7/31/12 Screw Pumps (Pump Handbook

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High flow and high head pumps Trailer mounted and in stock
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7/31/12 Screw Pumps (Pump Handbook)
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3.99
SECTION3.7
SCREWPUMPS
Screwpumpsareaspecialtypeofrotarypositivedisplacementpumpinwhichtheflow
throughthepumpingelementsistrulyaxial. Theliquidiscarriedbetweenscrewthreads
ononeormorerotorsandisdisplacedaxiallyasthescrewsrotateandmesh(seeFigure
1). Inallotherrotarypumps, theliquidisforcedtotravelcircumferentially, thusgivingthe
screwpumpwithitsuniqueaxialflowpatternandlowinternalvelocitiesanumberof
advantagesinmanyapplicationswhereliquidagitationorchurningisobjectionable.
Theapplicationsofscrewpumpscoveradiversifiedrangeofmarketsincludingnavy,
marine, andutilitiesfueloilservices; marinecargo; industrialoilburners; lubricatingoil
services; chemical processes; petroleumand crude oil industries; power hydraulics for
navyandmachinetools; andmanyothers. Thescrewpumpcanhandleliquidsinarange
ofviscosities, frommolassestogasoline, aswellassyntheticliquidsinapressurerange
from50to5000lb/in
2
(3.5to350bar)andflowsupto8000gal/min(1820m
3
/h).
Becauseoftherelativelylowinertiaoftheirrotatingparts, screwpumpsarecapable
ofoperatingathigherspeedsthanotherrotaryorreciprocatingpumpsofcomparabledis-
placement. Someturbine-attachedlubricatingoilpumpsoperateat10,000rpmandeven
higher. Screwpumps, likeotherrotarypositivedisplacementpumps, areself-primingand
haveadeliveryflowcharacteristic, whichisessentiallyindependentofpressure, provided
thereissufficientviscosityintheliquidbeingpumped.
Screwpumpsaregenerallyclassifiedintosingle-ormultiple-rotortypes. Thelatteris
furtherdividedintotimedanduntimedcategories.
Thesingle-screworprogressivecavitypump(seeFigure2)hasarotorthreadthatis
eccentrictotheaxisofrotationandmesheswithinternalthreadsofthestator(rotorhous-
ingorbody). Alternatively, thestatorismadetowobblealongthepumpcenterline.
Multiple-screw pumps are available in a variety of configurations and designs. All
employonedrivenrotorinameshandoneormoresealingrotors. Severalmanufacturers
havetwobasicconfigurationsavailable: single-end(inFigure3)anddouble-end(inFigure
4)construction, ofwhichthelatteristhebetterknown.

3.100 CHAPTERTHREE
Diagramsofscrewandgearelements, showing(a)axialand(b)circumferentialflow.
Thesingle-screworprogressivecavitypump
7/31/12 Screw Pumps (Pump Handbook)
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Multiple-screwsingle-endarrangement.
As with everypump type, certain advantages anddisadvantages can befound in a
screwpumpdesign. Theseshouldberecognizedwhenselectingthebestpumpforapar-
ticularapplication. The ofascrewpumpdesignareasfollows:
• Awiderangeofflowsandpressures
• Awiderangeofliquidsandviscosities
• Highspeedcapability, allowingthefreedomofdriverselection
• Lowinternalvelocities
• Self-priming, withgoodsuctioncharacteristics
• Ahightoleranceforentrainedairandothergases

3.7SCREWPUMPS 3.101
Mutliple-screwdouble-endarrangement.
• Lowvelocitiesforminimumchurningorfoaming
• Lowmechanicalvibration, pulsation-freeflow, andquietoperation
• Arugged, compactdesignthatiseasytoinstallandmaintain
• Hightolerancetocontaminationincomparisonwithotherrotarypumps
The areasfollows:
• Arelativelyhighcostbecauseofclosetolerancesandrunningclearances
• Performancecharacteristicssensitivetoviscositychanges
• Highpressurecapabilityrequireslongpumpingelements
THEORY____________________________________________________________
Inscrewpumps, itistheintermeshingofthethreadsontherotorsandtheclosefitofthe
surroundinghousingthatcreatesoneormoresetsofmovingsealsinaseriesbetweenthe
pumpinletandoutlet. Thesesetsofsealsorlocks, astheyaresometimesreferredto, act
asalabyrinthandprovidethescrewpumpwithitspositivepressurecapability. Thesuc-
cessivesetsofsealsformfullyenclosedcavities(seeFigure5)thatmovecontinuouslyfrom
inlettooutlet. Thesecavitiestrapliquidattheinletandcarryitalongtotheoutlet, pro-
vidingasmoothflow.
Delivery Becausethescrewpumpisapositivedisplacementdevice, itwilldeliveradef-
initequantityofliquidwitheveryrevolutionoftherotors. Thisdeliverycanbedefinedin
termsofdisplacementvolume V
D
, whichisthetheoreticalvolumedisplacedperrevolu-
tionoftherotorsandisdependentonlyuponthephysicaldimensionsoftherotors. Itis
generallymeasuredincubicinches(cubicmillimeters)perrevolution. Thisdeliverycan
alsobedefinedintermsoftheoreticalcapacityorflowrate Q
t
measuredinU.S. gallons
perminute(cubicmetersperhour), whichisafunctionofdisplacementandspeedN :
InUSCunits:
InSIunits:
Ifnointernalclearancesexisted, thepump’sactualdeliveredornetflowrate Q would
equalthetheoreticalflowrate. Clearances, however, doexistwiththeresultthatwhen-
everapressuredifferentialoccurs, therewillalwaysbeinternalleakagefromoutletto
inlet. This leakage, commonly called slip S, varies depending upon the pump type or
Q
t
6 10
8
V
D
N
Q
t

