx + c where m and c are ﬁxed numbers. The essential feature of a straight line equation is that x and y occur only to the power 1. 4) and (3.3. 1. y 15 10 5 −3 −2 −1 the point with coordinates (0. 19) lie on the graph. It is a good idea to ﬁnd a third point just as a check. constants). For example. has a graph which is a straight line. The straight line graph Any straight line graph can be plotted very simply by ﬁnding just two points which lie on the line and joining them. So the points (0. − 7. 4) 1 2 3 x y = 5x + 4 the point with coordinates (3. 2. Solution From the equation. the value of y is 4. This leaﬂet discusses the mathematical equation which describes a straight line and explains the terms ‘gradient’ and ‘intercept’. note that when x = 0.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.3 ✌ The straight line Introduction Straight line graphs arise in many engineering applications. 2 and y = −3x − 7 y = x+8 3 all have graphs which are straight lines.

c = 13. so the gradient is −2. from left to right. This line is horizontal.3. negative or zero. d) 0. This line cuts the vertical axis below the horizontal axis. this line has a positive gradient y this line has a negative gradient the gradient of this line is zero y y x x x The value of c is called the vertical intercept of the line. d) y = 9. The vertical intercept is 5. c) We write 4x − y + 13 = 0 in standard form as y = 4x + 13 and note that m = 4. When drawing a line. The fact that this is positive means that the line slopes upwards as we move from left to right. It can be positive.−11. so the gradient of the line is 12.2 b) 3. Lines with a negative gradient slope downwards from left to right. Lines with a zero gradient are horizontal. a) y = 5x + 6. c gives the position where the line cuts the vertical axis. Lines with a positive gradient slope upwards. Solution a) Comparing y = 12x − 6 with y = mx + c we see that m = 12. c) y = −2x + 7.9. intercept 6 3. d) y = 8. y y the vertical intercept is positive x x the vertical intercept is negative Example Determine the gradient and vertical intercept of each line. 2000 . e) −1.7. e) y = 7 − x. e) y = 4x. c) 4x − y + 13 = 0. Exercises 1. The vertical intercept is −6. a) gradient 5. b) Comparing y = 5 − 2x with y = mx + c we see that m = −2. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. It is the value of y when x = 0. Answers 1. The gradient and intercept of a straight line In the equation y = mx + c the value of m is called the gradient of the line. b) y = 5 − 2x. State the gradient and intercept of each of the following lines. The line slopes downwards as we move from left to right. c) −2. d) Comparing y = 8 with y = mx + c we see that m = 0 and c = 8. a) y = 12x − 6. 7. b) y = 3x − 11.3. e) Comparing y = 4x with y = mx + c we see that m = 4 and c = 0.

389. Its value is approximately 2. 2000 . 1.649 and e−2 = 0.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.086 In both cases we have quoted the answer to three decimal places although your calculator will give a more accurate answer than this. The exponential constant The exponential constant is an important mathematical constant and is given the symbol e. You should check that you can use your calculator to do this. If pairs of x and y values are plotted we obtain a graph of the exponential function as shown overleaf. If you have never seen this 3.086 This is a table of values of the exponential function ex . such as e2 . e3 and so on.4. Look for a button marked ex .718. Your scientiﬁc calculator will be programmed to do this already.135 0. Values obtained in this way can be placed in a table.4 ✌ The exponential constant e Introduction The letter e is used in many mathematical calculations to stand for a particular number known as the exponential constant. For example: x y = ex −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 0. and e3 = 20.389 20. and check that e2 = 7.718 7. The exponential function If we write y = ex we can calculate the value of y as we vary x. It has been found that this value occurs so frequently when mathematics is used to model physical and chemical phenomena that it is convenient to write simply e. and the related exponential function.050 0. This leaﬂet provides information about this important constant.135 2.368 1 2. It is often necessary to work out powers of this constant.✎ ✍ 3. You should also check that you can evaluate negative and fractional powers of e such as e1/2 = 1.

c) y = −ex .368 0. e) y = 1 − e−x . 2000 . This behaviour is known as exponential growth. A table of values of this function is shown below together with its graph.135 0. 3. b) y = e0.050 y 20 15 10 5 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 x A graph of the negative exponential function y = e−x It is very important to note that as x becomes larger.086 7. d) y = −e−x .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Exercises A useful exercise would be to draw up tables of values and plot graphs of some related functions: a) y = e2x .718 1 0.function before it will be a worthwhile exercise to plot it for yourself. the value of ex grows without bound.5x . y 20 15 10 5 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 x A graph of the exponential function y = ex It is important to note that as x becomes larger. We write this mathematically as e−x → 0 as x → ∞.4. The negative exponential function A related function is the negative exponential function y = e−x . x y = e−x −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 20. We write this mathematically as ex → ∞ as x → ∞.389 2. 3. the value of e−x approaches zero. This behaviour is known as exponential decay.

2 + e−4.2 = 2 2 The hyperbolic tangent is deﬁned as sinh x ex − e−x tanh x = = x cosh x e + e−x Other hyperbolic functions are sech x = 3. Usually the ‘hyp cos’ and ‘hyp sin’ buttons are used. 2000 . The hyperbolic functions The hyperbolic cosine is deﬁned as cosh x = The hyperbolic sine is deﬁned as sinh x = ex − e−x 2 ex + e−x 2 These are often referred to as the ‘cosh’ function and the ‘shine’ function. that is e3 − e−3 e4.351 You may like to verify that the same values can be obtained by using the exponential functions.2 sinh 3 = and cosh 4.5. You may need to refer to your calculator manual. Check that you can use your calculator by verifying that sinh 3 = 10.5 ✌ The hyperbolic functions Introduction In a number of applications.✎ ✍ 3. 1. cosh x cosech x = 1 .018 and cosh 4.2 = 33. This leaﬂet deﬁnes these functions and shows their graphs. sinh x coth x = cosh x 1 = sinh x tanh x copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Your scientiﬁc calculator can be used to evaluate these functions. They are nothing more than combinations of the exponential functions ex and e−x . the exponential functions ex and e−x occur in particular combinations and these combinations are referred to as the hyperbolic functions.1 1 .

sinh x and tanh x are shown below. or indeed by using the properties of the exponential functions. Tanh x is said to be an odd function – it has rotational symmetry about the origin. graphs can be plotted. Graphs of the hyperbolic functions 10 cosh x 5 1 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 x Some properties of cosh x • cosh 0 = 1 and cosh x is greater than 1 for all other values of x • the graph is symmetrical about the y axis. 2000 . sinh x → −∞ as x → −∞ tanh x 1 –3 –2 –1 –1 0 1 2 3 x Some properties of tanh x • tanh 0 = 0 and −1 < tanh x < 1 for all x • tanh(−x) = − tanh x. the graph passes through the origin • sinh(−x) = − sinh x. • tanh x → +1 as x → +∞. tanh x → −1 as x → −∞ 3. The graphs of cosh x.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.5. Mathematically this means cosh(−x) = cosh x.By drawing up tables of values. • cosh x → +∞ as x → ±∞ sinh x 5 x –3 –2 –1 –5 0 1 2 3 Some properties of sinh x • sinh 0 = 0. Cosh x is said to be an even function. 2. Sinh x is said to be an odd function – it has rotational symmetry about the origin. • sinh x → +∞ as x → +∞.

Hyperbolic identities cosh x = ex − e−x ex + e−x .1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.6. sinh x = 2 2 x −x e −e sinh x = x tanh x = cosh x e + e−x 2 1 = x sech x = cosh x e + e−x 1 2 cosech x = = x sinh x e − e−x cosh x 1 ex + e−x coth x = = = x sinh x tanh x e − e−x cosh2 x − sinh2 x = 1 1 − tanh2 x = sech2 x coth2 x − 1 = cosech2 x sinh(x ± y) = sinh x cosh y ± cosh x sinh y cosh(x ± y) = cosh x cosh y ± sinh x sinh y tanh x ± tanh y tanh(x ± y) = 1 ± tanh x tanh y sinh 2x = 2 sinh x cosh x cosh 2x = cosh2 x + sinh2 x cosh 2x + 1 cosh2 x = 2 cosh 2x − 1 sinh2 x = 2 3.✎ ✍ 3. yet equivalent forms. These allow expressions involving the hyperbolic functions to be written in diﬀerent. Several commonly used identities are given in this leaﬂet. 1.6 ✌ The hyperbolic identities Introduction The hyperbolic functions satisfy a number of identities. 2000 .

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405 0.5 2 3 x The graph of the natural logarithm y = loge x Note that the logarithm function is only deﬁned for positive values of x.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.7. 3.5 1 1. Note that we have chosen to use logarithms to base e as this is the most common base. The logarithm function and its graph Logarithms have been explained in leaﬂet 2. or the logarithm of a negative number. There we showed how logarithms provide alternative ways of writing expressions involving powers.693 0.5 2 2. The graph should have the same general shape as the one above although most of the points on the graph are diﬀerent. We cannot ﬁnd the logarithm of 0.099 1.5 3 3.253 You should check these values for yourself to make sure that you can obtain them. 2000 . If pairs of x and y values are plotted we obtain a graph of the logarithm function as shown.5 1 –0.7 ✌ The logarithm function Introduction This leaﬂet provides a table of values and graph of the logarithm function y = loge x.916 1. As an exercise you should draw up a similar table for the function y = log10 x and plot its graph.693 0 0.5 −0.19 What is a logarithm?.✎ ✍ 3. 1. Using a calculator it is possible to construct a table of values of y = loge x as follows: x y = loge x 0. also written ln x. y 1 0. The natural logarithm function is y = loge x. and we showed how a calculator can be used to ﬁnd logarithms.

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as in the equation ex = 20.8. The third law of logarithms states that. and the laws of logarithms (leaﬂets 2.19 What is a logarithm? and 2. Revision of logarithms Logarithms provide an alternative way of writing expressions involving powers.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. If a = bc For example: then logb a = c 100 = 102 can be written as log10 100 = 2.✎ ✍ 3. we can write log10 52 as 2 log10 5. For example you may need to ﬁnd the value of x which satisﬁes log10 x = 34. To understand what follows you must be familiar with the exponential constant.4 The exponential constant if necessary. 1. and loge 73 as 3 loge 7.086 = 3. Similarly. See leaﬂet 3. For example. Solving equations involving powers Example Solve the equation ex = 14. e3 = 20. 2000 . Very often the base will be the exponential constant e.8 ✌ Solving equations involving logarithms and exponentials Introduction It is often necessary to solve an equation in which the unknown occurs as a power.639.086 can be written as loge 20. which can be evaluated directly using a calculator to give 2. you may need to ﬁnd the value of x which satisﬁes 2x = 32. 2.20 The laws of logarithms). You will need to understand what is meant by a logarithm. You will also come across equations involving logarithms. for logarithms of any base. Solution Writing ex = 14 in its alternative form using logarithms we obtain x = loge 14. log An = n log A For example. 3. In this leaﬂet we explain how such equations can be solved. or exponent.

a) 1.639. b) ex = 15.7.98 = x. 2000 .948 (3dp). d) 0. a) 2. Hence 2. b) 20.550. Answers 1.8. Usually we use logarithms to base 10 or base e because values of these logarithms can be obtained using a scientiﬁc calculator.7 = 5x.639 x= = 0. e) 0.36. b) 2.Example Solve the equation e3x = 14. Exercises 1.7 to give 5x = 5. Solution Writing e3x = 14 in its alternative form using logarithms we obtain 3x = loge 14 = 2. c) 1. Solving equations involving logarithms Example Solve the equation log10 x = 0.3010 Hence 25 = 32. A calculator can be used to evaluate e1.2. d) e5x−1 = 17. b) log10 5x = 2.880. copyright c Pearson Education Limited.2 c) 2. 3.465. This is referred to as ‘taking logs’. Solution Rewriting the equation in its alternative form using powers gives e1.4739 so that x = 1. 3. c) 32x = 9. a) 3x = 15. then taking logs produces log10 2x = log10 32.095 to 3dp. Dividing both sides by log10 2 gives log10 32 x= log10 2 The right-hand side can now be evaluated using a calculator in order to ﬁnd x: x= 1. we can rewrite the left-hand side to give x log10 2 = log10 32.201. Solve each of the following equations to ﬁnd x.708.98 to give x = 9. e) 103x = 4. c) log10 (5x + 3) = 1. Solve the equations a) loge 2x = 1. 3 To solve an equation of the form 2x = 32 it is necessary to take the logarithm of both sides of the equation. Note that this answer can be checked by substitution into the original equation. Example Solve the equation loge 5x = 1. Starting with 2x = 32.98. Using the third law of logarithms.570 (3dp). 2.5051 log10 32 = =5 log10 2 0. Solution Rewriting the equation in its alternative form using powers gives 100. 2. A calculator can be used to evaluate 100.767.

1. b) Polar coordinates The position of any point in the plane can be described uniquely by giving its x and y coordinates. a) Cartesian coordinates.9. 1. Figure 3. When measuring the angle θ we use the convention that positive angles are measured anticlockwise. It is conventional to denote the polar coordinates of a point either in the form (r. Polar coordinates When you were ﬁrst introduced to coordinate systems you will have used cartesian coordinates. r. 2000 . y).9.9.1b. although the latter is preferred to avoid confusion with cartesian coordinates.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. the y axis is vertical and their intersection is the origin.y ) 0 x x 0 x x Figure 3. This leaﬂet explains polar coordinates and shows how it is possible to convert between cartesian and polar coordinates. These are the standard x and y coordinates of a point. We can then state the length of this line. such as that shown in Figure 3. 3. a) y b) y y P(x . or cartesian coordinates. These are particularly useful for problems involving circular symmetry. O.1a where the x axis is horizontal.y ) y r θ P(x. and negative angles are measured clockwise.2 shows several points and their polar coordinates. θ) or r∠θ. An alternative way of describing the position of a point is to draw a line from the origin to the point as shown in Figure 3.9. and the angle.9. The length of OP is always taken to be positive. is to use ‘polar coordinates’.✎ ✍ 3.9 ✌ Polar coordinates Introduction An alternative to using (x. between the positive direction of the x axis and the line. θ. These quantities are called the polar coordinates of P . P.

Calculate the cartesian coordinates of the following points.159 3. c) 1∠180◦ . using Pythagoras’ theorem note that r = x2 + y 2 .1b. −3). 4). The result produced by your calculator can be misleading. A diagram should always be sketched and will help you decide the correct quadrant.4 3 2 1 –1 1 4 3 2 90 ◦ 2 146◦ 2 1 90◦ 2 3 4 –1 146◦ 1 2 3 4 3 –1 –1 –2 –3 1 2 3 2 1 − π/2 3 − π/2 –1 1 2 3 4 − 1.75 –2 Figure 3. √ y Alternatively. However. when calculating θ you should take special care to ensure that θ is θ = tan x located in the correct quadrant.678. b) 4∠0. 2. b) (3. 2. x = r cos θ. c) (−1. Hence if we know the polar coordinates of a point r∠θ. a) (3. 2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 2000 .73).58). Angles in degrees are denoted by the degrees symbol ◦ . 1). b) 5∠2. r= x2 + y 2 . Otherwise assume that the angle is measured in radians. Similarly r y sin θ = so that y = r sin θ. 1.9. b) (−2. 0).7.25. we can r ﬁnd its cartesian coordinates. a) (−1. Some points and their polar coordinates 2. y = r sin θ y tan θ = x Exercises In each case sketch a diagram showing the point in question. Conversion between cartesian and polar coordinates x Look back at Figure 3. a) 3∠2.75 2 − 1.2. Further.9. 2. tan θ = so that x −1 y . From trigonometry note that cos θ = so that x = r cos θ. a) 5∠0. c) (−2.9. Answers √ √ 1. Calculate the polar coordinates of the following points.06.927. c) 13∠ − 2.

π stands for the number 3. We have 360◦ = 2π radians 2π π = radians 1◦ = 360 180 180 degrees ≈ 57. 4.75 radians to degrees.1. However. 1. half a revolution = 180◦ = π radians complete revolution = 360◦ = 2π radians It is easy to use the fact that 360◦ = 2π radians to convert between the two measures. in many calculations you will ﬁnd that you need to work directly with multiples of π. and you can work with this if you prefer.14159 . A complete revolution is deﬁned as 360◦ or 2π radians. . copyright c Pearson Education Limited. This leaﬂet explains these units and shows how it is possible to convert between them.☛ ✡ 4.3◦ 1 radian = π Example a) Convert 65◦ to radians. The symbol for degree is ◦ . 2000 . Usually no symbol is used to denote radians.1 b) Convert 1.1 ✟ ✠ Degrees and radians Introduction Angles can be measured in units of either degrees or radians. . Degrees and radians Angles can be measured in units of either degrees or radians.

5 4. Convert each of the following angles given in radians. to radians. b) 1. c) − π radians.75 radians 180 degrees π 180 = 1.75 × π = 100.56 radians. a) 3 radians. 15 b) 2. Usually the MODE button allows you to select the appropriate measure.89◦ . Convert each of the following angles given in radians. 2000 . Exercises 1.134 radians b) 1 radian = 1. π . 3. to degrees.79 radians. c) 1 radian. b) 36 . b) 72◦ . π 2π ◦ ◦ 3.Solution a) 1◦ = 65◦ π radians 180 π = 65 × 180 = 1. c) 3. b) 95◦ . a) b) π . b) 5 radians. Give your answers correct to 2 decimal places. c) −45◦ . a) 0. Give your answers correct to 2 decimal places. c) 57. 4.30◦ .4 radians. to radians. a) 90◦ . a) 171. a) 2 radians. to degrees. 2.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Do not use a calculator. a) 32◦ . a) 12 . Answers 1. Do not use a calculator and give your answers as multiples of π. b) 137.1. When calculations involve calculus you should always work with radians and not degrees. 2.268◦ Note the following commonly met angles: 30◦ = π radians 45◦ = π radians 6 4 π ◦ 90 = 2 radians 135◦ = 3π radians 4 60◦ = π radians 3 180◦ = π radians π 30◦ = radians 6 π 45 = radians 4 ◦ π 60 = radians 3 ◦ 90◦ = π radians 2 Your calculator should be able to work with angles measured in both radians and degrees.51◦ .66 radians. Convert the following angles given in degrees. c) 217◦ . 4 4. Convert each of the following angles given in degrees.

C hypotenuse θ side opposite to θ A B side adjacent tο θ The side opposite the right-angle is called the hypotenuse. The ratio BC is known as the sine of angle θ. is said to be adjacent to θ. In the triangle shown AC we see that 8 sin θ = = 0. This is abbreviated to cos θ. In the triangle AC shown we see that 6 cos θ = = 0.2 ✟ ✠ The trigonometrical ratios Introduction The trigonometrical ratios sine.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.3333 6 In any right-angled triangle we deﬁne the trigonometrical ratios as follows: 4. This is abbreviated to sin θ. C 10 θ A 6 8 B We can then divide the length of one side by the length of one of the other sides. This leaﬂet revises the meaning of these terms. cosine and tangent ratios Study the right-angled triangle ABC shown below.☛ ✡ 4. Sine.2. The side opposite to θ is BC. cosine and tangent appear frequently in many engineering problems.8 10 The ratio AB is known as the cosine of angle θ. Suppose we know the lengths of each of the sides as in the ﬁgure below. In the triangle AB shown we see that 8 tan θ = = 1. The remaining side. AB. This is abbreviated to tan θ. 2000 .6 10 The ratio BC is known as the tangent of angle θ. 1.

The buttons will be labelled invsin.75. cos θ or tan θ we may want to work out the corresponding angle θ. It will be necessary for you to choose the appropriate units. then θ = sin−1 0. 2 1 cos 45◦ = √ .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Look for the sine.75 then θ = 48. or common.8480 Your calculator will be able to handle angles measured in either radians or degrees. 2 1 sin 30◦ = .7979 4. Mathematically we write this as follows: if sin θ = 0. triangles √2 45° 1 2 1 30° √3 60° 1 1 sin 45◦ = √ . This process is known as ﬁnding the inverse sine.75 = 48. Check that sin 0. Some standard. Finding an angle when a trigonometrical ratio is known If we are given.sin θ = opposite BC = hypotenuse AC tan θ = cos θ = opposite BC = adjacent AB adjacent AB = hypotenuse AC 2. 2 √ 3 cos 30◦ = . cosine and tangent buttons on your calculator and make sure that you can use them by verifying that sin 50◦ = 0. Your calculator will be pre-programmed for doing this. 2 tan 45◦ = 1 1 tan 30◦ = √ 3 √ tan 60◦ = 3 3.4 radians = 5.2.56 radians = 0. a value for sin θ. 2 1 cos 60◦ = . inverse cosine or inverse tangent. 2 √ 3 ◦ sin 60 = . 2000 . Check that you can use your calculator to show that if sin θ = 0. Study your calculator manual to learn how to do this. Using a calculator If we know the angles in a right-angled triangle the trigonometrical ratios can be found using a scientiﬁc calculator.5312. and so on. cos 32◦ = 0.59◦ . tan 1. or sin−1 .7660. or know.59◦ 4.

The sine function Using a scientiﬁc calculator a table of values of sin θ can be drawn up as θ varies from 0 to 360◦ .5000 0. The cosine function 4. outside the range 0◦ to 360◦ .8660 1 0. 1. 2. 2000 .8660 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 180 210 240 270 300◦ 0 −0. sin 90◦ = 1. sin 180◦ = 0. cosine and tangent.8660 −1 −0. Graphs of the trigonometric functions sine.3 ✌ Graphs of the trigonometric functions Introduction The trigonometric functions play a very important role in engineering mathematics. sin 270◦ = −1 The maximum value of sin θ is 1. a graph of the function y = sin θ can be plotted and is shown below on the left. and the minimum value is −1.5000 360◦ 0 Using the table.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Some values are particularly important and should be remembered: sin 0◦ = 0. sin θ 1 360 ◦ sin θ 1 90 ◦ 270 ◦ θ −180◦ −1 90◦ 270◦ 450◦ θ −1 If further values. θ sin θ θ sin θ 0◦ 30◦ 60◦ 90◦ 120◦ 0 0.3. together with some tabulated values are shown here for reference. We say that the sine function is periodic with period 360◦ . Familiarity with the graphs of these functions is essential.5000 −0.✎ ✍ 4. are calculated we ﬁnd that the wavy pattern repeats itself as shown on the right.8660 150◦ 0.

90◦ . tanθ tanθ 0◦ 180◦ θ 180◦ 360◦ θ If further values are calculated outside the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 180◦ we ﬁnd that the pattern repeats itself as shown on the right.3. However there are certain values where tan θ is not deﬁned. cos 180◦ = −1. Here the graph shoots oﬀ to inﬁnity. There is no minimum value.8660 −0.5000 0 0. cos 270◦ = 0 The maximum value of cos θ is 1.5000 0 −0. Some values are particularly important and should be remembered: cos 0◦ = 1. tan 45◦ = 1 There is no maximum value of tan θ because it increases without bound. 270◦ and so on. 3.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. The tangent function Using a scientiﬁc calculator a table of values of tan θ can be drawn up as θ varies from 0 to 180◦ although when θ = 90◦ you will ﬁnd that this function is not deﬁned. a graph of the function y = tan θ can be plotted and is shown below on the left.8660 ◦ ◦ ◦ 180 210 240 270◦ 300◦ 360◦ −1 −0. We say that the tangent function is periodic with period 180◦ .5000 1 Using a scientiﬁc calculator a table of values of cos θ can be drawn up as θ varies from 0 to 360◦ . a graph of the function y = cos θ can be plotted as shown on the left. 4.θ cos θ θ cos θ 0◦ 30◦ 60◦ 90◦ 120◦ 150◦ 1 0. θ tan θ 0 0 45◦ 90◦ 135◦ 180◦ 1 ∞ −1 0 Using the table. Some values are particularly important and should be remembered: tan 0◦ = 0. Using the table.5000 −0.8660 0. We say that the cosine function is periodic with period 360◦ . 2000 . including −90◦ . cosθ 1 90◦ 360 ◦ cosθ 1 90◦ θ -1 360 ◦ θ -1 If further values are calculated outside the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ we ﬁnd that the wavy pattern repeats itself as shown on the right. and the minimum value is −1. cos 90◦ = 0.

4 ✟ ✠ Trigonometrical identities Introduction Very often it is necessary to rewrite expressions involving sines. tan2 A + 1 = sec2 A cos 2A = cos2 A − sin2 A = 2 cos2 A − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 A sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A 4.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. A number of commonly used identities are listed here. The identities tan A = sin A cos A sec A = 1 cos A cosec A = 1 sin A cot A = cos A 1 = sin A tan A sin(A ± B) = sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos(A ± B) = cos A cos B ∓ sin A sin B tan(A ± B) = tan A ± tan B 1 ∓ tan A tan B 2 sin A cos B = sin(A + B) + sin(A − B) 2 cos A cos B = cos(A − B) + cos(A + B) 2 sin A sin B = cos(A − B) − cos(A + B) sin2 A + cos2 A = 1 1 + cot2 A = cosec2 A. 1. 2000 . To do this we use formulas known as trigonometric identities.☛ ✡ 4.4. cosines and tangents in alternative forms.

4.4. 2 cos2 A = A+B 2 A+B sin A − sin B = 2 cos 2 A+B cos A + cos B = 2 cos 2 A+B cos A − cos B = 2 sin 2 sin A + sin B = 2 sin 1 + cos 2A 2 A−B cos 2 A−B sin 2 A−B cos 2 B−A sin 2 Note: sin2 A is the notation used for (sin A)2 . Similarly cos2 A means (cos A)2 and so on.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.sin2 A = 1 − cos 2A . 2000 .

the side opposite the right-angle is called the hypotenuse. (c2 ). is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. This leaﬂet reminds you of the theorem and provides some revision examples and exercises. 2000 . 1. The side opposite B is labelled b and the side opposite C is labelled c.5 ✌ Pythagoras’ theorem Introduction Pythagoras’ theorem relates the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Pythagoras’ theorem: c 2 = a2 + b 2 Example A 9 c C 5 B Suppose AC = 9 cm and BC = 5 cm as shown. AB. Find the length of the hypotenuse. A b C c hypotenuse a B In any right-angled triangle. Here we use the convention that the side opposite angle A is labelled a. (a2 + b2 ). Pythagoras’ theorem Study the right-angled triangle shown. 4. ABC.5.✎ ✍ 4. Pythagoras’ theorem states that the square of the hypotenuse.

Solution Here, a = BC = 5, and b = AC = 9. Using the theorem c2 = = = = c = a2 + b 2 52 + 92 25 + 81 106 √ 106 = 10.30

(2dp.)

The hypotenuse has length 10.30 cm. Example In triangle ABC shown, suppose that the length of the hypotenuse is 14 cm and that a = BC = 3 cm. Find the length of AC.