V
D
N
231
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99 3. from molasses to gasoline. showing (a) axial and (b) circumferential flow. + ( Screw pumps are a special type of rotary positive displacement pump in which the flow through the pumping elements is truly axial. Because of the relatively low inertia of their rotating parts. The applications of screw pumps cover a diversified range of markets including navy. petroleum and crude oil industries. . 3 7 ( The single-screw or progressive cavity pump www. marine. Multiple-screw pumps are available in a variety of configurations and designs. lubricating oil services. chemical processes. Several manufacturers have two basic configurations available: single-end (in Figure 3) and double-end (in Figure 4) construction.5 to 350 bar) and flows up to 8000 gal/min (1820 m3/h). All employ one driven rotor in a mesh and one or more sealing rotors. as well as synthetic liquids in a pressure range from 50 to 5000 lb/in2 (3. The screw pump can handle liquids in a range of viscosities. Screw pumps.scribd. power hydraulics for navy and machine tools.or multiple-rotor types.000 rpm and even higher.100 CHAPTER THREE 3 7 Diagrams of screw and gear elements. provided there is sufficient viscosity in the liquid being pumped. of which the latter is the better known.7/31/12 Screw Pumps (Pump Handbook) SECTION 3. Alternatively. Screw pumps are generally classified into single. The liquid is carried between screw threads on one or more rotors and is displaced axially as the screws rotate and mesh (see Figure 1). like other rotary positive displacement pumps. and utilities fuel oil services. the stator is made to wobble along the pump centerline. and many others. screw pumps are capable of operating at higher speeds than other rotary or reciprocating pumps of comparable displacement.7 SCREW PUMPS + + ( ( ( ! + ( ! & & ( ! ) . Some turbine-attached lubricating oil pumps operate at 10. which is essentially independent of pressure. industrial oil burners. are self-priming and have a delivery flow characteristic. The single-screw or progressive cavity pump (see Figure 2) has a rotor thread that is eccentric to the axis of rotation and meshes with internal threads of the stator (rotor housing or body). the liquid is forced to travel circumferentially thus giving the .com/doc/37634820/Screw-Pumps-Pump-Handbook 2/17 . 3. In all other rotary pumps. screw pump with its unique axial flow pattern and low internal velocities a number of advantages in many applications where liquid agitation or churning is objectionable. The latter is further divided into timed and untimed categories. marine cargo.

certain advantages and disadvantages can be found in a screw pump design. it will deliver a definite quantity of liquid with every revolution of the rotors. as they are sometimes referred to. do exist with the result that whenever a pressure differential occurs. These cavities trap liquid at the inlet and carry it along to the outlet.scribd. As with every pump type. The successive sets of seals form fully enclosed cavities (see Figure 5) that move continuously from inlet to outlet.7/31/12 Screw Pumps (Pump Handbook) . and quiet operation • A rugged. These sets of seals or locks. are as follows: • A relatively high cost because of close tolerances and running clearances • Performance characteristics sensitive to viscosity changes • High pressure capability requires long pumping elements THEORY ____________________________________________________________ In screw pumps. however. . providing a smooth flow. • Low velocities for minimum churning or foaming • Low mechanical vibration. with good suction characteristics • A high tolerance for entrained air and other gases 3. which is the theoretical volume displaced per revolution of the rotors and is dependent only upon the physical dimensions of the rotors. This delivery can also be defined in terms of theoretical capacity or flow rate Qt measured in U. gallons per minute (cubic meters per hour). act as a labyrinth and provide the screw pump with its positive pressure capability. it is the intermeshing of the threads on the rotors and the close fit of the surrounding housing that creates one or more sets of moving seals in a series between the pump inlet and outlet. It is generally measured in cubic inches (cubic millimeters) per revolution. pulsation-free flow. - ) Multiple-screw single-end arrangement. Clearances. This leakage.101 9 3 Mutliple-screw double-end arrangement./ ) ( . The ’ 0 . compact design that is easy to install and maintain • High tolerance to contamination in comparison with other rotary pumps The ’ .7 SCREW PUMPS 3. ’ 0 . Delivery Because the screw pump is a positive displacement device./ ) ( .S. This delivery can be defined in terms of displacement volume VD. of a screw pump design are as follows: • A wide range of flows and pressures • A wide range of liquids and viscosities • High speed capability. which is a function of displacement and speed N: In USC units: In SI units: Qt Qt VDN 231 6 10 8 VDN If no internal clearances existed. allowing the freedom of driver selection • Low internal velocities • Self-priming. These should be recognized when selecting the best pump for a particular application.com/doc/37634820/Screw-Pumps-Pump-Handbook 3/17 . commonly called slip S. varies depending upon the pump type or www. there will always be internal leakage from outlet to inlet. the pump’s actual delivered or net flow rate Q would equal the theoretical flow rate.

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Screw Pumps (Pump Handbook) Upload screw pump handbook Search Follow Us! scribd.com/scribd About Press Blog Partners Scribd 101 Web Stuff Support FAQ Developers / API Jobs Terms Copyright AdChoices Advertise Privacy Copyright © 2012 Scribd Inc.com/scribd twitter. More from This User Related Documents More From This User 23 p.7/31/12 Screw Pumps (Pump Handbook) Search This Document Search TIP Press Ctrl-F⌘F to quickly search anywhere in the document. Language: English www.com/scribd facebook.scribd.com/doc/37634820/Screw-Pumps-Pump-Handbook 17/17 .

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