A b C 3 14 B

Solution Here a = BC = 3, and c = AB = 14. Using the theorem c2 142 196 b2 = = = = = b = a2 + b 2 32 + b2 9 + b2 196 − 9 187 √ 187 = 13.67

(2dp)

The length of AC is 13.67 cm. Exercises 1. In triangle ABC in which C = 90◦ , AB = 25 cm and AC = 17 cm. Find the length BC. 2. In triangle ABC, the angle at B is the right-angle. If AB = BC = 5 cm ﬁnd AC. 3. In triangle CDE the right-angle is E. If CD = 55 cm and DE = 37 cm ﬁnd EC. Answers 1. 18.33 cm. (2dp) √ 2. AC = 50 = 7.07 cm. (2dp) √ 3. EC = 1656 = 40.69 cm. (2dp)

4.5.2

copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎ ✍

4.6

✌

**The sine rule and cosine rule
**

Introduction

To solve a triangle is to ﬁnd the lengths of each of its sides and all its angles. The sine rule is used when we are given either a) two angles and one side, or b) two sides and a non-included angle. The cosine rule is used when we are given either a) three sides or b) two sides and the included angle.

**1. The sine rule
**

Study the triangle ABC shown below. Let B stands for the angle at B. Let C stand for the angle at C and so on. Also, let b = AC, a = BC and c = AB.

B c = AB A b = AC a = BC C

The sine rule:

b c a = = sin A sin B sin C

Example In triangle ABC, B = 21◦ , C = 46◦ and AB = 9 cm. Solve this triangle. Solution We are given two angles and one side and so the sine rule can be used. Furthermore, since the angles in any triangle must add up to 180◦ then angle A must be 113◦ . We know that c = AB = 9. Using the sine rule a b 9 = = ◦ ◦ sin 113 sin 21 sin 46◦ So, b 9 = ◦ sin 21 sin 46◦ from which b = sin 21◦ × 4.6.1 9 = 4.484 cm sin 46◦ (3dp)

copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Similarly a = sin 113◦ × 9 = 11.517 cm sin 46◦ (3dp)

**2. The cosine rule
**

Refer to the triangle shown below.

B c = AB A b = AC a = BC C

The cosine rule: a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A, b2 = a2 + c2 − 2ac cos B, c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C

Example In triangle ABC, AB = 42 cm, BC = 37 cm and AC = 26 cm. Solve this triangle. Solution We are given three sides of the triangle and so the cosine rule can be used. Writing a = 37, b = 26 and c = 42 we have a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A from which 372 = 262 + 422 − 2(26)(42) cos A cos A = and so 1071 262 + 422 − 372 = = 0.4904 (2)(26)(42) 2184 A = cos−1 0.4904 = 60.63◦

You should apply the same technique to verify that B = 37.76◦ and C = 81.61◦ . You should also check that the angles you obtain add up to 180◦ . Exercises 1. Solve the triangle ABC in which AC = 105 cm, AB = 76 cm and A = 29◦ . 2. Solve the triangle ABC given C = 40◦ , b = 23 cm and c = 19 cm. Answers 1. a = 53.31cm, B = 72.72◦ , C = 78.28◦ .

2. A = 11.09◦ , B = 128.91◦ , a = 5.69 cm. or A = 88.91◦ , B = 51.09◦ , BC = 29.55 cm.

4.6.2

copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

1. a determinant is a single number. −2 4 d) 6 10 . −3 −5 e) x 5 . b) 8 − (−2) = 10. 2000 . 2. a b has two rows and two columns we describe it as a ‘2 by 2’ or second-order c d determinant. they can be used in the solution of simultaneous equations. Third-order determinants A third-order or ‘3 by 3’ determinant can be written a1 b 1 c 1 a2 b 2 c 2 a3 b 3 c 3 5. d) −30 − (−30) = 0. 1 4 c) 8 5 . y 2 Answers a) 15 − 24 = −9. Exercises Evaluate the following determinants: a) 3 4 6 5 b) 2 −2 . and to evaluate vector products.✎ ✍ 5. b. c) 32 − (−10) = 42. once we have worked it out. Note that. This leaﬂet will show you how to calculate the value of a determinant. For example.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.1 ✌ Determinants Introduction Determinants are mathematical objects which have applications in engineering mathematics. c and d we can use this to calculate the value of the determinant. Its value is given by a b = ad − bc c d If we are given values for a. e) 2x − 5y.1. Evaluating a determinant The symbol For example 3 2 1 4 Because means 3×4 − 2 × 1 = 12 − 2 = 10 a b c d represents the expression ad − bc and is called a determinant.

1 5 3 b) 0 −3 2 −9 4 1 .One way in which it can be evaluated is to use second-order determinants as follows: a1 b2 c 2 a c a b − b1 2 2 + c 1 2 2 b3 c 3 a3 c3 a3 b 3 Note in particular the way that the signs alternate between + and −. b) 146. 2. 4 1 3 d) a 0 0 0 b 0 . 5 −1 3 9 12 1 1 4 1 . a) 2 4 1 1 0 4 . 0 0 c 2. c) 7 −2 3 −1 −4 −4 . 6 −2 12 3 9 1 −3 1 1 . 4 1 5 c) 116. Example 5 3 −3 4 2 6 3 9 12 1 1 4 1 1 5 3 9 12 1 3 12 1 3 9 1 3 9 12 = 5 1 4 1 − 2 −3 4 1 + 6 −3 1 1 − 3 −3 1 4 1 5 3 4 5 3 4 1 3 4 1 5 = 5(40) − 2(146) + 6(116) − 3(198) = 200 − 292 + 696 − 594 = 10 Determinants can be used in the solution of simultaneous equations using Cramer’s rule – see the leaﬂet 5. For example 1 2 1 −1 3 4 5 1 2 = 1 3 4 −1 4 −1 3 −2 +1 1 2 5 2 5 1 = 1(2) − 2(−22) + 1(−16) = 2 + 44 − 16 = 30 Exercises 1. a) 75.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 6 0 2 3 12 1 −3 4 1 . 5. b) −120. Answers 1.1. 2000 . Fourth-order determinants These are evaluated using third-order determinants. a) 40. a) b) c) d) 3 9 12 −3 1 4 .2 Cramer’s rule. 3. 4 5 3 c) −290. Evaluate each of the following determinants. Evaluate each of the following determinants. d) 198. Once again note the alternating plus and minus sign. d) abc.

2. Cramer’s rule – two equations If we are given a pair of simultaneous equations a1 x + b1 y = d1 a2 x + b2 y = d2 then x and y can be found from d1 b1 d2 b2 a1 b1 a2 b2 a1 d1 a2 d2 a1 b 1 a2 b 2 x= y= Example Solve the equations 3x + 4y = −14 −2x − 3y = 11 Solution Using Cramer’s rule we can write the solution as the ratio of two determinants. −14 4 11 −3 3 4 −2 −3 −2 = = 2. 5. 2000 . −1 3 −14 −2 11 3 4 −2 −3 x= y= = 5 = −5 −1 The solution of the simultaneous equations is then x = 2.✎ ✍ 5.2 ✌ Cramer’s rule Introduction Cramer’s rule is a method for solving linear simultaneous equations. y = −5. 1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. It makes use of determinants and so a knowledge of these is necessary before proceeding.

2000 . a) 7x + 3y = 15 −2x + 5y = −16 b) x + 2y + 3z = 17 3x + 2y + z = 11 x − 5y + z = −5 Answers a) x = 3.2. b) x = 1. y = −2.2. 5. Cramer’s rule – three equations For the case of three equations in three unknowns: If a1 x + b1 y + c1 z = d1 a2 x + b2 y + c2 z = d2 a3 x + b3 y + c3 z = d3 then x.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. z = 4. y = 2. y and z can be found from d1 d2 d3 a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3 a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a3 d1 d2 d3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 c1 c2 c3 a1 a2 a3 a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 b1 b2 b3 d1 d2 d3 c1 c2 c3 x= y= z= Exercises Use Cramer’s rule to solve the following sets of simultaneous equations.

the result of multiplying two matrices is another matrix. c) 1 3 5 3 7 .3. the result of multiplying them together is a p × s matrix. that is.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. The reason for this only becomes apparent when matrices are used to solve equations. it has r rows and s columns. Another. Some simple examples To multiply 3 7 by 2 9 3 7 perform the following calculation. b) −3 7 2 9 . 2000 . and the second has size r × s. Two matrices can only be multiplied together if the number of columns in the ﬁrst matrix is the same as the number of rows in the second. it has p rows and q columns. d) −40. −8 Answers 1. multiplied the paired elements together and added the results. c) 64. When this is so. larger example: 4 2 5 3 6 =4×3 8 + 2×6 + 5 × 8 = 12 + 12 + 40 = 64 Exercises 1. 8 d) −4 2 5 3 6 . So. b) 57. we can only multiply them together if q = r. 5. 2 9 =3×2 + 7 × 9 = 6 + 63 = 69 Note that we have paired elements in the row of the ﬁrst matrix with elements in the column of the second matrix.✎ ✍ 5. 2. Usually however. a) 53.3 ✌ Multiplying matrices Introduction One of the most important operations carried out with matrices is matrix multiplication. More general matrix multiplication When we multiplied matrices in the previous section the answers were always single numbers. At ﬁrst sight this is done in a rather strange way. Evaluate the following: a) 4 5 2 9 . if the ﬁrst matrix has size p × q. 1. that is.

a) −2 5. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Evaluate the following.2 . b) 4 2 5 11 3 10 −1 9 . 2000 . The second has size 2 × 1.Two matrices can only ever be multiplied together if the number of columns in the ﬁrst is the same as the number of rows in the second. 2 4 5 3 3 6 −1 9 = 2 × 3 + 4 × (−1) 5 × 3 + 3 × (−1) 2×6+4×9 5×6+3×9 = 2 48 12 57 Exercises 1. You have already seen the required calculations. ignore the ﬁrst row of the ﬁrst matrix. So. Solution The ﬁrst matrix has size 2 × 2. Clearly the number of columns in the ﬁrst is the same as the number of rows in the second. Clearly the number of columns in the ﬁrst is the same as the number of rows in the second. 3 7 2 9 = 69 To obtain the second entry in the solution. a) −3 2 3 11 3 −1 . 3 7 4 5 2 9 = ∗ ∗ To obtain the ﬁrst entry in the solution. Example 3 7 Find 4 5 2 9 . multiplication is possible and the result will be a 2 × 1 matrix. The second matrix has size 2 × 2. ignore the second row of the ﬁrst matrix. c) 9 13 5 47 117 11 . Solution The ﬁrst matrix has size 2 × 2. The multiplication can be performed and the result will be a 2 × 2 matrix. b) 10 58 4 149 . The calculation is performed using the same operations as in the examples in the previous section. Answers −11 1. c) 2 1 1 9 2 0 2 5 13 1 .3. 4 Putting it all together 3 7 4 5 Example 2 4 Find 5 3 2 9 = 69 53 5 2 9 = 53 3 6 −1 9 .

1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Note that in this context A−1 does not mean A . However. multiplying a matrix by its inverse 0 1 1 produces an identity matrix. then it will not have an inverse. A simple formula for the inverse In the case of a 2 × 2 matrix a b c d a b c d a simple formula exists to ﬁnd its inverse: 1 ad − bc d −b −c a if A= then A−1 = Example Find the inverse of the matrix A = Solution Using the formula A−1 = 1 (3)(2) − (1)(4) 1 2 −1 = 2 −4 3 2 −1 −4 3 3 1 4 2 .4 ✌ The inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix Introduction Once you know how to multiply matrices it is natural to ask whether they can be divided. The inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix The inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix. by deﬁning another matrix called the inverse matrix it is possible to work with an operation which plays a similar role to division. 1. 5. Only non-singular matrices have inverses. The answer is no. 2000 . 2. is another 2 × 2 matrix denoted by A−1 with the property that AA−1 = A−1 A = I 1 0 where I is the 2 × 2 identity matrix . A.✎ ✍ 5. and the matrix is said to be singular. If the determinant of the matrix is zero.4. In this leaﬂet we explain what is meant by an inverse matrix and how the inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix is calculated. That is. Not all 2 × 2 matrices have an inverse matrix.

Find the inverse of A = 1 5 3 2 .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Explain why the inverse of the matrix 3. 3 4 2 3 is the inverse of 2 −5 −3 1 = 2 − 13 3 13 5 13 1 − 13 . The determinant of the matrix is zero. 1 0 The result should be the identity matrix I = . 2000 .This could be written as 1 −1 2 −2 3 2 You should check that this answer is correct by performing the matrix multiplication AA−1 . Show that Answers 1. it is singular and so has no inverse. .4. 6 4 3 2 3 −4 −2 3 2. that is. 5. 2. although it is quite permissible to leave the factor Exercises 1. A−1 = 1 −13 cannot be calculated. This can be written A−1 = 1/14 −4/14 3/14 2/14 = 1 14 1/14 −2/7 3/14 1/7 at the front of the matrix. 0 1 Example Find the inverse of the matrix A = Solution Using the formula A−1 = 1 (2)(1) − (4)(−3) 1 1 −4 = 14 3 2 1 −4 3 2 2 4 −3 1 .

its inverse can be found from the formula A−1 = adj A |A| where adj A is the adjoint matrix and |A| is the determinant of A.☛ ✡ 5. 1. and so on. . the ﬁrst column of A is the ﬁrst row of the transposed matrix. The inverse of a matrix The inverse of a square n × n matrix. and the matrix is said to be singular. then it will not have an inverse. (2) The minor of any element is found by covering up the elements in its row and column and ﬁnding the determinant of the remaining matrix.5 ✟ ✠ The inverse of a matrix Introduction In this leaﬂet we explain what is meant by an inverse matrix and how it is calculated. 3. multiplying a matrix by its inverse produces an identity matrix. So.... Not all square matrices have an inverse matrix. the second column of A is the second row of the transposed matrix.. (3) The cofactor of any element is found by according to the following rule + − + − + − ..5. . . By replacing each element of AT by its minor. Finding the adjoint matrix The adjoint of a matrix A is found in stages: (1) Find the transpose of A.. If the determinant of the matrix is zero. That is. .. A. . . we can write down a matrix of minors of AT . is another n × n matrix denoted by A−1 such that AA−1 = A−1 A = I where I is the n × n identity matrix.1 ... The transpose is found by interchanging the rows and columns of A. 5.. Only non-singular matrices have inverses. 2000 . for example. The procedure for ﬁnding the adjoint matrix is given below.. taking its minor and imposing a place sign . which is denoted by AT . . 2. + − + copyright c Pearson Education Limited. A formula for ﬁnding the inverse Given any non-singular matrix A.

First ﬁnd the transpose of A by taking the ﬁrst column of A to be the ﬁrst row of AT . Finally A−1 −7 6 −10 adj A 1 = = −14 3 −5 |A| 21 7 0 7 Exercise 1 3 2 1. the sign of the minor is unaltered. On the other hand to ﬁnd the cofactor of an element in the second row. Check for yourself that this process gives −7 −6 −10 T 5 matrix of minors of A = 14 3 7 0 7 Then impose the place sign. Show that the inverse of 0 5 1 is −1 3 0 5. so it is illustrated now by means of an example. denoted adj A. that to ﬁnd the cofactor of an element in the ﬁrst row. The matrix of cofactors of the transpose of A is called the adjoint matrix. The minor of the element ‘1’ in the ﬁrst row. The minor of the element ‘3’ in the second column −2 2 which of the ﬁrst row is found by covering up elements in its row and column to give 0 3 has determinant −6. adj A This procedure may seem rather cumbersome. the adjoint of A. −7 6 −10 −14 3 −5 adj A = 7 0 7 Notice that to complete this last stage. In this way we can form a matrix of cofactors of AT . We continue in this fashion and form a new matrix by replacing every element of AT by its minor.This means. that is. 2000 . It is a straightforward matter to show that the determinant of A is 21. This is equivalent to multiplying the minor by ‘+1’ or ‘−1’ depending upon its position. of A = 3 −1 2 3 Solution Follow the stages outlined above.2 −3 6 −7 1 −1 2 −1 . 4 5 −6 5 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. is obtained by covering up the elements in its row and column to give and 5 3 ﬁnding the determinant of this. which is −7.5. the sign of the minor is changed. for example. ﬁrst 1 2 column. and hence the inverse. This results in the matrix of cofactors. Example 1 −2 0 1 5 . Find the adjoint. second column. This matrix is called the adjoint of A. each element in the matrix of minors has been multiplied by 1 or −1 according to its position. and so on: 1 3 −1 T A = −2 1 2 0 5 3 Now ﬁnd the minor of each element in AT . second column.

the identity matrix. Furthermore. to give A−1 AX = A−1 B But A−1 A = I. A is called the matrix of coeﬃcients. 1. because multiplying any matrix by an identity matrix of the appropriate size leaves the matrix unaltered.✎ ✍ 5. IX = X. So X = A−1 B 5. In this leaﬂet we explain how this can be done. and B= 4 1 2. Solving the simultaneous equations Given AX = B we can multiply both sides by the inverse of A. since A and B are already known.6 ✌ Using the inverse matrix to solve equations Introduction One of the most important applications of matrices is to the solution of linear simultaneous equations. Here the unknown is the matrix X. 2000 .6. X= x y . 1 2 3 −5 . Writing simultaneous equations in matrix form Consider the simultaneous equations x + 2y = 4 3x − 5y = 1 Provided you understand how matrices are multiplied together you will realise that these can be written in matrix form as 1 2 x 4 = 3 −5 y 1 Writing A= we have AX = B This is the matrix form of the simultaneous equations.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. provided this exists.

Example Solve the simultaneous equations x + 2y = 4 3x − 5y = 1 Solution We have already seen these equations in matrix form: 1 2 3 −5 We need to calculate the inverse of A = x y 1 2 3 −5 .if AX = B. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. y = 1 is the solution of the simultaneous equations.6.2 b) x = −2. All we need do is write them in matrix form. y = −2. a) x = 3. = 4 1 A−1 = 1 (1)(−5) − (2)(3) 1 −5 −2 = − 11 −3 1 −5 −2 −3 1 Then X is given by X = A−1 B = − 1 11 1 = − 11 = 2 1 −5 −2 −3 1 −22 −11 4 1 Hence x = 2. and ﬁnally perform a matrix multiplication. 2000 5x + y = 13 . x + 4y = 6 . then X = A−1 B This result gives us a method for solving simultaneous equations. 3x + 2y = 5 b) 3x + 2y = −2 . Exercises 1. calculate the inverse of the matrix of coeﬃcients. y = 2 . 5. Solve the following sets of simultaneous equations using the inverse matrix method. a) Answers 1.

We can write the vector from A to B as AB. 2. 1.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Vectors Vectors are quantities which possess a magnitude and a direction. As such. Unit vectors A unit vector is a vector of length 1. The magnitude of a vector a = AB is written as |a| or |AB|. as in a. In printed work vectors are often shown with a bold typeface. we often represent them by directed line segments such as those shown below. To obtain a unit vector in the direction of any vector a we divide by its modulus. C − − → AB a A B c D −→ − CD The arrow on the line indicates the intended direction whilst the length of the line represents the magnitude. Whichever way you choose it is important that vectors can − → − → be distinguished from scalars. ˆ a= ˆ a |a| 6. as in a.✎ ✍ 6. The magnitude is represented by the length of the directed line segment. and shows how to calculate the modulus of vectors given in cartesian form.1 ✌ Vectors Introduction This leaﬂet explains notations in common use for describing vectors. In handwritten work we usually underline vectors.1. It is important when writing vectors that we distinguish them from scalars (or numbers) and − → so various notations are used to do this. 2000 . To show a vector is a unit vector we give it a ‘hat’. as in a. The magnitude is also called the modulus or the length of the vector.

Its modulus can be found using Pythagoras’ theorem: √ |r| = a2 + b2 + c2 z r = ai + bj + ck k c j b i O y a x 6.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Its modulus can be found using Pythagoras’ theorem: √ |r| = a2 + b2 4.3. Any vector in three dimensions can be written r = ai + bj + ck. Cartesian components i represents a unit vector in the direction of the positive x axis j represents a unit vector in the direction of the positive y axis y axis r = ai + bj j i ai bj x axis Any vector in the xy plane can be written r = ai + bj where a and b are numbers. Three dimensions To work in three dimensions we introduce an additional unit vector k which points in the direction of the positive z axis. 2000 .1.

Calculate a · b.✎ ✍ 6. scalar product : a · b = |a| |b| cos θ Example Vectors a and b are shown in the ﬁgure above. Suppose also that the angle. and is the reason why the scalar product is also known as the dot product. Suppose the vector a has modulus 8 and the vector b has modulus 7. Note that when ﬁnding a scalar product the result is always a scalar. between these vectors is 30◦ . b θ a Their scalar product.5. Deﬁnition of the scalar product Consider the two vectors a and b shown below.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.5 The scalar product of a and b is equal to 48. that is a number. Note that the tails of the two vectors coincide and that the angle between the vectors has been labelled θ. You should never use a × sign in this context because this symbol is reserved for a quantity called the vector product which is quite diﬀerent.2 ✌ The scalar product Introduction In this leaﬂet we describe how to ﬁnd the scalar product of two vectors. θ. 1. Solution a · b = |a| |b| cos θ = (8)(7) cos 30◦ = 48. 2000 . The dot is the symbol for the scalar product. is deﬁned as |a| |b| cos θ. denoted a · b.2. and not a vector. It is very important to use the dot in the formula. 6.

b · c = 1 and a · c = 8.2. b = 7i + j + 2k and c = −i + 4j + 2k show a · b = 21. Show that the angle between the vectors a = 5i + 3j − 2k and b = 8i − 9j + 11k is 95. The √ modulus of b is 12 + (−2)2 + 32 = 14. A formula for ﬁnding the scalar product A simple formula exists for ﬁnding a scalar product when the vectors are given in cartesian form. j. Exercises 1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. The modulus of a is 22 + 32 + 52 = 38. The answer cannot contain i. the angle between two vectors can be found from the following formula: cos θ = a·b |a| |b| Exercise 1. or k. Using the formula for the scalar product we ﬁnd a · b = |a| |b| cos θ √ √ 11 = 38 14 cos θ from which 11 cos θ = √ √ = 0.2. Solution √ √ Their scalar product is easily shown to be 11.14◦ . 6. Example Find the angle between the vectors a = 2i + 3j + 5k and b = i − 2j + 3k.4769) = 61. 2000 . if a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b 2 j + b3 k then a · b = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 Example If a = 5i + 3j − 2k and b = 8i − 9j + 11k. Using the scalar product to ﬁnd the angle between two vectors The scalar product is useful when you need to calculate the angle between two vectors. ﬁnd a · b. If a = 2i + j + 3k. 3.4769 38 14 so that θ = cos−1 (0.5◦ In general. Solution Respective components are multiplied together and the results are added. a · b = (5)(8) + (3)(−9) + (−2)(11) = 40 − 27 − 22 = −9 Note again that the result is a scalar not a vector.

a3 = 5. Do not use a dot. Deﬁnition of the vector product The result of ﬁnding the vector product of two vectors. Solution By inspection a1 = 3. The symbol used for the vector product is the times sign. A formula for ﬁnding the vector product A formula exists for ﬁnding the vector product of two vectors given in cartesian form: If a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k then a × b = (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )i − (a1 b3 − a3 b1 )j + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k Example Evaluate the vector product a × b if a = 3i − 2j + 5k and b = 7i + 4j − 8k.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.3. b1 = 7. a and b. length |a| |b| sin θ a×b b θ a ˆ vector product: a × b = |a| |b| sin θ e 2.3 ✌ The vector product Introduction In this leaﬂet we describe how to ﬁnd the vector product of two vectors. is a vector of modulus |a| |b| sin θ ˆ ˆ in the direction of e. because this is the symbol used for a scalar product. b2 = 4. b3 = −8. 1. ·. ×.✎ ✍ 6. a2 = −2. 2000 . where e is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane containing a and b in a sense deﬁned by the right-handed screw rule as shown below. and so a × b = ((−2)(−8) − (5)(4))i − ((3)(−8) − (5)(7))j + ((3)(4) − (−2)(7))k = −4i + 59j + 26k 6.

2000 .3. Using determinants to evaluate a vector product Evaluation of a vector product using the previous formula is very cumbersome. that is a2 a3 b2 b3 = a2 b3 − a3 b2 The resulting number is the i component of the vector product. The j component is found by crossing out the row and column containing j and evaluating a1 a3 b1 b3 = a1 b3 − a3 b1 and then changing the sign of the result. The vector product of two vectors a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k can be found by evaluating the determinant: i j k a × b = a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 To ﬁnd the i component of the vector product.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. but rather that b × a = 5i + 18j + 29k. imagine crossing out the row and column containing i and ﬁnding the determinant of what is left.3. 6. There is a more convenient and easily remembered method for those of you who are familiar with determinants. If a = 8i + j − 2k and b = 5i − 3j + k show that a × b = −5i − 18j − 29k. Solution The two given vectors are represented in the determinant i j k 3 −4 2 9 −6 2 Evaluating this determinant we obtain a × b = (−8 − (−12))i − (6 − 18)j + (−18 − (−36))k = 4i + 12j + 18k Exercises 1. Show also that b × a is not equal to a × b. Finally the k component is found by crossing out the row and column containing k and evaluating a1 a2 b1 b2 = a1 b2 − a2 b1 If a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k then i j k a × b = a 1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 = (a2 b3 − a3 b2 )i − (a1 b3 − a3 b1 )j + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 )k Example Find the vector product of a = 3i − 4j + 2k and b = 9i − 6j + 2k.

Finding the square root of a negative number It is impossible to ﬁnd the square root of a negative number such as −16. This leads to a study of complex numbers which are useful in a variety of engineering applications.☛ ✡ 7. Then using the fact that . 2000 a) 9. That is j = −1. We start by introducing a symbol to stand for the square root of −1. It follows that j 2 = −1. If you try to ﬁnd this on your calculator you will probably obtain an error message. 1.1. Example Write down expressions for the square roots of Solution √ a) 9 = ±3. b) −9. j is an imaginary number such that j 2 = −1 Even though j is not real. Nevertheless it becomes useful to construct a way in which we can write down square roots of negative numbers.1 −9 = ±3j copyright c Pearson Education Limited. and so the quantity j is not real. b) Noting that −9 = 9 × −1 we can write √ √ −9 = 9 × −1 √ √ = 9 × −1 √ = ±3 × −1 √ −1 = j we have √ 7. Using real numbers we cannot ﬁnd the square root of a negative number. especially alternating current circuit analysis. using it we can formally write down the square roots of any negative number as shown in the following example. We say it is imaginary.1 ✟ ✠ What is a complex number? Introduction This leaﬂet explains how the set of real numbers with which you are already familiar is enlarged to include further numbers called imaginary numbers. Conventionally this symbol √ is j.

2 √ b) 1 − 0. c) (−j)3 . We often use the letter z to stand for a complex number and 4 write z = a + bj. − 5 ± 6 11 j. Using the imaginary number j it is possible to solve all quadratic equations.35. Solution a) j 3 = j 2 × j. a) 1. and an imaginary part. Answers 1. sin θ. b) −1. 2a With a = 2. Solve the quadratic equation 3x2 + 5x + 3 = 0. z = a + bj where a is the real part and b is the imaginary part of the complex number. Exercises 1. 7. b) j 4 = j 2 × j 2 = (−1) × (−1) = 1. b) (−j)2 . State the real and imaginary parts of: a) 13 − 5j. c) cos θ + j sin θ. √ − 1 . 2000 . a) real part 13.Example Use the fact that j 2 = −1 to simplify a) j 3 . Complex numbers In the previous example we found that the solutions of √ 2 + x + 1 = 0 were − 1 ± 47 j. A complex number such as − 4 + 47 j is made up of two parts. 6 2. 2. b = 1 and c = 1 we ﬁnd 12 − (4)(2)(1) 2(2) −7 −1 ± 4√ −1 ± 7j = 4√ 1 7 = − ± j 4 4 Exercises 1. Simplify a) −j 2 . c) cos θ. Answers 1. 47 .1. b) j 4 . where a is the real part and b is the imaginary part. d) −j 3 . These are 2x 4 1 complex numbers. Solution We use the formula x = x = = −1 ± √ √ −b± b2 −4ac . imaginary part −5. b) 1.35j. But j 2 = −1 and so j 3 = −1 × j = −j. −0. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. d) j. √ c) j. 2. a real part. Example Use the formula for solving a quadratic equation to solve 2x2 + x + 1 = 0.

☛ ✡ 7. subtracted. Multiplication of complex numbers To multiply two complex numbers we use the normal rules of algebra and also the fact that j 2 = −1. 2000 .1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Solution a) z1 + z2 = (13 + 5j) + (8 − 2j) = 21 + 3j. 1. Example If z1 = 13 + 5j and z2 = 8 − 2j ﬁnd a) z1 + z2 . multiplied and divided. to add the complex numbers we simply add the real parts together and add the imaginary parts together. 2. If z1 and z2 are the two complex numbers their product is written z1 z2 . This leaﬂet describes how complex numbers are added. Example If z1 = 5 − 2j and z2 = 2 + 4j ﬁnd z1 z2 .2.2 ✟ ✠ Complex arithmetic Introduction. Solution z1 z2 = (5 − 2j)(2 + 4j) = 10 + 20j − 4j − 8j 2 Replacing j 2 by −1 we obtain z1 z2 = 10 + 16j − 8(−1) = 18 + 16j In general we have the following result: 7. Addition and subtraction of complex numbers Given two complex numbers we can ﬁnd their sum and diﬀerence in an obvious way. b) z2 − z1 = (8 − 2j) − (13 + 5j) = −5 − 7j b) z2 − z1 . If z1 = a1 + b1 j and z2 = a2 + b2 j then z1 + z2 = (a1 + a2 ) + (b1 + b2 )j z1 − z2 = (a1 − a2 ) + (b1 − b2 )j So.

this is equivalent to multiplying by 1 and so the fraction remains unaltered. b) 1 − j. but it will have the eﬀect of making the denominator purely real. Example z1 Find when z1 = 3 + 2j and z2 = 4 − 3j.2. j Answers 1. z2 Solution We require z1 3 + 2j = z2 4 − 3j Both numerator and denominator are multiplied by the complex conjugate of the denominator. z2 e) z2 z2 . 2. as you will see. 13 7 − 2 j. If z1 = 1 + j and z2 = 3 + 2j ﬁnd a) z1 z2 . 1−2j c) 1 . written z . is found by changing the sign of the imaginary part. For ¯ example. 2000 . d) 5 13 + 3. a) −3 7. b) 5 2 j − 2. Division of complex numbers To divide complex numbers we need to make use of the complex conjugate. z. a) 5 13 c) 3 − 2j. d) 2. 2j z1 . d) z1 z1 . Overall. a) 1 + 5j. b) z2 . b) 3+9j . Given a complex number. z1 c) z1 /z1 . Find a) 7−6j .2 j . c) −j. 3 + 2j 3 + 2j 4 + 3j = × 4 − 3j 4 − 3j 4 + 3j (3 + 2j)(4 + 3j) = (4 − 3j)(4 + 3j) 12 + 9j + 8j + 6j 2 = 16 + 12j − 12j − 9j 2 6 + 17j = (the denominator is now seen to be real) 25 17 6 + j = 25 25 Exercises 1. Division is illustrated in the ¯ following example. 2. c) j. c) z2 . copyright c Pearson Education Limited. b) z1 .If z1 = a1 + b1 j and z2 = a2 + b2 j then z1 z2 = (a1 + b1 j)(a2 + b2 j) = a1 a2 + a1 b2 j + b1 a2 j + b1 b2 j 2 = (a1 a2 − b1 b2 ) + j(a1 b2 + a2 b1 ) 3. e) 13. d) z2 /z2 . + 12 j. the complex conjugate of z = 3 + 2j is z = 3 − 2j. If z1 = 1 + j and z2 = 3 + 2j ﬁnd a) 3. 13 b) −3 + 3j. its conjugate.

2000 . Solution The ﬁgure below shows the Argand diagram. Note that purely real numbers lie on the real axis. The imaginary part of z is plotted on the vertical axis and so we refer to this as the imaginary axis. b). Such a representation is known as an Argand diagram. 1. Example Plot the complex numbers 2 + 3j. The Argand diagram The complex number z = a + bj is plotted as a point with coordinates (a. −3 − 2j. b) as shown. imaginary axis b (a. Purely imaginary numbers lie on the imaginary axis. 6.3. j on an Argand diagram. 2 − 5j. Such a diagram is called an Argand diagram. This leaﬂet explains how to draw an Argand diagram. imaginary axis −3 + 2j j 0 −3 − 2j −5 2 − 5j 2 + 3j 6 real axis 7.✎ ✍ 7. −3 + 2j.3 ✌ The Argand diagram Introduction Engineers often ﬁnd a pictorial representation of complex numbers useful.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. b) z = a + bj O a real axis The complex number z = a + bj is plotted as the point with coordinates (a. Note that complex conjugate pairs such as −3 ± 2j lie symmetrically on opposite sides of the real axis. Because the real part of z is plotted on the horizontal axis we often refer to this as the real axis.

.

trigonometry can be used to determine θ. that is √ |z| = r = a2 + b2 The angle between the positive x axis and a line joining (a.4 ✟ ✠ The polar form Introduction From an Argand diagram the modulus and the argument of a complex number can be deﬁned.4. whereas angles measured clockwise are negative. The modulus and argument of a complex number The Argand diagram below shows the complex number z = a + bj. r is written as |z|. b r θ 0 z = a + bj (a. The distance of the point (a. These provide an alternative way of describing complex numbers known as the polar form. 1. of the complex number and has the symbol r. 7. between −180◦ and 180◦ ). The modulus can be found using Pythagoras’ theorem. Speciﬁcally. or magnitude. b) from the origin is called the modulus. tan θ = b a so that θ = tan−1 b a but care must be taken when using a calculator to ﬁnd an inverse tangent that the solution obtained is in the correct quadrant. Drawing an Argand diagram will always help to identify the correct quadrant. b) to the origin is called the argument of the complex number. z. The position of a complex number is uniquely determined by giving its modulus and argument. It is abbreviated to arg(z) and has been given the symbol θ. b) a We usually measure θ so that it lies between −π and π (that is.☛ ✡ 7. This leaﬂet explains how to ﬁnd the modulus and argument. Alternatively.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Angles measured anticlockwise from the positive x axis are conventionally positive. Knowing values for a and b. When the modulus and argument of a complex number. 2000 . The modulus is never negative. This description is known as the polar form. are known we write the complex number as z = r∠θ.

4 •3 + 4j •3j −2 + j • −3 O 3 Example Find the arguments of the complex numbers in the previous example.464 and so 2 θ = π − 0. f) |z| = 5. e) |z| = 8. Plot the following complex numbers on an Argand diagram and ﬁnd their moduli and arguments. arg(z)√ 0. 2 Exercises 1. d) |z| = 2.464 = 2. in the 1 second quadrant such that tan θ = −2 . −2 + j • 1 θ α −3 −2 O 3 c) z3 = 3j is purely imaginary. or 90◦ . f) −5j. θ.43◦ . b) z2 = −2 + j is in the second quadrant. Solution The complex numbers are shown in the ﬁgure below. 2000 . a) |z| = 9. Using a calculator 3 we ﬁnd θ = 0.236. 4 2 arg(z) = − π or −90◦ . c) |z| = 5. 2 7.43◦ . c) |z3 | = 32 + 02 = 3.Polar form of a complex number with modulus r and argument θ: z = r∠θ Example Plot the following complex numbers on an Argand diagram and ﬁnd their moduli. arg(z) = π or 90◦ .927 radians. b) z = −5. c) z = 1 + 2j.57◦ = 153.57◦ so that θ = 180◦ − 26. Solution a) z1 = 3 + 4j is in the ﬁrst quadrant. b) z2 = −2 + j. or 180◦ . a) z1 = 3 + 4j. α = 26. To ﬁnd its argument we seek an angle. arg(z) = π. In degrees. b) |z| = 5. In each case we can use Pythagoras’ theorem to ﬁnd the modulus. Its argument is π . arg(z) = − 3π or −135◦ .107 = or 63. d) z = −1 − j. c) z3 = 3j. From a calculator α = 0. arg(z) = 1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. √ √ √ √ a) |z1 | = 32 + 42 = 25 = 5. Its argument is given by θ = tan−1 4 . or 53. a) z = 9. Answers √ 1. b) |z2 | = (−2)2 + 12 = 5 or 2.4.13◦ .678 radians. To calculate this correctly it may help to refer to the ﬁgure below in which α is an acute angle with tan α = 1 . e) z = 8j.

a = r cos θ and b = r sin θ We can use these results to ﬁnd the real and imaginary parts of a complex number given in polar form: if z = r∠θ.5. by rearranging. b r θ 0 z = a + bj (a. respectively a r and sin θ = b r Using these results we can then write z = a + bj as z = a + bj = r cos θ + jr sin θ = r(cos θ + j sin θ) This is an alternative way of expressing the complex number with modulus r and argument θ.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.☛ ✡ 7. The form r(cos θ + j sin θ) Consider the ﬁgure below which shows the complex number z = a + bj = r∠θ. 1. 2000 . This leaﬂet explains this form. the real and imaginary parts of z are: a = r cos θ and b = r sin θ.5 ✟ ✠ The form r(cos θ + j sin θ) Introduction Any complex number can be written in the form z = r(cos θ + j sin θ) where r is its modulus and θ is its argument. 7. b) a Using trigonometry we can write cos θ = so that.

By ﬁrst ﬁnding the modulus and argument express z = −1 − j in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ).2 radians. 7. b) z = 17(cos 3.5. 2000 . 3(cos π + j sin π). 2 b) z = 5j = 5(cos Using degrees we would write z = 5j = 5(cos 90◦ + j sin 90◦ ) π π + j sin ) 2 2 Example a) State the modulus and argument of the complex number z = 4∠(π/3). b) Comparing the given complex number with the standard form r(cos θ + j sin θ) we see that r = 17 and θ = 3.2 radians. Thus 5j is a complex number with modulus 5 and argument π . Example a) Find the modulus and argument of the complex number z = 5j. The modulus is 9 and the argument is 40◦ . 3. 2. b) Express 5j in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ). b) Express z = 4∠(π/3) in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ). Solution a) Comparing the given complex number with the standard form r(cos θ + j sin θ) we see that r = 9 and θ = 40◦ .2). 3(cos π + j sin π ). 3 b) z = 4(cos π + j sin π ). Exercises 1. The modulus is 17 and the argument is 3. By ﬁrst ﬁnding the modulus and argument express z = 3j in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ). 3 3 Noting cos π = 3 1 2 and sin π = 3 √ 3 2 √ the complex number can be written 2 + 2 3j. By ﬁrst ﬁnding the modulus and argument express z = −3 in the form r(cos θ + j sin θ). Solution a) On an Argand diagram the complex number 5j lies on the positive vertical axis a distance 5 from the origin. Solution a) Its modulus is 4 and its argument is π . 2(cos(−135◦ ) + j sin(−135◦ )) = 2(cos 135◦ − j sin 135◦ ). 2 2 √ √ 3. 2. Answers 1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.z = a + bj = r∠θ = r(cos θ + j sin θ) Example State the modulus and argument of a) z = 9(cos 40◦ + j sin 40◦ ).2 + j sin 3.

a) 42∠ 5π . b) 7 ∠ − π .6 ✌ Multiplication and division in polar form Introduction When two complex numbers are given in polar form it is particularly simple to multiply and divide them. Therefore π π π z1 z2 = 20∠ = 20∠ − + − 6 4 12 b) To divide the two complex numbers we divide their moduli and subtract their arguments. z1 5 π 5 5π π = ∠ = ∠ − − z2 4 6 4 4 12 c) z2 4 π π 4 5π = ∠ − − = ∠ − z1 5 4 6 5 12 Exercises 1. 6 6 6 7 6 3 2 7. If z1 = 7∠ π and z2 = 6∠ π ﬁnd a) z1 z2 . e) 216∠ 3π . z1 2 3 d) z1 . and z2 = 4∠ (−π/4) ﬁnd a) z1 z2 .6. 1. Answers 1. z1 . c) 6 ∠ π . z1 b) c) Solution a) To multiply the two complex numbers we multiply their moduli and add their arguments. z1 r1 = ∠(θ1 − θ2 ) z2 r2 Note that to multiply the two numbers we multiply their moduli and add their arguments. d) 49∠ 2π . This is an advantage of using the polar form.✎ ✍ 7. b) 3 2 z1 . e) z2 . Example If z1 = 5∠ (π/6). 2000 . we divide their moduli and subtract their arguments. z2 c) z2 . z2 z2 .1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Multiplication and division of complex numbers in polar form If z1 = r1 ∠θ1 and z2 = r2 ∠θ2 then z1 z2 = r1 r2 ∠(θ1 + θ2 ). To divide.

.

☛ ✡

7.7

✟ ✠

**The exponential form
**

Introduction

In addition to the cartesian and polar forms of a complex number there is a third form in which a complex number may be written – the exponential form. In this leaﬂet we explain this form.

1. Euler’s relations

Two important results in complex number theory are known as Euler’s relations. These link the exponential function and the trigonometric functions. They state: Euler’s relations: ejθ = cos θ + j sin θ, e−jθ = cos θ − j sin θ

The derivation of these relations is beyond the scope of this leaﬂet. By ﬁrstly adding, and then subtracting, Euler’s relations we can obtain expressions for the trigonometric functions in terms of exponential functions. Try this! cos θ = ejθ + e−jθ , 2 sin θ = ejθ − e−jθ 2j

**2. The exponential form of a complex number
**

Using the polar form, a complex number with modulus r and argument θ may be written z = r(cos θ + j sin θ) It follows immediately from Euler’s relations that we can also write this complex number in exponential form as z = rejθ . Exponential form z = r ejθ When using this form you should ensure that all angles are measured in radians and not degrees. Example State the modulus and argument of the following complex numbers: a) z = 5ejπ/6 , 7.7.1 b) z = 0.01e0.02j , c) 3e−jπ/2 , d) 5e2 .

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Solution In each case compare the given number with the standard form z = rejθ to identify the modulus r and the argument θ. a) The modulus and argument of 5ejπ/6 are 5 and

π 6

respectively.

b) The modulus and argument of 0.01e0.02j are 0.01 and 0.02 respectively. c) The modulus and argument of 3e−jπ/2 are 3 and − π respectively. 2 d) The number 5e2 is purely real, and can be evaluated using a calculator. Its modulus is 36.95 and its argument is zero. Example Find the real and imaginary parts of z = 5e2j . Solution Recall that ejθ = cos θ + j sin θ. Then 5e2j = 5(cos 2 + j sin 2) = 5 cos 2 + (5 sin 2)j The real part is 5 cos 2 which equals −2.08. The imaginary part is 5 sin 2, that is 4.55 (to 2dp). Example Express the number z = 3 + 3j in exponential form. Solution To express a number √ exponential form we must ﬁrst ﬁnd its modulus and argument. The in √ modulus of 3 + 3j is 32 + 32 = 18. The complex number lies in the ﬁrst quadrant of the Argand diagram and so its argument θ is given by θ = tan−1 3 = π . Thus 3 4 √ jπ/4 z = 3 + 3j = 18e

Exercises 1. State the modulus and argument of each of the following complex numbers: a) 5e0.3j , b) 4e−j2π/3 , c) e2πj , d) 0.35e−0.2j . 2. Express each of the following in the form rejθ . √ a) 3∠(π/3), b) 2∠(π/4), c) 3∠(−π/4), d) 5∠0, 3. Express each of the following in the form a + bj. a) 13ejπ/3 , b) 13e−jπ/3 , c) 4e2πj , d) 7e0.2j . 4. Show that e1+3j is equal to e1 e3j . Hence deduce e1+3j = −2.69 + 0.38j. Answers 1. a) 5, 0.3 radians, b) 4, −2π/3 radians, c) 1, 2π radians, d) 0.35, −0.2 radians. √ 2. a) 3ejπ/3 , b) 2ejπ/4 , c) 3e−jπ/4 , d) 5e0 = 5, e) 17ejπ/2 . 3. a) 6.5 + 11.3j, 7.7.2 b) 6.5 − 11.3j, c) 4, d) 6.86 + 1.39j.

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e) 17∠(π/2).

✎ ✍

8.1

✌

Introduction to differentiation

Introduction

This leaﬂet provides a rough and ready introduction to diﬀerentiation. This is a technique used to calculate the gradient, or slope, of a graph at diﬀerent points.

**1. The gradient function
**

Given a function, for example, y = x2 , it is possible to derive a formula for the gradient of its graph. We can think of this formula as the gradient function, precisely because it tells us the gradient of the graph. For example, when y = x2 the gradient function is 2x

So, the gradient of the graph of y = x2 at any point is twice the x value there. To understand how this formula is actually found you would need to refer to a textbook on calculus. The important point is that using this formula we can calculate the gradient of y = x2 at diﬀerent points on the graph. For example, when x = 3, the gradient is 2 × 3 = 6. when x = −2, the gradient is 2 × (−2) = −4. How do we interpret these numbers? A gradient of 6 means that values of y are increasing at the rate of 6 units for every 1 unit increase in x. A gradient of −4 means that values of y are decreasing at a rate of 4 units for every 1 unit increase in x. Note that when x = 0, the gradient is 2 × 0 = 0. Below is a graph of the function y = x2 . Study the graph and you will note that when x = 3 the graph has a positive gradient. When x = −2 the graph has a negative gradient. When x = 0 the gradient of the graph is zero. Note how these properties of the graph can be predicted from knowledge of the gradient function, 2x.

y 15 10 When x = −2 the gradient is negative and equal to −4. 5 When x = 0 the gradient is zero. x 1 2 3 4 When x = 3 the gradient is positive and equal to 6

−4 −3 −2 −1 0

8.1.1

copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

c) x = 0. If y is a function of x. For example. the gradient function of xn is nxn−1 . ﬁnd the gradient of y = x4 when a) x = 2. We write: if y = xn . Calculate the gradient of the graph of y = x3 when a) x = 2. we write its gradient function as dy . 14.2 = 14x + 5. Given that when y = xn . dx dy . b) When x = −1 the gradient function is 3(−1)2 = 3. 4. The derivative is also known as the rate of change of a function. . 2000 . a) 12. ﬁnd the gradient of y = 7x2 + 5x when x = 2. b) x = −1. c) When x = 0 the gradient function is 3(0)2 = 0. are y . dy dx dy dx = 2x. b) 108. dy dx 3. b) −4. A derivative is another name for a gradient function. = nxn−1 . Exercises 1. 8. pronounced ‘dee y by dee x’. b) x = −1. Given that when y = x2 . The process of ﬁnding dx Example For any value of n. dx You have seen speciﬁc cases of this result earlier on.Example When y = x3 .2. Find the rate of change of y = x3 when a) x = −2. 33. 2. notation can be confusing. pronounced ‘y dx df . or dx for the gradient functions of all the common functions. is not a fraction even though it might look like one! This dx dy as the ‘symbol’ for the gradient function of y = f (x). if y = x3 . In practice you do not need to remember the formulas dash’. its gradient function is 3x2 . 2. Given that when y = 7x2 + 5x. Engineers usually refer to a table known as a Table of Derivatives. pronounced ‘f dash’. More notation and terminology dy When y = f (x) alternative ways of writing the gradient function. 2. then dy = nxn−1 dx dy = 3x2 . 4. or f . copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Answers 1. Solution a) When x = 2 the gradient function is 3(2)2 = 12.1. a) 32. Think of dx dy is called diﬀerentiation with respect to x. 3. b) x = 6. ﬁnd the gradient of y = x2 when x = 7. Such a table is available in leaﬂet 8. 3. that is y = f (x). Notation for the gradient function You will need to use a notation for the gradient function which is in widespread use.

any constant n nxn−1 ex ex kx e kekx 1 ln x = loge x x sin x cos x sin kx k cos kx cos x − sin x cos kx −k sin kx sin x tan x = cos x sec2 x tan kx k sec2 kx 1 cosec x = sin x −cosec x cot x 1 sec x = cos x sec x tan x cos x cot x = sin x −cosec2 x √ 1 sin−1 x 1−x2 √ −1 cos−1 x 1−x2 1 tan−1 x 1+x2 cosh x sinh x sinh x cosh x tanh x sech2 x sech x −sech x tanh x cosech x −cosech x coth x coth x −cosech2 x −1 √ 1 cosh x x2 −1 −1 √ 1 sinh x x2 +1 −1 1 tanh x 1−x2 8.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. any constant 0 x 1 x2 2x 3 x 3x2 xn .2 ✌ Table of derivatives Introduction This leaﬂet provides a table of common functions and their derivatives.✎ ✍ 8. The table of derivatives y = f (x) dy dx = f (x) k.2. 1. 2000 .

o) ex . dx a) y = 8 b) y = −2 c) y = 0 d) y = x e) y = x5 f) y = x7 g) y = x−3 h) y = x1/2 i) y = x−1/2 j) y = sin x k) y = cos x l) y = sin 4x m) y = cos 1 x 2 n) y = e4x o) y = ex p) y = e−2x q) y = e−x r) y = ln x s) y = loge x √ t) y = x √ u) y = 3 x v) y = 1 √ x w) y = ex/2 2. c) − t1 . j) cos x. h) 1 x−1/2 . d) 1. 2 b) 4t3 . f) 7x6 . c) y = t−1 . a) 0. d) 3 cos 3t. b) 0. g) −3x−4 . In each case. m) − 1 sin 1 x. a) 7e7t . You should be able to use the table when other variables are used. e) 5x4 . 1 2x1/2 = 1 √ . p) −2e−2x . n) 4e4x . 2 w) 1 ex/2 . l) 4 cos 4x.2. c) 0. 3 2 x v) − 1 x−3/2 . dy if dt Answers 1. 2 8. i) − 1 x−3/2 . 2000 . d) y = sin 3t. 2 2 s) 1 x t) 1 x−1/2 = 2 2. 2 x u) 1 x−2/3 = 3 1 3x2/3 = 3 1 √ . use the table of derivatives to write down . r) x .2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 2 2 1 k) − sin x. Find a) y = e7t . b) y = t4 .Exercises dy 1. q) −e−x .

enable us to diﬀerentiate a wider range of functions. Differentiation of a function multiplied by a constant If k is a constant and f is a function of x. A notation for this operation is used widely: d dx For example. then d df (kf ) = k dx dx This means that a constant factor can be brought outside the diﬀerentiation operation. 1.✎ ✍ 8. dx dy we are being instructed to carry dx out an operation on the function y(x). These rules are summarised here. Some notation Before we look at the rules. 2000 . Example Given that d 3 (x ) = 3x2 . then it follows that dx d 3 d (7x3 ) = 7 × (x ) = 7 × 3x2 = 21x2 dx dx Given that d (sin x) = cos x. dx dx 2. we need to be clear about the meaning of the notation When we are given a function y(x) and are asked to ﬁnd d .3 ✌ Linearity rules Introduction There are two rules known as linearity rules which. when used with a Table of Derivatives.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. The operation is that of diﬀerentiation. then it follows that dx d d (8 sin x) = 8 × (sin x) = 8 cos x dx dx 8.3. stands for the operation: ‘diﬀerentiate with respect to x’ d 3 d (x ) = 3x2 and (sin x) = cos x.

The sum rule tells us to diﬀerentiate each term separately. 6x + 7. y = e5x + cos 2x 2. y = 8e−9x Answers 1. simply diﬀerentiate each separately and then add the results. y = x2 − sin x 3. 5e5x − 2 sin 2x. dx Solution The diﬀerence rule tells us to diﬀerentiate each term separately. 2. y = 5 5. −72e−9x .3. 8. d 2x d d 2x (e − sin 3x) = (e ) − (sin 3x) = 2e2x − 3 cos 3x dx dx dx So dy = 2e2x − 3 cos 3x dx Exercises dy In each case use a Table of Derivatives and the rules on this leaﬂet to ﬁnd .3. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. Example dy Find when y = x2 + x. 2x − cos x. to diﬀerentiate the diﬀerence of two functions. Similarly. dx Solution d 2 (x + x). 2000 .2 5. y = 3x2 + 7x + 2 4. dx 1. diﬀerentiate each separately and then ﬁnd the diﬀerence of the results. Differentiation of the sum or difference of two functions If f and g are functions of x. then df dg d (f + g) = + dx dx dx d df dg (f − g) = − dx dx dx This means that to diﬀerentiate a sum of two functions. 0. 4. Thus We require dx d 2 d d 2 (x + x) = (x ) + (x) = 2x + 1 dx dx dx So dy = 2x + 1. dx Example dy Find when y = e2x − sin 3x. 3.

✎ ✍ 8.4 ✌ Product and quotient rules Introduction As their names suggest. 2000 . dx Solution Comparing the given function with the product rule we let u = 7x.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. It follows that du = 7. For example y = ex sin x is a product of the functions ex and sin x In the rule which follows we let u stand for the ﬁrst of the functions and v stand for the second. using the product rule. This leaﬂet explains how. the product rule and the quotient rule are used to diﬀerentiate products of functions and quotients of functions. then d dv du (uv) = u +v dx dx dx Example If y = 7xe2x ﬁnd dy . 1. If u and v are functions of x. d (7xe2x ) = 7x(2e2x ) + e2x (7) = 7e2x (2x + 1) dx 8.The product rule It is appropriate to use this rule when you want to diﬀerentiate two functions which are multiplied together.4. dx v = e2x dv = 2e2x dx and Thus.

6. ex (x2 −2x+1) . du = cos x dx Applying the quotient rule gives It follows that and v = 3x2 dv = 6x dx and 3x(x cos x − 2 sin x) x cos x − 2 sin x 3x2 cos x − sin x (6x) dy = = = 4 4 dx 9x 9x 3x3 Exercises dy . y = ex cos x 3. that is. sin 2x−2(x−1) cos 2x . sin2 2x 3. y = ex x2 +1 x2 +1 ex 5. y = x2 sin x 2.4. −ex sin x + ex cos x = ex (cos x − sin x). 4.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 2000 .2. For example y= ex sin x is a quotient of the functions ex and sin x In the rule which follows we let u stand for the function in the numerator and v stand for the function in the denominator. then v du − u dv d u = dx 2 dx dx v v Example sin x dy If y = ﬁnd . Choose an appropriate rule in each case to ﬁnd dx 1. ex 2. 3x2 dx Solution Comparing the given function with the quotient rule we let u = sin x. (x2 +1)2 5. If u and v are functions of x. y = x−1 sin 2x Answers 1. y = 7x loge x 6. 7(1 + loge x). x2 cos x + 2x sin x. one function divided by another. y = 4. 8. The quotient rule It is appropriate to use this rule when you want to diﬀerentiate a quotient of two functions. 2x−x2 −1 .

The chain rule Consider the function y = (sin x)3 . ﬁnally dy = 5 cos z = 5 cos(5x + 3) dx 8. 2000 . In both cases we are ﬁnding a function of a function. Example dy when y = sin(5x + 3). Here we are ﬁnding the logarithm of the function x3 + 5x. diﬀerentiating this with respect to z.5 ✌ The chain rule Introduction The chain rule is used when it is necessary to diﬀerentiate a function of a function. so sin(5x + 3) is a function of a function. This rule is summarised here. This process involves cubing the function sin x. Consider also the function y = loge (x3 + 5x). The chain rule states dx dy dy dz = × dx dz dx So dy = cos z × 5 dx since dz =5 dx Then. we want dy . To simplify the problem we can introduce a new variable z and write z = 5x + 3 so that y becomes y = sin z Then. Find dx Solution Notice that 5x + 3 is a function of x.✎ ✍ 8.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. dy = cos z dz Now. The chain rule is used to diﬀerentiate such composite functions and is illustrated in the examples which follow. 1. in fact.5.

y = sin(x2 ) 2. so that this is a function of a function. y = (sin x)2 3. 8. 16(2x + 7)7 . y = e2x−3 Answers 1. Therefore y can be written y = (sin x)3 . then y = ez . y = loge (x2 + 1) 4. 3.2 and dy = 3z 2 dz 2. x2 +1 4. 2000 . If we let z = x2 . 2x cos(x2 ). If we let z = sin x then y = z 3 . dx and dy = ez dz Solution First of all note that sin3 x means (sin x)3 . y = (2x + 7)8 5.5. 2e2x−3 . 2x . so e(x ) is a function of a function. then dy dy dz = × dx dz dx Example dy 2 when y = e(x ) . Find dx Solution 2 x2 is a function. using the chain rule. dy dz dy = × = 3z 2 × cos x = 3 sin2 x cos x dx dz dx Exercises dy In each case ﬁnd . 5.The chain rule: if y(z) is a function of z and z(x) is a function of x. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. dy dz dy 2 = × = ez × 2x = 2xe(x ) dx dz dx Example If y = sin3 x ﬁnd dy . Then dz = 2x dx so that. It follows that dz = cos x dx Then. 2 sin x cos x. using the chain rule. dx 1.

✎ ✍

8.6

✌

**Integration as the reverse of differentiation
**

Introduction

Integration can be introduced in several diﬀerent ways. One way is to think of it as diﬀerentiation in reverse. This approach is described in this leaﬂet.

1. Differentiation in reverse

dy = 3x2 . Integration reverses this dx process and we say that the integral of 3x2 is x3 . Pictorially we can think of this as follows: Suppose we diﬀerentiate the function y = x3 . We obtain

differentiate

x3 3x

integrate

The situation is just a little more complicated because there are lots of functions we can diﬀerentiate to give 3x2 . Here are some of them: x3 + 14, x3 + 7, x3 − 0.25, x3 − 1 2

Each of these functions has the same derivative, 3x2 , because when we diﬀerentiate the constant term we obtain zero. Consequently, when we try to reverse the process, we have no idea what the original constant term might have been. Because of this we include in our answer an unknown constant, c say, called the constant of integration. We state that the integral of 3x2 is x3 + c. The symbol for integration is , known as an integral sign. Formally we write 3x2 dx = x3 + c Along with the integral sign there is a term ‘dx’, which must always be written, and which indicates the name of the variable involved, in this case x. Technically, integrals of this sort are called indeﬁnite integrals, to distinguish them from deﬁnite integrals which are dealt with in a subsequent leaﬂet. When asked to ﬁnd an indeﬁnite integral your answer should always contain a constant of integration. 8.6.1

copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

Common integrals are usually found in a ‘Table of Integrals’ such as that shown here. A more complete table is available in leaﬂet 8.7 Table of integrals. Table of integrals Function f (x) constant, k x x2 xn sin x cos x sin kx cos kx tan kx ex e−x ekx 1 x−1 = x Indeﬁnite integral f (x)dx kx + c x2 +c 2 x3 +c 3 xn+1 + c n = −1 n+1 − cos x + c sin x + c − cos kx +c k sin kx +c k 1 ln | sec kx|+c k ex + c −e−x + c ekx +c k ln |x| + c

When dealing with the trigonometric functions the variable x must always be measured in radians. Example Use the table above to ﬁnd a) Solution From the table note that xn dx = a) With n = 8 we ﬁnd x8+1 x9 x dx = +c= +c 8+1 9

8

x8 dx,

b)

x−4 dx.

xn+1 +c n+1

b) With n = −4 we ﬁnd

x−4+1 x−3 +c= +c −4 + 1 −3 Note that the ﬁnal answer can be written in a variety of equivalent ways, for example 1 1 1 1 or − · 3 + c, or − 3 +c − x−3 + c, 3 3 x 3x x−4 dx =

**Exercises 1. Integrate each of the following functions: a) x9 , b) x1/2 , c) x−3 , d)
**

1 , x4

e) 4,

f)

√

x,

g) e4x ,

h) 17,

i) cos 5x.

Answers 10 1. a) x + c, 10 e) 4x + c, 8.6.2

b)

2x3/2 3

+ c,

c) − 1 x−2 + c, 2 g)

e4x 4

d) − 1 x−3 + c, 3 i)

sin 5x 5

f) same as b),

+ c,

h) 17x + c,

+ c.

copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

✎ ✍

8.7

✌

Table of integrals

Engineers usually refer to a table of integrals when performing calculations involving integration. This leaﬂet provides such a table. Sometimes restrictions need to be placed on the values of some of the variables. These restrictions are shown in the third column.

1. A table of integrals

f (x) k, any constant x x2 xn 1 x−1 = x ex ekx cos x cos kx sin x sin kx tan x sec x cosec x cot x cosh x sinh x tanh x coth x

1 x2 +a2 1 x2 −a2 1 a2 −x2 √ 1 x2 +a2 √ 1 x2 −a2 √ 1 x2 +k √ 1 a2 −x2

f (x) dx kx + c x2 +c 2 x3 +c 3 xn+1 +c n+1 ln |x| + c ex + c 1 kx e +c k sin x + c 1 sin kx + c k − cos x + c 1 − k cos kx + c ln(sec x) + c ln(sec x + tan x) + c ln(cosec x−cot x) + c ln(sin x) + c sinh x + c cosh x + c ln cosh x + c ln sinh x + c 1 tan−1 x + c a a 1 ln x−a + c 2a x+a 1 ln a+x + c 2a a−x sinh−1 x + c a cosh−1 x + c a √ ln(x + x2 + k) + c sin−1 x + c a

n = −1

−π < x < π 2 2 −π < x < π 2 2 0<x<π 0<x<π

x>0 a>0 |x| > a > 0 |x| < a a>0 x a>0 −a x a

8.7.1

copyright c Pearson Education Limited, 2000

e) ln |x| + c. 2 e5t 5 k) 2e0. x1/2 1/2 d) x−2 −2 + c = − 1 x−2 + c. c) sin 2x + c. 3 + c. Answers 2 1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.5x l) ex m) e−x n) cos x o) sin x p) sin 3x q) cos 2x r) 5 2. or 2 h) 1 e3x + c. 3 + c = 2 x3/2 + c. 2000 . e) + c. d) + c. + c. √ a) et .5x + c. use the Table of Integrals to integrate the given function with respect to x. b) 2 i) 1 e7x + c. 2. g) 3 q) 1 2 + c = 2x1/2 + c. f) e−t . r) 5x + c. e) cos 5t. b) p) − 1 cos 3x + c.7. d) t. a) x b) x6 c) x−2 d) x−3 e) x−1 (be careful!) f) x1/2 g) x−1/2 h) e3x i) e7x j) e−2x k) e0. You should be able to use the table when variables other than x are involved. 7 x7 7 + c. c) f) 1 − 2x2 + c. sin 5t 5 o) − cos x + c. t8 8 2t3/2 3 l) ex + c. m) −e−x + c. Use the table to integrate each of the following functions with respect to t. 8. f) −e−t + c. b) e5t . x3/2 3/2 x−1 −1 1 + c = −x−1 + c.Exercises 1. a) x + c. j) − 1 e−2x + c. n) sin x + c. or − x + c. a) et + c. c) t7 . In each case.

11.8. k f (x) dx = k f (x)dx This is only possible when k is a constant. −5 cos x dx = −5 where K is a constant. 3 Example Find −5 cos x dx. cos x dx = −5 (sin x + c) = −5 sin x + K 8. Because 11c is a constant we would normally write the 3 answer in the form 11x + K where K is another constant. 1. can be moved outside the integral sign. Solution We are integrating a multiple of x2 . 11x3 x3 +c = + 11c 11x2 dx = 11 x2 dx = 11 3 3 where c is the constant of integration. The constant factor. The constant factor. The integral of a constant multiple of a function A constant factor in an integral can be moved outside the integral sign in the following way. Example Find 11x2 dx. and it multiplies some function of x.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. can be moved outside the integral sign.8 ✌ Linearity rules of integration Introduction To enable us to ﬁnd integrals of a wider range of functions than those normally given in a Table of Integrals we can make use of two rules known as linearity rules.✎ ✍ 8. Solution We are integrating a multiple of cos x. −5. 2000 .

Find 5. The integral of the sum or difference of two functions When we wish to integrate the sum or diﬀerence of two functions. 3 5e4x dx. 3 e3x dx − x7 dx = e3x x8 − +c 3 8 b) 2 x dx.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 4. 3 5. 7 3. 7x−2 dx. Find 7. Example Find e3x − x7 dx. + c. 2000 . Find 6. x2 6 b) 1 x2 + c. x x+cos 2x dx. 7. + c. 5 loge |x| + c. we integrate each term separately as follows: f (x) + g(x) dx = f (x) − g(x) dx = f (x) dx + f (x) dx − g(x) dx g(x) dx Example Find (x3 + sin x)dx. 2 Answers 6 1. Solution (x3 + sin x)dx = x3 dx + sin x dx = x4 − cos x + c 4 Note that only a single constant of integration is needed. 5 dx. a) 4x + x3 + c. 3 6. 2. ex −e−x dx. Solution e3x − x7 dx = Exercises 1. Find 4. Find 3.2. 5e4x 4 2. + sin 2x 6 + c. Find a) 8x5 + 3x2 dx. − x + c. 3 sin x + ex +e−x 2 7x4 4 + c.8. 8. Find 3 cos x + 7x3 dx.

then by letting x take the value of the lower limit. This leaﬂet explains how to evaluate deﬁnite integrals.9. To see how to evaluate a deﬁnite integral consider the following example. The numbers a and b are known as the lower and upper limits of the integral. the result is usually enclosed in square brackets and the limits of integration are written on the right bracket: 4 1 x3 x dx = +c 3 2 4 1 Then.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 8.✎ ✍ 8. 2000 . 1. This will always happen.9 ✌ Evaluating deﬁnite integrals Introduction Deﬁnite integrals can be recognised by numbers written to the upper and lower right of the integral sign. Example 4 Find 1 x2 dx. to show we are dealing with a deﬁnite integral. and so in future we can ignore them when we are evaluating deﬁnite integrals. Solution First of all the integration of x2 is performed in the normal way. The diﬀerence between these two results gives the value of the deﬁnite integral: x3 +c 3 4 = (evaluate at upper limit) − (evaluate at lower limit) 1 43 13 +c − +c 3 3 64 1 = − 3 3 = 21 = Note that the constants of integration cancel out. However. ﬁrst by letting x take the value of the upper limit. Deﬁnite integrals The quantity b f (x) dx a is called the deﬁnite integral of f (x) from a to b. the quantity in the square brackets is evaluated.

5x3 dx. Evaluate π/2 x + 7x2 dx. d) 1 −1 sin xdx. 89. a) 1 . Evaluate a) 1 0 x2 dx. Solution π/2 0 cos x dx = [sin x]π/2 0 π − sin 0 2 = 1−0 = 1 = sin Exercises 1. 3 2. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. 4 3 b) 3 1 2 x2 dx.865 (3dp). Answers 1. d) 0.195 (3dp). c) 2 . 3 3. 3.25 (−2)4 4 Example π/2 Find 0 cos x dx. d) 4 0 x3 dx. Solution 3 −2 x3 dx = = x4 4 3 −2 4 (3) − 4 81 16 = − 4 4 65 = 4 = 16. e) 1 −1 x3 dx. e) 0. − = 3.2 e2 2 b) 1 . 1 2x 0 e dx.9.833 (3dp).Example 3 Find −2 x3 dx. 2. 8. 3 d) 64. Find 0 b) 2 −x 0 e dx. c) 2 1 x2 dx. 6 1 2 c) 7 . Evaluate a) 4. a) 4. 1. c) 1 −1 x2 dx. b) 1 − e−2 = 0. 2000 .

1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited. We must be able to diﬀerentiate this du dv function to ﬁnd . When you dx become conﬁdent with the method. the one on the left. for example e2x sin 3x dx 1 and 0 x3 e−2x dx This leaﬂet explains how to apply this technique. The intention is that the latter is simpler to evaluate. We let the other function in the product equal .10 ✌ Integration by parts Introduction The technique known as integration by parts is used to integrate a product of two functions. 1.10. with a diﬀerent integral. The integration by parts formula We need to make use of the integration by parts formula which states: u dv dx = uv − dx v du dx dx Note that the formula replaces one integral.✎ ✍ 8. We must be able to dx dx integrate this function. you may like to think about why this is the case. 2000 . Consider the following example: Example Find 3x sin x dx. Solution Compare the required integral with the formula for integration by parts: we see that it makes sense to choose dv u = 3x and = sin x dx It follows that du =3 dx (When integrating and v= sin x dx = − cos x dv to ﬁnd v there is no need to include a constant of integration. Note also that to apply the formula we must let one function in the product equal u. to ﬁnd v.) Applying 8. that on the right.

778 (3dp).(3) dx cos x dx = 3x(− cos x) − = −3x cos x + 3 = −3x cos x + 3 sin x + c 2. Using the formula for integration by We let u = x and dx dx parts we obtain 2 0 xex dx = [xex ]2 − 0 2 0 ex . Evaluate the following deﬁnite integrals: a) x cos 2x dx. 1 −1 c) x cos x dx. 2000 . (Remember to set your calculator to radian mode for evaluating the trigonometric functions. 12. b) 0. a) sin42x − 2. 9 c) cos x + x sin x + c. t b) e3t ( 3 − 1 ) + c. 2 0 b) x sin 2x dx. a) 0. Then = 1 and v = ex .389 to 3dp) Exercises 1. Solution du dv = ex .) Answers 1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.1006.) 3. 3.1dx = (2e2 ) − (0e0 ) − [ex ]2 0 2 2 = 2e − [e − 1] = e2 + 1 (or 8.10. c) 1. 8.7854. Find x2 ex dx. Dealing with deﬁnite integrals When dealing with deﬁnite integrals (those with limits of integration) the corresponding formula is b u a dv dx = [uv]b − a dx b v a du dx dx Example 2 Find 0 xex dx. x cos 2x 2 + c. 1 0 π/2 0 b) te3t dt. (You will need to apply the integration by parts formula twice. c) te2t dt. Find a) x sin(2x)dx.the formula we obtain 3x sin x dx = uv − v du dx dx (− cos x). 2.9488.

u. such that u = 3x+5. by diﬀerentiation. This skill develops with practice. 1. Solution First look at the function we are trying to integrate: (3x + 5)6 . There is a slight complication however. From the substitution u = 3x + 5 note. This certainly looks a much simpler function to integrate than (3x + 5)6 . Making a substitution Example Find (3x + 5)6 dx. The choice of which substitution to make often relies upon experience: don’t worry if at ﬁrst you cannot see an appropriate substitution.1 . u say. that du =3 dx It follows that we can write dx = The required integral then becomes (3x + 5)6 dx = u6 du 3 du 3 The factor of 1 .11 ✌ Integration by substitution Introduction This technique involves making a substitution in order to simplify an integral before evaluating it. being a constant. This means that we must take care of the term dx correctly.11. Suppose we introduce a new variable.✎ ✍ 8. We let a new variable. Doing this means that the function we must integrate becomes u6 . equal a more complicated part of the function we are trying to integrate. 2000 8. The new function of u must be integrated with respect to u and not with respect to x. means that we can write 3 (3x + 5)6 dx = 1 u6 du 3 1 u7 = +c 3 7 u7 = +c 21 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.

c) − cos(t3 +1) + c.11. Solution du du = 2t so that dt = . and replace u by 3x + 5: (3x + 5)7 (3x + 5) dx = +c 21 6 2. the limits must be written in terms of u too. Use a substitution to ﬁnd a) (4x + 1)7 dx. Make a substitution to ﬁnd the following integrals. c) ln(x3 + 17) + c.To ﬁnish oﬀ we rewrite this answer in terms of the original variable. x+1 b) 2x dx. We ﬁnd Note that if u = t2 then dt 2t t=3 t=2 t sin(t2 )dt = 1 = 2 t=3 t sin u t=2 t=3 t=2 du 2t sin u du An important point to note is that the original limits of integration are limits on the variable t. Example 3 Find 2 t sin(t2 )dt by making the substitution u = t2 . note that when t = 2. u = 4 so the integral becomes 1 2 u=9 u=4 and when t = 3. Can you deduce a rule for integrating (x) functions of the form f (x) ? f a) 1 dx. u = 9 sin u du = 1 [− cos u]9 4 2 1 = (− cos 9 + cos 4) 2 = 0. Substitution and deﬁnite integrals If you are dealing with deﬁnite integrals (ones with limits of integration) you must be particularly careful with the way you handle the limits. When we integrate with respect to the variable u. x2 +7 c) 3x2 dx. 8. c) t2 sin(t3 + 1)dt. 32 2. b) ln(x2 + 7) + c. d) 1 0 3t2 et dt. copyright c Pearson Education Limited. x.3588 × 105 . not u. Consider the following example. From the substitution u = t2 . To emphasise this they have been written explicitly as t = 2 and t = 3. a) (4x+1) + c. a) ln(x + 1) + c.7183. b) 2 1 (2x + 3)7 dx. 3 2.2 b) 3. 2000 . x3 +17 Answers 8 1.129 Exercises 1. 3 d) 1.

A typical strip is shown drawn from the point P (x. Integration as summation The ﬁgure below on the left shows an area bounded by the x axis.✎ ✍ 8. Suppose we let the area of this small strip be δA. like the one shown. we total area = x=a δA ≈ x=a f (x) δx To make this approximation more accurate we must let the thickness of each strip become very small indeed. and the curve y = f (x). Suppose we split the area into thin vertical strips. We label it like this because the symbol δ is used to indicate a small increase in the variable being considered. to the total area.12. δA.y) δA y =f (x) x δx There are several ways in which this area can be estimated. A. The width of the strip is labelled δx. y y = f (x) y =f (x) x a b a δx b y P (x . b b b x=a δA. under the curve. in this case x. the lines x = a and x = b. The sum of the areas of the rectangular strips then gives an approximate value for the area under the curve. We use the delta notation again. Note that the area lies entirely above the x axis. The thinner the strips. and treat each strip as being approximately rectangular.12 ✌ Integration as summation Introduction In this leaﬂet we explain integration as an inﬁnite sum. that is. Then δA ≈ f (x) δx Now if we add up the areas of all such thin strips from a to b. 2000 . The height of the strip is equal to the y value on the curve at point P .1 δx→0 x=a f (x)δx copyright c Pearson Education Limited. which we denote by obtain the total area under the curve. because this strip makes a small contribution. we let δx → 0. y). the better will be the approximation. giving b total area = lim 8. that is f (x). So the area of the strip shown is approximately f (x) δx. 1.

12. Thus we have the important result that b b f (x) dx = lim a δx→0 x=a f (x) δx Integration can therefore be regarded as a process of adding up. a) 35 7x2 dx. total work done = that is total work done = limδs→0 Et δs which deﬁnes the integral C Et ds. This is known as the limit of a sum. This is an example of a line integral because we integrate along the line (curve) C. If this limit exists we write it formally as b f (x) dx a thus deﬁning a deﬁnite integral as the limit of a sum.The notation limδx→0 means that we consider what happens to the expression following it as δx gets smaller and smaller. At any point on the curve the electric ﬁeld vector can be resolved into two perpendicular components. that is as a summation. The symbol C tells us to sum the contributions along the curve C. copyright c Pearson Education Limited..e. because only the tangential component does work. 8. but do not calculate. we can do this by ﬁnding the area or volume of a small portion. volumes etc. i. In moving the charge a small distance δs along the curve the electric ﬁeld does work equal to Et δs. Et say. and En perpendicular. to the curve. of the following sums. Whenever we wish to ﬁnd areas under curves. To ﬁnd the total work done as the charge moves along the length of the curve we must sum all such small contributions. the integral which is deﬁned by the limit as δx → 0. Answers 1. The calculation can then be performed using the technique of deﬁnite integration. Write down. 2000 . in the limit as δs → 0 7x2 δx. along the curve. Exercises 1.2 b) 7 4 3 1 3 πx dx. Example C Et δs En E Suppose a unit charge moves along a curve C in an electric ﬁeld E. and then summing over the whole region of interest. b) x=7 4 3 x=1 3 πx δx. or normal. a) x=5 x=3 Et δs.

2. 2.3.1 to ﬁnd a vector product 6.23 repeated linear 2. 2. 8. 2. 2.9 partial 2.1.10.2 elimination solving simultaneous equations by.4 rules 8.14.2 cube roots 1.2. 2.11 fractions.4 factorising quadratics 2.1.8 dependent variable 3.23 quadratic 2.8 division 1.7 exponential constant 3.25 simplest form 1.2 constant of integration 8.21 brackets removing 2.7 function 3.5.2 polar 3.5 combination notation 1.3 base 1. 8.2 derivative 8.2 adjoint matrix 5.4 factor 2.4 form of a complex number 7.11 transposing 2.13 equating coeﬃcients 2.5 cofactor 5. 2.10.1 lowest common 2.9 equivalent forms 1.6 Cramer’s rule 5.11 rearranging 2. 3.1 associativity 2.2 number 7.3 Euler’s relations 7.6 simple expressions 2.7 multiplication 1.5 cosine 4. 4.1 product rule 8. 2.1. 1.4 common factor 2.7 linear 2.15 formulas 2.23. 2.5 solving quadratic equations by.1 table of. 1.1 denominator.5.2 function 3. 2.1 conjugate 7. 2.2 rule 4.4 decay 3.1 simplifying 2.5 angles in degrees 4.4 distributive 2. 2. 2.4 quotient rule 8.2 conjugate 7.10.8 fractional powers 2.4 chain rule 8.1 .6 coordinates cartesian 3.1 Argand diagram 7.23.Index adjacent 4.26 complex arithmetic 7.4 growth 3. 2.9 cosh 3.2 determinant 5.1. 2.7 subtraction 1.1.1 argument of.3 completing the square 2.1 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.19 bases other than 10 and e 2.12 quadratic 2. 2.5 common 2.15 straight line 3.3.1 in radians 4.24.2 degrees 4. 2.14 formula for solving a quadratic equation 2.3 inverse 4.3 dot product 6.1. 2.24 equation involving logarithms and exponentials 3. 2.23 factorial 1.3 argument of a complex number 7.2.1 addition 1. 2000 Index.8 linear 2.4 of a function 3.7 commutativity 2.3 diﬀerentiation chain rule 8.5 introduction 8.

1 function 8.12 table 8.8 matrix adjoint 5.11 as summation 8.2.9 indeﬁnite 8.2 of hyperbolic functions 3.15 quotient rule 8.27 real part of a complex number 7.5 tangent 3.23 product 2.16. 2.24 perfect square 2.2 product rule 8.25 of improper fractions 2.5 function 3. graphical solution of.5 modulus and inequalities 2.26 periodic function 4.7 integration constant of.2 exponential 3.4 inverse 5.7 laws of indices 2.4 radians 4. 8.1 rate of change 8.6 line 8.3 polar coordinates 3.1 imaginary part 7. 2. 2.12 linearity diﬀerentiation 8.6 by parts 8.19 indices 1.3 roots 1.graph of 3. 2. 2.2 laws of 2.4 hyperbolic 3.3 hyperbolic cosine 3.3 function of a function 8.2 inequality 2.3 graphs of a function 3.5 Pythagoras’ theorem 4.2 index 1.1 trigonometric 4.16 inequalities.2.2 to ﬁnd the angle between vectors 6.1.2 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.7 natural logarithm 3.21 function 3.5 logarithm 3. 2.19 to bases other than 10 and e.6 sine 3.14 repeated 2. 2.14 scalar product 6. 2.7 notation 3.25 of proper fractions 2.6 by substitution 8. 2000 Index.1 repeated root 2.17 negative powers 2.14.12 sign 8.3 integration 8. 2. 7. 8. 2.5 identity 5.20 lowest common denominator 2.15 quadratic formula 2.20 limit of a sum 8.2 number line 2. 4.5 and vectors 6.5 hypotenuse 4.1 negative 2.6 table.5 powers 1.1 of a straight line 3.23.9 form of a complex number 7.18 integral deﬁnite 8.8 logarithm 2.5 multiplication 5.1 identities hyperbolic 3.7 laws of.5 modulus 1. 2.3 singular 5.5 gradient of a curve 8.2 .18 solving 2. 5.4.4 proper fraction 2.16 partial fractions 2.4 independent variable 3.24.10 as reverse of diﬀerentiation 8.23.5 imaginary number 7.2.5 of trigonometric functions 4.6 trigonometric 4.1 quadratic equation 2.2 fractional 2.4 minor 5.5 identities 3.1 laws of logarithms 2.1 rationalisation 2.14 right-hand screw rule 6.4.

3 vertical intercept 3. 2. 6.27 surds 1. 6.1 product 6.15 simultaneous equations 2.3 inverse 4.14.13 square roots 1.2 of integrals 8.5 sinh 3.3 unit 6.3 inverse 4.3 Index.10.12 surd form 2.11 transposing formulas 2.10.15 a quadratic equation by factorisation 2.6 an inequality 2.3 summation integration as 8.3 copyright c Pearson Education Limited.5.scientiﬁc notation 1.22 simultaneous equations 2.2 vector 6.7 tangent 4. 2.1 vectors scalar product of.16 a linear equation 2.2 transpose 2. 4. 2000 .2 straight line 3.3 sigma notation 2. 6. 6.27 table of derivatives 8.6 singular matrix 5.2 equations using inverse matrix 5.14 a quadratic equation by formula 2.2 vector product of.1 length of.6 sine 4.11 trigonometrical functions 4.4 ratios 4.2. 2.1 cartesian components 6.2 rule 4. 6.13 solving using Cramer’s rule 5.6 solving equations by Cramer’s rule 5.2.1 magnitude of. 4. 6.2.2.3 identities 4. 2.1 direction of.2 solving using inverse matrix 5. 3.12 a quadratic equation 2.

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